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					Globalization & Geography

          Fall 2003
          Lecture #1
   Globalization
       What triggers globalization?
       What is the effects of globalization?
       Is globalization good or bad?

   Geography
       What is geography?
       Introducing core concepts of geography…

U.S. popular culture all over the world

Global connection

Cultural globalization in an interactive way
                  Global “Electronic Herd”
    Electronic herd

Rapid movement of capital
                      Global “Sweatshops”

International division of labor
   The increasing interconnectedness of people
    and places through converging processes of
    economic, political, and cultural change
   Economic activities are the prime movers
    behind globalization; affects cultural
    patterns, political arrangements, and social
   Transcends traditional boundaries
What triggers Globalization?
   Global communication systems:
       Transportation, internet, media…
   Transnational conglomerate corporate:
       eg. McDonald, SONY, Chrysler, NOKIA…
   Multinational organization:
       World Bank, IMF, WTO…
Effects of Globalization
   Economic: International division of labor
   Cultural:
       Continuing dispersion of the Western (inc.
        American) cultures and social values,
        organizational structures
       Social tensions between traditional cultures and
        new, external globalizing currents
Effects of Globalization
   Geopolitical: economic activity and politics
    are more intertwined than ever due to the
    process of transcending territorial
   Demographic: International migration
   Environmental: aggravates worldwide
    environmental problems
Is globalization good or bad?

   Pro-globalizers: efficiency

   Anti-globalizers: inequity
Advocates of Globalization
Open market (reduce barrier to trade)
-> spread new technologies and ideas
-> enhance competition
-> enhance national productivity
Thus Economic Convergence (Trickle-down):
The world’s poorer countries will gradually
  catch up with the more advanced economies
Advocates of Globalization
   Who supports this?

       Multinational organizations

       Multinational firms

       International investors
Advocates of Globalization
   Empirical evidence?

       Self-sufficiency is bad
            Eg. North Korea, Burma

       Openness is good
            Eg. Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan,
Critics of Globalization
   Globalization is not a natural process, rather
    product of economic policy promoted by
    free-trade advocates

   Globalization creates greater inequity
    between rich and poor
Global economic inequity

                   From UN report (2001)
Critics of Globalization
   Who supports this?

       Environmental movement group

       Labor movement group

       Student group
Critics of Globalization
   Empirical evidence?
       The economic model adopted by the highly
        successful developing countries is not the same
        as the one Western industrial countries used:
        The countries have prevented their domestic
        industries from foreign competition
International Financial System
   Is good in that it’s flexible (promotes free
    flow of capital)
        by pro-globalizers

   Is bad in that it’s unstable (liable to
    stampedes eg. bubble economy)
        by anti-globalizers
Middle position
   Both are right in some extent, but somewhat
   promise or pitfall globalization holds can be
    managed to reduce inequality and protect natural

   Need for globalized networks of environmental,
    labor, and human rights groups
Make openness work
   Openness to global economy can be
    beneficial, but how can we make this
    openness work?

       By investing in education and maintaining
        social cohesion? (Dani Rodrik)
   Globalization homogenizes the world, but
    the world is still a diverse world

   Ethnic and cultural differences are
    contributing to separatist political
   Each conflict is unique, understandable only
    in the light of the specific cultural and
    political environments in which it occurs

   Understanding the extant fabric of a highly
    diverse world is the starting point of
    comprehending globalization on which our
    future depends
   Geography: Greek for “describing the Earth”
   Physical vs Human geography
   Systematic vs Regional geography
   Regional geography as a science of
    understanding the extant fabric of a highly
    diverse world
Subjects in Regional Geography
   Human-Environment interaction
   Areal differentiation & integration
   Regions
   Cultural Landscape
Human-Environment Interaction
   Environmental determinism
    environment -> human
   Possibilism: determinism + human
    modification of environment
   Taoism?
    human in balance with nature
Areal Differentiation & Integration
   Areal Differentiation: Why is the same
    phenomenon manifested in a different
    fashion place by place?
       Eg. California-Mexico border

   Areal Integration: How areas interact with
    each other?
       Eg. Taiwan and Syllicon valley
California-Mexico Border
   Areal units grouped based on similar traits
            Era in History: WWI, WWII, Cold war
            Epoch in Geology: Jurassic, Cambrian period
       Region in Geography: North America, Latin
        America, North Africa & Southwest Asia, East
        Asia, Europe…
12 Regions in a global scale
Cultural Landscape
   Let’s look at some photos showing
    Settlement patterns
    in different parts of world
Yunnan Province, China

 Due to the intensive agriculture (rice crops), the
 settlement shows highly concentrated patterns
Iowa, US

Township-and-range survey system stamped such
rectangular patterns of settlement
Cultural Landscape
   shows how humans shape the environment
    into distinctive forms that give places their
    special identities
Peruvian village in Andes

  populated by indigenous people, expresses their
  local traditions
Town in Venezuela

  The Spanish colonial presence is still found in the
  plaza, street pattern, and building architecture
Cultural Landscape
   City and village landscapes differ widely
    because of the interplay between
    contemporary and historical forces
Cultural Landscape
   Defined as “visible, material expression of
    human settlement, past and present”
   Human beings transform space into distinct
    places loaded with meaning
   Tool for the analysis of place
   Marker of cultural values, attitudes, and

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