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Configuring Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Active Directory

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Configuring Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Active Directory Powered By Docstoc
					          Configuring Microsoft
          Windows Server 2008
          Active Directory


Chapter 5: Account Management
Objectives

   Explain how to manage user accounts
   Work with user profiles
   Describe factors in managing group accounts
   Work with computer accounts
   Describe tools for automating account
    management



                                                  2
Managing User Accounts

   User accounts have two main functions in AD
       Provide a method for user authentication to the
        network
       Provide detailed information about a user
   Windows machines that are not part of a domain
    store accounts in the Security Accounts
    Manager (SAM) database on the local machine



                                                          3
Managing User Accounts (cont’d)

   User accounts created in AD are referred to as
    domain user accounts; these accounts can
    usually log on to any computer that’s in the AD
    forest




                                                      4
Managing User Accounts (cont'd.)
   The following guidelines apply to the built-in
    Administrator account:
     Local administrator account has full access to all
      aspects of a computer, while domain administrator
      account has full access to all aspects of the domain
     Default Administrator account should be renamed and
      given a strong password
     Administrator account should only be used while
      performing administrative operations
     Administrator account can be renamed or disabled
      but not deleted
                                                         5
Managing User Accounts (cont'd.)

   The following guidelines apply to the built-in
    Guest account:
     Guest account is disabled by default after install and
      must be enabled before it can be used for logon
     Guest account can have a blank password
     Should be renamed if it is to be used
     Account has limited access to a computer or domain
      but has access to any resource for which the
      Everyone group has permission


                                                               6
Creating and Modifying User Accounts

   When creating a user account in an Active
    Directory domain, keep the following
    considerations in mind:
     User accounts must be unique throughout the domain
     Account names aren’t case sensitive, can be from 1
      to 20 characters, and can use letters, numbers, and
      special characters (with some exceptions)
     Develop a standard naming convention (example:
      John Doe, j.doe)



                                                        7
Creating and Modifying User Accounts
(cont'd.)
     By default, complex passwords are required;
      passwords are case sensitive
     Defaults only require a logon name and password to
      create a valid user (with DSADD), but additional
      information should be provided to facilitate AD
      searches




                                                           8
Creating and Modifying User Accounts
   When you use AD Users and Computers to add
    users, you must enter a value for the following
    attributes:
     Full name
     User logon name
     User logon name (pre-Windows 2000)
     Password and Confirm Password
     User must change password at next logon
     User cannot change password
     Password never expires
     Account is disabled
                                                      9
Using User Templates
   A user template is simply a user account that’s
    copied to create users with common attributes
   Tips for creating user templates
       Create one template account for each department or
        OU
       Disable the template account to eliminate security
        risks
       Add an underscore or other special character to the
        beginning of a template account’s name to make it
        easy to recognize

                                                              10
Using User Templates (cont’d)
       Fill in as many common attributes as you can so that
        after the account is created, less customizing is
        necessary
   Not all attributes can be copied, creating some
    limitations




                                                               11
Modifying Multiple Users

   Selecting multiple users using ctrl + click or shift
    + click allows them all to be edited
    simultaneously
   The following actions can be performed:
     Add to a group
     Disable account
     Enable account
     Send Mail
     Cut/Delete/Move
     Properties
                                                       12
Understanding Account Properties

   Some account changes can be made only by
    right-clicking a user account or by using the
    action menu of AD Users and Computers
     Reset a password
     Rename an account
     Move an account; Accounts / AD objects can be
      moved with one of three methods
           Right-click the user and click move
           Right-click the user and click cut
           Drag the user from one container to another

                                                          13
The General Tab
   Contains descriptive information about the
    account but does not affect the user’s account
    logon, group memberships, rights, or
    permissions
   Fields worth mentioning
       Display name
            Same as the CN when account is first created
       E-mail
            Can be used to send an e-mail to the user using the default
             mail application
       Web page
            Can contain a URL and allows you to open the specified URL
             by right-clicking the user account
                                                                           14
The Account Tab
   Contains the information that most affects a
    user’s logon to the domain
     User logon name and User logon name (pre-Windows
      2000)
     Logon Hours
     Log On To
     Unlock account
     Account options
            Store password using reversible encryption
            Smart card is required for interactive logon
            Account is sensitive and cannot be delegated
       Account expires
                                                            15
The Profile Tab

   Used to specify the location of files that make up
    a user’s profile, a logon script, and the location
    of a home folder
       Profile path
            Vista or Server 2008 has the profile in the
             C:\Users\username directory
            Windows XP uses C:\Documents and Settings\username




                                                                  16
The Profile Tab (cont’d)

     Logon Script
          Will run a script when user logs on
          Preferred to use group policy, but Windows NT and 9x can’t
           use group policies
     Home folder
          Can be a local path or a drive letter that points to a network
           share




                                                                            17
The Member Of Tab

   Lists groups the user belongs to
   Can be used to change group memberships
   Set Primary Group button is needed only when a
    user is logging in to a Macintosh, Unix, or Linux
    client computer




                                                   18
Terminal Services Tabs

   Settings in these tabs affect a user’s session
    and connection properties when connecting to a
    Windows Server 2008 Terminal Services server
     Terminal Services Profile
     Remote Control
     Environment
     Sessions




                                                 19
Using Contacts and Distribution Lists
   A contact is an Active Directory object that
    usually represents a person for informational
    purposes only
   Most common use of a contact is for integration
    into Microsoft Exchange’s address book
   Distribution lists are created in the same way as
    groups
   Distribution lists are also used with Microsoft
    Exchange to send e-mails, but to several people
    at once
                                                    20
Working with User Profiles

   A user profile is a collection of a user’s
    personal files and settings that define his or
    her working environment




                                                     21
Working with User Profiles (cont'd.)
   Some key folders in a user’s profile (N/A
    denotes that folder doesn’t exist in Windows
    XP)
     AppData (N/A)
     Desktop
     Documents (My Documents)
     Downloads (N/A)
     Favorites
     Music (My Music)
     Pictures (My Pictures)
     Ntuser.dat
                                                   22
Working with User Profiles (cont'd.)

   A local profile is a user profile stored on the
    same system where the user logs on
   Local profiles are created from a default profile
    when the user first logs on to a specific machine
   Changes on one local profile will not migrate to
    another local profile on another machine
   For consistent profiles that reflect changes made
    on multiple machines, use roaming profiles

                                                   23
Roaming Profiles

   A roaming profile follows the user no matter
    which computer he or she logs on to
   Profile is copied from a network share when the
    user logs on to a computer in the network
   Creates a local copy of the roaming profile,
    called a profile’s cached copy
   Changes made to the profile are then replicated
    from locally cached copy back to the profile on
    the network share when the user logs off
                                                  24
Roaming Profiles (cont'd.)
   The roaming profile is created from one of two
    locations
       The NETLOGON share
       The Default profile on the local system
   To customize the default roaming profile:
     Create a user with a local profile
     Log on to a system as the user you created
     Customize your environment
     Log off and log on as Administrator
     Use Control Panel’s User Profiles applet to copy the
      user’s profile to the NETLOGON share on your
      domain controller in a folder named Default User.V2
                                                             25
Configuring Roaming Profiles
   Two parts to configuring roaming profiles
       Configuring a shared folder to hold roaming profiles
       Configuring each user account’s properties to specify
        the roaming profile’s location
   The default or existing local profile will be copied
    to the roaming profile
   Folder with user’s logon name and .V2 are
    created automatically with appropriate
    permissions
   .V2 distinguishes a roaming profile from a pre-
    Vista roaming profile
                                                            26
Mandatory Profiles

   Used when you don’t want users to be able to
    change their profile or only have the ability to
    make temporary changes
   Commonly used in situations where a common
    logon is assigned for multiple users
   Works like a roaming profile, but changes made
    to the profile will not be copied to the server



                                                   27
Super Mandatory Profiles

   Normal mandatory profiles will allow using a
    temporary profile based on the default profile,
    should the roaming or mandatory profile be
    unavailable due to network issues
   Super mandatory profiles prevent a user from
    logging on to the domain when the mandatory
    profile is unavailable



                                                      28
Managing Profiles

   Profiles can be managed in the User Profiles
    dialog box with the following three buttons:
     Change Type
     Delete
     Copy To

   Many aspects of a user’s profile can be
    managed by using group policies



                                                   29
The Cost of Roaming Profiles

   Profiles can become bloated
   If a profile is detected to be newer on a server
    than the version of the profile on the machine a
    user is logging into, the whole profile must be
    copied
       The reverse is also true if the profile on the local
        machine should prove to be more up to date
   Some problems caused by roaming profiles can
    be reduced by folder redirection

                                                               30
Group Types

   A distribution group is used to group users
    together mainly for sending e-mails to several
    people at once with an Active Directory
    integrated e-mail application, such as Microsoft
    Exchange
   Can have the following objects as members:
       User accounts
       Contacts
       Other distribution groups
       Security groups
       Computers
                                                       31
Group Types (cont'd.)

   Security groups are the main AD object
    administrators use to manage network resource
    access and grant rights to users
   Can contain the same types of objects as
    distribution groups
   If a contact is part of a security group that is
    assigned permissions to a resource, the contact
    does not make use of the permissions because
    a contact is not a security principal
                                                   32
Converting Group Type

   Group type can be changed from security to
    distribution and vice versa
   Only security groups can be added to a DACL; if
    a security group is converted to a distribution
    group, the entry will remain in a DACL, but it has
    no effect on access to the resource
   Converting group types is not commonly done



                                                     33
Group Scope

   Group scope determines the reach of a group’s
    application in a domain or a forest
   Three group scope options are possible in a
    Windows Server 2008 forest
       Domain local
       Global
       Universal
   Fourth scope called local applies only to groups
    created in the SAM database of a member
    computer or stand-alone computer
                                                       34
Group Scope (cont'd.)




                        35
Domain Local Groups

   A domain local group is the main security
    principal recommended for assigning rights and
    permissions to domain resources
   Global and Universal groups can be used for the
    same purpose, but Microsoft best practices
    recommend using these groups to aggregate
    users with similar access or rights requirements



                                                   36
Domain Local Groups (cont'd.)

   In a single domain environment, or when users
    from only one domain are assigned access to a
    resource, use AGDLP
     Accounts are made members of
     Global groups, which are made members of
     Domain Local groups, which are assigned
     Permissions to resources




                                                    37
Domain Local Groups (cont'd.)

   In multidomain environments where users from
    different domains are assigned access to a
    resource, use AGGUDLP
     Accounts are made members of
     Global groups, which when necessary are nested in
      other
     Global groups, which are made members of
     Universal groups, which are then made members of
     Domain Local groups, which are assigned
     Permissions to resources
                                                          38
Global Groups

   A global group is used mainly to group users from the same
    domain with similar access or rights requirements
   Considered global because it can be made a member of a
    domain local group in any domain in the forest or trusted
    domains in other forests
   Global groups are easier to manage than creating domain
    local groups, especially if dealing with an organization that
    has multiple departments needing access to a single resource
   Global groups scale better than domain local groups




                                                               39
Global Groups (cont'd.)




                          Use global groups to
                          aggregate users and add
                          those groups to domain
                          local groups – easier to
                          manage



                                                     40
Universal Groups

   A universal group can contain users from any
    domain in the forest and be assigned permission
    to resources in any domain in the forest
   Universal groups’ membership information is
    stored only on global catalog servers
   Universal group membership changes require
    replication to all global catalog servers



                                                  41
Local Groups

   A local group is created in the local SAM database on a
    member server or workstation or a stand-alone computer
   When a computer joins a domain, Windows changes the
    membership of two local groups automatically
     Administrators: Domain Admin global group added
     Users: Domain users global group added

   Local groups can have the following account types as
    members:
     Local user accounts
     Domain user accounts
     Domain local groups
     Global or universal groups

                                                              42
Nesting Groups
   Involves making a group a member of another
    group
   Group scope’s membership rules must be
    followed
   Usually used to group users who have similar
    roles but work in different departments




                                                   43
Converting Group Scope

   Group scope can be converted, with some
    restrictions
     Universal to domain local, provided it’s not a member
      of another universal group
     Universal to global, provided no universal group is a
      member
     Global to universal, provided it’s not a member of
      another global group
     Domain local to universal, provided no domain local
      group is a member
                                                          44
Default Groups in a Windows Domain
   Builtin folder
       Domain local groups used for assigning rights and
        permissions in the local domain
   Users folder
       Combination of domain local, global, and, in the forest
        root domain, universal scope
       User accounts are generally added to global and
        universal groups in this folder for assigning
        permissions and rights in the domain and forest
   Special identity groups
       Can be assigned permissions by adding them to
        resources’ DACLs
       Can not be changed manually                          45
Default Groups in a Windows Domain
(cont'd.)




                                     46
Default Groups in a Windows Domain
(cont'd.)




                                     47
Default Groups in a Windows Domain
(cont'd.)




                                     48
Working with Computer Accounts
   Advantages of having users log on to computers
    that are domain members
       Single sign-on
       Active Directory search
       Group policies
       Remote management
   Computer accounts are usually created when a
    computer is joined to a domain
   Computer accounts have an associated
    password and must log on to the domain
       This password changes every 30 days by default; can
        cause synchronization issues if a computer is left off
        for too long                                           49
Command-Line Tools for Managing Active
Directory Objects

   Most commonly used command line tools for
    managing accounts
     DSADD
     DSGET
     DSMOD
     DSMOVE
     DSQUERY
     DSRM

   Typing /? after a command will show help
    information and command syntax
                                                50
Command-Line Tools for Managing Active
Directory Objects (cont'd.)
   DSADD syntax
   DSADD ObjectType ObjectDN [options]
     ObjectType is the type of object you want to create,
      such as user or group
     ObjectDN is the object’s distinguished name (DN)
           Components of DN
              CN (Common Name)

              CN (Common Name) (can be repeated if object is in a
               folder)
              OU (Organizational Unit)

              DC (Domain Component)

                                                                     51
Command-Line Tools for Managing Active
Directory Objects (cont'd.)

   Command-line programs allow piping of output
    from one command to another, via |




                                                   52
Bulk Import and Export with CSVDE and
LDIFDE

   CSVDE and LDIFDE can bulk import or export
    AD data
   CSVDE uses comma-separated values (CSV)
   LDIFDE uses LDAP Directory Interchange
    Format (LDIF)
   CSVDE can only create objects in AD, whereas
    LDIFDE can create or modify objects



                                                   53
Creating Users with CSVDE

   CSV file must have a header record listing
    attributes of the object to be imported
       Example:
            dn,SamAccountName,userPrincipalName,objectClass
       Data record example:
            “cn=New
             User,ou=TestOU,dc=w2k8adXX,dc=com”,NewUser,NewUser
             @w2k8adXX.com,user
   Does not set passwords, so all user accounts
    are disabled until you create a password for
    each account
                                                               54
Creating Users with LDIFDE
   Same idea as CSVDE but with a different format
   Example:
       Dn: cn=LDF
        User1,ou=TestOU,dc=w2k8adXX,dc=com
        changetype: add
        ObjectClass: user
        SamAccountName: LDFUser1
        UserPrincipalName: LDFUser1@w2k8adXX.com
   Common use of LDIFDE is exporting users from
    one domain and importing them into another
    domain
                                                   55
Chapter Summary

   Three categories of users in Windows: Local,
    domain, and built-in
   User account names must be unique in a
    domain, aren’t case sensitive, and must be 20 or
    fewer characters
       Complex password is required by default; naming
        standards should be used
   User templates facilitate creating users who
    have some attributes in common, such as group
    memberships
                                                          56
Chapter Summary (cont'd.)
   The most important user account properties are
    in the General, Account, Profile, Member Of, and
    Terminal Services tabs
   A user profile contains personal files and
    settings that define the user’s environment
       A profile stored on a network share is called a
        roaming profile; profiles can be made mandatory
   Groups are the primary security principal used to
    grant rights and permissions

                                                          57
Chapter Summary (cont'd.)
   Three group scopes in Active Directory: domain
    local, global, and universal
       The recommended use of groups can be summarized
        with the acronyms AGDLP and AGGUDLP
   Computers that are domain members have
    computer accounts in Active Directory
   Computer accounts are created automatically
    when a computer joins a domain or manually by
    an administrator
   Account management can be automated by
    command-line tools such as DSADD
                                                      58

				
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