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					                                    Lcdr. Cinda L. Brown, USN

      Improving LSD 41 Class Diesel Engine Maintenance:
                   Diesel Solutions Group

ABSTRACT                                           This paper addresses the processes developed
                                                   and the methodology used by the working group
                                                   to improve LSD diesel engine maintenance in
An increasing trend in maintenance availability
                                                   order to enhance fleet readiness.
completion delays and premium cost penalties
associated with LSD 41/49 class diesel engine
maintenance has resulted in delays to the          INTRODUCTION
operational availability of this important
amphibious ship class. Over the past three years   Background
the surface force has seen a delay in nine Chief
of Naval Operations (CNO) availabilities due to
                                                   Numerous initiatives that include process
diesel engine work. Emergent repair due to
                                                   changes, operational directives, increased
required diesel engine maintenance has also
                                                   training, and increased automation and analysis
significantly affected the Fleet Response Plan
                                                   have resulted in gains in reliability and
(FRP) cycle outside the CNO availabilities.
                                                   efficiency of LSD diesel engines. Despite these
Commander, Naval Surface Forces
                                                   gains, the current LSD diesel repair planning
(COMNAVSURFOR) convened a solutions
                                                   and execution process has failed to produce
focused working group aimed at determining the
                                                   results in diesel engine readiness that the surface
optimal process for planning and executing
                                                   force desires and expects. The expectation is
maintenance for LSD class diesel engines over
                                                   that the diesel repair work will be accomplished
the FRP cycle. The goal of this working group
                                                   within the scheduled time and budget. The fact
is to create a new diesel repair process that
                                                   that availabilities have not been meeting these
directly supports COMNAVSURFOR
                                                   expectations and are directly causing declining
requirements for the LSD class ships ready for
                                                   readiness led to the genesis of this working
tasking by May 2010.
Emphasis was placed on the processes that drive
                                                   An end-to-end process that results in diesel
executing effective CNO availabilities and to
                                                   engines being reliably, predictably, and
that end, the working was divided into three
                                                   sustainably ready to support training and
subgroups: Predict, Planning, and Execution.
                                                   operations throughout the entire deployment to
The working group had three face to face
                                                   deployment cycle is imperative. The notional
meetings in March, April, and May 2010. The
                                                   surface ship cycle shown in Figure 1 indicates
same members participated in all working
                                                   that there should be 6 months dedicated to
groups to maintain continuity of thought and
                                                   deployment, 10 months to other operational
work as well as build their working
                                                   commitments, and 8 months to maintenance.
relationships. The products and
                                                   For the three non-Extended Docking Phased
recommendations that resulted from the DSG
                                                   Maintenance Availability (EDPMA) examples
were presented in June 2010 at the Propulsion
                                                   shown, the maintenance phase significantly
Executive Steering Committee (PESC) meeting,
                                                   decreased the amount of operational time for
regional Diesel Summits, Super Hot Wash, and
                                                   each ship.
Surface Warfare Enterprise (SWE) Future
Readiness Team (FRT) meetings.
       Notional Plan - 6 Months Deployment – 10 Months Operational – 8 Months Maintenance
                                                                                                                                                           over the FRP cycle. The group was announced
 Deployment                                                                                                                              Deployment
                                                                                                                                                           as an opportunity to improve diesel maintenance




                                                                                    quarter           quarter


                                                                                                                                                           processes and enhance fleet readiness.
 1      1        1   1        1        1   1     1       1   1      1       1   1     1       1   1        1    1    1     1       1     1     1       1
            LSD 52 - 6 Months Deployment – 5 Months Operational – 13 Months Maintenance                                                                    The goal of DSG: By May 2010 create a new

                     CM           CM                          CNO                                      CM                           CM
                                                                                                                                                           diesel repair process that directly supports
                                                                                                  Time Now                                                 COMNAVSURFOR requirements for the LSD
            LSD 45 - 6 Months Deployment – 7 Months Operational – 11 Months Maintenance                                                                    class ready for tasking by May 2010.
 Deployment                                                                                                                              Deployment
                         CM                           CNO                                 CM                    CM                 CM
                                                         Time Now
                                                                                                                                                           Leadership Questions
            LSD 47 - 6 Months Deployment – 8 Months Operational – 13 Months Maintenance

Dply                                                                                                                                             Dply

            CM        CNO                        CM          CM                                       CM                                CM                 Both the Operational and Maintenance sides of
                                                                                                                                         Time Now
                                                                                                                                                           the Surface Community have common questions
                                                                                                                                                           regarding LSD diesel engine availability:
FIGURE 1: Notional Surface Ship Fleet Response
Plan                                                                                                                                                           1. Why do diesel engines require so much
COMNAVSURFOR and the LSD LSD/LPD 17                                                                                                                            2. Why are maintenance requirements so
Class Squadron (LSD/LPD 17 CLASSRON)                                                                                                                              unpredictable?
realized that a deeper and more fundamental                                                                                                                    3. Why does it take so long to accomplish
review of the overall process for diesel engine                                                                                                                   identified maintenance requirements?
maintenance was required in order to                                                                                                                           4. How do we get away from incremental
consolidate and fully achieve gains made                                                                                                                          discovery?
possible by prior instituted initiatives. Initial                                                                                                              5. How can the diesel engine maintenance
reviews indicated that assumptions about the                                                                                                                      process be improved to produce LSD
roles and responsibilities of individuals in the                                                                                                                  class ships ready for tasking?
process were a significant part of the problem.
Incorrect assumptions led to gaps in the                                                                                                                   While these questions seem simple, the answers
completion of responsibilities. These gaps                                                                                                                 are quite complex once all the inputs and outputs
ultimately are the cause in shortfalls in diesel                                                                                                           to each individual piece of the process are
readiness currently experienced by LSD class                                                                                                               analyzed.
Understanding of the fundamentals of the diesel
maintenance process and a clear definition of
key performance drivers are essential. All                                                                                                                 The DSG is made up of members from several
stakeholders in the process must have full                                                                                                                 organizations shown in Figure 5. Those that
knowledge of their roles and responsibilities                                                                                                              participated in DSG were specially selected
associated with diesel maintenance. Strategic                                                                                                              because of the position within their respective
level adjustments in how diesel maintenance is                                                                                                             organizations. They are leaders, with the ability
designed to properly operate can be made with                                                                                                              to affect change and implement new processes
this understanding and clarity.                                                                                                                            and guidance.

Purpose                                                                                                                                                    Members from the shore side stakeholders in the
                                                                                                                                                           diesel maintenance process were invited to be a
                                                                                                                                                           part of the working group: COMNAVSURFOR
On March 5, 2010 COMNAVSURFOR released
                                                                                                                                                           N43, LSD/LPD 17 CLASSRON, Naval Surface
a message announcing the standup of a
                                                                                                                                                           Warfare Center, Carderock Division -
solutions-focused working group named the
                                                                                                                                                           Philadelphia (NSWCCD Philadelphia, the In
Diesel Solutions Group (DSG) aimed at
                                                                                                                                                           Service Engineering Agent (ISEA)), Norfolk
determining the optimal process for planning
                                                                                                                                                           Ship Support Activity (NSSA), Japan Regional
and execution of the LSD class diesel engines
Maintenance Center (JRMC), Southwest                subgroup was to refine the focus of the larger
Regional Maintenance Center (SWRMC), Naval          overall problem into manageable areas of
Sea Systems Command 05 (NAVSEA 05Z)                 responsibility. The working group focused on
Diesel Technical Warrant Holder, Surface Ship       the end-to-end LSD 41/49 class CNO
Lifecycle Management Activity (SSLCM),              availability planning and execution process for
Multi-ship Multi-Option Contractors (MSMO,          main propulsion diesel engines (MPDE), ship
both NASSCO and Metro Machine), Port                service diesel generators (SSDG), and associated
Engineers (PE), Diesel Engine Inspectors (DEI),     support systems.
and the Original Equipment Manufacturer
(OEM), Fairbanks Morse Engines (FME). An            The DSG met at three face to face meetings,
important aspect of the DSG is that the original    held in March (San Diego), April (Norfolk), and
members had to commit to attendance at each         May (San Diego). Teleconferences were held
face to face meeting. Additionally, no new          for each subgroup at least one time in between
members of the group were to be added after the     face to face meetings to follow up on action
inception. The reason for having a stable group     items and report status of completion of any
was to improve continuity of thought between        assignments. At each face to face meeting the
members as well as reduce rework at each            subgroups evolved to more effectively tackle the
meeting.                                            identified barriers.

Benefit of the Working Group                        Once the face to face meetings were complete,
                                                    the communication plan for the results of the
The benefit this working group provided was an      DSG include briefs at the Super Hot Wash
independent analysis of the maintenance             meeting in both San Diego and Norfolk, the
methodology employed on the diesel engines of       PESC in June 2010 in Philadelphia, to each
LSD class ships. The DSG was able to be             major RMC with diesel engines, and at the
extremely productive in a very short time period    American Society of Naval Engineers (ASNE)
of three meetings held over three consecutive       Fleet Maintenance and Modernization
months. A workable-sized group of shore based       Symposium in September 2010.
maintenance stakeholders was brought together
and focused on achieving its goal. This was         PART I: PROBLEM DEFINITION
accomplished by keeping an aggressive agenda,
utilizing experienced facilitators, and providing   The current diesel engine maintenance process
an “out of the box” environment that focused on     does not provide LSD class ships ready for
solutions for the future rather than                scheduled tasking and is not responsive to the
incriminations for the current situation.           needs of the Navy. Figure 2 depicts the
Building on work already started by the ISEA,       dysfunctional cycle.
the DSG’s focus was on how to effectively
implement and enforce programs currently in
place, while developing new programs where
gaps in the process were identified.

Scope and Methodology

Because of the complexity of the current diesel
engine maintenance process and all the
stakeholders involved, the DSG was broken into
three subgroups to effectively answer the
questions posed above. The three major
subgroups are: Predict Team, Planning Team,
and Execution Team. The purpose of each
                                                                                                               Assess                  Predict              Identify             Accomplish                                        Accomplish                  Ready
                                                                                                                                                                                                           and Fund
                                                                                                               current                 future               desired               advance                                           Execution                    to
                                                                                                              condition               condition            work scope             planning                                          Planning                  execute

                                                                                                                                                                               Procure LLTM                                        Procure
                                   Poor prediction of                 Wrong                                                                                                                                                       balance of
                                     maintenance                    maintenance                                                                                                                                                    material
                Poor CSMP
                                         needs                       package

   Poor self-       Shorter                                                            degradation
  assessment        MTBR                                                                                                                                                              Accomplish Work Package
                                   More             More time and resources spent
                                 CASREP’s               on crisis maintenance

                      Less         Less training                                     Less time and fewer
                                                                                                             FIGURE 3: Overview of the Basic Depot Level
                   operational      cycle time
                                                                                     resources spent on
                                                                                  preventative maintenance   Maintenance Process

                                                                                                             Sources of disruption can implant themselves
                                                                                                             into the maintenance process. Figure 4 shows
                                                                                                             where the “sources of trauma” in the basic depot
                                                                                                             level process typically manifest. When trauma
FIGURE 2: Diesel maintenance currently in a
dysfunctional cycle
                                                                                                             is introduced, the timeline will no longer drive
                                                                                                             the repairs; the repairs will drive the timeline.
Better prediction of requirements for the future                                                                   Incomplete or                                                      Significant delta
                                                                                                                                                        Package built to                                                     Late authorization and port
will enable better maintenance planning and                                                                           incorrect
                                                                                                                   assessment of
                                                                                                                  current condition
                                                                                                                                                      budget without ORM
                                                                                                                                                     analysis of tasks to be
                                                                                                                                                                                    between initial ROM
                                                                                                                                                                                    estimates and actual
                                                                                                                                                                                       proposed cost
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            loading constraints results in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          inadequate time to conduct detail
                                                                                                                                                            deferred                                                                  planning
execution of work. The more quickly and
efficiently maintenance can be planned and                                                                      Assess
                                                                                                                                                                                                           and Fund
                                                                                                               condition               condition           work scope              planning                                         Planning                execute
executed, the more the cycle can be slowed,                                                                                                                                                                Package

reducing the sensitivity to the accuracy of the                                                                                                                                 Procure
                                                                                                                                                                                                “Sticker shock” induces
                                                                                                                                                                                                  both package cuts                Procure
                                                                                                                                                                                 LLTM          without ORM analysis of            balance of
planned maintenance package. The cycle shown                                                                                                                                                   tasks to be deferred and
                                                                                                                                                                                                    late funding and

                                                                                                                                                   LLTM not anticipated                               authorization
in Figure 2 shows how if one part of the cycle is                                                                                                  and procured in time
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Late funding results in additional
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         material lead time problems
not operating properly, it will essentially                                                                       Assessments happen during Execution
                                                                                                                  causing “Incremental Discovery.” End
degrade other essential parts of the cycle. After                                                               result is an availability with an inadequate
                                                                                                                    work package hastily planned for
several iterations, it’s easy to see how all parts                                                                 execution and severely impacted by
                                                                                                                   material availability. Consequence is
                                                                                                                                                                                          Accomplish Work Package
                                                                                                                 excessive churn, significant cost growth,
of the cycle can become severely degraded,                                                                       schedule delays, and missed milestones

resulting in the current dire environment for
diesel engine maintenance. A close study of                                                                  FIGURE 4: Sources of Trauma in the Basic Depot
Figure 2 identifies that they key to breaking this                                                           Level Maintenance Process
cycle is the prediction of maintenance needs and
the implementing the correct work package.                                                                   Maintenance packages planned from incomplete
                                                                                                             or incorrect data as a result of ineffective
Figure 3 shows the Basic Depot Level                                                                         condition assessment contain the incorrect items
Maintenance Process generalized in a high level                                                              to be repaired and fixed during the maintenance
block diagram. The DSG recognized that within                                                                availability. When maintenance packages are
the high level blocks reside multiple subtasks,                                                              planned to a set budget without regard to the risk
but discussion of these subtasks was outside the                                                             and impact of deferring essential work, there is
scope of this paper. The goal of the DSG                                                                     high risk that this work becomes emergent work
focused on was to successfully achieve                                                                       conducted during operational time later in the
accomplishment of the designated work package                                                                FRP cycle. Late inclusion of poorly identified
within the assigned maintenance availability.                                                                work or late identification of required long lead
                                                                                                             time material (LLTM) has the potential to cause
                                                                                                             improper planning and manning to support the
                                                                                                             work. Overall, it’s clear how improper
                                                                                                             consideration of each essential step in the
                                                                                                             process becomes magnified as the maintenance
                                                                                                             availability quickly approaches commencement.
The results are excessive churn, significant cost                                 Assess
                                                                                               Predict future
                                                                                                                                            and Fund
growth, schedule delays, and missed milestones.                                  condition        Project
                                                                                               Future Work
                                                                                                                work scope     planning
                                                                                                                                                         Planning      execute

All of which are the effects of incremental
                                                                                                                             Procure LLTM                Procure     Accomplish
discovery. None of these results support LSD                                                  Predict Team                                              balance of

class ships being ready for tasking by the
Operational Commander.                                                                                                         Planning Team
                                                                                                                                                         Execution Team

This cycle has to be broken through
                                                                                FIGURE 6: The Sub-Groups of the DSG
readjustment of the assessment, planning, and
execution phases of maintenance must occur.                                     Items from DSG that are on track for completion
The readjustment will allow for CNO                                             include:
Availabilities to support diesel engines being
able to fully sustain the ship through the FRP                                           1. A comprehensive, rigorous, and
cycle.                                                                                      disciplined availability planning and
                                                                                            execution process.
PART II: THE DSG PROCESS                                                                 2. A process that meets SHIPMAIN
                                                                                            milestone dates.
                                                                                         3. A process that limits incremental
              N43                           Srv Cnt          FME
                                                                                            discovery on diesel engines and the
                                                      Engr                                  related support systems.
   TYCOM                                                              OEM
                                                                                         4. A process that keeps the ship’s training
                  By May 2010, create a new                                                 cycle sacrosanct.
              diesel repair process that achieves
              LSD Class Ships ready for tasking
                                                                                PART III: CORE RESULTS AND
     NAVSEA                                                          MSMO       THE WAY AHEAD
               SURFMEP                                       Metro     NASSCO
 TW - 05                            RMC
               ISEA                                                             Process Map
     SEA 21                  JRMC         SWRMC        NSSA

                                    W/O       Engr
                                                                                At the conclusion of the Working Group’s
                                                                                efforts, an integrated process map of all
FIGURE 5: The Diesel Solutions Group                                            functions and roles for the responsible
The subgroups of the main working group were                                    commands was developed. The process map
assigned specific tasks to accomplish. The                                      outlines the functions for SSLCM, RMC, the
Predict Team was assigned to evaluate the                                       Contractor, and Ship’s Force. The process map
processes involving the assessment of current                                   is included as Appendix A for CONUS ships
conditions, prediction of future conditions,                                    and Appendix B for FDNF ships.
projecting future work, and identifying the
desired scope of work. The Planning Team was                                    Main Action Items
assigned to evaluate processes associated with
advanced planning, procurement of LLTM, and
                                                                                The main action items from DSG include the
the steps involved in the authorization and
                                                                                following areas:
funding of the approved work package. The
Execution Team was assigned to evaluate the
                                                                                             1. Integrated Assessment Cycle to include
steps involving the accomplishment of execution
                                                                                                Formal Periodic Assessments (FPA)
planning, procurement of material required for
                                                                                                and Mid Cycle Assessments (MCA)
work, and actual availability execution. Figure 6
                                                                                             2. Maintenance Philosophy and Lifecycle
shows the tasks for the subgroups.
                                                                                                Maintenance (LCM) Plan
       3. Restoration Plan and Eight Engine Test


                                                                                                                                              IV Mid                                                                    V
                                                                                                                                        TSSRA ssment                                                             IV MA

          plan                                                                                                                             Asse
                                                                                                                                                                                                              RA d C 80
                                                                                                                                                                                                           SS u s e - 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                          T c tA
       4. Parts and Tools requirements                                                                        LSD-41 Class OCONUS                                                                           Fo e
                                                                                                                                                                                                          A arg
                                                                                                                  Fully Integrated                                                                      FP T
       5. Maintenance Standards                                                                               Diesel Assessment Cycle                                                 Sp
       6. Personnel and Resources                                                                                                CM

Integrated Assessment Cycle                                                                                   ICMP/Directed        A-240                DRS                                                         A-170
                                                                                                                                                                                                               100% PL w/Reserv
                                                                                                               Maintenance         50% PL

The key of to eliminating incremental discovery
is an accurate and comprehensive work package.                                                                                                                                      Fa

This work package will require the correct depot

                                                                                                                                                                                                             24-27 Month
                                                                                                                   LSD-41 Notional Sched

                                                                                                                                                      Ultra E

                                                                                                                                                                 T S S / PS A R
                                                                                                                     w/ShipMain Dates
level maintenance and repair effort for the right

                                                                                                                  Diesel Assessment Cycle                                                                                   2

                                                                                                                  Supporting Work Package
components of the diesel engines. In order to

achieve this, maintenance planners must have a
complete understanding of the engine’s                                                                        FIGURE 8: Diesel Assessment Cycle for FDNF
condition. To that end, the Working Group
developed the LSD 41 class Fully Integrated
                                                                                                              Starting after Ultra E in Figures 7 and 8, the
Diesel Assessment Cycle. This end-to-end
                                                                                                              LSD 41 NAVSEA Diesel Engine Maintenance
assessment process integrates all of the current
                                                                                                              Standards will be implemented. The
assessments plus adding one additional, the
                                                                                                              Maintenance Standards are sixteen discrete
MCA. This diesel assessment cycle provides
                                                                                                              diesel engine repair and overhaul standard work
comprehensive, accurate, timely, and actionable
                                                                                                              items that collectively define an entire engine
assessment condition information into the CNO
                                                                                                              overhaul. Each individual Maintenance
availability planning process in advance of
                                                                                                              Standard is triggered by an Integrated Class
SHIPMAIN Milestone deadlines. The cycle also
                                                                                                              Maintenance Plan (ICMP) push task. This
fully complements Commander, Regional
                                                                                                              ICMP task is pushed 24 months prior to the
Maintenance Center’s (CRMC) Total Ship
                                                                                                              projected requirement for execution and is
Systems Repair and Assessment (TSSRA)
                                                                                                              codified in the Master Specification Catalog.
program. This complete assessment cycle is
depicted in Figure 7 for Continental United
                                                                                                              Using current condition assessment information
States (CONUS) ships and Figure 8 for Forward
                                                                                                              from the Diesel Readiness System (DRS)1, a
Deployed Naval Forces (FDNF) ships.
                                                                                                              fairly accurate diesel engine Work Package will
                                                                                                              be developed at the 50% D-Level work package


                                IV Mid

                          TSSRA ssment                                                                        lock (PL) date (A-240). Procurement of Long

                                                                                                              Lead Time Material (LLTM) will also be
 LSD-41 Class CONUS
    Fully Integrated                                                                                          initiated at the 50% D-Level PL date of A-240.
Diesel Assessment Cycle                                                                        2
                                                                                              L w/R
                                                                                                              Ordering of LLTM at this stage is a significant
                  AV                                                                                          and noteworthy step that moves away from
                                                                             9 Wks
                                                                                         TSSRA IV
                                                                                                              current practices of ordering LLTM too late to
ICMP/Directed      A-240                DRS
                                                                                     FPA Focused CMAV
 Maintenance      50% PL

                                                                                                                DRS includes data on the diesel engine’s lube
                                                                                                              oil and jacket water conditions, the performance
                                                                                                              data (using “Diesel Doctor”), results from

                                                                                      24-27 Month
  LSD-41 Notional Sched
                                      Ultra E

                                                      T S S / PS A R

    w/ShipMain Dates

 Diesel Assessment Cycle                                                                                  3   Formal Periodic Assessment (FPA) reports, data

 Supporting Work Package
                                                                                                              from Depot repair Condition Found Reports

                                                                                                              (CFRs), input from Diesel Engine Inspectors
FIGURE 7: Diesel Assessment Cycle for CONUS                                                                   (DEIs), Civilian Subject Matter Experts (SMEs),
                                                                                                              and Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM)
support repair. The initiation of procurement of     availability. A successful MCA and good
LLTM this far in advance from the start of a         engine condition results from DRS data analysis
CNO availability will eliminate most of the          can replace the Phase III Operational
current parts shortage problems currently            Assessment. If the MCA or the DRS data
experienced.                                         analysis does not validate the Operational
                                                     Assessment, then the Phase III will occur during
For the CONUS ships during deployment, an            the ship’s return to homeport at the end of her
onsite operational assessment focused on             deployment. Maintenance requirements derived
validating the CNO Availability work package         from the FPA focused CMAV are incorporated
will be performed A-180. This assessment is          into the upcoming CNO availability utilizing the
called the Mid Cycle Assessment (MCA).               established reserve funding work item discussed
FDNF ships have the MCA scheduled at A-240.          above.
The brokering of the results of the MCA will
happen prior to A-155 for CONUS ships, and A-        At the end of a deployment, it is critical to
210 for FDNF ships. This is not an inspection        evaluate not only the diesel engines but also how
and will not involve an internal assessment. The     the engines operate within the entire propulsion
work package will be adjusted at the 80% PL to       or electrical generation plant. To achieve this,
reflect this condition assessment and incorporate    an Integrated Propulsion Plant Assessment
any additional data from DRS assessments since       Process (IPPAP) will be performed on the
A-240. Final adjustments to the work package         MPDEs and a Power Systems Assessment,
based on engine conditions as a result of further    Repair and Training (PSART) will be performed
DRS assessments occur at 100% PL (A-92 for           on the SSDGs to confirm that all repairs are
CONUS, A-170 for FDNF). A funding reserve            complete and effective. The IPPAP and PSART
identified for growth work anticipated to be         will also be used to ensure that the MPDE and
identified during the FPA is also set at 100% PL.    SSDG systems are properly groomed and
A larger funding reserve will be established if an   aligned to be ready for tasking during the ship’s
engine’s material condition has not been clearly     training cycle and deployment. Both the IPPAP
established by 100% PL. This larger reserve is       and PSART will be ICMP push tasks.
to help mitigate any unknowns that will most
likely result in a higher level of incremental       Collectively the results of each of these
discovery during a CNO availability.                 assessments allow for a well integrated, end-to-
                                                     end Diesel Assessment Process that drives a
There are three phases to the NAVSEA required        comprehensive, timely, and accurate work
and ICMP push task triggered FPA. Phase I is         package. Note the differences in the above
the Administrative Assessment, Phase II is the       SHIPMAIN Milestone dates and FPA
Internal or Secured Assessment, and Phase III        scheduling. Dates are slightly different for
Operational Assessment. For CONUS based              FDNF homeported ships in Sasebo, Japan due to
LSDs, a dedicated “FPA Focused” CMAV will            their more dynamic operational schedules when
be scheduled between the ship’s end of               compared with CONUS ship’s operational
deployment and beginning of the CNO                  schedules.
availability. A minimum of nine weeks is being
built into ship’s schedules to allow time for this   Maintenance Philosophy Paper and
FPA focused CMAV. The CMAV will occur at             Lifecycle Maintenance Plan
approximately A-60 during the ship’s return
from deployment for CONUS ships; FDNF has            To define this entire process, the NAVSEA 05
a target date of A-180 to conduct this CMAV,         Technical Warrant Holder is preparing the
but the date will flex with the operational          NAVSEA Maintenance Philosophy paper and
schedule. Although this is past the SHIPMAIN         Life Cycle Maintenance (LCM) Plan. This
100% PL milestone, it is a significant               Maintenance Philosophy will invoke NAVSEA
improvement over the current practice of             Maintenance Standards through the ICMP. The
conducting the FPA during the CNO
Philosophy will also illustrate the concept of       Diesel Restoration Plan and Eight Engine
“progressive overhauls” for the Main Propulsion      Test Plan
Diesel Engines (MPDEs), where up to four
cylinders are overhauled at a time instead all       A comprehensive and integrated plan designed
cylinders of the entire engine. This closely         to test and validate readiness of all four MPDEs
matches the commercial maritime practice of          and all four SSDGs upon the completion of each
treating each cylinder of large diesel engines as    CNO Availability is being developed. This plan
a separate engine for overhaul purposes.             will be common across all RMCs and will be
                                                     promulgated as a living document, open for
The LCM plan establishes a five year projection      further review and revision as necessary. The
of when the individual Maintenance Standards         goal is to develop a common template for
for diesel engine maintenance work will be           system restoration in support of diesel testing.
implemented. For example, MPDE cylinder              The Restoration and Eight Engine Test Plan is
heads are notionally overhauled once every           tailorable to meet the specific needs of each
10,000 hours of engine operation. By                 RMC. Figure 9 shows the diesel Restoration
identifying the last time a specific cylinder head   and Eight Engine Test Plan. The Restoration
was overhauled, knowing how many hours of            Plan starts prior to Production Completion Date
operation since overhaul, and finally projecting     (PCD) and is promulgated no later than the 50%
the number of engine hours that the engine will      Conference during the CNO availability’s
accumulate each year in the future, a projection     execution phase.
can be made as to when that particular cylinder
head will require its next overhaul.                                                                                Sea
                                                                          PCD                  LOA                  Trial
                                                                                  2 weeks             2 weeks
Further expansion of this methodology to all
                                                                                Cold Checks          Hot Checks              CNO
cylinder heads per engine, per ship, and per           Restoration Plan         • MPDE IPPAP         • MPDE IPPAP           Avail
                                                                                • SSDG PSART         • SSDG PSART
homeport leads to a projection of how many                                                                                  Comp

cylinder heads will require overhaul each year in
each port. Future projection of required
overhauls will allow for long term planning,         FIGURE 9: Diesel Restoration and Eight Engine
contracting, and parts procurement.                  Test Plan
Adjustments can also be made to the time a
cylinder head needs to be overhauled by using        A Technical Bulletin released by the ISEA
actual engine condition results from the             giving direction to implement the Restoration
Integrated Assessment Cycle (described earlier       Plan and Eight Engine Test Plan was released in
in this paper) and incorporating Condition Based     June 2010.
Maintenance (CBM).
                                                     The scheduling of these plans commenced with
Baseline LCM will begin in Sasebo (Aug 2010),        Fort McHenry’s EDPMA in May 2010. Tortuga
San Diego (Sep 2010), and Norfolk (Oct 2010).        will implement the plans with her July 2010
This baseline will be conducted by the local         SRA (Selected Restricted Availability) and
RMC with the help of the ISEA Diesel Program         Pearl Harbor will implement the plans with her
Manager. The LCM Plan is being coordinated           February 2011 EDPMA. Both the Restoration
with SURFMEPP/SSLCM products associated              Plan and the Eight Engine Test Plan will be fully
with the Baseline Availability Work                  developed and implemented on FY12 CNO
Package/Availability Work Package                    availabilities.
(BAWP/AWP) and Technical Foundation Paper
(TFP).                                               Parts and Tools

                                                     The DSG’s goal for parts and tools is to
                                                     eliminate maintenance delays and deferrals due
                                                     to lack of parts or tools availability. There are
two main efforts to achieve this. First is proper      Maintenance Standards
preplanning to enable timely procurement of
LLTM to support the timeline for execution of          The goal of using Maintenance Standards is to
repair work in CNO availabilities. Second is           reduce variability in cost, schedule, and the
better utilization and right-sizing of various parts   results of repair by increasing the
inventories that have been previously procured         standardization of maintenance. Maintenance
and stored in an attempt to mitigate delays in         Standard utilization will be made mandatory
receipt of required parts to complete critical         with the NAVSEA 05 Maintenance Philosophy
repairs. The Working Group discovered that             and CNSFNOTE to be released in July 2010. In
these inventories are extensive, managed by the        the interim, a review of the existing
local RMCs/MSMOs, and are not visible to the           Maintenance Standards for MPDEs will be
Navy’s Supply System nor, for the most part, to        conducted by the Contractors and RMCs by July
the other RMCs. To improve this situation, the         2010. The input from the review will be
Working Group is taking the following actions          included in an update to the Master Specification
to be completed by September 1, 2010:                  Catalog.

     1. Perform an inventory of all available          Maintenance Standards for SSDGs and the
        parts associated with diesel engine            support systems are in development. The final
        repair conducted in San Diego, Norfolk,        Maintenance Standards will become part of the
        and Sasebo by September 2010.                  Master Specification Catalog upon completion.
     2. Post these inventories on a single and
        visible website, the Propulsion Website        Personnel and Resources
        hosted by NSWCCD – Philadelphia
        (         A Roles, Responsibilities, and Expectations
     3. Determine what parts should be                 (RRE) document was developed to provide
        available and at what stocking level by        clarity, focus, and awareness to key personnel
        using the parts required by the                about their function and the function of their
        Maintenance Standards, the LCM plan,           fellow team members. The new awareness
        and by projecting parts required for           gained with the implementation of the RRE
        emergency Depot level work based on            document will lead to less overlap and thus
        past history.                                  better efficiency within the team as well as
     4. FME will review ordering history for           increased communication.
     5. A team of qualified personnel will             Areas covered in the RRE document include the
        physically inspect each of the                 SME, DEI, Port Engineer, Ship Building
        inventories to validate that the parts are     Specialist (SBS), Project Manager (PM), Quality
        Ready for Issue (RFI). If parts are not        Assurance (QA-GOV), Administrative
        RFI, provide estimates of the                  Contracting Officer (ACO), Contractor
        requirements to make the parts RFI.            Organization, Original Engine Manufacturer
        Expect to complete in FY11.                    (OEM) Technical Representative, OEM Turnkey
     6. Ensure each port has a complete set of         Engine Repair Representative, Ship’s Force,
        government owned tools for MPDEs               Immediate Superior in Command (ISIC), and
        and SSDGs by conducting an inventory           Type Commander (TYCOM)/CLASSRON.
        of currently held tools in each port and
        purchasing tools to complete any gaps          A key component to the new CNO availability
        in the current sets.                           Planning and Execution phases for diesel
     7. Define the special tools that will be          engines is a cadre of civilian SMEs. These
        carried onboard the ships.                     SMEs will work closely with the RMC
                                                       Maintenance Teams, Port Engineers,
                                                       Availability Planners, NAVSEA, and DEIs to
provide a systems approach and oversight to         metrics are being developed to include the use of
diesel engine maintenance. The Working Group        IPPAP, PSART, and Eight Engine Test Plan,
identified the required number of SMEs and the      and Hot Wash data.
need for a senior civilian SME in each port. The
Senior SME will act as the collection point for     CONCLUSION
all availability planning data; the SME then
provides this data to the Port Engineer as
                                                    In order to arrest the increasing trend in CNO
actionable information. A sufficient number of
                                                    maintenance availability completion delays and
experienced civilian SMEs, along with Navy
                                                    increasing premium cost penalties associated
DEIs must be available to fully support the
                                                    with LSD class diesel engine maintenance,
diesel engine maintenance process. Analysis of
                                                    COMNAVSURFOR convened the Diesel
the manning to support the process indicates that
                                                    Solutions Group to determine the optimal
gaps exist for both SMEs and DEIs. A staffing
                                                    process for planning and execution of the LSD
plan to build the workforce up to the desired
                                                    class diesel engines over the deployment cycle.
level is being developed with CRMC.
                                                    The goal of DSG was to create a new diesel
                                                    repair process that directly supports
PART IV: IMPLEMENTATION                             COMNAVSURFOR requirements for the LSD
STRATEGY AND PHASING                                class ready for tasking by May 2010. The DSG
PLAN                                                working group successfully achieved this goal.

                                                    New or revised steps in the diesel maintenance
A communication plan to disseminate the
                                                    process include:
information developed in DSG will be used to
introduce DSG changes to a wider audience and
                                                        1. A new diesel engine Maintenance
contribute to building a strong and proactive
                                                           Philosophy invoking NAVSEA
diesel community. The communication plan
                                                           Maintenance Standards through the
includes briefs to the Chief Readiness Officer
(CRO), PESC, Super Hot Wash, DEI Seminars,
                                                        2. Maintenance Standard development for
and Diesel Summits to be conducted at Sasebo,
                                                           SSDGs and support equipment for
San Diego, and Norfolk.
                                                           MPDEs and SSDGs (MPDE
                                                           Maintenance Standards are already
A series of “Diesel Summits” will be conducted
in each LSD homeport will be initiated to both
                                                        3. A new and integrated Assessment Plan
disseminate the new process and provide
                                                           that incorporates changes to the way that
opportunities for Lessons Learned. With these
                                                           FPAs are scheduled and conducted as
Lessons Learned, the COMNAVSURFOR
                                                           well as implementing a new MCA.
Instruction will be incorporated into the
                                                        4. Execution of work package diesel
appropriate sections of the Joint Fleet
                                                           repairs with enhanced support by OEM
Maintenance Manual (JFMM).
                                                           technical experts and RMC SMEs.
                                                        5. A new standard engine Restoration Plan
A COMNAVSURFOR Instruction will be
                                                           and Eight Engine Test Plan across the
released in July 2010. Incremental
implementation of the process will start
                                                        6. Performance of an IPPAP and PSART
immediately with Fort McHenry’s FY10
                                                           to validate repairs and confirm that the
EDPMA. The first ship to implement the entire
                                                           MPDE and SSDG systems are operating
process will be Carter Hall for her FY13
                                                        7. Inventory of parts and tools and
                                                           identification of the needed parts and
Existing metrics for the execution phase of CNO
                                                           tools to keep in each port to support
availabilities will be used to measure the
                                                           diesel engine repair.
effectiveness of the DSG process. Additional
    8. An increased emphasis on the criticality
       of an accurate, timely, and                   ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
       comprehensive Diesel Readiness
                                                     I would like to thank Mr. Rich Caccese for his
    9. Personnel identification and plans to
                                                     assistance and encouragement while developing
       ensure that the correct personnel are in
                                                     the DSG process methodology and for his
       place to support diesel engine repair.
                                                     mentoring throughout the research and writing
                                                     of this paper. I also thank Suzanne Weinstein of
Further work is still required to implement all
                                                     In Sync Consulting for her leadership and
elements of the DSG process. Further Naval
                                                     collaboration as the DSG’s facilitator.
Messages, COMNAVSURFOR Notes and
                                                     Additionally, I thank all the members of the
Instructions, Joint Fleet Maintenance Manual
                                                     DSG for their exceptional effort and time
updates, and NAVSEA documentation will
                                                     devoted to the working group to improve diesel
follow with details on all aspects of the process.
                                                     maintenance processes and enhance fleet
A series of “Diesel Summits” will be held in
each affected port to communicate the process
with key players.                                    Lcdr. Cinda L. Brown, USN, has a Bachelor
                                                     of Science degree in Chemistry from the
The DSG has put together an end-to-end process       United States Naval Academy (1998). As a
that will break the current cycle of missing CNO     Surface Warfare Officer, she completed tours
availability milestone dates and exceeding           as Anti-Submarine Warfare Officer in Milius
approved budgets. This process will ensure that      (DDG 69) and Training Officer and Main
diesel engine repairs are complete by the            Propulsion Assistant in Comstock (LSD 45).
conclusion of CNO availabilities, keeping the        Following redesignation as an Engineering
ship’s training cycle from being impacted by         Duty Officer, Lcdr. Brown completed a tour
diesel engines not available for training. The       at Southwest Regional Maintenance Center
results of the work by the DSG represent             as Project Officer for an FFG and DDG and
significant progress forward in ensuring that the    Project Manager for two CGs. She obtained
LSD 41 class ships are ready for tasking.            her Master of Science degree in Systems
                                                     Engineering at the Naval Postgraduate
                                                     School (2008). Lcdr. Brown is currently
Bibliography                                         serving as the N43 (Maintenance and
                                                     Materiel Officer) at LSD/LPD 17 Class
COMNAVSURFOR San Diego, CA, “LSD 41 and              Squadron and in November 2010 will report
49 Class Diesel Engine Depot Maintenance Process     to Japan Regional Maintenance Center
Review.” 050004Z MAR 10                              detachment Sasebo as the Assistant Officer in
                                                     Charge/Production Officer.
COMNAVSURFOR San Diego, CA, “LSD 41 and
49 Class Diesel Engine Depot Maintenance Process
Review: Review Results.” 140004Z JUN 10

ACO                      Administrative Contracting Officer
AWP                      Availability Work Package
BAWP                     Baseline Availability Work Package
CBM                      Condition Based Maintenance
CLASSRON                 Class Squadron
CMAV                     Continuous Maintenance Availability
CNO                      Chief of Naval Operations
COMNAVSURFOR             Commander, Naval Surface Forces
CONUS                    Continental United States
CRMC                     Commander, Regional Maintenance Centers
CRO                      Chief Readiness Officer
DEI                      Diesel Engine Inspector
DRS                      Diesel Readiness System
DSG                      Diesel Solutions Group
EDPMA                    Extended Docking Phased Maintenance Availability
FDNF                     Forward Deployed Naval Forces
FME                      Fairbanks Morse Engine
FPA                      Formal Periodic Assessment
FRP                      Fleet Response Plan
FRT                      Future Readiness Team
ICMP                     Integrated Class Maintenance Plan
IPPAP                    Integrated Propulsion Plant Assessment Process
ISIC                     Immediate Superior in Command
JFMM                     Joint Fleet Maintenance Manual
JRMC                     Japan Regional Maintenance Center
LCM                      Lifecycle Maintenance Plan
LSD/LPD 17 CLASSRON      LSD/LPD 17 Class Squadron
MCA                      Mid Cycle Assessment
MSMO                     Multi-ship Multi-option Contractor
NAVSEA 05Z               Naval Sea Systems Command 05 Diesel Technical Warrant
NSSA                     Norfolk Ship Support Activity
NSWCCD Philadelphia      Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division –
OEM                      Original Engine Manufacturer
PCD                      Production Completion Date
PE                       Port Engineer
PESC                     Propulsion Executive Steering Committee
PM                       Project Manager
PSART                    Power Systems Assessment, Repair and Training
QA-GOV                   Quality Assurance
RFI                      Ready for Issue
RRE                      Roles, Responsibilities, and Expectations
SBS                      Ship Building Specialist
SF                       Ship’s Force
SME                      Subject Matter Expert
SRA                      Selected Restricted Availability
SSLCM/SURFMEPP           Surface Ship Lifecycle Management Activity
SWE     Surface Warfare Enterprise
SWRMC   Southwest Regional Maintenance Center
TFP     Technical Foundation Paper
TSSRA   Total Ship Systems Repair and Assessment
TYCOM   Type Commander
LSD Diesel Engine Working Group Project: Responsibility/Engagement Workflow

                   A-720          A-670          A-360          A-240        A-190         A-180       A-166         A-155          A-120         A-92       A-90     A-78          A-70          A-52          A-49           A-42              A-35               A-30             A-21         A-14      A-0     A+21              C-49         C-28           C-14       C-7         C-0   C+30         C+60
Diesel Package

                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Post             Post
                                                              Time Based   Time Based                              Condition        Condition                                                                               Deployment       Deployment                                                           Discovery

                                                                Package      Package                                Based            Based                                                                                     FPA              FPA                                                                Package
                                                               Brokered      Planned                               Package          Package                                                                                  Package          Package                                                             Brokered &
                                                               (SSLCM)        A-190                                Brokered         Planned                                                                                  Brokered         Planned                                                              Planned
                                                                                                                    (MCA)            A-120                                                                                    (RMC)             A-35

                   Based         Baseline      Availability

                    Reqs        Availability
                  -----------       WP          Issued
                 Push Time        Issues         A-360
                   Based          A-670
                  Reqs to

                                                                           Time Direct                            MCA Results                               FPA I &
                                               Open Avail                                 Execute                                                                                                Complete                   FPA Phase       FPA Phase II
                                                                           Reqs Plan                                Brokered                                  III                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LL/HW
                                                in NMD                                      MCA                                                                                                 FPA Phase                    II Results          Plan
                                                                             Comp                                 (known work)                               A-90                                                                                                                                                                                                IPPAP/PSART                    C+30
                                                                                          (5 days)

                                                 A-360                       A-190                                                                                                                   II                      Brokered         Complete             WPER
                                                                                           A-180                     A-155                                                                                   Push FPA                                                                                                              Check
                                                                                                                                   Present                                                       (2 weeks)                  (new work)       ---------------    ---------------                                                                           Cold             Hot
                                                Authorize                                                                                       100% Lock                                                     Phase II                                                                                                           Restoration
                                                                                                     Enter MCA                      Diesel                                                          A-52                        A-42          Definitive          Finalize                  FPA Phase II                                                  C-28             C-14                           Contract
                                               TimeBased      50% Lock                                                                             with                                                      Results to                                                                                                             Plan
                                                                                                     Results to                   Restoration                                                                                               Work Package        Restoration                    Work                                                                                                       Closeout
                                                  Reqs                                                                                           Reserve                                                       CSMP                                                                                                                C-49
                                                                            LLTM ID &                  CSMP        80% Lock          Plan                                                                                                        A-35               Plan                    Authorization
                                                                                                                                                   A-92                                                         A-49                                                                                                                                                                                       C+60
                                                                             Funded                    A-166                        A-120                                                                                                                           A-30                        A-14

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Issue P.O.’s to
                                                              High Level                   Begin                                                                                                                                                  SKTRs
                                                                                                                                 Medium Level                       Final Work                                                                                                                                                       50%
                                                              Execution                  Manpower/                                                                                First Draft                                                  --------------

                                                                                                                                  Execution                          Package                                                                                                        Proposal                                     Conference
                                                               Strategy                    Load                                                                                  Detail Sked                                              Finalize MP Loading                                                                                                                 Test
                                                                                                                                   Strategy                          Proposal                                                                                                     Submittal for                                  ---------------
                                                                A-240                     Analysis                                                                                   A-70                                                       -------------                                                                                                                Phase
                                                                                                                                    A-120                              A-78                                                                                                       FPA Phase II                     Setup/           Check
                                                                                           A-180                                                                                                                                             Finalize Sked/                                                                                                                 (1 week)
                                                                           LLTM ID &                                                                                                                                                                                                  WP                           Ripout        Restoration                                                              Contract
                                                                                                                                 Teaming/SKTR                                                                                               Execute WPER                                                                                                                       C-7
                                                                            Funded                                                                                                                                                                                                    A-21                        Complete           Plan                                                                 Closeout
                                                                                                                                     Plans                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 C+60
                                                                             A-190                                                                                                                                                        FPA Phase II Plan                                                        A+21              C-49
   Ships Force

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Begin FRP
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LOA           Test                  Training
                                                                                          NOTIONAL                                                                                                           Availability                                                                                                       Repair
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 weeks        1             1                   Cycle with
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Team                                                                                                            11 weeks
                                                                                         DEPLOYMENT                                 O-Level
                                                                                                                                    Package                                                                    A-49
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Week          week                   FINE
                                                                                                                                     Locked                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ENGINES

Appendix A: LSD Diesel Engine Working Group Project: Responsibility /Engagement Workflow for CONUS

Appendix B: LSD Diesel Engine Working Group Project: Responsibility /Engagement Workflow for FDNF

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