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A Concise Encyclopedia of Islam Gordon Newby

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5pillar sof islam 321_V2N2 December 85 - B Review 321_V2N2 December 85 - B Review - Islam between East and West A Concise Encyclopedia of Islam Gordon Newby en_Islam_In_Brief en_misconceptions en_the_principles_of_Islam en_The_Prophet_Muhammad_from_A_to_Z Five Pillars of Islam Great Women of Islam Islam and the West Three Stories llhe Principles of The Five Pillars of Islam the_prophet_as_a_husband what must be known about islam Women of Islam Answers To Non Muslims Common Questions About Islam The Essence of Islam Islam and the West Annual Report on the State of Dialogue

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									  A CONCISE

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A   Concise   Encyclopedia   of   Hinduism, Klaus K. Klostermaier, ISBN 1–85168–175–2
A   Concise   Encyclopedia   of   Christianity, Geoffrey Parrinder, ISBN 1–85168–174–4
A   Concise   Encyclopedia   of   Buddhism, John Powers, ISBN 1–85168–233–3
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The Faith and Practice of Al-Ghazalı, William Montgomery Watt, ISBN 1–85168–062–4
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Islam and the West, Norman Daniel, ISBN 1–85168–129–9
Islam: A Short History, William Montgomery Watt, ISBN 1–85168–205–8
Islam: A Short Introduction, Abdulkader Tayob, ISBN 1–85168–192–2
Islamic Philosophy, Theology and Mysticism: A Short Introduction, Majid Fakhry,
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The Mantle of the Prophet, Roy Mottahedeh, ISBN 1–85168–234–1
Muhammad: A Short Biography, Martin Forward, ISBN 1–85168–131–0
Muslim Women Mystics: The Life and Work of Rabi ca and other Women Mystics in Islam,
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On Being a Muslim: Finding a Religious Path in the World Today, Farid Esack,
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The Qur’an and its Exegesis, Helmut Gatje, ISBN 1–85168–118–3
Revival and Reform in Islam, Fazlur Rahman, ISBN 1–85168–204–X
Speaking in God’s Name: Islamic Law, Authority and Women, Khaled Abou El-Fadl,
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What Muslims Believe, John Bowker, ISBN 1–85168–169–8



           Oneworld Publications
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          # Gordon D. Newby 2002
              Reprinted 2004

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Preface and acknowledgments          vi

Transliteration and pronunciation    ix

Introduction                          1

A Concise Encyclopedia of Islam      13

God’s Ninety-Nine Names             219

Chronology                          221

Bibliography                        228

Thematic Index                      233
  Preface and acknowledgments

W       riting about Islam in a single volume is a daunting task, but it is
        one that I happily took on because of my longstanding desire to
help more people in the English-speaking world understand and
appreciate this religion. Islam is not only a world religion, claiming
about a fifth of the world’s population, it is also a system of culture and
politics. Muslims are found in most countries of the world, speaking
most of the world’s languages. There is no central authority that can
speak for all Muslims, and there is no single way to be a Muslim. It is,
like the other great religions of the world, diverse, dynamic, and difficult
to define in only a few words, terms, and entries.
    This Concise Encyclopedia of Islam is meant to represent Islam’s
diversity and offer the reader a short definition of major terms and
introduce major figures. In writing this Encyclopedia, I have chosen to use
the distinction that was made by the late M.G.S. Hodgson in his Venture
of Islam, between those subjects that are “Islamic” and those that are, in
his word, “Islamicate.” By “Islamic,” he meant those subjects that have to
do with the religion, and by “Islamicate,” he meant those subjects that are
products of the culture that Muslims, and Jews, Christians, Zoroastrians,
Hindus, and others living under Islam, have produced. We speak of
“Islamic science,” meaning the scientific advances during the time of the
Western Middle Ages, but those scientific advances were a product of the
interaction of Jews and Christians as well as Muslims living in Islamic
countries. The religion of Islam contributed to the development of that
and other branches of learning, because Muslim rulers chose to sponsor
learning as part of their vision of themselves as Muslims. I have chosen to
leave the political and cultural material to others. This volume contains
terms that are related to Islam as a religious system.
    As I mentioned, Islam is a diverse and dynamic religion. No Muslim
will accept everything that I have presented in this volume as Islamic. In
vii                                               Preface and acknowledgments

attempting to represent Islam’s diversity, I have tried to include material
that tells the story of the major groups within Islam. This means that the
views of the Shıcı as well as the Sunnı are included. My choice to do this
                  ˆˆ                     ˆ
is, in part, a corrective. Works of this kind have often been heavily
weighted toward the Sunnı perspective. The reasons for this are
complicated, but it had much to do with the history of how the West
came to learn about Islam and the desire of Western Orientalist writers
to essentialize Islam and not acknowledge the nuances and differences
that they did in Western Christianity. Recognizing complexity in
someone else or in another religious system is an important step toward
understanding that religion as well as one’s own.
    This single volume is not intended to be the end and the answer to
questions about Islam, but, rather, a beginning. At the end of the
volume, the reader will find a bibliography listing additional English-
language reference works, monographs, and introductory texts. I
strongly urge readers to seek out as many of those texts as possible.
Many of the references should be available in local libraries. There is
also a wealth of information about Islam on the Internet. Many basic
Islamic texts are available in English translation on line. I have listed a
few of the gateway URLs that should serve as a start into the rapidly
growing world of the Islamic Internet. One caution, however, is that the
Internet is rapidly changing, with many varied opinions expressed in the
sites. Remember that the many different opinions reflect the great
diversity within the religion called Islam. There is also a time-line of
major dates and events in Islamic history to assist the reader in placing
the information in the Encyclopedia in historical perspective.
    The terms in the Encyclopedia are transliterated from their
appropriate Islamic languages. The diacritic marks on the terms
represent the consonants and vowels in the original language. This is
meant to be an aid to the student of those languages in locating the term
in an appropriate language dictionary or encyclopedia. Without the
diacritics, it is difficult, particularly for the beginner in the language, to
distinguish what appear to be homonyms. For the reader who doesn’t
know the Islamic languages, the pronunciation guide that follows this
preface will assist in a reasonable approximation of the sound of the
terms to be able to talk with those who do know how to pronounce
    The information for this volume has been drawn from many different
sources. In the bibliography, I have left out the many specialty
monographs and other works for lack of space. Additionally, I have
A Concise Encyclopedia of Islam                                       viii

been aided by many individuals who have patiently read my drafts and
offered helpful suggestions. I would like to thank my colleagues at
Emory University in particular. Profs. Mahmoud Al-Batal, Kristen
Brustad, Shalom Goldman, Frank Lewis, Richard Martin, Laurie
Patton, Devin Stewart, and Vernon Robbins have each strengthened
my efforts. The best parts of this volume are to their credit, and the
deficiencies are mine. I would also like to thank the editors of Oneworld
Publications for the opportunity to write this volume. It has provided me
a wonderfully concentrated time to review the Islamic religious scene
and the years of study I have devoted to Islam, and the opportunity has
been personally enriching. Finally, I wish to express my thanks to my
wife, Wendy. Her support, encouragement, and forbearance have kept
me well and happily throughout this project.

The publisher and author would like to thank the following organiza-
tions and individuals for providing the pictures reproduced in this
   Pages 46, 47, 48, 54, 61, 66, 76, 134, 138, 141, 154, 189, 208
# Peter Sanders Photography Ltd. Pages 19, 32, 104, 127, 188, 201
# D.P. Brookshaw. Pages 72, 99, 101, 144, 171, 178, 210 # Aga Khan
Trust for Culture. Page 170 from the collection of Prince and Princess
Sadruddin Aga Khan. Map, page xii, by Jillian Luff, Mapgrafix. Cover
photograph (far right) of children, Jakarta, Istiqlal Mosque – Religious
Education; Mock Hajj # Mark Henley/Impact. Cover photograph
(center) interior of the prayer hall, Islamic Cultural Center, New York
# Omar Khalidi.
                Transliteration and

M      any of the terms in this Concise Encyclopedia are transliterated
       from their original scripts in the Islamic languages of Arabic,
Persian, Turkish, or Urdu. The system listed below will assist those who
wish to identify the correct term in the original language. The
pronunciation guide will assist in approximating the sound of the
words. The system of transliteration is that used in many scholarly
publications on Islam. The order of the list is the order of the Arabic

Arabic letter   Symbol      Approximate pronunciation
                            glottal stop
                b           English b
                t           English t
                th          English th as in thin
                j           English j
                h           guttural or pharyngeal h
                kh          German ch
                d           English d
                dh          English th as in this
                r           rolled or trilled r
                z           English z
                s           unvoiced s as in sit, this
                sh          English sh
                s           velar or emphatic s
                d           velar or emphatic d
                t           velar or emphatic t
                z           velar or emphatic voiced th as in this
                            pharyngeal scrape; often pronounced like glottal
A Concise Encyclopedia of Islam                                                x

Arabic letter     Symbol          Approximate pronunciation
                  gh              voiced kh
                  f               English f
                  q               uvular or guttural k
                  l               English l as in list
                  m               English m
                  n               English n
                  h               English h
                  w               English w
                  y               English y as in yes

                  a               short a as in bat, sat
                  i               short i as in sit
                  u               short u as in full
                  ˆ               long a as in father but held longer
                  ˆ               long i as in machine but held longer
                  ˆ               long u as in rule but held longer
                  aw              diphthong as in English cow
                  ay              diphthong as in aisle

The final feminine singular ending in Arabic, -at, is transliterated as -ah
unless the word is in a compound with a following Arabic word, when it
is transliterated as -at. The definite article al- is normally not capitalized,
even at the beginning of a sentence and its consonant, l, assimilates to
the letters t, th, d, dh, r, z, s, sh, s, d, t, z, n, as in the example ash-Shams
                                       ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙
(Arabic: the sun). This system of transliterating the definite article
replicates the pronunciation rather than the system of writing to help the
reader communicate the term orally.
    Terms transliterated from Persian, Turkish, and Urdu generally
follow the Arabic pattern, although the pronunciation might not be fully
represented. For a full discussion of various systems of transliteration
and the benefits of each system, see M.G.S. Hodgson, The Venture of
Islam, vol. 1, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974, pp. 8–16.
Distribution of Islam in the world today

Percentage of Muslims
by country
      81 – 100%
      51 – 80%
      11 – 50%
        1 – 10%
      less than 1%

                     Seek Knowledge as far as China
                                  (hadıth of the Prophet)


I  slam is a world religion, by which we usually mean that it is found in
   most major places and among most peoples throughout the world.
Like other world religions, Islam has its own particular geography.
When we speak of the geography of a world religion like Islam, we often
mean two things. First, we mean, where do we find the religion’s
followers? Where did the religion start, and how has it spread? These are
historical and physical questions. Second, we mean, how is the world
divided on the spiritual map of the religion’s believers? What land is
sacred and what is not? These are questions of sacred geography. Since
the physical and sacred realms interact, we need to ask both sets of
    Islam, like Judaism and Christianity, began in the Middle East.
Today, it ranks behind only Buddhism and Christianity as the most
populous religion in the world, with one-fifth of all humanity professing
the faith. A common impression is that Islam is an Arab religion, but less
than twenty percent of all Muslims are Arabs. The largest Muslim
country in the world is Indonesia, and there are more Muslims in South
Asia (India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh) than there are in the Arab Middle
East. There are Muslims throughout Europe, Asia, Africa, and the
Americas. It is often thought to be a religion of nomads, but well over
half of all Muslims live in cities. It is a religion that continues to attract
more members. In North America, Islam is the fastest-growing religion,
with more members than either Judaism or the Episcopalians. The
                                 ˆ         ˆ
classical division between the dar al-islam, the “abode of Islam,” and the
A Concise Encyclopedia of Islam                                           2

rest of the world is no longer a useful geographic distinction. While
Islam’s spiritual borders remain, Muslims live side by side with Jews,
Christians, Buddhists, Hindus, and others throughout the world.
Muslims live in most countries, whether there is an Islamic government
or not.
    Since Islam’s earliest expansion out of Arabia, it has been a religion
of many ethnic, racial, and linguistic groups. The majority of Muslims
in the world speak a native language other than Arabic, but the Arabic
language and some aspects of Arab culture bind Muslims together. The
spiritual center of Islamic sacred geography is Mecca, with the Ka¤bah
and other shrines holy to all the world’s Muslims. Ibrahım (Abraham)
                                                          ˆ ˆ
and Adam allegedly prayed there to Allah (God). Muhammad
reestablished God’s worship there, so many Muslims face Mecca five
times a day in prayer and, if they can, journey to this center of the earth
once in their lives for hajj (pilgrimage). The sacred scripture of Islam,
the Qur'an, is written in Arabic, and is recited daily in Arabic by
Muslims in prayer. Arabia looms large in the spiritual imaginations of
Muslims around the world.
    Another important center of the Islamic sacred world is al-Quds
(Jerusalem). Muslims believe that Muhammad made his isra' (night  ˆ
journey) from Mecca to Jerusalem and went from there to heaven. In
Islamic cosmology, just as in Judaism and Christianity, Jerusalem is the
place closest to heaven. Jerusalem is regarded by many Muslims as one
of the three cities to which one can make pilgrimage, the others being
Mecca and Madınah. Islamic worship was established at the qubbat as-
sakhrah, the Dome of the Rock, as soon as Muslims entered the city in
the seventh century, and Muslims have included the city as a place of
visitation and as a place to live ever since.
    Mosques feature in Islam’s sacred landscape, and wherever Muslims
live, they build places of worship that are pointed toward the sacred
center of Mecca. Schools, fountains, hospitals, and other public works
are also products of the Islamic impulse to improve this world through
pious constructions, and in these the sacred and profane realms are
blended. Tombs of saints, walıs, are also found throughout the world
where Muslims live. Some are small and plain; others are elaborate and
decorated with the finest examples of Islamic art, but all mark out
important points on the Islamic sacred map of the world.
    An important feature of the world of Islam is that in the daily lives of
Muslims, sacred space is portable. A Muslim should perform salat, pray,
five times during the day, and it can be anywhere. Classrooms, offices,
3                                                               Introduction

and factories, as well as mosques, are places for salat. Indeed, anyplace
that can be made ritually pure, often by a prayer carpet, can serve as a
location for salat. With the potential for nearly a billion Muslims
around the world to face Mecca in prayer each day, there is a web of
sacred Muslim space that encompasses the earth.

Islam and Other Religions
Islam is the youngest of the three monotheistic world religions, with
Muhammad coming after the prophets of Judaism and Christianity. For
Muslims, Islam is the completion and perfection of a process of
revelation that started with Adam, the first human, and ends with
Muhammad, the “Seal of the Prophets.” History is divided into two
periods: the time of God’s active revelation through His prophets, and
the time from the revelation of the Qur'an to the time when the world
will be judged, the yawm ad-dın (Day of Judgment). Judaism and
Christianity have a special place in Islam. Jews and Christians are
“People of Scripture,” ahl al-kitab, and have a special legal standing in
Islamic law, or sharı¤ ah. Other religions, such as the Sabaeans and
sometimes Hindus, have been included in this category, and in various
historical periods they have been partners in shaping and developing
Islamic civilization. Islam is a proselytizing religion. Muslims are
commanded to bring God’s message to all the peoples of the earth and to
make the world a better, more moral place. Muslim missionaries are
found throughout the world working on the twin goals of converting
others to Islam and promoting Islamic values.

Muslim Scripture
According to the sırah, the biography of Muhammad, God sent the first
revelation to His Prophet when Muhammad was forty years of age.
From then until his death in 632 c.e., some twenty-two years later, the
Qur'an, as the revelation is called, came to the Prophet in bits and pieces
through the intermediary of the angel Jibrıl (Gabriel). Today, it exists as
a book with 114 surahs, chapters, a little shorter in length than the
Christian New Testament. The chapters and verses, ' a    ˆyahs, are not in
the order of revelation, and to many outside Islam, the juxtaposition
seems to be disjointed and difficult to understand at first reading. The
Qur'a differs from Jewish and Christian scripture in that it is not a
narrative history, a series of letters, or a biography of Muhammad. It
contains admonitions, rules, promises, references to past revelations,
A Concise Encyclopedia of Islam                                             4

prayers, and warnings about the coming yawm ad-dın. For those who
know Arabic, for whom the Qur'an is part of their daily prayers, who
live surrounded by the sights and sounds of its words, the revelation has
a rich texture of meanings interwoven with Muslim life and history. The
revelation is the foundation of Islam’s aesthetic and daily life, and is part
of the everyday speech of Muslims in many languages around the world.
Points are made and wisdom is expressed by reference to passages from
the Qur'an. For many Muslims, the ideal is to memorize the Qur'a
          ˆ                                                                ˆn,
thus internalizing the Word of God.
    An axiom among Muslims is that the Qur'an cannot be translated
into another language and remain the Qur'a nor can it be imitated. A
large part of it is written in saj¤ (rhymed prose), and it is rich with
rhetorical devices, like alliteration and paronomasia, which cannot be
replicated in other languages and carry the same meaning and tone. All
translations are commentaries (tafsır). There is a rich, living tradition of
commenting on the Qur'an, and reading just a few of them shows the
reader the multiple levels of meaning contained even in a single Qur'anicˆ
verse. The Qur'an in Arabic is the carrier of Islamic culture.
    In addition to the Qur'an, the life of the Prophet Muhammad is
regarded by some Muslims as almost sacred, and by many more as an
important source of how to live. The sunnah of the Prophet,
Muhammad’s life as exemplar, is a model that Muslims try to follow.
His life and actions guided the formation of some aspects of sharı¤ ah   ˆ
and Islamic practices of personal piety. Muslims may, for example, eat
honey or cleanse their teeth, because the Prophet did so. They will go on
hajj, performing the rite in a way similar to the way he did it in his
Farewell Pilgrimage at the end of his life. And they will strive to govern
their communities in imitation of the society that Muhammad and his
Companions (sahabah) founded at Madınah. The Qur'an and the
                                             ˆ                  ˆ
                ˙ ˙
sunnah together form the basis for a complete Muslim life.

Pillars of Islam
Early in the history of Islam, scholars and Qur'anic commentators
distilled five basic activities and beliefs that are fundamental to all
Muslims. These are known as the arkan al-isla    ˆm, the Pillars of Islam.
Each of these five actions requires an internal spiritual commitment and
an external sign of the intent (niyyah) as well as the faithful completion
of the action, showing Islam’s medial position between the extremes of
orthodoxy and orthopraxy. Fundamental to this list is the balance
5                                                               Introduction

between faith and action. A Muslim starts with the belief in one God,
called Allah in Arabic. God is the source of all there is in the universe,
and so all activity, spiritual and physical, is in relationship to God.
Muslims are asked to be thankful to God, praise Him, and obey His
commands. Additionally, since all humans and other creatures are part
of God’s creation, each Muslim has an obligation to help take care of
that creation. To be a Muslim is to have an individual responsibility to
God and a social responsibility to Muslims and other human beings in
the world.
    The first on the list is the declaration of faith, the shahadah, which
also means witnessing. The declaration that there is no deity except
Allah, and that Muhammad is the Prophet of Allah is part of each of the
    ˆ                                              ˆ
five daily prayers and is heard from minarets in the call to prayer.
Pronouncing the shahadah with the intent to convert and in front of
witnesses is sufficient to make one a Muslim in the eyes of most Islamic
    When one has become a Muslim, one is obligated to perform five
ritual prayers (salat) a day: the dawn prayer, the noon prayer, the
afternoon prayer, the sunset prayer, and the night prayer. These prayers
are in addition to any individual supplications, du¤ a' , that the believer
may wish to make at any time.
    The third duty is to give charity, zakat. Social welfare is one of the
hallmarks of Islam, and Muslims are obligated to take care of those less
fortunate than themselves. In some Muslim countries, the collection and
distribution of alms is a function of the state.
    Once each year, many Muslims perform a fast, sawm, each day for
the month of Ramada during the daylight hours only. It is a total
abstinence fast, and, when it is broken, Muslims are enjoined to eat the
good things that God has given. Muslims should not fast if their health
will be injured, if they are pregnant, or if they are traveling. Islam
encourages Muslims to care for their bodies as well as their souls.
    Once during a Muslim’s lifetime, if physically and financially able,
the hajj should be performed. This ritual brings Muslims from all over
the world together in Mecca for rites around the Ka¤bah, and binds all
Muslims, whether on hajj or not, in celebration of acts performed by
Muhammad and Ibrahım before him.
                       ˆ ˆ
    Over time, some groups have added to or modified this list, with
   ˆd                                     ˆ
jiha as the most common addition. Jihad means “striving” or “making
an effort,” and each of the actions listed above requires such personal
effort. In cases when jiha is applied to political and military situations,
A Concise Encyclopedia of Islam                                          6

usually called “holy war,” it is a community obligation and not an
individual one, and it is limited by complex rules and regulations, just as
“holy war” is limited in Judaism and Christianity.

Just as with the geography of Islam, the history of Islam may be viewed
from several vantage points. In traditional world history, Islam begins
with the revelation to Muhammad in 610 c.e., when he was forty years
of age. The official Muslim era begins in 622 c.e. with the hijrah, the
establishment of the community in the Arabian city of Madınah. This is
the beginning of the Muslim calendar, and all preceding is counted as the
period of the jahiliyyah, the age of “ignorance.” Another way to talk
about the beginning of Islam is to chart it from God’s first revelation to
humankind, to the prophet Adam. From this perspective, Islam is the
oldest of all the religions of the world.
    When Muhammad was born in Mecca in 570 c.e., Arabia was on the
edge of the great Mediterranean and Middle Eastern cultures, but it was
in the center of a competition between the Roman and Persian empires.
This brought soldiers into Arabia who were also missionaries for
Judaism and several varieties of Christianity. As a result, most Arabs had
a sophisticated knowledge of the two monotheistic religions available to
them. Some had converted to either Judaism or Christianity. They also
had their own elaborate variety of polytheism and worshiped hundreds
of deities, often in the form of stone idols that they carried with them or
that were placed in Arabia’s central shrine, the Ka¤bah in Mecca.
    Muhammad was born into the Hashimites, a poor clan of Mecca’s
dominant tribe, the Quraysh. He was orphaned early, with his father
dying before he was born, and his mother afterwards. From humble
beginnings, he soon distinguished himself as an honest, trustworthy
businessman engaged in the town’s trade, international commerce.
When he married a wealthy widow, Khadıjah, for whom he had worked
as a trade agent, he had enough resources to be able to take time to
contemplate his rise in fortune. We are told that he went every year into
the mountains above Mecca for a spiritual retreat, gave charity to the
poor, and practiced devotional exercises. During one of these retreats,
when Muhammad was forty years of age, during the month of
Ramadan, the angel Jibrıl visited him and brought him the first five
         ˆ                  ˆ
verses of the ninety-sixth chapter of the Qur'an as the first of a series of
revelations from Allah.ˆ
7                                                               Introduction

    For the next two years, Muhammad kept his mission within his
family, receiving support from Khadıjah. He continued to receive
revelations, and he came to understand that they were part of God’s
Scripture and that he had been selected by God as a prophet. When he
made his mission public, calling on his fellow Meccans to turn toward
Allah, only a few joined him. Many others felt threatened by his
message of reforming the ills of society and were hostile to his attacks
on polytheism. Mecca was an important polytheistic religious center,
and the city’s religious practices were tightly connected to its economy.
In the ten years that comprised the first part of his mission, many
staunch followers joined him, but the leaders in Mecca plotted to kill
    In 622 c.e., Muhammad sent a band of his followers from Mecca to
the town of Madınah, where they were welcomed by some of the
prominent members of the tribes of the 'Aws and the Khazraj, the tribes
that were to be known as the ansar (allies). Muhammad, accompanied
                                   ˙               ˙
by his Companion Abu Bakr, made their way to Madınah, pursued by
                         ˆ                               ˆ
hostile Meccans. When they arrived, Muhammad negotiated a treaty
with all the inhabitants of the city, both Jews and polytheistic Arabs,
that put him in the center of resolving all disputes. This so-called
“Constitution of Madınah” gave Muslims and Jews alike a formal
membership in the nascent Muslim community, and would serve as a
model for future relations between Muslims and the ahl al-kitab. In the
next few years, most of the basic elements of Islam were established
publicly. Prayer was instituted, fasting was regulated, and the basic rules
for individual and communal behavior were set forth, both in the
ongoing revelations of the Qur'an and in the words and deeds of the
    From the very beginning of the hijrah, the polytheistic Meccans tried
to stop Muhammad and his new religion. They pursued Muhammad
             ˙                                                     ˙
and Abu Bakr as they left Mecca. They sent military expeditions against
the community in Madınah, and they tried to build a political and
military coalition of the tribes in the Hijaz against the Muslims. The
Muslims fought back, winning a first victory at the battle of Badr, a
draw at the battle of Uhud, and another series of victories that
culminated in a negotiated defeat of the Meccan coalition and the
triumphal entrance of the Muslims into Mecca for a cleansing of the
Ka¤bah of the polytheistic images and the establishment of Muslim
worship. When Muhammad died in 10/632, most of the tribes in Arabia
are reported to have submitted to Islam.
A Concise Encyclopedia of Islam                                          8

    With the death of Muhammad, we are presented with two different
ways of relating Islamic history. Since Muhammad was the last of the
line of God’s prophets, the issue of who was to lead the Muslim
community arose. There were those who had expected that the world
would end before Muhammad’s death and were surprised that it had
not. There were those who expected that the community would be led
by someone chosen from among those that had the “best” genealogy.
Shı¤ı Muslims contend that Muhammad appointed his cousin and son-
in-law, ¤Alı b. Abı Talib, as his successor at Ghadır Khumm and that
            ˆ        ˆ ˆ                              ˆ
¤Alı was to be both a spiritual and political leader of the community.
From ¤Alı and Muhammad’s daughter, Fatimah, a line of Imams carried
          ˆ                                ˆ                  ˆ
                      ˙                      ˙
on the leadership of the Shı¤ı community as members of the ahl al-bayt,
the household of the Prophet, giving them absolute legitimacy in Shı¤ı  ˆˆ
    The Sunnı view of succession differs from the Shı¤ı view. From this
               ˆ                                         ˆˆ
perspective, Muhammad was the last of the prophets and had no
successor to his spiritual mission. As for the political leadership of the
community, they chose Muhammad’s closest advisor and companion,
his father-in-law, Abu Bakr, as the caliph. According to this view, the
Arab Muslims swore allegiance to Abu Bakr in much the same way that
leaders were chosen among some bedouin tribes in the pre-Islamic
period. Abu Bakr ruled for two years, meeting the challenges of those
tribes in Arabia that left the Muslim community with the death of
Muhammad. The military organization that the first caliph constructed
carried Islam outside Arabia, following the explicit intentions of
Muhammad himself. Abu Bakr, in part following the model of the
Prophet, appointed no successor, and another close companion and
father-in-law of Muhammad was chosen, ¤Umar b. al-Khattab, who     ˆ
                          ˙                                     ˙˙
ruled from 13/634 to 24/644. He called himself ' Amır al-Mu' minın, the
                                                        ˆ            ˆ
Commander of the Faithful. He built a rudimentary state bureaucracy
and expanded Islam into Syria–Palestine and Egypt.
    At the death of ¤Umar, a council chose ¤Uthman from the 'Umayyad
clan, the leading clan of the Quraysh, and he is credited with tending to
the religious side of the caliphate. He commissioned a panel to collect all
the different versions of the Qur'an and to make an official recension.
This was meant to replace all other collections, including one made by
¤Alı b. Abı Talib. He then distributed that recension to all the
    ˆ         ˆ ˆ
metropolitan centers with the instructions to eliminate other extant
versions. While he was not successful in making only one version –
Sunnı Islam allows seven canonical readings of the Qur'an – his effort
        ˆ                                                   ˆ
9                                                               Introduction

went a long way in making a standard text and strengthened the claims
of the caliphs to a role in governing the religious life of the community.
He is also noted for appointing many of his family members to positions
of leadership, which produced great resentment in some quarters. As a
result, he was assassinated in 36/656.
    The head of the 'Umayyads, Mu¤awiyah, claimed the right of revenge
for the murder of his relative, and he accused ¤Alı b. Abı Talib, who had
                                                      ˆ        ˆ ˆ
just been sworn in as the new caliph, of complicity in the assassination.
Mu¤awiyah challenged ¤Alı’s right to rule, and the conflict that ensued
      ˆ                      ˆ
spread out of Arabia into Syria and Mesopotamia. ¤Alı took his armies
into southern Iraq, capturing the cities of Basrah and Kufah, defeating
opposition armies at the Battle of the Camel in 36/656. That left only
Syria outside his control, and he launched a campaign against
Mu¤awiyah’s forces. At a crucial point in their fight, Mu¤awiyah’s
      ˆ                                                                ˆ
forces proposed a negotiation and ¤Alı accepted. From the start, they
conducted the negotiations on different terms and with differing
expectations, and the parleys failed to lead to a satisfactory end. Some
of ¤Alı’s forces, frustrated with the lack of satisfactory outcome and
disillusioned with his leadership, seceded and began to attack both ¤Alı’s
troops, who would become known as Shı¤ı, and Mu¤awiyah’s forces, the
                                             ˆˆ             ˆ
'Umayyads. They became known as the Kharijites, and were eventually
hunted down by both sides and reduced in number, but not before
severely weakening the Shı¤ı cause. When ¤Alı was assassinated by a
                              ˆˆ                    ˆ
Kharijite in 41/661, he was succeeded by his son, Hasan, who abdicated,
and Mu¤awiyah became the sole caliph and the first of the 'Umayyad
    In the retrospect of this early conflict over succession, the Sunnıs, ˆ
who became the majority and claimed orthodoxy, called the first four
caliphs – Abu Bakr, ¤Umar, ¤Uthman, and ¤Alı – the “Rightly Guided
              ˆ                       ˆ             ˆ
Caliphs” in an attempt to diffuse the Shı¤ı and Kharijite claims to
                                                ˆˆ             ˆ
legitimacy. Shı¤ı Islam evolved from a political movement into a strong
theological stance about the nature of Islam itself and continued to resist
being absorbed into the Sunnı sphere, even when the two communities
lived side by side. Shı¤is developed a system of laws and religious
practices that are, with minor differences, parallel to the Sunnı rites and
practices. In some periods, both Shı¤is and Sunnıs shared the same
                                         ˆ                ˆ
institutions of higher learning for religious instruction. Even with their
differences, most Muslims come together in rites like the hajj.
    As the different versions of Islamic practice spread first throughout
the Mediterranean world and then beyond, to South Asia, to Africa, and
A Concise Encyclopedia of Islam                                         10

to Southeast Asia, they brought a new model for living grounded both in
the Qur'an and the sunnah of Muhammad. Based on sharı¤ ah, the
          ˆ                                                       ˆ
religion provided behavioral models for every aspect of life from how to
eat and sleep to how to pray. It brought a worldwide network of trade in
commodities and ideas that made the Islamic life attractive wherever it
went. Even in the earliest period, when Muslims were conquering the
ancient empires, Islam’s success at conversion was through attraction
rather than coercion. By the end of the century after Muhammad’s
death, Islam had spread from southern France in the West to the borders
of India in the East. When Islam was a half a millennium old, it was
established in China and Southeast Asia, and now Islam is the fastest-
growing religion in North America.

Divisions and Unities
Islam, like the other major religions of the word, is divided by
geography, language, ethnicity, and beliefs. Within Sunnı Islam, ˆ
Muslims in different areas will often belong to different schools,
madhhabs, of Islamic law. Rules of inheritance, codes of conduct, and
manner of dress will vary slightly from one school to another, but the
differences will be less than the differences between denominations in
Protestant Christianity. Ethnicity and language are markers of difference
among Muslims, but divisions are outweighed by the unities as one
looks across the Muslim world. The annual pilgrimage, the hajj, often
acts as a force to unify Muslims from around the world, as each pilgrim
comes to Mecca dressed in identical pieces of white cloth. All Muslims
share the Pillars of Islam, read the same Qur'an, and pray in the same
language, Arabic, even if they are otherwise unfamiliar with that
language. Divisions like the Sunnı–Shı¤ı split, and the sectarian splits
                                     ˆ   ˆˆ
within each of those major divisions, are made more pronounced when
politics and territorial claims are involved, but over the long history of
the religion have not produced great chasms of difference.

Mysticism and Spirituality
A major strain of spiritual expression in Islam is mysticism, often called
Sufism from the habit of early mystics of wearing woolen robes. As with
mystical traditions in other world religions, Sufism tends to cross all
geographic and doctrinal borders, so that one can be a Sunnı or a Shı¤ı
                                                                ˆ        ˆˆ
and still be a Sufı. In keeping with other aspects of the religion, Islamic
                 ˆ ˆ
mysticism is both personal and communal. Early mystics like al-Hasan
11                                                               Introduction

al-Basrı and al-Hallaj are examples of men whose individual mystic lives
          ˆ            ˆ
        ˙        ˙
had great impact on the history of this spiritual quest. Al-Hasan al-Basrı ˆ
                                                            ˙            ˙
is an example of someone who was both a respected transmitter of
hadıth and a mystic, while al-Hallaj was someone whose mystic journey
     ˆ                              ˆ
˙                               ˙
carried him beyond the bounds of the community in the eyes of some
who misunderstood his esoteric teachings, and earned him a heretic’s
    The most common form of Islamic mystic expression is through the
Sufı orders, tarıqahs, which were prominent from the middle of the
  ˆ ˆ            ˆ
˙             ˙
fourth/tenth century until modern times. Muslims were often deeply
involved in the aspects of the religion dominated by sharı¤ ah, and still
members of a Sufı order. These orders were often centered on shrine-
                   ˆ ˆ
mosques that contained the tombs of the founders of the order, or
special places of mystic worship, called dhikr. They were the community
center, and the shaykh or pır, served the same function as the ¤ alim, and
                             ˆ                                    ˆ
was often the same person; he led the community in worship and
regulated the daily lives of the individuals under his care. In the
Ottoman Empire, the lives of the majority of the non-elite Muslims were
governed in part through the tarıqahs rather than solely through the
sharı¤ ah courts. Nevertheless, in the history of Islamic mysticism, the
mystic impulse has come in large part from the Qur'an and the hadıth
                                                         ˆ              ˆ
and has remained grounded in the precepts found there, even while
taking flights of the mystic journeys.
    Linked to all forms of mysticism and spirituality in Islam are the
practices of asceticism, the use of spiritual guides or masters, and an
aversion to contamination. Asceticism, even though condemned as
“monkhood” in early hadıths, surfaces regularly as part of spiritual
exercises along the mystic path. Even though Islam has been
characterized as a religion of individual responsibility, Muslims often
choose a wise master as a guide along the mystic and spiritual path. Such
a person, often but not necessarily the head of a tarıqah, would lead the
initiate into the exercises, rules, and mores of the mystic community.
This might also include an introduction to the esoteric, batin, mysteries
of Islam.
    An additional mode of expressing spirituality, both within the
mystic tradition and without it is the avoidance of contamination. This
can be both spiritual and physical, but physical purity is a concern
within Islam. Maintaining cleanliness in person, food, and mind is a
recurring theme in Islamic discussions of daily life as well as in mystical
A Concise Encyclopedia of Islam                                         12

    In recent times, particularly in the West, Sufism has become a
popular part of “New-Age” religion. Often this form of Islamic
mysticism is divorced from a complete Islamic life and retains only the
outward trappings of the mystic tradition. In such cases, some regard
this form of mysticism as non-Islamic.

Islam and the Modern World
Most Muslims in countries with large Islamic populations are living in
societies that were former colonies of Western nations. In these
countries, the politics of resistance and liberation became mixed with
a religious ideology of Islam. As in many other cases of religious
opposition to modernism, this form of Islam has been termed
“fundamentalist.” This is the most visible form of Islam in the Western
media today. It is characterized as violent, retrograde, and repressive.
This is, however, a mischaracterization of Islam and Muslims in the
modern world.
    Throughout the history of Islam, Muslims have lived in and dealt
with their “modern” world. In the second/ninth century, when the
Islamic Empire embraced large numbers of Hellenized peoples, Muslim
clerics and theologians debated the role of Greek science in a religious
society. In the thirteenth/eighteenth century, the debate, sparked by
Napoleon’s invasion of the Middle East, included the rights of
individuals. In the late thirteenth/nineteenth and early fourteenth/
twentieth centuries, Muslim intellectuals were occupied by the concepts
of modernity and the coexistence of science and religion.
    A survey of the Internet or a visit to any country where Muslims live
will show that there are Muslims who live fully in the technological age.
They use computers, automobiles, cell-phones, and television, just as
people do elsewhere. But Muslims are also a large part of the developing
world, living as farmers and pastoralists. Their religious practices often
seem more old-fashioned or traditional, and there are those who
romanticize that version of Islam as more authentic. The person on the
cell-phone may be a traditionalist, and the shepherd may be avant-garde
in his religious thinking. And, as is the case with other religious groups,
any Muslim may have a greater or lesser engagement with the tradition
and its practices at various times during life.

Aaron                                       of all the early groups. Modern attempts
See Harun.
     ˆ ˆ                                    to revive the caliphate have often looked
                                            to reviving the legitimacy of the ¤Abba-ˆ
                                            sid dynasty. (See also Khilafat Move-
¤aba 'ah
   ˆ                                        ment.)
An outer wrap or cloak, sometimes
striped.                                    ¤abd (Arabic: servant, slave)
                                            This is used frequently in compound
¤Abba sids
    ˆ                                       names, where the second element is a
                                            name or epithet of God, such as ¤Abd
The Sunnı dynasty that ruled from 133/
                                            Allah (also written as ¤Abdullah), Ser-
                                                ˆ                            ˆ
750 to 657/1258, succeeding the
                                            vant of God, ¤Abd ar-Rahman, Servant
'Umayyad dynasty. The hereditary                                       ˙
                                            of the Merciful, etc. Muslims consider
caliphs of this dynasty claimed legiti-
                                            being a “slave” of God to be a high
macy through descent from al-¤Abbas,   ˆ
                                            honor and the highest form of piety.
the uncle of Muhammad, making them
                  ˙                         While Islamic religious texts do not
part of the family of the Prophet (ahl
                                            condemn slavery, it is not fully con-
al-bayt). The city of Baghdad was ˆ
                                            doned as an institution either. A slave
built as their capital. Under their rule,
                                            who is a Muslim should be manumitted,
and often as a direct result of their
                                            even if he converts while a slave, and the
patronage, the earliest major works of
                                            hadıth contains numerous statements
Islamic law (sharı ¤ah), Qur'an com-
                     ˆ          ˆ            ˙
                                            that recommend freeing slaves or ame-
mentary, (tafsır), and history (ta' rıkh)
                ˆ                    ˆ
                                            liorating their lives through good treat-
were written. Under the patronage of
¤Abbasid rulers and their courts, all of
the intellectual and artistic fields of
Islamic civilization developed and flour-         ˆs
ished. Because most histories of early      See Durranıs.
                                                    ˆ ˆ
Islam were written under their control
and for their aggrandizement, negative      ¤Abd Alla h b. al-¤Abba s
                                                    ˆ             ˆ
views of the 'Umayyads and the Shı¤ı   ˆˆ
                                            See Ibn ¤Abbas.
were often a part of their polemical
picture of early Islam. Such views have
often been incorporated into Western        ¤Abd al-¤Azı Sha h (1746–1824)
                                                       ˆz, ˆ
scholarship about Islam to the detriment    A prominent Indian Sufı religious refor-
                                                                 ˆ ˆ
of a more balanced view of the character                       ˙
                                            mer and Sunnı polemicist against Shı¤ı
                                                          ˆ                       ˆˆ
Abdel Rahman, Omar                                                                14

beliefs and practices, his Tuhfah-i isnaˆ   interpretations of Qur'anic words and
¤ashariyyah should be singled ˙out among    verses.
his writings for lasting impact, influen-
cing religious discussions in Pakistan.     ¤Abd ar-Ra ziq, ¤Alı (1888–1966)
                                                     ˆ         ˆ
                                            Egyptian intellectual whose al-Islam wa-
Abdel Rahman, Omar (born                    ' usul al-hukm (Islam and the bases of
1938)                                       political ˙authority), published in 1925,
Egyptian fundamentalist and spiritual       argued against the notion that Islam is a
leader of al-Jama¤at al-Islamiyyah, he
                ˆ          ˆ                political as well as spiritual system and
was convicted of heading the plot to        is still the subject of debate today.
bomb the World Trade Center in New
York City in 1993, and is serving a life    ¤Abduh, Muh ammad (1849–
sentence in a maximum security prison.      1905)     ˙
                                            Egyptian theologian, reformer, and
¤Abd al-Mut t alib b. H a shim
                            ˆ               architect of Islamic modernism, his aim
             ˙˙           ˙
The Prophet Muhammad’s grandfather,         was to restore Islam to its original
who became his guardian after the death     condition through the elimination of
of his father, ¤Abdullah. He is featured
                        ˆ                   taqlıd (adherence to tradition). He
prominently in the pre-Islamic history of   considered revelation and reason to be
the Ka¤bah and the well of Zamzam,          compatible and thought that sound
the water of which was his right to         reasoning would lead to a belief in
distribute to pilgrims bound for Mecca.     God. For him, science and religion were
In the Year of the Elephant, the year of    compatible, and he asserted that one
the Prophet’s birth, he is said to have     could find the basis for nuclear physics
been involved in repelling the attack of    in the Qur'an. His most popular work,
the forces of the Ethiopian general         The Theology of Unity, has influenced
Abraha, who attacked Mecca.                 many subsequent modernists, such as
                                            Rashıd Rida.
                                                  ˆ        ˆ
¤Abd al-Qa dir b. ¤Alı b. Yu suf
           ˆ          ˆ      ˆ
    ˆ ˆ
al-Fa sı (1007/1598–1091/1680)              ¤Abdulla h b. ¤Abd al-Mut t alib
                                            (died c. 570)           ˙˙
He was the chief member of the Sufı   ˆ ˆ
establishment in Morocco in the ˙ ele-      Father of the Prophet Muhammad by
venth/seventeenth century. He is primar-                              ˙
                                            Aminah bt. Wahb, he was of the
ily noted as the progenitor of a line of    Ha shimite clan, and died before
religious scholars and aristocrats in the   Muhammad’s birth. According to the
city of Fas.
         ˆ                                   ˆ ˙
                                            sırah, he possessed the light (nur),
                                            which he implanted in Aminah, from
              ˆ    ˆ
¤Abd al-Rah ma n, ¤A 'ishah                 which came the Prophet.
(born 1913) ˙
Prominent Egyptian author who wrote         Abdurrahman Wahid (born
under the name Bint al-Shati¤. Her al-
                              ˆ             1940)
Tafsır al-bayanı lil-Qur' an al-Karım
    ˆ         ˆ ˆ           ˆ         ˆ     Known as Gus Dur, he is a prominent
argues for including the study of           Indonesian modernist, reformist, and
Qur'an in literary studies. Her writings
      ˆ                                     theologian, leader of the Nahdatul
about women and Arabic literature can       Ulama, an association of traditionalist
be regarded as religiously conservative.    religious leaders. He became the pre-
She has argued against historical influ-     sident of Indonesia in 1420/1999 in the
ence on the Qur'an and against multiple
                 ˆ                          aftermath of scandals that had rocked
15                                                                            ˆ
                                                                            Abu Bakr

the country, but became caught up in          abor tion
scandals of his own, and, as this is being    Abortion, when understood as the inten-
written, is about to be impeached by the      tional expulsion of the fetus to terminate
legislature.                                  a pregnancy prior to full gestation, is
                                              regarded by most Muslim jurists as
ABIM                                          contrary to Islamic law (sharı ¤ah) and,
Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia, a              therefore, blameworthy. Following the
Malaysian Islamic youth movement              principles of the sanctity of human life,
founded by Anwar Ibrahim. The orga-           abortion may not be used to terminate
nization has widespread influence in           an unwanted or unplanned pregnancy.
Malaysian society.                            Some schools of law, such as the Hanafı  ˆ
                                              school (madhhab), allow therapeutic ˙
                                              abortion prior to the 120th day of the
                                              pregnancy, the day of Ensoulment, but
Ritual cleansing to remove impurities,        only for valid concerns for the health of
ablutions are of two sorts, major, ghusl,     the mother. After ensoulment, the fetus
and minor, wudu'. Ghusl, the complete
                   ˆ                          is regarded as having legal rights that
washing of the˙ body, is required after       can compete with the rights of the
sexual intercourse, masturbation and          mother.
involuntary sexual emissions before a
worshiper can perform a valid prayer,
recite verses from the Qur'an or touch a
copy of it. In order for the ghusl to be      An Abyssinian general who ruled Yemen
valid, the worshiper must recite the          and, according to legend, tried to
declaration of intent (niyyah). Wudu' ,   ˆ   capture Mecca in the year of Muham-
the washing of the head, face, hands ˙
                                              mad’s birth. His use of a war elephant
forearms to the elbows, and the washing       and his defeat are referred to in Q. 105,
of the feet three times, is required before   known as the “chapter of the elephant.”
prayer. Wudu' is normally performed
               ˆ                              (See also fıl.)
with ritually pure water, but, under
some circumstances, sand or dust may          abrogation (Arabic naskh)
be used accompanying the washing
                                              The doctrine, based on Q. 2:106; 13:39;
gestures. This is known as tayammum.
                                              16:101; 17:86; 87:6–7, that God
Sunnı and Shı¤ı differ about some
        ˆ         ˆˆ
                                              rescinded some previous revelation to
aspects of this practice, Shı¤ı insisting
                                              the Prophet. Later jurists applied the
that the feet be washed, while some
                                              doctrine to argue that the Qur'an    ˆ
Sunnı allow the shoes to be rubbed if the
                                              superseded Jewish and Christian scrip-
feet have been placed in clean shoes at
                                              ture. Jurists also used the doctrine to
the place of wudu' . Mosques generally
                  ˙                           harmonize apparent contradictions in
provide facilities for wudu' , and the
                              ˙               the Qur'anic text. (See also Nasikh wa
                                                       ˆ                    ˆ
traditional bathhouse, the hammam,      ˆ
was a place for ghusl. As a result of this
religious requirement, when Muslims
expanded into what had been the                 ˆ
                                              Abu Bakr (573–13/634)
ancient Roman world, they incorpo-            Close Companion of Muh ammad,
rated Roman waterworks and improved                                          ˆ
                                              father of Muhammad’s wife ˙¤A'ishah,
on them. In the Middle Ages, Islamic                        ˙
                                              and first caliph of Islam, he accompa-
cities were among the cleanest in the         nied Muhammad on the hijrah. When
world, and Muslims were leaders in this                ˙
                                              he assumed the caliphate, the nature of
branch of civil engineering.                  the office had not been defined, and Abuˆ
Abu Da'ud, Sulayman
  ˆ ˆˆ           ˆ                                                                  16

Bakr decided to follow the “example” of      him. He claimed to have been influenced
Muhammad. One of his first acts was to        by at-Tabarı and az-Zamakhsharı.
                                                         ˆ                     ˆ
    ˙                                            ˙ ˙
send Muslim forces north into Byzantine
territory, thus starting the expansion of        ˆ
                                             Abu H anı  ˆfah (81/700–150/767)
Islam out of Arabia. Attacks by Arab               ˙
                                             Founder of the Hanafı school of Sunnı
                                                                    ˆ                ˆ
tribes, challenging the new caliph and                       ˙
                                             law, which is characterized by the use of
fledgling Muslim state, forced him to
                                             ra'y (individual legal opinion). Little is
change the job from part-time adminis-
                                             known about his life. He lived in Kufah
trator to full-time general and leader of
                                             as a cloth merchant, and collected a
a growing community. In the two years
                                             great number of traditions, which he
that he ruled, he set a pattern of strong,
                                             passed on to his students. He never held
pious governance.
                                             any official post or worked as a judge,
                                             (qadı ).
                                                ˆ ˆ
Abu Da 'u d, Sulayma n b. al-
  ˆ ˆ ˆ              ˆ                           ˙
Ash¤ath (202/817–275/889)                        ˆ ˆ               ˆ ˆ,
                                             Abu H a tim ar-Ra zı Ah mad b.
One of the six highly ranked compilers              ˙ˆ
                                             H amda n (died c. 322/934)  ˙
of hadıth in the Sunnı tradition. He          ˙
        ˆ                ˆ                   An early Isma¤ılı da¤ı, who operated in
                                                          ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
wrote most of his major works in the         the region of Rayy (Tehran) and Day-
city of Basrah, but is said to have          lam. His best-known work is a diction-
traveled widely to collect the materials     ary of theological terms.
for his major work, the Kitab as-sunan.
He is credited with being the first to give
                                                ˆ                  ˆ
                                             Abu al-Hudhayl al-¤Alla f (c.
detailed notes about his estimation of
the soundness or weakness of traditions,
providing a basis for later hadıth criti-
                                 ˆ           Mu¤tazilite theologian who helped
cism. While he does not rank as high as      develop kalam. His theology served to
al-Bukharı and Muslim, his collection
          ˆ ˆ                                counter the foreign influences of his
contains a number of citations not           time, such as dualism, Greek philoso-
contained in the works of those two.         phy, and the anthropomorphists within
                                             the Muslim traditionalists. (See also
   ˆ             ˆ ˆ
Abu Dharr al-Ghifa rı (born 32/
                                             Abu Hurayrah (600–58/678)
An early Companion of Muhammad
who advocated, during the reign of the       A close Companion of the Prophet from
caliph ¤Uthman, that more wealth be
               ˆ                             the battle of Khaybar (7/629), he was
given to the poor. Some accounts of his      reputed to have a phenomenal memory,
life say that he was the fifth person to      transmitting over 3,000 Prophetic tradi-
believe in Muhammad. He is held as a         tions. He is known as Abu Hurayrah
model of proper Islamic social justice by    because when he worked as a goatherd
some modern Islamic socialists. (See also    he kept a small kitten to play with.
sahabah.)                                    Biographies attribute a number of uncer-
˙ ˙                                          tain names to him, including ¤Abd Allah
                                             and ¤Abd ar-Rahman, names he took
   ˆ      ˆ       ˆ ˆ
Abu al-Futu h ar-Ra zı (died c.                               ˙
                                             when he converted to Islam. He was
525/1131)   ˙
                                             suspected by his contemporaries of
The author of one of the earliest Shı¤ı
                                    ˆˆ       fabrication, and modern scholarship
commentaries on the Qur'an. He wrote
                         ˆ                   assumes that some of the traditions were
in Persian because Arabic was little         ascribed to him at a later time, but
understood by the majority around            Western scholarship has probably been
17                                                                                 ˆ

too harsh in attributing to him the         Meccans. According to tradition he died
fabrication of those hadıths that are
                            ˆ               three years before the hijrah, uncon-
not genuine. (See also sahabah.)
                             ˆ              verted to Islam. Later Muslims have
                        ˙ ˙                 speculated about his fate, since he died
Abu Lahab, ¤Abd al-¤Uzza b.
    ˆ                         ˆ             before the establishment of Islam but
¤Abd al-Mut t alib                          had aided Muhammad and the Muslims
               ˙˙                                         ˙
                                            so importantly.
An uncle and violent opponent of
Muhammad, mentioned in Q. 111 as
condemned to Hell along with his wife       Abu ¤Ubaydah (died 18/639)
for their opposition.                       One of ten believers promised Paradise
                                            by Muhammad, he was a distinguished
Abu al-Layth as-Samarqandı ˆ,               warrior˙ for Islam and was active in the
Nas r b. Muh ammad b.                       formation of the early Islamic state.
   ˙       ˙
   ˆ ˆm (died c. 393/1002)
Ibra hı
A Hanafı theologian and jurist, his
           ˆ                                Abyssinia
works have become popular throughout        Known in Arabic as Habash, Abyssinia,
the Islamic world, particularly in South-   now called Ethiopia, ˙ played an impor-
east Asia. He wrote a tafsır, and several
                           ˆ                tant part in the early development of
other works, including a theological        Islam. It was to there that Muhammad
tract in question-and-answer form, titled   sent the first hijrah, a small ˙band of
¤ Aqıdah, which has been printed in
    ˆ                                       Muslims who were, according to tradi-
Malaysia and Indonesia with interlinear     tion, well received in the court of the
translations.                               Christian ruler, who is said to have
                                            remarked on the similarity between
  ˆ     ˆ
Abu al-Qa sim                               Christianity and Islam. In the pre-
                                            Islamic period, there were active trade
One of the nicknames of the Prophet.
                                            relations between Abyssinia and
(See also Muhammad.)
            ˙                               Mecca, and it was from there that
                                            Abraha came. Islam penetrated only
  ˆ     ˆ
Abu Sufya n (563–31/651)                    slowly into the interior of Ethiopia, but
The aristocratic general of the Mecca-      the development of an active slave-trade
based opposition to Muhammad at the         helped promote conversion to Islam
battles of Badr and Uhud. At the battle     along the coast. In modern times,
of Khandaq (the battle  ˙ of the Trench)    although Muslims comprise a large
he withdrew his troops, realizing the       minority of the population, the country
futility of the cause. He later accompa-    is so thoroughly identified as Christian
nied Muhammad on one of his cam-            that Islam has little influence on the
paigns. He became one of Muhammad’s         social and political fabric of the country.
fathers-in-law when the Prophet married
one of his daughters, 'Umm Habıbah.
                                  ˆ          ˆ
                                            ¤A d
                                            The people of the prophet Hud men-
Abu Ta lib' ¤Abd Mana f b. ¤Abd
    ˆ ˆ                   ˆ                 tioned frequently in the Qur'an (Q.ˆ
al-Mut t alib
        ˙˙                                  7:65ff., 11:50ff., 26:123ff., et passim.)
Uncle of Muhammad and father of             Their failure to heed Hud’s warnings
¤Alı. He provided support for Muham-
   ˆ                                        resulted in their destruction. The people
mad after the death of his grandfather,           ˆ
                                            of ¤A d, along with the people of
¤Abd al-Mut t alib, and protected           Thamud are mentioned in the Qur'an
                                                    ˆ                              ˆ
Muhammad from attack by the pagan           in the ranks of those destroyed by God
adab                                                                                   18

for disobeying Him, as exemplars of bad       forbidden by the sharı¤ ah is permissible.
behavior.                                     (See also ¤urf.)

adab (Arabic: knowledge, politeness,          ad h aˆ
and education)                                  ˙˙
                                              See ¤Id al-Adha.
                                                   ˆ         ˆ
This term parallels the Arabic word                       ˙˙
¤ilm, meaning “knowledge of the non-             ˆ
                                              adha n
religious sciences.” Knowledge of the
two combine to form a complete Mus-           The call or announcement to prayer
lim.                                          preceding each of the five canonical
                                              prayers. In a mosque, it is made by a
                                              muezzin (Arabic mu 'adhdhin ), but
Adam                                          each Muslim can also pronounce the
The first human created by God, and            call. Sunnı and Shı¤ı practices vary
                                                          ˆ         ˆˆ
known as Abu Bashar, the Father of
                ˆ                             slightly in their wording, and the tunes
Humans, he was created out of clay and        vary slightly from place to place in the
allowed to dry, after which God               Islamic world. The first person to be
breathed into him His spirit. He is said      appointed by Muhammad to call the
in the Qur'an to be God’s viceroy, and
             ˆ                                                    ˙
                                              Muslims to prayer was Bilal, whose
to have been taught all the names of          stentorian voice could be heard through-
things in the universe, which set him         out Madınah. The Sunnı call consists of
                                                        ˆ              ˆ
above the angels. All the angels pro-         seven elements:
strated themselves before Adam except
                                                     ˆ        ˆ
                                              1. Allahu akbar: Allah is most great.
the rebellious Iblıs. The figure of Adam
                                              2. Ashhadu ' an la ilaha illa-llah: I testify
                                                                 ˆ ˆ           ˆ
is prominent in many extra-Qur'anic    ˆ
                                                 that there is no deity but Allah.
legends and stories. According to one
                                              3. Ashhadu ' anna Muhammadan rasu-         ˆ
of these, he built the foundations of the                                 ˙
                                                 lullah: I testify that Muhammad is
Ka¤bah and performed the first worship                                         ˙
                                                 the prophet of God.
there. In another story, an eagle and a
                                              4. Hayya ¤ ala s-salat: Come to prayer.
                                                            ˆ       ˆ
fish discussed their sighting of the first         ˙            ˙ ˙ ˆ
                                              5. Hayya ¤ ala l-falah: Come to salvation.
human and remarked that, because of his                             ˙
                                                 ˙ ˆ hu akbar: Allah is most great.
                                              6. Alla                 ˆ
upright walk and his hands, they would
                                                   ˆ ˆ            ˆ
                                              7. La ilaha illa-llah: There is no deity
not be left alone in the depths of the sea
                                                 but Allah.
or the heights of the air. He is held to be
the first prophet. (See also nabı.)
                                 ˆ            These elements are repeated a varying
                                              number of times in each call, depending
adat or adat law                              on the region and the school of Islamic
                                              law. In many mosques, electronic
Customary law in Southeast Asian              recordings on timers have replaced the
Islamic communities regarded as harmo-        human call. Shı¤ıs will add Ashhadu
nious with Islamic law and holding a          ' anna ¤ Aliyyan walıyyu-llah (I testify
                                                                   ˆˆ    ˆ
status close to natural law. Adat law, or     that ¤Alı is protected by God), between
its equivalent, has developed alongside       3 and 4 above, and Hayya ¤ ala khayri-l-
sharı ¤ah and complementary to it to
       ˆ                                      ¤ amal (Come to the ˙best deed) between
provide regulation of those areas that        5 and 6 above.
sharı¤ah does not cover. There has been
much discussion among legal scholars
about the role and legitimacy of adat         adoption
law, but most allow its function on the       Adoption has no standing in sharı ¤ah in
principle that what is not expressly          spite of Muhammad’s adoption of Zayd
19                                                                            ˆ   ˆ
                                                                           Agha Khan

b. Harithah. The adopted child retains
      ˆ                                      languages are Pashtu and Persian
both the biological family name and          (Darı), and a minority of the population
                                                  ˆ ˆ
inheritance status. Muslims have             speaks Uzbek, Turkmen, Balochi, and
resorted to using such devices as the        Pashi. Bilingualism is common. Its
waqf to provide inheritance out-             diverse inhabitants are predominantly
side the sharı¤ ah’s strictures.
             ˆ                               Sunnı, with about fifteen percent Shı¤ı.
                                                      ˆ                            ˆˆ
                                             Having achieved independence from the
                                             Soviet occupation in 1409/1989, until
          ˆ ˆ, ˆ       ˆn
al-Afgha nı Jama l al-Dı
                                             recently it was under the rule of the
                                             Taliban, an Islamist group whose aim is
                                                ˆ      ˆ
Islamic modernist, pan-Islamist, and          ˙
                                             to rule Afghanistan according to their
anti-imperialist, who influenced              strict interpretation of the sharı ¤ah.
Muhammad ¤Abduh and Rashıd Rida
                             ˆ      ˆ        The estimated population in 2000 was
    ˙                             ˙
among others. His diverse ideas have         24.8 million.
become popular with many different
modernist groups.                            Afsharids
                                             The dynasty that ruled Iran from 1736
Afghanistan                                  to 1796 and was named after its
Situated in Central Asia, and historically   founder, Nadir Shah Afshar.
                                                       ˆ      ˆ       ˆ
part of Persia, or Greater Iran, this
Muslim country has been a buffer in          afterlife
the post-World War II period between         The Qur'an is filled with passages that
Pakistan, Iran, and a number of former       indicate that all souls will have an
Soviet Islamic republics. The official        afterlife, either in Heaven or in Hell,
                                             depending on each person’s faith and
                                             actions in this life, and that every soul
                                             will be judged at the Day of Judgment
                                             (yawm ad-dın). Muslims differ about
                                             whether torment or reward starts imme-
                                             diately or is deferred until the Day of
                                             Judgment and whether believers will
                                             actually behold the face of God in
                                             Paradise. (See also jahannam; al-
                                             Jannah; Munkar wa-Nakır)     ˆ

                                                ˆ   ˆ
                                             Agha Kha n
                                             Title of the Imam of the Nizarı Isma¤ılı
                                                                ˆ           ˆ ˆ     ˆ ˆ ˆ
                                             leader since the nineteenth century. The
                                             current Imam, Prince Karim al-Husayni,
                                             Agha Khan IV, is held to be the forty-
                                                   ˆ    ˆ
                                             ninth hereditary Imam directly des-
                                             cended from ¤Alı and Muhammad’s
                                             daughter, Fatimah. In addition to his
                                             role as a spiritual and intellectual leader
                                             of the community, the current Agha          ˆ
                                             Khan has founded the Agha Khan
                                                 ˆ                              ˆ      ˆ
  Shrine complex of Ali, Mazar-i Sharif,     Foundation, a recognized leader in
              Afghanistan.                   international development.
¤ahd                                                                                20

¤ahd (Arabic: command, covenant)              and that it was for the family that the
This term is used in the Qur'an to mean,
                             ˆ                world was created.
among other things, God’s covenant
with humans and the commands in that          ahl al-dhimmah
covenant. It also means a religious           See dhimmı.
pledge or vow, such as to fast under
certain circumstances. By extension, it       ahl al-h adı  ˆth (Arabic: supporters
has also come to mean a political or civil              ˙
                                              of tradition)
agreement or contract, which is often
pledged with religious reference or           The term generally refers to those in the
sanctions.                                    second Islamic century who advocated
                                              the centrality of hadı th from the
                                              Prophet in the formation of the Islamic
ahl al-ahwa ' (Arabic: people of
             ˆ                                state. While there was considerable
inclination)                                  debate about how to apply the hadıth, ˆ
                                              and which were valid, the traditionists
Derived from a term in the Qur'an     ˆ
meaning “predilection,” it is applied in      also came to mean those who, in sub-
the Sunnı tradition to people who
           ˆ                                  sequent centuries, stood in opposition to
deviate from the accepted general norm        making speculative theology, kalam,  ˆ
of beliefs and practices, without, how-       central to religious understanding.
ever, becoming heretics or apostates.
                                              ahl-i h adı ˆth (Persian/Urdu from
ahl al-bayt (Arabic: people of the            Arabic: ˙people of tradition)
house)                                        Those members of a sect of Muslims in
                                              India and Pakistan who claim to follow
This term occurs twice in the Qur'an    ˆ
                                              only the traditions of the Prophet. They
(Q. 11:73, 33:33). In Q. 11:73 it refers
                                              reject the necessity to follow any school
to the “house” or family of the prophet
                                              (madhhab) of Islamic law or any other
Ibrahım, while in Q. 33:33 it has a
    ˆ ˆ
                                              form of taqlıd. They attempt to identify
more general sense. In its pre-Islamic
                                              and eliminate any innovative practice
usage, the term was applied to the ruling
                                              (bid¤ah) from any source. As a result,
family of a clan or tribe, and thus it
                                              their opponents call them Wahhabı,    ˆ ˆ
implies a certain nobility and right to
                                              after the movement in Arabia, but they
rule. In post-Qur'anic usage, particu-
                                              deny this, since they hold that even the
larly among the Shı¤ı, it has come to
                                              Wahhabı are practitioners of taqlıd,
                                                     ˆ ˆ                             ˆ
mean the people or family of the house-
                                              since they accept the legal pronounce-
hold of the Prophet, in particular
                                              ments of Ahmad b. Hanbal. The move-
Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law,                         ˙         ˙
                                              ment, which originated in the nineteenth
¤Alı˙ b. Abı Talib, his wife, the Prophet’s
    ˆ      ˆ ˆ
             ˙                                century, has an active training network,
daughter, Fatimah, their sons Hasan
                                              with its own schools and publications,
b. ¤Alı and Husayn b. ¤Alı and ˙ their
                ˙ ˆ                           the most prominent of which is Ahl al-
descendants (Imams), revered especially
                                              hadıth, a weekly publication.
by the Ithna ¤Ashariyyah Shı¤ı. One of
             ˆ                   ˆˆ           ˙
the main differences between Shı¤ı and
Sunnı beliefs is the strong reverence
      ˆ                                       ahl al-h all wa-al-¤aqd (Arabic:
held among the Shı¤ıs for the family of
                     ˆˆ                       people of˙influence)
the Prophet. In popular belief, this is       The person or persons qualified to elect
sometimes raised to a cosmological            a caliph (khalıfah) in Islamic political
level, with the belief that the family of     theory. The number varies from one
the Prophet holds the world together,         person, usually a caliph designating a
21                                                                             Ahmad

successor, to a body of persons repre-       readings, refusing to speak and only
senting all Muslims and acting as a          communicating by signs, renouncing
shura, which body would have power
   ˆ ˆ                                       sexual relations, and making journeys
over any ruler.                              to the tombs of famous holy persons,
                                             mainly in Iraq. He is said to have
ahl-i h aqq (Persian: people of truth)       induced a famous woman, Fatimah bt.
        ˙                                    Barrı, to propose marriage to ˙him, but
An esoteric syncretistic offshoot of Islam
                                             then rejected her offer. This story has
based on additional chapters of the
                                             produced a popular Arabic romance.
Qur'an, they are found primarily in
                                             After a vision, he journeyed to Tanta, in
Iran. They are a secret group, whose                                          ˙
                                             Egypt, and stood on the roof ˙of a
writings are difficult for the uninitiated
                                             private house gazing at the sun until
to understand because of their use of
                                             his eyes turned red, all the while fasting
secret and technical terms. They believe
                                             for forty days. He is credited with a
in successive ages in which the Divine is
                                             miraculous cure of a boy with diseased
made manifest and in metempsychosis
                                             eyes. After his death, a mosque was
and a series of reincarnations of humans
                                             built over his grave, which has become
in which the actions of previous incar-
                                             the site of veneration and of miracles.
nations are rewarded or punished. They
                                             He appears to have become the patron
are led by pırs and worship in assem-
                                             saint of prisoners and the finder of lost
blies that often involve animal sacrifice.

ahl al-kita b (Arabic: people of the
                                             Ahmad Barelwi, Sayyid
                                             See Barelwı, Sayyid Ahmad.
A concept that originated in the                                  ˙
Qur'an, these people were originally
Jews and Christians who had received         Ah mad b. H anbal (164/780–241/
                                             855)      ˙
revelations from God. The term was
extended to others as Islam spread into      Muhaddith, theologian, and founder
India and China. Membership in the                  ˙
                                             of the Hanbalı madhhab, he was
group entitled a person to preferred                   ˙
                                             persecuted by the ¤Abbasids during
status in Islamic law as dhimmı.
                               ˆ             their inquisition (mihnah) because he
                                             refused to say that ˙ the Qur'an was
ahl al-s uffa (Arabic: people of the         created. This persecution, involving
row)   ˙                                     beatings and imprisonment, earned him
                                             great status among the opponents of the
The name of a group of poor and pious
                                             mihnah and of the beliefs of the Mu¤ta-
Muslims who made the hijrah with                ˙
                                             zilah. His most famous work, the
Muhammad and were wards of the
    ˙                                        Musnad, was only partly completed by
community. Much legendary material
                                             him and was finished by his son, ¤Abd
surrounds the history of this group,
                                             Allah. It is organized by the name of the
whose numbers range from slightly
                                             first member in the isnad and not by
above thirty to over a hundred.
                                             subject, as with the other major collec-
                                             tions. The collection reflects his intellec-
Ah mad al-Badawı (c. 596/1200–               tual strength as more than a mere
675/1276)                                    collector of tradition, and the madhhab
The most popular of the saints (walıs),
                                     ˆ       that follows him is based on his subtlety
in Egypt. At the age of thirty, he           of thought and his reliance on hadıth  ˆ
underwent a mystic transformation that       rather than personal judgment ˙ (ra'y).
involved reading the Qur'an in its seven
                         ˆ                   His school has the reputation of being
Ahmadiyah                                                                           22

stringent among the four Sunnı schools
                             ˆ               the Indian Mutiny of 1857, he decided
of Islamic law. Through Ibn Tay-             to work toward the betterment of Indian
miyyah, Ibn Hanbal has influenced the         Muslims and in conjunction with the
Wahhabı movement and the Sala-
       ˆ ˆ                                   British government. After visiting Eng-
fiyyah.                                       land, he started a journal, Tahdhıb al-
                                             akhlaq, with the aim of removing pre-
Ahmadiyah, or Ah madiyyah                    judice and ignorance among his fellow
                         ˙                   Muslims. He drew inspiration from
A proselytizing messianic reform move-
                                             Shah Walı Allah, and founded the
                                                 ˆ       ˆ      ˆ
ment in Islam, started in India and based
                                             Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College,
on the teachings of Mirza Ghulam ˆ     ˆ
                                             later Aligarh Muslim University. He saw
Ahmad (d. 1908), who regarded himself
                                             the essential harmony between science
as˙ the Mahdı and appointed by God to
                                             and religion, contending that “the work
reform and restore Islam. He also
                                             of God (nature) was identical with the
claimed to be an avatar of the Hindu
                                             word of God (the Qur'an). He was
deity Krishna and the incarnation of
                                             attacked as a necarı, a naturist, by his
                                                               ˘ ˆ
Jesus. When he died, his followers
                                             opponents for demythologizing the
elected a successor (khalıfah), and began
                                             Qur'an, but this opposition was over-
to operate as an independent religious
                                             come by his vision of a strengthened
group. The group split into two, with
                                             Islamic community in the subcontinent.
the more modernist one moving to
                                             Some see him as a spiritual forerunner of
Lahore. The Ahmadiyah Movement in
                                             the idea of Pakistan. He was knighted
Islam has congregations around the
                                             by the British, thus earning the honorific
world and its members contribute
                                             “Sir” as well as “sayyid.”
monthly sums to the central organiza-
tion. It is strongly committed to mis-
sionary work, (da¤wah), and publishes        Ahmad Sirhindi
editions of the Qur'an and numerous
                       ˆ                     See Sirhindı, Ahmad.
religious tracts. They believe that their                   ˙
reformed version of Islam represents the      ˆ
                                             ¤A 'ishah (614–58/678)
true religion, and they include the
                                             The daughter of Abu Bakr, she was the
mention of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in
                   ˆ       ˆ
                                   ˙         Prophet’s third and favorite wife, whom
their creed. In 1984, the government of
                                             he married after the death of Khadıjah,
Pakistan declared the movement to be
                                             his first wife. Extensive biographical
un-Islamic for its claim that there were
                                             traditions describe her as playful, witty,
non-legislative prophets after Muham-
                                     ˙       intelligent, well educated, and, in later
mad, and the worldwide movement
                                             life, a potent political force. She was
moved to London. The term is also used
                                             betrothed to Muhammad when she was
as the name of a major Sufı order in
                               ˆ ˆ                              ˙
                             ˙               still a child, and it is said that she
Egypt, also known as the Badawiyya.
                                             brought her dolls with her when she
                                             went to live with him. Her playfulness
Ah mad Kha n, Sir Sayyid                     clearly attracted the Prophet, who is said
(1817–98)                                    to have enjoyed playing games and
An Indian Islamic modernist who pro-         running races with her. A well-known
moted modern education, ecumenism,           incident occurred that threatened her
and social reform. He came from a            marriage while she was on a raid with
noble but impoverished Islamic family        Muhammad. She left her camel-litter
and, through hard work, became a judge            ˙
                                             (Arabic, hawdah) shortly before the
at the court of justice in Delhi under the              ˙
                                             troop broke camp, dropped a necklace,
rule of the East India Company. After        and spent some time looking for it.
23                                                                                ˆ

Assuming that she was still asleep, the      decades in seclusion from the politics
warriors loaded the litter on the camel      of the Islamic state. She eventually
and went off, leaving her in the desert.     became reconciled with ¤Alı, and her
She was discovered by an attractive          opinion was sought about every major
young man, who escorted her back to          event in the life of the community. She is
Madınah, where gossip implied that
        ˆ                                    regarded as an important transmitter of
there had been an improper relationship.     traditions about Muhammad and to
                                             have possessed a codex of the Qur'an.
A number of Muhammad’s close advi-                                                 ˆ
sors suggested that he return her to her
father’s house. Among those who advo-        ajal (Arabic: fixed term)
cated her return was ¤Alı b. Abı Talib,
                           ˆ     ˆ ˆ
thus provoking a lasting enmity between      The word refers to the fixed term of a
the two. Her playful spirit is probably      person’s life, which is held in the
best illustrated by the story of the joke    Qur'an to be neither prolonged nor
she played on Muhammad. Honey was            shortened except as it is written in the
one of the Prophet’s favorite foods, and     book of God’s decrees. The notion of a
his wives liked to treat him with it. One    fixed term to life has been the subject of
day, when he was returning from one of       much discussion and speculation, some
his wives, ¤A'ishah pretended that he        holding that if a person dies, whether
had bad breath. He was almost on the         young or old, it is a decree from God,
point of renouncing honey when she           and if that person had not died in the
told him that it was a joke. In her later    manner he did, then he would have died
years, she assumed the role of leading       in some other manner. In modern times,
matriarch of the community and a             this same argument is used to counter
source of information about the Pro-         those who argue that one should not try
phet. Particularly among the Sunnı, she
                                      ˆ      to use modern medical means to save a
was known as the “Mother of the              person’s life. It is argued that it is by
Believers,” the ' Umm al-Mu' minın. As
                                    ˆ        God’s will that life-prolonging means
with the other wives of the Prophet, she     are available to humans.
was forbidden to remarry after Muham-
mad’s death, and was left a childless  ˙     akdariyyah
widow. Her political activity surround-      The name of a well-known difficult law
ing the caliph ¤Uthman is the subject of
                       ˆ                     case of inheritance involving a woman
some controversy. She opposed his rule,      who dies leaving a husband, her mother,
but also opposed his assassination. At a     her grandfather, and her full sister.
critical juncture, she joined a hajj to      Different schools of law interpret this
Mecca and abandoned her leadership in        in different manners: only the Hanafı   ˆ
the succession controversy. About four                                         ˙
                                             interpret the distribution to exclude the
months after the assassination of ¤Uth-      sister; the rest include all the heirs
man, she took a force of about one
    ˆ                                        named in the Qur'an. ˆ
thousand, among the leaders of which
were Talhah and az-Zubayr. After tak-
          ˙ ˙
ing the city of Basrah, they met ¤Alı b. ˆ       ˆ
                                             akhba r (Arabic: report; sg. khabar)
Abı Talib in a battle known as the battle
      ˆ ˆ                                    In early Islamic usage, this term was
of the Camel, because most of the            synonymous with hadıth. In later
fighting was around the camel bearing         usage, it has come˙ to mean those
¤A'ishah’s standard. ¤Alı won, and both
                         ˆ                   traditions that are secular and used for
Talh ah and az-Zubayr were killed.           history (ta'rıkh). They have the same
 ˙ˆ ˙
¤A'ishah was treated with respect and        literary form, with an Isnad and a
honor, and she spent the next two            Matn, but are usually not subject to
al-Akhdar                                                                          24

the same rigorous critique, and often the   ¤a lam (Arabic: world)
chains of transmission are incomplete.
                                            Usually found in the plural, ¤ alamın, in
                                                                            ˆ   ˆ
                                            the phrase, rabb al-¤ alamın, “Lord of the
                                                                  ˆ   ˆ
al-Akhd ar (North African Arabic)           Worlds,” it reflects the view of the
A dialect variant from North Africa for     Qur'an that the universe consists of
al-Khadir.                                  (probably) seven worlds and seven
        ˙                                                 ˆ ˆ
                                            heavens, samawat.
al-a khirah (Arabic: the last, the
final)                                       Alamut
In Islamic eschatology it refers to
                                            The fortress of Alamut, situated on the
both the final resting place of the soul
                                            summit of a nearly inaccessible peak in
and the end-time itself – after judgment,
                                            the Alburz mountains in Iran, was the
as opposed to this world. Over time,
                                            headquarters of the Isma¤ılı Shı¤ı from
                                                                      ˆ ˆ ˆ  ˆˆ
there has been considerable speculation
                                            the fifth/tenth century through the
about whether this is a spiritual or a
                                            seventh/thirteenth century. In the Safa-
physical realm and whether the delights
                                            vid period it was used as a prison and
and/or punishments described in the
                                            called the “castle of oblivion.”
Qur'an are to be taken literally or
metaphorically. (See also yawm ad-dın.)
akhla q (Arabic: innate disposition)
                                            The Sharıfı royal family of Morocco,
                                                     ˆ ˆ
This refers to ethics. Speculation about    who have ruled since the seventeenth
moral behavior in Islam has, for the        century.
most part, been within the confines of
proper religious behavior, but the intro-
duction of Hellenized notions of ethics     ¤Alawiyyah
caused many to treat this subject as        Also known as the Nusayriyyah, this is
separate from the religious codes of                                 ˙ˆ ˆ
                                            the only sect of the Shı¤ı “extremists”
behavior. Among the philosophers and        the ghulat, known to exist today. The
Hellenized speculative theologians, the     term is derived from their veneration of
introduction of the works of Aristotle      ¤Alı b. Abı Talib, and can refer to Shı¤ı
                                                ˆ        ˆ ˆ                        ˆˆ
chiefly led them to discuss issues of the                   ˙
                                            in general. They are found mostly in
innate goodness or evil in humans and       western Syria. In their doctrine, they
the nature of natural law. These spec-      regard ¤Alı as divine. They also believe
ulations influenced adab literature,         that they started as lights that were
which, in turn, influenced the theologian    imprisoned in human forms and con-
al-Ghaza lı . In modern Islamic
           ˆ ˆ                              demned to cycles of reincarnation, out
thought, particularly in the colonial       of which only the elect can escape. In
and post-colonial phase, Muslims spec-      each epoch there is a trio of divine
ulating about ethics have been con-         beings, ¤Alı, Muhammad, and Salman
                                                         ˆ                         ˆ
cerned with the ethical implications of                       ˙
                                            al-Farisı being this epoch’s trio. They
                                                  ˆ  ˆ
activism, holding that moral behavior       appear, however, hidden, and it is the
involves improving the lot of the com-      duty of the believer to recognize the trio
munity.                                     and escape the cycle of reincarnation.
                                            Because Jesus was an earlier manifesta-
ˆ   ˆ
a khu nd                                    tion, some ¤Alawiyyah celebrate Christ-
Persian term for a religious leader. (See   mas. President Assad of Syria is of this
also mawla.)
           ˆ                                group.
25                                                                                               ¤Alı

Albania                                        thriving Jewish population is now esti-
A European country on the Adriatic sea,        mated to be around one hundred thirty
Albania, once a part of the Ottoman            thousand.
Empire, has a Muslim majority and is the
birthplace of the Bektashı Sufı order.
                      ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ                  ¤Alı b. Abı Ta lib (c. 597–41/661)
                                                     ˆ              ˆ ˆ
                           ˙                                         ˙
                                               Son-in-law and cousin of Muhammad,
Alexander the Great                                                                           ˙ˆ
                                               he was the fourth caliph (khalıfah) of
See Dhu-l-Qarnayn.
      ˆ                                        the Sunnı and the first imam of the
                                                                ˆ                           ˆ
                                               Shı¤ı. He was either the second to
Alf laylah wa-laylah (Arabic:                  believe in Islam, after Khadıjah, or            ˆ
Thousand and One Nights)                       third, after Abu Bakr, a point much
                                               debated in Sunnı–Shı¤ı polemics. His
                                                                          ˆ       ˆˆ
The title of an eclectic collection of tales
                                               blood relation to Muh ammad, his
from different periods and cultures set in                                             ˙
                                               appointment by the Prophet at Ghadır                  ˆ
a frame story. This set of stories,
                                               Khumm, and his marriage to Muham-
primarily meant as light entertainment,                                                          ˙
                                               mad’s daughter, Fatimah made him the
became popular in the West through the
                                               first Imam among ˙ the Shı¤ı. They had
                                                              ˆ                          ˆˆ
collections of the stories and the transla-
                                               two sons, Hasan and Husayn, and two
tions made by Orientalist travelers. The                          ˙                ˙
                                               daughters, 'Umm Kulthum and Zaynab.   ˆ
eighteenth-century French translation by
                                               ¤Alı assumed the caliphate in 656, after
Jean Antione Galland, and the nine-
                                               the death of ¤Uthman. Stories implicat-
teenth-century English translations by
                                               ing ¤Alı in ¤Uthman’s murder are without
                                                          ˆ             ˆ
Sir Richard Burton and William Lane
                                               foundation and reflect an anti-¤Alid bias.
helped implant fantastic notions about
                                               He was, nevertheless, the most respected
Arab and Islamic peoples in the minds of
                                               leader among those who opposed ¤Uth-
                                               man, and they looked to him to stop the
                                               innovations (bid¤ah) that the caliph had
Algeria                                        introduced. ¤Uthman’s closest relative,
The second largest African country, it is      Mu¤awiyah, demanded the right of
located in North Africa, the Maghrib,          blood vengeance, and accused ¤Alı of                ˆ
between Morocco and Libya and                  harboring the murderers and of compli-
Tunisia. During Ottoman times it               city in the killing. The underlying cause
was part of the empire, and then came          was, however, one of politics and the
under French influence and colonization         vision of the direction of the community,
in the nineteenth century. After a bitter      and the two soon left Arabia for their
war of independence from 1954 to               support strongholds in Iraq and Syria. In
1961, Algeria became independent in            the ensuing civil strife, the two armies
1962. The current government is                fought until the 'Umayyad forces under
besieged by radical Islamist groups,           Mu¤awiyah appeared to be losing. ¤Amr
who are engaged in terrorist and guer-         b. al-¤As advised, according to legend,
rilla actions to force their acceptance in                     ˙ˆ
                                               that Mu¤awiyah have his men place
the electoral process from which they          copies of the Qur'an on their lances as
were excluded. The country is made up          a signal to invite the two sides to decide
primarily of Arabic speakers of Berber         by means of the holy Scripture. The
origin, although only about thirty per-        qurra' among ¤Alı’s troops at first
                                                         ˆ                      ˆ
cent of the population speaks Berber.          supported his participation in the arbi-
The country has a majority Sunnı         ˆ     tration. However, its terms ultimately
population, is mostly rural and home           proved harmful to his cause, at which
to a variety of Sufı orders. A once-
                     ˆ ˆ                       point many of them turned against him
Aligarh                                                                            26

and seceded, blaming ¤Alı for submitting
                          ˆ                  Aljamia (Spanish, from Arabic al-
to the arbitration rather than relying on    ¤ ajamiyyah: non-Arabic)
God. At the battle of Nahrawan, ¤Alı
                                  ˆ      ˆ   The Spanish Romance rendering of the
attacked those of the secessionists who      Arabic term for non-Arab, it refers to
refused his amnesty and slaughtered          the dialect that developed among the
many in a move that was roundly              northern Iberian inhabitants under Mus-
condemned at the time. The result was        lim rule, in which proto-Spanish and
that ¤Alı was forced to retreat to Kufah
         ˆ                            ˆ      Arabic mixed. The literature, Aljamiada,
and abandon his fight with Mu¤awiyah,
                                  ˆ          is a mixture of Spanish and Arabic,
after which ¤Alı’s influence declined. He
                ˆ                            usually written in Arabic characters and
was killed by a separatist (Kharijite)
                                    ˆ        generally concerning religious or legal
assassin, Ibn Muljam, in 661. The Shı¤ı ˆˆ   topics, although there are striking exam-
festival of Ghadır, 18 Dhu-l-Hijjah, is
                  ˆ         ˆ                ples of sırah literature, both in poetry
celebrated to commemorate what they          and prose, and some important letters.
regard as his appointment as Muham-          This literature continued to be produced
                                  ˆ ˙
mad’s successor. (See also Khawarij.)        after 1492 until the expulsion of the
                                             Muslims from Spain in 1609 by King
Aligarh                                      Philip III, and afterward by the Moors
A town in Uttar Pradesh, India, asso-        in Tunisia.
ciated with the reformist movement of
Sayyid Ahmad Khan, who started a
                    ˆ                           ˆ
                                             Alla h
boys’ school around 1871. By 1875,
                                             The Arabic name for God. The name
the school was operating on English
                                             Allah was known in pre-Islamic Arabia
models, and eventually developed into
                                             as the head of the pantheon among
the Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental Col-
                                             polytheists and as the name for God
lege. The main language of instruction
                                             among Arabic-speaking Christians and
was English, except for Islamic religious
                                             Jews. With the advent of Islam, Allah is
subjects. In 1920, the college became
                                             defined as the One, eternal, neither born
Aligarh Muslim University, absorbed a
                                             nor bearing and not having an equal (see
school of medicine, and became the
                                             Q. 112). Allah is the creator of the
institution that produced many Indian
                                             universe and its judge, is merciful,
Muslim leaders in the first half of the
                                             compassionate, all-knowing, all-seeing,
twentieth century.
                                             rewarding good and punishing evil.
                                             Muslims have developed numerous
¤Alı ila hı (Arabic: ¤Alı is my god)
   ˆ ˆ ˆ                ˆ                    theologies to attempt to define Allah,  ˆ
A popular designation and term of            but there is no single theology or creed
opprobrium for those Shı¤ı who are said
                          ˆˆ                 that embodies a universally accepted full
to regard ¤Alı as divine.
             ˆ                               definition. In general, Allah is consid-
                                             ered completely transcendent, and only
¤a lim
 ¯                                           communicates with humans through the
                                             intermediary of an angel, such as Jibrıl,
See ¤ulama'.
                                             as in the case of the revelation to
                                             Muh ammad. The Islamic mystical
¤a limah (Arabic: learned woman; pl.
  ˆ                                             ˆ ˙ˆ
                                             (Sufı) tradition admits the possibility
¤ awalim)
     ˆ                                        ˙ apprehending the divine through a
In Egypt this term refers to female          beatific vision, and many Muslims hold
performers of poems and songs asso-          that all humankind will see Allah on the
ciated with the mawlid and recited at        Day of Judgment, yawm ad-dın. Theˆ
births, weddings, and during Ramadan.
                                   ˆ         Qur'an presents a few views of Allah,
                                                     ˆ                              ˆ
27                                                                 Ameer Ali, Syed

but is not a theological tract nor a         into the movement that resulted in the
treatise on His nature, except as it         creation of Pakistan under the leader-
affects the human capacity to repent of      ship of Muhammad ¤Alı Jinnah. After
sins and comply with divine regulations.                 ˙
                                             the creation of the state in 1947, it
Western scholarship has tried to demon-      became one of several political parties in
strate an evolution of the idea of Allahˆ    Pakistan.
through the chronological arrangement
of the surahs of the Qur'an, but most
         ˆ                  ˆ                Almohads
Muslim scholars see the revelation as a
totality, and will admit only that           See al-muwahhidun.
humans may come to understand Him
in a progressive fashion. Muslim exe-        Almoravids
getes of the Qur'an know of ninety-nine
                  ˆ                          See al-murabitun.
                                                       ˆ    ˆ
“names” of Allah, the so-called “beauti-
                ˆ                                         ˙
ful names,” al-'asma' al-husna. Some
                      ˆ           ˆ
                            ˙                Almsgiving
of these seem to be characteristics, like
merciful or all-knowing, but others,         See zakat.
along with other passages from the
Qur'an, imply that Allah has human
      ˆ                   ˆ                  Amal (Arabic: hope)
attributes. For some Muslims, the fact       A popular militant Shı¤ı movement
that He is described as a hearer or one      among Lebanese Muslims. Started in
who sees means that He has ears and          1975, it has maintained ties with Iran
eyes like humans. The anthropomorph-         since the Revolution of 1979. (See also
ists have been opposed from an early         as-Sadr, Musa.)
                                                         ˆ ˆ
date by those who understand such              ˙ ˙
terminology in a metaphoric or abstract
manner (such as, for example, the            Ameer Ali, Syed (1849–1928)
Mu¤tazilah). The introduction of             Indian jurist, historian, and modernist,
Greek philosophy (falsafah) into the         best known for two influential books: A
theological debates in Islam complicated     Short History of the Saracens and The
the discussion of the nature of Allah just
                                    ˆ        Spirit of Islam. He came from an Indian
as it did in Western theology, since such    Isma¤ılı Shı¤ı family that was in service
                                                  ˆ ˆ ˆ   ˆˆ
a philosophical system strives to resolve    to the East India Company. He was
all contradictions. At the core of Islamic   educated in English and Islamic subjects
understanding of Allah, however, is the
                       ˆ                     and took particularly to the study of
fact that God is a mystery, approachable     English law. At the age of twenty, he
but ultimately unknowable by humans.         went to England, where he was called to
                                             the Bar. He served on the Bengal High
Alla hu 'akbar
   ˆ                                         Court and returned to England with his
                                             English wife in 1904. In 1883 he became
See takbır.
        ˆ                                    the only Muslim on the Viceroy’s Coun-
                                             cil, and he was active in the British Red
Alla hummah (Arabic: O Allah!)
                          ˆ                  Crescent Society. He was active politi-
An invocation of Allah found in old
                    ˆ                        cally in both England and South Asia in
Arabic texts.                                promoting reform and developing the
                                             interests of Muslims. He was a suppor-
                                             ter of the Khilafat Movement along
All-India Muslim League                      with the Agha Khan. His book The
                                                             ˆ     ˆ
A movement derived from the modernist        Spirit of Islam was a liberal interpreta-
Aligarh movement in 1906, it developed       tion of Islam based on Western moder-
ˆ ˆn
amı                                                                                  28

nist models. It became popular through-      in the sırah. She is said to have been
out the Islamic world and had great          visited by the angel Jibrıl and told of
influence in the West, as did his A Short     Muhammad’s impending birth and mis-
History of the Saracens. His irenic               ˙
                                             sion, and, during the pregnancy, a light
views did much to promote a better           is said to have shown from her womb
understanding of Islam among Western         bright enough to illumine the castles in
readers.                                     Syria. She died when Muhammad was
                                             six. Up to that time, Muhammad was in
                                             her and her family’s care, ˙ except when
ˆ ˆn (Arabic: safe, secure)
a mı
                                             he was sent to a wet-nurse among the
This term is used much like the English
                                             bedouin tribe of the Banu Bakr b. Sa¤d, a
“Amen.” Cognate to similar terms in
                                             common practice among the Meccan
Christian Syriac and Jewish Hebrew, it is
                                             elite. She is described in the sırah as the
used as a response to a prayer or the
                                             most beautiful and noble woman in
recitation of the first surah of the
Qur'an. According to tradition, it has
particular power when said in proximity
to the Ka¤bah.                                 ˆr
                                             amı (Arabic: commander)
                                             The term has been applied as a title to
amı (Arabic: trustworthy)                    generals, princes, governors, and even
In the sense of “trustworthy,” this term
became an epithet applied to Muham-
mad because of his trustworthiness, as          ˆr             ˆn
                                             Amı al-Mu'minı (Arabic:
al-Amın. It also is a term applied to
      ˆ                                      Commander of the Faithful)
Muslims who hold positions of financial       A title applied to caliphs, generally
or legal trust.                              indicating their temporal power,
                                             whereas the term khalıfah, (caliph),
Amı                                          refers to their deputyship, and Imam to
                                             their role as a religious leader.
The name in the legendary tafsır of one
of the wives of Sulayman (Solomon).
She is the one to whom he is reported to     amr (Arabic: command)
have given his signet ring; she, in turn,    The usual Qur'anic word for “com-
gave it to a demon who took Sulayman’s
                                     ˆ       mand,” generally the divine command.
place. It was only after many adventures
and much repentance, according to the                       ˆ
                                             ¤Amr b. al-¤A s (died c. 42/663)
story, that Sulayman was able to get his
                   ˆ                                          ˙
                                             A Companion of Muhammad, he was
ring and his kingdom back.
                                             one of the most astute˙ politicians of his
                                             generation. After the siege of Madınah
A minah bt. Wahb (died 576)                  by the people of Mecca in 8/630, he
The mother of the Prophet Muham-             converted to Islam and was sent out as a
mad, she belonged to the Zuhra clan of       missionary. The caliph Abu Bakr sent
the Quraysh, and is reported to have         him at the head of an army into
been of very noble lineage. She was          Palestine, and he commanded the army
married to ¤Abd Allah b. ¤Abd al-
                        ˆ                    that captured Egypt. He also set up the
Muttalib, but the marriage seems to          system of administration of the country.
    ˙˙                                       He was replaced by the caliph ¤Uthman,
have been one in which she remained                                               ˆ
with her family, receiving visits from her   and retired from active life in disgust
husband. Her pregnancy with the Pro-         and consternation at his removal. In the
phet is represented in miraculous terms      arbitration between ¤Alı and Mu¤a-
                                                                        ˆ           ˆ
29                                                                             angels

wiyah, he seems to have had a large part     his heritage is found in the major sunan
in maneuvering the process in favor of       collections.
Mu¤awiyah. In the assassination plot
that killed ¤Alı, he seems to have escaped
               ˆ                             al-Andalus
only because he was not feeling well that
                                             The term derived from the Germanic
day and did not appear in public.
                                             Vandals and used by Muslims in the
                                             medieval period to refer to the Iberian
ˆ ˆ       ˆ
A mu Dar ya (Persian)                        peninsula or to that portion of the
The river Oxus. Some Arab geographers        peninsula held by Muslims. It is the
also called this river Jayhun after the
                             ˆ               preferred form for Arab writers to the
biblical river Gihon, one of the rivers on   name Ishbaniyah, Spain. The Latin-
the boundary of Paradise.                    speaking supporters of the Reconquista,
                                             which ended with the expulsion of most
¤a na niyyah
 ˆ ˆ                                         of the Muslims in 897/1492, preferred
                                             the terms “Hispania, Spania, and
One of many Jewish sects that flourished
in the turbulent period at the end of the
'Umayyad and beginning of the ¤Abba-    ˆ
sid periods. Named after ¤Anan b.ˆ ˆ         angels (Arabic mala' ikah, sing.
David, who flourished in the mid-eighth       malak: messengers)
century, this sect was identified by          Supernatural, created beings mentioned
Muslim heresiographers with the Kar-         in the Qur'a n as individuals and
aites, and was granted equal status along    groups. Their functions include that of
with the Rabbinic Jews, rabbaniyyah, in      messengers, intercessors, recorders of
the newly emerging ¤Abbasid caliphate.
                          ˆ                  deeds, and agents of divine punishment.
                                             Iblıs is sometimes thought to be an
¤Ana q (Arabic)
   ˆ                                         angel as well as a jinn. Jibrıl (Gabriel)
                                             was of the highest rank of angels and the
In the isra'ıliyyat tafsır tradition, she
           ˆ ˆ    ˆ      ˆ
                                             bringer of revelation to Muhammad. At
was a daughter of Adam, the twin of                                        ˙
                                             the time of the creation of the first
Shıth (Seth), the wife of Qabıl (Cain),
   ˆ                         ˆ ˆ
                                ˆ            human, Adam, God instructed all the
and the mother of the giant ¤Uj. In the
                                             angels to bow to him. Iblıs refused and
stories that mention her name, the
                                             was cast out of the ranks of the angels
commentators hold that all of the early
                                             along with some rebellious demons, to
births after the expulsion from Paradise
                                             rule Hell and try to tempt humankind to
were male–female twins to provide
                                             evil. Islamic angelology owes much to
enough pairs to populate the earth. In
                                             the speculations by Jews and Christians,
one of the traditions, Qabıl killed his
                           ˆ ˆ
                                             with which Muslim commentators
brother Habıl (Abel) out of jealousy,
            ˆ ˆ
                                             became familiar at an early date. Just
because Qabıl wanted to mate either
             ˆ ˆ
                                             as in Jewish and Christian texts, angels
with his own sister or his mother.
                                             are divided into two general groups,
                                             regular angels and archangels, the latter
'Anas b. Ma lik (died c. 91/709)
          ˆ                                  being capable of more important tasks
Early Companion of Muhammad and              and multiple assignments from God. In
prolific traditionist. He participated in     the tafsır tradition, angels are grouped
the wars of conquest and in the fitnah        into tribes as well. In astrological spec-
wars on the side of ¤Abd Allah b. az-
                                 ˆ           ulation, an angel was supposed to be in
Zubayr, the rival caliph. This earned him    charge of each star in each constellation,
some political trouble, but his reputa-      often lending a name to the star. (See
tion as a traditionist did not suffer, and   also Munkar wa-Nakır.)  ˆ
Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia                                                        30

Angkatan Belia Islam                         still bear the family designation Ansarı.
                                                                                   ˆ ˆ
Malaysia                                                                         ˙
                                             The term also designates a Sufı activist
                                                                            ˆ ˆ
                                             political movement in the Sudan.

Anglo-Muhammadan Law                         apostasy

The laws of personal status founded on       See ilhad; riddah.
British colonial interpretations of Isla-
mic law and applied to Muslims in            ¤aqı
                                                ˆdah (Arabic: creed)
British colonial courts.                     The Qur'an indicates five basic articles
                                             of belief: belief in God, the prophets,
¤ankabu t (Arabic: spider)
      ˆ                                      angels, scripture, and the Day of Judg-
                                             ment, but does not formulate a formal
Spiders have a special place in Islamic
                                             creed. The later development of creeds
lore, because a spider is supposed to have
                                             in Islam are, for the most part, a result
saved the lives of Muhammad and Abu      ˆ
                                             of sectarian disputes and are summaries
Bakr. While the two˙ were fleeing the
                                             of theological discussions. They are also
Meccans during the hijrah, they hid in a
                                             sometimes short teaching texts to
cave. A spider, presumably by God’s
                                             instruct children and converts. While
command, quickly spun a web over the
                                             there has never been a single, agreed-
entrance, so that the Meccans would
                                             upon formulation of a creed, even
think the cave to be empty, since they did
                                             among either the Sunnı or the Shı¤ı,
                                                                        ˆ             ˆˆ
not think a spider could spin so quickly.
                                             most creeds have a number of concepts
                                             in common. The first is that Allah is the
ans a r (Arabic: helpers, allies)            only deity. He has no partners, was not
They were the Medinese who welcomed          born, and did not bear. This Qur'anic  ˆ
Muhammad and his companions after            formulation lies at the heart of Islam.
the ˙hijrah from Mecca. Members of           The second is that He is the creator of all
the two major tribes in Madınah, the
                               ˆ             that exists and everything belongs to
Banu al-'Aws and the Banu al-Khaz-
     ˆ                       ˆ               Him and will return to Him. It follows
raj, as well as other Arabs who had          that any possessions humans have are
belonged to the Jewish tribes, were          transitory, a gift from God, and must be
active in welcoming Muhammad to the          used in the right manner. Additionally,
city and gave hospitality to those who       reward and punishment on the yawm
made the hijrah with him or shortly          ad-dı n are real and based on the
afterwards. Even though there were           contract set forth between Allah and ˆ
those who were not active in supporting      humans in the Qur'an and in the model
the Muslims or who acted in ways that        of His Prophet, Muhammad. Muham-
hindered rather than helped the early        mad is the last in a line of prophets˙ sent
community, after the death of the            by God to humankind, the first being
Prophet, all those who came from             Adam. Angels, devils, and jinn exist,
Madınah were grouped together under
      ˆ                                      and we interact with them according to
this designation. In the early history of    God’s plan. Some Shı¤ı will add various
the community, the ansar were never as       concepts about ¤Alı b. Abı Talib, and
                                                                   ˆ       ˆ ˆ
influential as the Quraysh of Mecca                                           ˙
                                             the Khawarij held that anyone commit-
and became part of the pro-¤Alid move-       ting a major sin had renounced Islam by
ment against the 'Umayyads. When the         that act. Unlike Christianity, Islam is not
¤Abbasids came to power, the term            a religion dependent on creeds. There
generally lost significance as a political    have been no great councils or synods
designation, although individuals would      called to decide a single formulation, and
31                                                                                ¤Arab

the shahadah comes closest to a state-
          ˆ                                    talismans against it in customary prac-
ment on which all Muslims can agree.           tice. The scorpion is also a sign in the
Nor is Islam solely reliant on deeds. It is    zodiac and is used to interpret dreams.
a middle way, requiring both belief
(ıman) and acting correctly in the world.
 ˆ ˆ

   ˆlah (Arabic: to bind)                      The designation ¤Arab has, over time,
                                               been subject to a wide number of
A term that designates the person(s)
                                               definitions. In the pre-Islamic period,
bound by Islamic law, sharı ¤ah, to
                                               ancient classical authors used the term
share the liability with someone who
                                               “Arab” and “Arabia” to refer to a
has committed a murder or inflicted
                                               number of pastoral nomadic war-like
bodily injury. The extension of liability
                                               people on the eastern edge of the
varies among the several schools,
                                               Mediterranean world and into Arabia,
(Madhhabs), of Islamic law, but gen-
                                               which included the Sinai peninsula and
erally it is confined to blood relatives,
                                               the Syrian desert. Archaeological evi-
except in the case of Hanafı law, where
                       ˙                       dence indicates that some, but not all, of
the liability is extended to comrades in
                                               these peoples spoke or wrote languages
                                               that seem to be related to modern
                                               Arabic. The first of these peoples
   ˆqah (Arabic: red)                          appear in Assyrian records in the ninth
The name of the customary sacrifice of          century b.c.e. With the rise of Islam and
an animal on the seventh day after the         Muslim interest in preserving the history
birth of a child, on which day the child’s     of the forebears of Muhammad we get a
head is shaved and the child is named.                                 ˙
                                               complicated and somewhat legendary
The majority of the sacrifice is distrib-       picture of the ¤Arabs. According to some
uted as charity, but a ritual meal made        authors, the speakers of what would
from a portion of it, called a walımah,
                                    ˆ          become the language of the Qur'an      ˆ
should be consumed. If the ceremony            were not the “true” or original ¤Arabs,
does not take place on the seventh day, it     but had replaced those people in the area
can be performed later, even by the            of the Hijaz. These new ¤Arabs came,
person him- or herself when they come          probably, from the coastal area of the
of age. This practice, while widespread,       Red Sea, as the name Quraysh (prob-
is not based on Qur'anic mandate and is
                      ˆ                        ably “dugong”) indicates. As the Qur'an ˆ
customary.                                     set the standard for the language of
                                               Arabic, it was also used by some to
¤aql (Arabic: intelligence)                    define who was an ¤Arab by saying that
                                               anyone who spoke Arabic as his native
Among Islamic theologians, this term is
                                               tongue and participated in the culture of
used to designate a kind of natural
                                               the ¤Arabs was ¤Arab. Under this defini-
intelligence or knowledge, as opposed
                                               tion, Jews and Christians have been
to tradition. It is also used as a technical
                                               considered ¤Arab at various times. Some-
term in Islamic philosophy, referring to
                                               times, the term ¤Arab meant being a
the Neoplatonic concept of a universal
                                               pastoral nomad, a bedouin. One medie-
                                               val chronicle asserts that the Kurds have
                                               ¤Arab, meaning that there are those
¤aqrab (Arabic: scorpion)                      Kurds who have a bedouin lifestyle.
Because of the harmful or deadly char-         For some, being ¤Arab and being Mus-
acter of the sting of the scorpion, verses     lim became more and more associated,
of the Qur'an are sometimes used as
              ˆ                                so that we can, for example, speak of the
Arabic                                                                              32

“Arab” countries of North Africa, even       ninth of Dhu-l-Hijja, the month of
when most of the inhabitants are des-        pilgrimage. The ˙name, which means
cended from Berber ancestors, because        knowledge, is associated with the ser-
the countries were conquered by ¤Arab        mon traditionally preached from that
Muslim forces and incorporated into the      hill and from the recitation of the
expanding Islamic world. The rise of         Qur'an there.
modern nationalism has transformed the
definition yet again to mean that an
¤Arab is one who is a citizen of a self-
designated ¤Arab country.                    Muslim religious sites, such as the
                                             mosques (masjid), madrasah, maqam,    ˆ
Arabic                                       and ribat, have been a mixture of local
                                             styles and aesthetics and the require-
A Semitic language related to Hebrew
                                             ments of the religion. Some features
and others, it is spoken in various
                                             usually associated with Islamic places of
dialects by the inhabitants of Arabia,
                                             worship are the minaret, a niche mark-
the Middle East, and North Africa,
                                             ing the direction of prayer (qiblah), and
including Muslims, Christians, and
                                             facilities for ritual ablutions. The uni-
Jews. With the rise of Islam, it became
                                             versal character of Islam has allowed
the particular language of the Qur'an, ˆ
                                             great creative variation in architectural
which became the dominant standard
                                             styles and decorations, usually avoiding
literary form, but did not eradicate the
                                             pictorial representations.
various spoken forms of the language,
which differ from the written form to
greater or lesser degrees. Some scholars
of the language speak of a resultant
“diglossia,” or quasi-bilingualism,
among speakers of Arabic because of
the differences between the spoken and
written forms. Muslim Arabic is written
in a cursive script derived from Naba-
taean and Syriac scripts, but Jews and
Christians have written Arabic in the
scripts associated with their sacred
liturgical texts. Thus, there is an exten-
sive literature in Judeo-Arabic, written
in Hebrew characters and incorporating
many Hebrew words, often Arabized.
Christians wrote Arabic in Greek, Syr-
iac, or Roman scripts, depending on
their confession. The language of Malta
is a North African-derived Arabic writ-
ten in Roman script. With the spread of
Islam, Arabic has become the liturgical
language of Muslims worldwide.

A hill and plain east of Mecca featured          Islamic architecture is often highly
prominently in the hajj at which the         decorative as demonstrated by this dome of
pilgrims assemble for˙the wuquf on the
                              ˆ                the Shah Chiragh Shrine, Shiraz, Iran.
33                                                al-¤asharah al-mubashsharah

   ˆ         ˆ
arka n al-Isla m                            and caused to awaken by God. Post-
See Pillars of Islam.                       Qur'anic literature elaborates their story
                                            with material paralleling Christian
                                            hagiographic stories.
Arkoun, Mohammed (born
                                            as h a b ar-rass (Arabic: people of
Algerian-born Islamic philosopher and       the ˙
                                              ˙ well or ditch)
modernist whose works combine solid
                                            They are mentioned in the Qur'an     ˆ
traditional Islamic scholarship with
                                            along with other unbelievers who were
Western hermeneutics. His best known
                                            destroyed by Allah for their unbelief.
works are Lectures du Coran and
                                            The Muslim exegetes know little of their
Ouvertures sur l’Islam.
                                            history or identification.

¤as abah (Arabic: league, federation)
   ˙                                              ˆ
                                            as h a b ar-ra'y (Arabic: adherents
The Arabic word for the agnate heirs in         ˙
                                            of˙personal opinion)
Islamic Inheritance.
                                            A term of opprobrium applied to certain
                                            schools (madhhabs) and practitioners
¤as abiyyah (Arabic: group feeling)         of Islamic law (sharı ¤ah), who incorpo-
The notion of group solidarity, usually     rated human judgment and analogic
based on tribal affiliation through birth    reasoning into their process of making
or affiliation. Some Muslim authors,         legal judgments. No group has ever
such as Ibn Khaldun, have held this
                      ˆ                     consented to be called by this term,
concept in high regard, but it was          since it was polemical on the part of the
repudiated by Muhammad as contrary          traditionists, who themselves incorpo-
to the universal character of Islam in      rated ra'y into their own reasoning.
which all believers are interconnected as
a group.                                          ˆ         ˆ
                                            as h a b al-ukhdu d (Arabic: people
                                            of˙the trench)
       ˆ ˆ ˆ,     ˆ       ˆn
al-Asada ba dı Jama l ad-Dı                 A term from the Qur'a n. Muslim
See al-Afghanı, Jamal ad-Dın
           ˆ ˆ     ˆ      ˆ                 exegetes variously identify these people
                                            with the Christian martyrs of Najran,  ˆ
ˆ ˆ                                         supposedly burned in a trench by the
A s a f b. Bara khya   ˆ
  ˙                                         Jewish king of South Arabia, Yusuf Dhu
                                                                             ˆ       ˆ
The name of the advisor to the prophet-     Nuwa or with another group of people
king Sulayma n (Solomon), who
                 ˆ                          placed into a trench of fire to demon-
reproved him for introducing idol wor-      strate their faith and the power of God.
ship into his kingdom. The name is not      Other commentators understand the
known from the Qur'an, but derives
                         ˆ                  passage to refer to the future punishment
from Jewish midrashic sources incorpo-      of sinners in trenches filled with fire.
rated into the tafsır traditions.
                                            al-¤asharah al-
ash a b al-kahf (Arabic: the                mubashsharah (Arabic: the ten
companions of the cave)                     who have been brought good news)
The name used in Q. 18 to refer to the      The ten persons promised Paradise
sleepers in the cave, called by Western     according to the hadıth. The concept
scholars the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus,                        ˙
                                            goes back to the earliest sunnah collec-
persecuted monotheists who sought           tions, but the term itself is fairly late.
refuge in a cave, and were put to sleep     The list also varies but usually includes
al-Ash¤arı Abu-l-Hasan ¤Alı
         ˆ,  ˆ            ˆ                                                          34

Muhammad, Abu Bakr, ¤Umar, ¤Uth-
                ˆ                            opened for visitors. In North Africa the
  ˆ ˙
man, ¤Alı, Talhah, az-Zubayr, ¤Abd ar-
          ˆ                                  fast is broken by eating special dishes of
            ˙ ˙
Rahman b. ¤Awf, Sa¤d b. Abı Waqqas,
       ˆ                    ˆ      ˆ         fried cakes and flat bread. It is also a day
   ˙d b. Zayd, and, sometimes, Abu
Sa¤ı                                 ˙ˆ      to give charity for educational institu-
¤Ubaydah. When the last name is              tions. It is also a day of mourning for
included, Muhammad is dropped from           Shı¤ı as the anniversary of the martyr-
the list.                                    dom of Husayn at Karbala'. Both the
                                             name and the structure indicate a
al-Ash¤arı Abu -l-H asan ¤Alı
           ˆ,     ˆ         ˆ                historic relation to the Jewish fast of
(260/873–324/935)   ˙                        the Day of Atonement.

Theologian and polemicist against the
                                             A siyah
Mu¤tazilah, he was an early and
leading practitioner of Islamic scholasti-   The name of the wife of Fir¤awn
cism (kalam) who united philosophical
           ˆ                                 (Pharaoh) in the commentaries on the
methods with traditional discourse. He       Qur'an. She is a true believer, saves
was a descendant of the Companion            Musa, and generally functions in the
                                                ˆ ˆ
Abu Musa al-Ash¤arı, and studied with
    ˆ   ˆ ˆ            ˆ                     same manner as Pharaoh’s daughter in
the head of the Mu¤tazilite school in        the biblical story of Moses. The tradi-
Basrah. He is said to have seen visions      tions relate that because of her piety, her
of ˙ Prophet Muhammad urging him
   the                                       martyrdom at the hands of Pharaoh was
to return to “true ˙ tradition,” without     without pain.
abandoning speculative theology
(kalam). Part of his reputation lies in      ¤askarı (Arabic: army)
his defense of traditionalism by using the
Mu¤tazilite arguments and the tools of       The term designating the ruling, “mili-
Hellenized falsafah. The subsequent          tary” class in the Ottoman empire.
school of theology, known as the             This included the families of the ruling
Ash¤ariyyah, took the opening that he        elite, the members of the religious orders
provided and developed a full-fledged         and even some Christians who owned
school of rationalist defense of tradi-      land and had feudal association with the
tional Islam that went well beyond the       sultan. This caste was opposed to the
narrow intent of al-Ash¤arı himself. At
                             ˆ               majority re¤ aya, or “sheep” caste, which
                                                  ˙       ˆ ˆ
various periods, such as under the           had its own religious establishment
Buwayhids, the movement was perse-           separate in many respects from the ruling
cuted, but by the fourteenth century,        ¤ulama'. Many of the Sufı tarıqahs
                                                      ˆ                  ˆ ˆ     ˆ
                                             and other popular movements were
Ash¤arism was the theology of the Sunnı  ˆ
mainstream.                                  found in the re¤ a ˆ but not the ¤ askarı
                                                               ˆya                    ˆ

                                             al-'asma ' al-h usna (Arabic: the
                                                        ˆ       ˆ
See al-Ash¤arı.
             ˆ                               beautiful names) ˙
                                             The ninety-nine names or epithets of
¤A shu ra ' (Arabic: ten)
     ˆ ˆ                                     God, often used in personal devotion. In
A twenty-four-hour non-obligatory fast       a hadıth from Abu Hurayrah, we learn
                                                   ˆ            ˆ
celebrated on the tenth of Muharram, it        ˙
                                             that Allah has ninety-nine names by
was first performed by Muhammad.              which He likes to be called, and whoever
Among the Sunnı, the day is marked as
                 ˆ                           knows the ninety-nine names will enter
a commemoration of the day Nuh left
                                ˆ            Paradise. In the usual lists of the names,
the ark, and the door of the Ka¤bah is       not all the names come from the Qur'an ˆ
35                                                                           al-'Aws

and not all the names or epithets of Allah
                                        ˆ    on Western models and separate religion
in the Qur'a are on the list. For this
             ˆn                              and politics. He abolished the caliphate
reason, there has always been some           in 1343/1924.
mystery as well as discussion about the
names. In theological circles, the names     ¤At t a r, Farı ad-Dı (died c. 627/
                                                   ˆ       ˆd    ˆn
have been equated with the attributes of       ˙˙
God, with the attendant discussion of
                                             Persian mystical poet, whose Mantiq
whether those attributes constitute part                                          ˙
                                             al-tayr (Parliament of fowls) is an out-
of God’s essence or are accidental. (See        ˙
                                             standing example of Sufı writing.
                                                                    ˆ ˆ
also Mu¤tazilah; subhah.)                                         ˙
Assassins                                    Averroes

A term of abuse applied to a group of        See Ibn Rushd.
Isma¤ılı Shı¤ı who resisted the Crusa-
    ˆ ˆ ˆ   ˆˆ
ders. The name, through French, refers       Avicenna
to the mistaken notion that they used        See Ibn Sına.
                                                      ˆ ˆ
hashısh to induce a mystic state as a
spur to assassination and terror. (See
                                             Avrupa Milli Go ru ¸ Tes kilati
                                                           ¨ ¨s
also Nizariyyah.)
                                             Organization of Islamic Youth in Europe,
                                             an Islamist youth organization founded
                                             in 1985 from several previous groups.
The belief that the future fate of an
individual can be predicted by an
                                             Awami League
examination of heavenly bodies, this
practice is firmly entrenched in Islamic      The People’s League of Bangladesh,
popular cultures and has been generally      founded in Dacca in 1949, became one
condemned as antithetical to genuine         of two major political parties that
Islamic teachings. Astrology was often       achieved Bangladesh’s independence.
inseparable from astronomy in the pre-
modern Islamic world, and the Muslim         ¤awrah (Arabic: lit. the genitals)
scientific study of astronomy influenced
                                             The areas of the body that must remain
the course of European scientific devel-
                                             covered to maintain modesty. (See also
opment in the fields of mathematics,
navigation, and time-keeping, as well as
in astronomy itself. Many star names are
derived from the Arabo-Islamic astro-        al-'Aws
nomical tradition.                           One of the two chiefly Arab tribes in the
                                             city of Madınah at the time of the
¤ataba t (Arabic: thresholds, steps)
     ˆ                                       Prophet. They were rivals of the other
                                             mainly Arab tribe, al-Khazraj, as well
The four Shı¤ı shrine cities of Iraq:
                                             as the Jewish tribes. Like all the Arab
Najaf, Karbala ', Ka z imayn, and
                  ˆ    ˆ
                                             tribes in the city, their tribe contained
Samarra', which contain ˙the tombs of
                                             some Jews and the Jewish tribes con-
six of the Imams.
                                             tained some Arabs. Some of the clans of
                                             the 'Aws were slower to enter Islam, but
Atatu rk, Mustafa Kemal                      after the battle of Badr they were active
(1881–1938)                                  Muslims, and their rivalry with the
Founder of the modern Republic of            Khazraj disappeared after the death of
Turkey, who sought to reform Islam           Muhammad.
 ˆ                                                                                 36

'a yah (Arabic: sign, miracle, token;
 ˆ                                          that the Prophet said that the “evil eye”
verse in the Qur'an. Plural: ' ayat)
                 ˆ             ˆ            is real, but other authorities quote
In modern usage, the word almost            traditions in which Muhammad strongly
always means a “verse” in the Qur'an, ˆ     condemned this belief. ˙In popular prac-
but Qur'anic usage makes it clear that it
         ˆ                                  tice, the “evil eye” is averted by pious
often means a “miracle” or “wonder.”        utterances, holding out the hand, with
Commentators have played with this          its five fingers, or wearing an amulet
range of meaning and speculated about       made in the shape of a hand or an eye.
a hierarchy of verses, if any, and the      Tourist travel to the Middle East has
heavenly reward for reciting them. The      increased the prevalence of such amu-
convention in the Qur'an is to place the
                        ˆ                   lets, and in the West they have become
number of the ' ayah at the end, rather
                 ˆ                          symbols of identification with the Mid-
than at the beginning. For those who        dle East and Islam in some circles.
know the Qur'an, it is sufficient to quote
only the beginning of the verse to recall      ˆ
                                            Ayyu b
the whole verse. (See also hafiz.)
                             ˆ              The biblical Job. He is mentioned twice
                           ˙    ˙
                                            in the Qur'an (Q. 21:83–84, 38:40–44)
Aya Sofya                                   as a person noted for his suffering. Post-
The largest mosque in Istanbul, it was      Qur'anic legend greatly expands his
originally the main church and seat of      story, based partly on the Bible and
the Metropolitan of Greek Christianity,     partly on Jewish legend. He is counted
built by Constantius, the son of Con-       among the prophets in Islamic commen-
stantine, in the middle of the fourth       taries.
century. From an early time, it was
called Hagia Sofia, “Holy Wisdom.”
                ˆ                              ˆ
                                            Ayyu bids
When the city was taken by Muslims          Kurdish dynasty in Syria and Egypt that
in 1453, the interior of the church was     flourished between 546/1169 and 648/
stripped of its Christian symbols and       1250, founded by Salah ad-Dın (532/
                                                                   ˆ       ˆ
converted to a mosque. As a church, it      1138–589/1193). ˙        ˙
was oriented toward Jerusalem, so
various changes were made to redirect
                                               ˆ     ˆ       ˆ
                                            Aza d, Abu al-Kala m (1888–
the qiblah toward Mecca. During
Ottoman times, it was the chief mos-        1956)
que. In 1934, Ataturk changed the
                      ¨                     Urdu journalist and Islamic reformer
mosque to a state museum.                   who, through his journal, al-Hilal,  ˆ
                                            sought to reform Indian Islamic society.
ˆ       ˆ
a yatolla h
Honorific title in Ithna ¤Ashariyyah
                      ˆ                       ˆ
                                            Aza r
Shı¤ı Islam, from Arabic ayat Allah,
   ˆˆ                     ˆ ˆ    ˆ          The name of the father of Abraham in
meaning “sign of God.” The term is          the Qur'an (Q. 6:75).
currently used to designate someone
near the top of the Shı ¤ı ¤ulama '
                         ˆˆ        ˆ                            ˆ
                                            Azerbaijan (Persian Adharbayjan)
                                                                      ˆ ˆ
                                            A region in extreme northwest Iran, it
                                            borders on Iraq and Turkey. The chief
¤ayn (Arabic: eye)                          city is Tabrız. In ancient times, it was
The evil eye. The superstition of the       ruled by the Medes, and was incorpo-
“evil eye” predates Islam. Abu Hur-
                               ˆ            rated into the Persian empire. Zoroaster
ayrah is attributed with the statement      is said to have been born in this region.
37                                                                           al-Azhar

Conquered by the Arabs in 18/639, it          Soviet Union. The state at present has
remained a Persian-speaking area, with        no religious parties and professes reli-
a reported seventy languages or dialects      gious freedom and tolerance.
spoken. In the sixth/eleventh and
seventh/twelfth centuries, it was domi-
nated by the Saljuq Turks. At the end
of the ninth/fifteenth century, the Safa-      A mosque-university built by the Fati-
vid dynasty arose in this area before˙                                               ˙
                                              mids in al-Qahirah (Cairo) in the
ruling over the rest of Iran. The result of   fourth/tenth century as a center of
the Safavid rise to power was the             Isma¤ılı Shı¤ı learning and missionary
                                                  ˆ ˆ ˆ    ˆˆ
increasing domination of Shı¤ı Islam.
                                ˆˆ            training. Salah ad-Dın changed its orien-
                                                           ˆ      ˆ
When the Russians captured the north-                        ˙ ˆ
                                              tation to˙ Sunnı in the sixth/twelfth
ern portion in 1323/1905 with the aid of      century. It is one of the preeminent
the British, it was estimated to be nearly    places in the Islamic world to study
eighty percent Shı¤ı. Persian control was
                   ˆˆ                         Qur'a n, Islamic jurisprudence and
restored in 1340/1921, but lost again to      related subjects, and statements by its
the Soviet Union at the beginning of          faculty carry worldwide authority
World War II. It became independent in        among Muslims.
1412/1991 with the collapse of the

Ba b (Arabic: gate, door)                       home to many Isma¤ılı Shı¤ı. Its capital
                                                                ˆ ˆ ˆ   ˆˆ
Among the Sufı, this refers to the
                   ˆ ˆ                          is Kharogh.
                                                     ˆ ˆ
shaykh through whom one enters into
inner wisdom; among the Shı¤ı, the Bab
                                  ˆˆ     ˆ      badal (Arabic: substitute)
is the senior disciple of the imam. With
                                     ˆ          According to some Sufı doctrines, the
                                                                       ˆ ˆ
the Imam in ghaybah, he is the gate to                               ˙
                                                world is preserved by a fixed number of
the Hidden Ima m. The title was
                       ˆ                        “saints” and, when one dies, another is
assumed by the reformist Sayyid ¤Alı        ˆ   sent as a substitute to maintain the
Muhammad Shırazı (1235/1819–1266/
                    ˆ ˆ ˆ                       number.
1850). His prediction of the imminent
arrival of the Hidden Imam caused ˆ
social unrest and his execution, and led
to the creation of the Babı movement,
                              ˆ ˆ               The battle of Badr, southwest of Madı-   ˆ
which was a forerunner of the Baha'ı     ˆ ˆ    nah, was the first major conflict
faith. Among the Nizarı Isma¤ılı Shı¤ı,
                          ˆ ˆ      ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆˆ     between Muhammad and his suppor-
it is a title indicating high rank in the       ters in Madınah and the people of
da¤wah organization. Among the ¤Ala-            Mecca in 2/624 and the first military
wiyyah, the Bab is identified with Sal-          victory for the new community. In spite
man al-Farisı and is thought to be
   ˆ         ˆ ˆ                                of overwhelming odds, the Muslims
reincarnated in each generation.                were able to win the day. The early
                                                sources attribute the Muslim victory to
                                                divine intervention, and some say that a
 ˆ ˆ
ba ba (Persian/Turkish: father)
                                                band of angels rode with Muhammad’s
An honorific used for older men, it is used                                       ˙
                                                troops. This battle dealt a severe blow to
as the title/name of some Sufı shaykhs.
                            ˆ ˆ                 the Meccan military capability and
                                                prestige, but did not stop them comple-
 ˆ ˆ, ˆ
Ba bı Ba bism                                   tely. They felt the necessity of punishing
                                                Muhammad, and began preparing for
The messianic movement of followers of               ˙
                                                the next encounter, which was at Uhud.
the Bab in nineteenth-century Iran. Ideas
     ˆ                                                                                ˙
                                                For the Muslims, this was seen as a
from this movement influenced the
                                                vindication of the truth of the faith, and
development of the Baha'ı faith.
                         ˆ ˆ
                                                many around Madınah saw it as such,
                                                also, because many bedouin tribes con-
Badakhsha n                                     verted to Islam. In later Islamic litera-
A remote region of Pamır in Central
                           ˆ                    ture, Badr has become a symbol of
Asia, famous for its rubies, which is the       Muslim victory.
39                                                                                   ı ˆ

Baghda d                                      fested in a chain of prophets by pro-
The major city in Iraq, it was founded        gressive revelation, including major
by the ¤Abbasid caliph al-Mansur in
               ˆ                       ˆ      figures of Judaism, Christianity, and
145/762 as the empire’s capital. It was       Islam. All religions with prophets have
built on an ancient site, and the Arabs       intrinsic truth and are included under
used the name after the ancient Bag-          the faith’s purview. Baha'ıs have been
dadu. Al-Mansur called the city madinat
                  ˆ                           regarded by some Muslims, particularly
as-salam, the ˙
        ˆ        “city of peace.” It was a    the Ithna ¤Ashariyyah Shı¤ı as heretics
                                                        ˆ                  ˆˆ
round city with gates opening to the          or non-Muslims and have been subject
cardinal points of the compass, in the        to persecution. The world-wide center of
center of which was a huge green dome,        the Baha'ı religion is in Haifa, Israel. For
all of which meant to symbolize that this     the Baha'ı, God is transcendent but is
was the center of the world. It was a         mirrored through a constant series of
major cultural and intellectual center        prophets, starting with Adam and pro-
under the caliphate, boasting, among          ceeding through the Jewish and Chris-
other institutions, one of the first uni-      tian prophets, Zoroaster, Muhammad,
                                              and then the Bab. They believe in long
versities of the Islamic world, the Bayt
al-Hikmah. The city was sacked by the         cycles of history in which God is
Mongols in 656/1258, ending the               mirrored in the way best suited to the
¤Abbasid caliphate. Under the Otto-
       ˆ                                      time. The moral precepts of the religion
mans, it became a provincial capital          make it incumbent on the adherents to
and continued as an intellectual center       make the world a better place. They
of the region. As modern Iraq’s capital,      seek, among other things, to unify the
it was heavily bombed in the Gulf War         human race, the unification of science
of 1991.                                      and religion, gender equality, the elim-
                                              ination of prejudice, the elimination of
                                              extremes of wealth and poverty, and the
Baha ' U'lla h
   ˆ       ˆ                                  rule of universal law.
The title of Mırza Husayn ¤Alı Nurı
                 ˆ ˆ               ˆ    ˆ ˆ
(1233/1817–1309/1892), the prophet-                 ı ˆ
                                              Bahˆra (Aramaic: chosen)
founder of the Baha'ı faith. Originally
                     ˆ ˆ                          ˙
a follower of the Bab, he was persecuted,
                   ˆ                          The name of the Syrian Christian monk
along with the other Babıs, imprisoned,
                         ˆ ˆ                  who, when Muhammad traveled as a
and banished to Baghdad, where he
                            ˆ                 boy with his uncle Abu Talib to Syria,
                                                                     ˆ ˆ
                                              predicted his prophecy. In the various
became the spiritual leader of the Iranian
Babıs in exile. His growing popularity
  ˆ ˆ                                         accounts of the event, the monk is
provoked another exile to Istanbul and        supposed to have found a mark of
later to Akka in Ottoman Palestine. In        prophecy on Muhammad’s body or seen
1863, shortly before his departure from       a branch move ˙to provide him shade
Baghdad, he claimed to be the promised
        ˆ                                     regardless of where he moved. He said
“divine manifestation” of the Babı tradi-
                                 ˆ ˆ          that he had found a prediction of
tion. His tomb is near Haifa, Israel, the     Muhammad’s advent in his scriptures
headquarters of the Baha'ı religion. To
                           ˆˆ                 and ˙warned Abu Talib to protect the boy
                                                               ˆ ˆ
                                              from harm. This event took place,
his followers, he is known as Jamalı-i-
Mubarak, “blessed beauty.”                    according to some traditions, when
                                              Muhammad was twelve years of age,
                                              the same age as Jesus when he encoun-
Baha 'ı
                                              tered the rabbis in the Temple. The
The faith of the followers of Baha'
                                  ˆ           figure of Bahıra is found in Greek,
                                                              ˆ ˆ
U'llah who believe that God is mani-
    ˆ                                                       ˙
                                              Syriac, and Christian Arabic literature
Bairam                                                                               40

as a heretic monk who aided Muham-            period, and converts to Islam from the
                                  ˙ ˆ
mad in the composition of the Qur'an.         indigenous population. The Muslims of
These polemical works date from the           Hungary were at their peak in the tenth/
early Islamic period and reflect the           sixteenth and eleventh/seventeenth cen-
attitudes of some of the Christians of        turies, but were slaughtered or forced to
the time to the Islamic conquest.             convert after the Christian reconquest.
                                              The Romanian Muslims, who had
Bairam, or Bayram (Turkish:                   always been a small community, suf-
festival)                                     fered under Communist rule and com-
                                              prise less than fifty thousand individuals,
The word refers to the Lesser Bairam,         mostly of Turkish ethnic origin. Bulgaria
the ¤Id al-Fitr, the three-day breaking
                                              counted nearly fourteen percent of its
of the fast of Ramadan, and the Greater
                    ˙                         population as Muslim in the middle of
Bairam, the ¤Id al-Adha, the four-day
               ˆ           ˆ
                                              the last century, but recent campaigns to
feast of sacrifice beginning on the tenth      make every citizen a “Bulgarian” have
of Dhu-l-Hijjah, in connection with the
       ˆ                                      made recent estimates more difficult.
hajj.      ˙
 ˙                                            The indigenous Bulgarian Muslims are
                                              known as Pomaks. The Islamization of
Bairamiyya                                    Albania under the Ottomans was so
An order of dervishes, a group of the         complete that over seventy percent of
                    ˆ ˆ    ˆ
Naqshbandiyyah Sufı Tarıqah.                  the modern state is Muslim. Of those,
                  ˙     ˙                     eighty percent are Sunnı and of Alba-
                                              nian ethnic origin. The other twenty
            ˆ     ˆ,
al-Bakka'ı al-Kuntı Ah mad
                     ˙                        percent followed the Bektashiyyah
                                              Sufı order, the practice of which is
                                                ˆ ˆ
Sudanese religious and political leader       ˙
                                              recognized as an official religion in
and head of the Qadiriyyah tarıqah,
                    ˆ              ˆ          Albania. In the former Yugoslavia,
whose letters are an invaluable source of     particularly in Bosnia–Herzegovina and
pre-colonial Sudanese Islamic history.        Kosovo, conflict between Christian
                                              nationalists and the Muslim communities
Ba¤l, or Ba¤al (Arabic from                   have seen the Muslims reduced in num-
Hebrew: lord, master; owner)                  bers by acts of slaughter, “ethnic cleans-
                                              ing,” and genocide. When the Ottomans
When the word is used as a common
                                              entered the area by defeating the Serbs in
noun, it means the possessor of some-
                                              792/1389 at the battle of Kosovo, many
thing, but, in religious terminology, it is
                                              inhabitants converted to Islam, thus
the name of the preeminent Northwest
                                              giving the region a large Muslim popu-
Semitic pagan deity, the head of the
                                              lation. Under the Ottomans and into the
Phoenician pantheon.
                                              middle of the last century, Muslims,
                                              Christians, and Jews lived together in an
Balkan states                                 open society. Most identified themselves
The Muslim populations of the Balkan          as Bosnians rather than by religious
Peninsula are varied in ethnic origin and     group, and most were secular. In the
language, and are found in the countries      second half of the fourteenth/twentieth
of Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Alba-          century, Muslims were favored under
nia, and the former Yugoslavia. They          the reign of Marshal Tito. With the
derive from three main sources: Turks         breakup of Yugoslavia and the rise of
from the conquest and occupation by           Serbian nationalism in the last decades
the Ottoman Empire, Muslims who               of the last century, Muslims have been
settled in the area during the Ottoman        the victims of great atrocities, while the
41                                                                              barakah

world communities have paid scant              ary with Muhammad, although that
attention. The information being brought       depends on an ˙ interpretation of a verse
to light in the current war crimes trials in   from the Qur'an. The term al-yahud is
                                                               ˆ                   ˆ
The Hague is only now beginning to             also used for the biblical Jews as well as
indicate the extent of the disaster to the     later Jews.
Balkan Muslim communities.
                                               baqa ' (Arabic: subsistence, survival)
banks and banking                              A Sufı concept, the state of abiding or
                                                    ˆ ˆ
                                               remaining with God after fana'. It is
The prohibition in the Qur'an of riba,
                              ˆ       ˆ                                          ˆ
speculation and interest, has meant that       generally understood to be the highest
Islamic financial institutions have some-       state in which the mystic, after “losing”
times had to find alternative means for         the self in God, returns to the world,
capital investment from Western models         while still remaining with God, in order
in which the time value of money               to do the work of helping perfect the
determines profit and procedures. Isla-         world and lead others.
mic banks generally shun any transac-
tions that are tainted by Qur'anic and
                                ˆ                    ˆ   ˆ ˆ,     ˆ
                                               al-Ba qilla nı Abu Bakr
moral prohibitions. (See also gharar.)         Muh ammad b. at -Tayyib b.
                                                   ˙               ˙ ˙
                                               Muh ammad b. Ja¤far b. al-
                                                 ˆ ˙
                                               Qa sim (also Ibn al-Baqillanı, died
                                                                     ˆ   ˆ ˆ
al-Banna ', H asan (1324/1906–
1368/1949)  ˙                                  403/1013)
Egyptian modernist reformer, founder of        He spent most of his life in Baghdad,    ˆ
the Muslim Brotherhood (al-Ikhwan      ˆ       where he was a Malikı jurist and judge,
                                                                    ˆ    ˆ
al-Muslimun), who espoused ideals of
            ˆ                                  (qadı). He is best known as an Ash¤arite
                                                   ˆ ˆ
                                               theologian, who was responsible for
Islamic statehood and social justice
based on a return to the principles of         popularizing and systematizing that
the Qur'an and sunnah. He demon-
          ˆ                                    school of thought. He is credited with
strated a spiritual bent at an early age,      fifty-two works, of which six are extant.
and, building on a solid religious educa-      Of his best known works, the Kitab al-ˆ
tion, was inducted into the Hasafiyyah
                                   ˆ           I¤ jaz al-Qur' an, a treatise on the inimit-
                                                   ˆ          ˆ
                               ˙ ˙
Sufı order at the age of fourteen. He
  ˆ ˆ                                          ability of the Qur'an, is a seminal work,
became a government schoolteacher in                        ˆ
                                               and his Kitab tamhıd is a good example
Isma¤ıliyyah in 1927, and was trans-
    ˆˆ                                         of his religious polemic. He is frequently
ferred to Cairo in 1933. Starting in           cited by later writers. (See also al-
1928, he founded the movement and              Ash¤arı.)ˆ
began public pamphleting and lobbying
for reform. He was assassinated by             Baqliyyah
Egyptian secret police in 1949.                A late third/early tenth-century sect of
                                               vegetarian Qarmatı who did not eat
Banu Isra 'ı (Arabic: the children of
      ˆ ˆ ˆl                                   garlic, leeks, and ˙turnips. They abol-
Israel)                                        ished Muslim religious observance and
                                               displayed banners with the verses from
The usual Qur'anic term for the Jews
                                               the Qur'an recalling the freeing of the
mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. This
                                               Banu Isra'ıl from Fir¤awn.
                                                    ˆ    ˆ ˆ
phrase is never used, to our present
knowledge, in pre-Islamic poetry,
although the term al-yahud is found
                             ˆ                 barakah (Arabic: blessing)
frequently. In a few instances, the term       Also commonly in the plural, barakat,   ˆ
Banu Isra'ıl is used for Jews contempor-
    ˆ    ˆˆ                                    blessings from God. In the Sufı tradition,
                                                                            ˆ ˆ
Barelwı Sayyid Ahmad                                                               42

it is the blessings and supernatural
powers brought from God through the
mediation of a walı or saint. In popular
belief, barakah is associated with places
as well as people.
                                            Eastern Kufic calligraphy of the basmallah.
Barelwı Sayyid Ah mad
(1786–1831)     ˙
                                            Compassionate,” which precedes each
Stringent north Indian reformer and         chapter of the Qur'an except the ninth,
proponent of jihad, he opposed ele-
                                            surat at-tawba, and is said and written
ments of Sufı and Shı¤ı practice that he
            ˆ ˆ     ˆˆ
                                            by Muslims as a preface to many
said were ˙shirk.                           activities, speech-acts and writings.

                                            Bas rah
Indian sect, followers of Maula na
                                ˆ ˆ              ˙
                                            A city in southern Iraq, it started as a
Ahmad Riza Khan (1856–1921) with a
            ˆ   ˆ
  ˙       ˙                                 military encampment during the early
strong veneration of Muhammad. The
                       ˙                    Islamic expansion. It quickly grew into a
group has now spread beyond South
                                            major religious center, in spite of the
Asia and has many adherents in Great
                                            difficult climate. When ¤Alı b. Abı
                                                                             ˆ       ˆ
                                            Talib employed the troops of the city
                                            in his fight against Mu¤a  ˆwiyah, the city
       ı ˆ
Barsˆs a                                    took on greater importance. In the
      ˙ ˙
The name of the monk whom Muslim            second/eighth and third/ninth centuries,
commentators on the Qur'an identify
                             ˆ              its dual role as a trading center and an
with the person who believes in the devil   intellectual center close to the ¤Abbasid
and then is abandoned by him (Q.            capital Baghdad helped it become one
59:16). In several versions of the story,   of the major cities of Mesopotamia.
the monk is an ascetic who is overcome      After a period of decline, it revived as
with temptation and ultimately loses his    a center of Shı¤ı as well as Sunnı
                                                              ˆˆ                     ˆ
soul.                                       learning.

bar zakh (Arabic from Persian:              bast (Persian: refuge)
obstacle, barrier)                          A term meaning a place of sanctuary in
The boundary between the Heavens,           which a person could seek refuge free
Hell and the Earth, which prevents souls    from fear of being harmed, even if guilty
from traversing from one region to the      of a crime. In Islamic Iran, it was
other. For some, it is the intermediary     associated with a mosque or the tomb
place between Heaven and Hell, in                                     ˆ
                                            of a walı, whose barakat was thought to
                                                   ˆ ˆ
which, however, there is no purgation       protect the refugee. The term became
of sins. In this last sense, it is better   associated with the Iranian 1905–11
understood as “Limbo” rather than           constitutional revolution in which peo-
“Purgatory.”                                ple sought refuge in mosques from
                                            political retaliation. (See also barakah.)
The word meaning the utterance of           bast (Arabic: delight)
        ˆ          ˆ
bismi-llahi-r-rahmani-r-rahım, “In the
                            ˆ               The joyful state granted by God to
                ˙ˆ        ˙
name of Alla h, the Merciful, the           Sufıs. It is the expansion of the heart
                                              ˆ ˆ
43                                                                               ˆ ˆ

to receive revelation and insight from      early activity was the collection, storage,
God.                                        and translation of the corpus of classical
                                            philosophical and scientific works and
Ba¤th Par ties                              the promotion of the study of medicine
                                            and allied fields. It is credited with being
Arab socialist parties of Syria and Iraq,
                                            the first, or one of the first, institution of
which, while secular, regarded the com-
                                            higher learning in Islam, and provided a
ing of Islam to the Arabs as foundational
                                            model for many later Muslim universi-
to Arab identity.
                                            ties. It was also, indirectly, the model for
                                            the European and American state uni-
ba t in (Arabic: esoteric)                  versity system through its influence on
This is applied particularly with refer-    the University of Naples.
ence to understanding certain verses of
the Qur'a n, as opposed to z a hir
           ˆ                       ˆ        bayt al-maqdis, also bayt al-
(exoteric, manifest).            ˙
                                            The site of the Jewish Temple in
Ba t iniyyah
    ˙                                       Jerusalem. (See also al-Quds.)
See Isma¤ılı.
        ˆ ˆ ˆ
                                             ˆ      ˆ
                                            Ba zar ga n, Mehdi (1325/1907–
bay¤ah (Arabic: swear an oath of            1416/1995)
                                            Born into a devout family of Iranian
Usually thought to come from the            merchants, Mehdi Ba zarga n was a
                                                                    ˆ     ˆ
Arabic word for sell, it has come to        French-trained engineer, a lay Islamic
mean the making of an agreement,            scholar, and a long-time pro-democracy
usually with a pledge or oath to abide      activist. He participated in a reform
by the terms of the agreed-upon con-        movement in the early 1960s aimed at
tract. By extension, it has taken on the    democratizing the Shı¤ı clerical estab-
meaning of a pledge of loyalty to a         lishment. Bazargan was imprisoned sev-
                                                        ˆ    ˆ
person or a doctrine. It has been           eral times during the 1960s and 1970s
historically understood as the oath of      for his nonviolent opposition to the
allegiance to a caliph or ruler and the     shah through groups such as the Lib-
invocation of God’s blessing on the ruler   eration Movement of Iran, which he co-
by the subjects. In modern Islamic          founded in 1961, and the Iranian
political parlance, it has come to mean     Human Rights Association, which he
an “election” of an individual, implying,   co-founded in 1977. After the revolution
through the electoral process, the pled-    of 1399/1979, he served as interim
ging of loyalty to the winner of the        prime minister, but resigned after a year
election. It should not, however, neces-    over the move of the clerics to the right.
sarily be understood to imply a “one        He continued to serve in the Iranian
person one vote” principle.                 parliament for several years, and then
                                            retired from politics but remained as a
Bayram                                      symbol of opposition to the radical
See Bairam.                                 Islamic regime.

Bayt al-H ikmah                                 ˆ ˆ,         ˆ
                                            Bekta shı or Bekta shiyyah
The institution of higher learning          Syncretic Turkish Sufı order popular
                                                                 ˆ ˆ
founded in Baghdad by the ¤Abbasid
                  ˆ              ˆ                             ˙
                                            under Ottoman rule, but banned in
caliph al-Ma'mun in 217/832. Its chief
              ˆ                             modern Turkey. It is one of the official
bid¤ah                                                                               44

religions of Albania. (See also Balkan         bir thday
states.)                                       See mawlid.

bid¤ah (Arabic: innovation)                    bir th rites
In popular usage this has come to mean         Islam has no official birth rites man-
heresy. The accusation of fatalism asso-       dated by the Qur'an, but many Muslim
ciated with this term is obviated by the       communities have customary practices
presence of the classifications of “good”       including the use of prayers to Muham-
                                               mad, the use of amulets, recitation of
innovations that were in accord with
the Qur'an and the sunnah of the
          ˆ                                    the Qur'an, and the whispering of the
Prophet.                                       Basmalah in the ears of a newborn to
                                               keep the child from evil.

    ˆ             ˆ
Bila l b. Raba h (died 20/641)
                    ˙                                   ˆ          ˆ
                                               bismi-lla hi-r-rah ma ni-r-
Abyssinian slave appointed by Muham-           rahˆmı           ˙
mad as the first mu'adhdhin on       ˙             ˙
                                               See basmalah.
account of the carrying quality of his
voice. He was an early convert to Islam
                                               black Muslims
and suffered greatly until purchased and
manumitted by Abu Bakr. He became a
                      ˆ                        See Nation of Islam.
close Companion to the Prophet and
achieved considerable social status dur-       blasphemy
ing his lifetime.
                                               See sabb.

Bilqı                                                               ˆ
                                               bohra, or bohora (Gujarati
The name given the Queen of Sheba in           vohorvu: to engage in trade)
                                                  ˆ ˆ
classical Islamic commentaries on the          A term used in western India to refer to
Qur'an. Her story is popular in the
       ˆ                                       Sunnı Muslims, Isma¤ılı Muslims, and
                                                     ˆ              ˆ ˆ ˆ
tafsır literature, describing her great
     ˆ                                         even some Hindus and Jains. When used
power and wealth, which was overcome           for Isma¤ılı Muslims, it refers to those
                                                         ˆ ˆˆ
by Sulayman. This led to her conver-
             ˆ                                 who do not follow the Agha Khan.ˆ     ˆ
sion to Islam. Whether she became a            They are found primarily in western
wife or concubine of Sulayman was a
                              ˆ                India and claim some descent from
subject of some speculation. (See also         Yemenı Arabs. The greater portion of
Sabaeans.)                                     the Bohoras are Isma¤ılı and they tend to
                                                            ˆ     ˆ ˆˆ
                                               be a tight-knit community, governed by
                                               their own customs and officials. Histori-
    ˆ ˆn
Binya mı                                       cally, they have had connections with
The biblical Benjamin, who is men-             the Musta¤lı branch of the Isma¤ılı
                                                              ˆ                     ˆ ˆˆ
tioned in the Qur'an but not named.
                      ˆ                        found in the Yemen and in East Africa.
In the tafsır literature, his story is given
with details close to the biblical version     Bosnia–Her zegovina
plus some haggadic additions. The
                                               See Balkan states.
complicated relationship between Binya-    ˆ
mın and Yusuf is used in Islamic
  ˆ            ˆ
mysticism (Sufism) as a metaphor for
                ˆ                              Brazil
the relationship between man and God           The earliest Muslims in Brazil were
or the disciple and the master.                Africans brought as slaves in the six-
45                                                                                  ˆ

teenth century. Brazil’s modern Muslim       much discussion among Muslim and
population is mostly descended from          Western scholars about the sources for
Sunnı Lebanese migrants to Brazil, who
     ˆ                                       the stories of his life, and even as early as
came after World War II.                     the Muslim medieval commentators,
                                             scholars have questioned the legendary
Brunei                                       character of his representation.
The Sultanate of Brunei is officially a
Muslim country, with the majority of its      ˆ ˆ
                                             Bu la q
citizens Malay Sunnı Muslims belong-
                     ˆ                       A small town near Cairo famous for its
ing to the Shafi¤ı legal school (madh-
                ˆ                            printing. A press was established in
hab).                                        about 1821 by the state for military
                                             purposes, but it printed many editions of
    ˆ ˆ
Bukha ra                                     classical literary and religious works.
                                             The wide dissemination of its printed
A famous caravan city in Uzbekistan
                                             works contributed to the “Arab renais-
and center of Islamic learning under the
                                             sance,” and to the spread of much
Samanid dynasty in the fourth/tenth
  ˆ ˆ
                                             religious knowledge through its many
century, it was part of the Bukhara  ˆ ˆ
                                             printed editions of tafsır and hadıths.
                                                                      ˆ          ˆ
Khanate from about 1500 to 1920,
   ˆ                                                                        ˙
linked culturally and politically to
Samarqand, Balkh, and Tashkent. In                 ˆ
                                             al-Bura q (Arabic: lightning)
1920, it came under Soviet domination        The traditional name of the winged
as part of Soviet Uzbekistan.                horse-like creature that bore Muham-
                                             mad on his isra' (night journey) ˙
                                                               ˆ              from
        ˆ ˆ,
al-Bukha rı Muh ammad b.                     Mecca to al-Quds (Jerusalem), to a
    ˆ ı          ˙
Isma¤ˆl (194/810–256/870)                    place near the Western Wall of the
                                             Second Temple, and from there to
Famous collector of hadıths, whose
                                             heaven on his mi¤raj. Traditions also
collection, known as ˙ the Sahıh (the
                             ˙ ˙ ˙           say that al-Buraq was the mount of all
“Sound”), became authoritative for
                                             the prophets. There is a disagreement
Sunnı Muslims along with the collec-
                                             among the early commentators about
tion of Muslim b. al-Hajjaj. Theˆ
                                             whether the journey was in the flesh or
hadıths were selected from˙ over a half
˙                                            spiritual.
million on the basis of their reliability
and accuracy, and arranged by topic. He
is credited with a tremendous memory.        burdah (Arabic: cloak)
Both his teachers and, later, his collea-    A long woolen cloak that can be used as
gues were able to correct their collec-      a blanket or wrap at night. The burdah
tions from his memory. He also wrote a       of the Prophet is reported to have been
history of the persons whose names           one of the treasures of the ¤Abbasid ˆ
appear in the isnads of his great work.
                  ˆ                          caliphs that was destroyed by the
                                             Mongols in the sack of Baghdad in  ˆ
Bukht Nas s ar                               1258. An alternate tradition reports that
             ˙˙                              the Prophet’s cloak was not destroyed,
The biblical Nebuchadnezzar is not
                                             but was preserved in Istanbul.
mentioned in the Qur'an, but is a
prominent figure in the collections of
tafsır known as isra'ıliyyat. He is
      ˆ                 ˆ ˆ    ˆ                    ˆ
                                             al-burha n (Arabic: proof)
listed as one of the rulers of the world     The proof or demonstration of truth that
and as a Persian ruler. The mixture of       comes from God. The Qur'an itself is
legend and biblical text has given rise to                      ˆ
                                             held to be the burhan of God’s existence
Burhaniyya                                                                            46

                                              b. Abı al-Majd ¤Abd al-¤Azız ad-Dasuqı
                                                    ˆ                   ˆ        ˆ ˆ
                                              (644/1246–687/1288). It is also known
                                              as the Dasuqı order.
                                                        ˆ ˆ

                                              Burha nuddı  ˆn, Sayyidna   ˆ
                                              Muh ammad (born 1333/1915)
                                              Current head of the Da'udı branch of
                                                                    ˆ ˆ ˆ
                                              the Bohra Isma¤ılı community.
                                                       ˆ    ˆ ˆ ˆ

                                              burqu¤, or burqa¤
                                              A long woman’s veil that covers the
                                              body except for the eyes and the tips of
                                              the fingers. (See also chador; dress;

                                               ˆ ˆ
                                              bu sta n (Persian: garden)
                                              When the word comes into Arabic, it
                                              refers to gardens of a great variety. In
                                              religious usage, it refers to the garden of
    Muslim woman wearing a burqu‘.            Paradise, al-jannah.

and creative activity. In this sense, it is                    ˆ
                                                        ˆd, Kiya (died 532/
                                              Buzur g-Umı
related to the concept of the Qur'anicˆ       1138)
verse, the 'ayah, as the sign of the
                                              The successor to Hasan-i Sabbah ofˆ
miracle or the miracle itself.                                    ˙ˆ ˆ     ˙      ˙ˆ ˆ
                                              Alamut as chief da¤ı of the Nizarı
                                              Ismaˆ ¤ılı Shı¤ı. Under his leadership,
                                                     ˆ ˆ   ˆˆ
Burha niyya                                   Isma¤ılı influence expanded in the face
                                                 ˆ ˆˆ
A popular Egyptian Sufı order named
                          ˆ ˆ                 of continuing hostility. His tomb has
after its founder, Burhan ad-Dın Ibrahım
                              ˆ     ˆ ˆ       been the location of pious veneration.

Cairo                                       cassettes
See al-Qahirah.
        ˆ                                   In the last quarter of the twentieth
                                            century audio cassettes became both
                                            instruments of revolutionary mass com-
                                            munication, as in the period leading to
The Islamic religious calendar is a lunar   the 1979 Iranian revolution, when the
calendar of twelve months and is, there-    shah controlled the mass media, and an
fore, shorter than the solar calendar by    easy means of spreading sermons and
about eleven days. Muslim festivals         Qur'anic study materials.
cycle through the solar year in a thirty-
three-year period. The beginning of the
                                            ˇelebı (Turkish: wise man)
                                            c    ˆ
calendar is the hijrah, which took place
in 622 c.e. Some Western writings refer     Honorific title used in Turkish Muslim
to the Islamic date with the designation    countries in pre-modern times.
a.h., an abbreviation for Anno Hegirae.
                                            cha dor (Persian)
caliph                                      A large black cloak and head veil, which
See khalıfah.
        ˆ                                   leaves the face open, worn in Iran and
                                            elsewhere. (See also burqu¤; dress.)

Caliphate Movement
See Khilafat Movement.

The decorative use of verses from the
Qur'an and pious phrases has been
from early times a distinctive Islamic
artform. Some attribute its development
to statements by the Prophet and to
Islam’s aniconic tendencies.

call to prayer
                                                 Calligraphy relief from the Myrtle Court,
See adhan.
       ˆ                                                     Alhambra, Spain.
charity                                                                          48

charity                                   poetry. Its chain of authority (silsilah)
See sadaqah; zakat.
                ˆ                         is traced by its adherents to Muham-
    ˙                                     mad through ¤Alı b. Abı Talib. Many
                                                             ˆ       ˆ ˆ
                                          of the members of this order ˙ are ascetic
                                          and practice their dhikr silently, regu-
Muslim merchants from the Middle East     lating the breath. Its syncretic harmoni-
brought Islam to China as early as the    zation of Islam with Indian culture has
eighth century. With the conversion of    brought criticism from some Muslim
Central Asian peoples, such as the        jurists.
Khazakhs and Uighurs, Islam grew.
Some Chinese Muslims, known as Hui,
exist today, indistinguishable from the   circumambulation
larger population except in religion.     See tawaf.
Chiragh ¤Ali (1844–95)
                                          circumcision (Arabic khitan)
Indian modernist and reformer asso-
                                          Although widespread, male circumci-
ciated with Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khanˆ
                        ˙                 sion among Muslims is not mandated
and the Aligarh Movement.
                                          in the Qur'an and there is debate
                                          whether it is fard (legally obligatory)
Chishtiyyah                               or sunnah of the˙ Prophet. It is often
One of the major Sufı orders of South
                      ˆ ˆ                 associated with purification, and is then
Asia, named after ˙ Mu¤inuddın Chishtı
                              ˆ       ˆ   called taharah. The age of circumci-
(d. 1236), and characterized by the              ˙
                                          sion varies from country to country,
ecstatic listening (sama¤) to music and
                        ˆ                 usually happening before or at puberty.
                                          Traditions relate the practice to the
                                          prophet Abraham.

                                          “Female circumcision,” the clitoridect-
                                          omy, is pre-Islamic in origin and has no
                                          foundation in the Qur'an, but is men-
                                          tioned in some of the traditions of the
                                          Prophet, which aim to ameliorate this
                                          practice. In recent times, it has been
                                          outlawed in many countries (e.g. Egypt
                                          and Sudan) and is the subject of inter-
                                          national women’s and human rights
                                          campaigns advocating its eradication,
                                          but its elimination is widely resisted at
                                          the community level.

                                          See sahabah.
                                              ˙ ˙

                                          Companions of the Cave
   Children in a Muslim kindergarten,
     Xian, Shanxi province, China.        See Ashab al-Kahf.
49                                                                customary law

Conseil National des Franc ais             conversion away from Islam, regarded
Musulmans                                  as apostasy. Following the Muslim belief
A lobbying association aimed at the        that all humans are born Muslim,
improvement of Muslim life in France.      conversion to Islam can also be viewed
                                           as a return to that state. The formal
                                           ceremony usually involves the recitation
                                           of the shahadah, the profession of
See ijma¤.
       ˆ                                   faith, in the presence of witnesses,
                                           followed by the practice of the other
Constitution of Madı                       Pillars, most notably salat (prayer).
                                           For males, circumcision is often
The agreement between Muhammad
                                ˙ ˆ
and the Jews and Muslims of Madınah,       required, and in some communities the
establishing the Jews as one 'ummah        practice of adopting a “Muslim name”
(religious community), and the Muslims     is common.
as another, with mutual rights and
obligations. This agreement and others     creed
made in the Prophet’s lifetime formed
the basis for establishing non-Muslims     See ¤aqıdah.
within the Islamic polity. (See also ahl
al-kitab; dhimmı.)
        ˆ         ˆ                        crescent
                                           See hilal; Red Crescent.
Conversion may be understood as con-
                                           customar y law
version to Islam, that is, submission to
God (the meaning of the word Islam), or    See adat.

da ¤ˆ (Arabic: caller)
 ˆ ı                                           ciated traditions are elaborated through
One who summons someone to Islam, a            the use of Syriac Christian texts by the
missionary. The term was used in both          early commentators, some of whom see
                                                              ˆ ˆ
                                               the figure of ¤Isa (Jesus) as one of those
Sunnı and Shı¤ı circles, but became
      ˆ           ˆˆ
associated with Shı¤ı missionary activity
                     ˆˆ                        who helps destroy ad-Dajjal. While this
at an early date. In Isma¤ılı circles, the
                           ˆ ˆ ˆ               figure is not mentioned in the Qur'an,   ˆ
da¤ı is the representative of the Imam.
  ˆˆ                                     ˆ     the tradition has become associated with
The circles of da¤ıs are arranged hier-
                   ˆˆ                          the story of Dhu-l-Qarnayn (Alexander
archically, culminating in the da¤ı ad-
                                     ˆˆ        the Great) and his walling up of Ya'juj   ˆ
du¤at, the “Summoner of the Sum-               wa-Ma'juj (Gog and Magog). In many
moners” or, sometimes, the Bab. At   ˆ         of the narrative geographies of the
times when the Imam was not in power,          world, some attention is given to the
or at times of persecution, the circle of      location of the home of ad-Dajja theˆl,
da¤ıs was secret or known only to a few.
  ˆˆ                                           conclusion generally being that it is just
They served as political leaders but also      beyond the then current known world,
carried on a strong intellectual and           to the east. (See also yawm ad-dın.)
scholarly tradition, writing many of the
major theological works of Isma¤ılı     ˆ ˆˆ   Damascus
Islam. The particulars of their function-      See Dimashq.
ing has varied among each of the groups
of Isma¤ılı in different historical periods.
        ˆ ˆˆ
                                               dan Fodio, Usuman (¤Uthma n)
(See also da¤wah.)
                                               Religious leader and reformer in Nigeria
d a¤ı (Arabic: weak)
˙                                              best known for his two-stage jihad, the
This is applied as a technical term in                       ˆ
                                               preaching jihad or missionary activity,
classifying hadıth implying unreliability.
               ˆ                                                       ˆ
                                               and the subsequent jihad of the sword
                                               when preaching failed. Through his
ad-Dajja l (Arabic: the deceiver)              efforts, Islam became the dominant
                                               religion of Nigeria. (See also Mahdı;  ˆ
The term for the Muslim “anti-messiah,”        Sokoto caliphate.)
who will come at the end of time, rule
over an unjust world for a period of forty
days (or years), after which all who are        ˆ
                                               dar al-¤ahd (Arabic: realm of treaty)
left will convert to Islam before the Day      According to some commentators, there
of Judgment. This word and the asso-           an exist lands, between the dar al-harb
51                                                                       Deobandis

and the dar al-islam, that are under
           ˆ         ˆ                       order, sometimes called a faqır, from
covenant but not yet under Islamic           the Arabic word meaning to be poor.
control. The theorists say that such
areas of land would be destined to           Da 'u d, also Da wu d, or
                                              ˆ ˆ           ˆ ˆ
become Islamic. Such an area is a place           ˆ
                                             Dahu d/Dahood
of non-belligerence and peace. (See also
                                             David, one of the pre-Islamic prophets
dar as-sulh.)
      ˙ ˙ ˙                                  mentioned in the Qur'an. He is asso-
                                             ciated with the zabur (Psalms).
da r al-h arb (Arabic: realm of war)
In classical Islamic jurisprudence, these    da¤wah (Arabic: summons)
are the non-Muslim areas of the world
                                             Preaching; the missionary call to Islam;
opposed to Islam. Most of the theorists
                                             religious outreach. In the Qur'anic  ˆ
did not regard it as necessary to actually
                                             usage, it means the call by Allah to
wage open warfare against this area of
                                             humans to adhere to the religion of
the world, but rather to conduct active
                                             Islam. While the term has been asso-
missionary work da¤wah, to convert the
                                             ciated with the Isma¤ıliyyah, it is in
                                                                  ˆ ˆ
area to Islam.
                                             common use in Sunnı circles, with many
                                             Muslim institutions of higher learning
  ˆ         ˆ
da r al-isla m (Arabic: realm of             having departments of da¤ wah.
These are the areas of the world under       dawlah (Arabic: state, government)
Islamic control. According to most
                                             The word is often used to indicate an
theorists, these areas can include non-
                                             Islamic state. (See also 'ummah.)
Muslims as part of the polity as long as
they fall into the dhimmı classification.
                                             dawr (Arabic: age, revolution, turn,
da r as -s ulh (Arabic: realm of peace)
         ˙ ˙ ˙                               A technical term among the Isma¤ılı ˆ ˆ ˆ
In Shafi¤ı jurisprudence a third area
       ˆ ˆ
                                             Shı¤ı referring to an era of religious
beside the dar al-harb and the dar
               ˆ                     ˆ
                     ˙                       history. Dawr-i satr is the age in which
al-islam in which non-Muslims live in
                                             the Isma¤ılı Shı¤ı Imams are in conceal-
                                                      ˆ ˆˆ ˆˆ     ˆ
peaceful treaty agreement with Muslim
                                             ment, while dawr-i kashf is the epoch in
states. (See also dar al-¤ahd.)
                                             which they are manifest.

Dar Ul Arqam
                                             dawsah (Arabic: step, tread)
A Malaysian non-governmental da¤wah
                                             A ceremony reported to have been
movement that stresses Islamic revival.
                                             performed by the shaykh of the Sufı ˆ ˆ
                                             Sa¤dı order in Cairo and elsewhere in
Darul Islam                                  which the shaykh would ride a horse
The Indonesian Islamic insurgent move-       over the backs of prostrate devotees
ment between 1948 and 1962.                  without any injury. This ceremony was
                                             associated with the mawlid celebration
     ˆsh (Persian: poor)
dar wı                                       of the birth of the Prophet.
Known in English as “dervish,” a
member of Sufı orders such as the
                ˆ ˆ                          Deobandis
        ˆ     ˙
Mevlevı “whirling” dervishes. In Isla-       The reformist ¤ulama' associated with
mic circles, the term also connotes a        the school at Deoband, India, ninety
person who is a member of a mendicant        miles northeast of Delhi, founded in
dervish                                                                              52

1282/1867 to reform Islam in India.          dhikr (Arabic: mention, remember)
They are of the Hanafı madhhab,
                          ˆ                  Also pronounced zikr or zekr in some
practice ijtihad, and rely on hadıths
              ˆ                  ˆ           Islamic languages, it is the ritual utter-
to emulate Muhammad.          ˙
                ˙                            ance of the name of God or God’s praise.
                                             In Sufı usage it is the litany that is the
                                                   ˆ ˆ
                                             core of worship, such as the repetition of
der vish
                                             a phrase like Allahu akbar or the
See darwısh.

destiny                                               ˆ
                                             dhimmı (Arabic, from ahl al-
See qadar.                                   dhimmah: people benefiting from
devil                                        Non-Muslim free communities living
                                             under Islamic law (sharı ¤ah), who enjoy
See Iblıs.
                                             legal status and are subject to some
                                             restrictions and taxes. While it is usually
dhabh (Arabic: slaughtering by               limited to Jews, Christians, Sabaeans,
cutting ˙ throat)
        the                                  and Zoroastrians, some Islamic courts in
All meat must be properly and ritually       India also included those Hindus who
slaughtered in order to be halal, or
                                   ˆ         supplied military assistance in exchange
permissible. For large animals, this is      for land ownership. (See also ahl al-
done by orienting the animal toward the      kitab; iqta¤; jizyah; kharaj.)
                                                 ˆ        ˆ              ˆ
qiblah, pronouncing the name of God
over the sacrificial animal, slitting its        ˆ
                                             Dhu -l-H ijjah
throat, and draining as much blood as                 ˙
                                             The last month of the Muslim lunar
possible. Different schools of Islamic       calendar in which the pilgrimage
law have more specific requirements           (hajj) occurs.
for proper ritual slaughter. When halal ˆ     ˙
meat is unavailable, it is permissible for
Muslims to eat kosher meat.                    ˆ
                                             Dhu -l-Kifl
                                             A prophet mentioned in Q. 21:85 and
                                             38:48. Scholars have proposed several
dhabı ah (Arabic: victim)
         ˙                                   uncertain identifications with various
The name given to the properly chosen        biblical figures. The most usual identifi-
and prepared animal for the ritual           cation is with Ezekiel, although certain
slaughter during the time of the hajj.       features of his story have led some to
The rules governing the type of animal       identify the figure with Ayyub (Job).
and its proper characteristics are spelled
out in great detail in books of fiqh.
                                             Dhu -l-Qarnayn (Arabic: the
                                             possessor of two horns)
dhanb (Arabic: sin)                          A figure appearing in Q. 18:83–98,
In Muslim legal practice serious sins are    identified by some as Alexander the
associated with h add, punishment            Great (al-Iskandar), who built a barrier
under the legal system (sharı ¤ah). All
                               ˆ             against Gog and Magog (Ya'juj wa-ˆ
sins may be mitigated or forgiven by         Ma'juj). In the tafsır literature, other
                                                   ˆ              ˆ
sincere repentance (tawbah), a matter        figures are mentioned as Dhu-l-Qarnayn.
between the individual and God. The          It is generally agreed that he was a
exception is the sin of shirk.               believer in Islam, and some even argue
53                                                                                 dress

that he should be ranked among the              ˆn (Arabic: religion, faith; judgment)
prophets.                                      Faith or religion; in the phrase yawm
                                               ad-dın, it means the “Day of Judg-
    ˆ       ˆ
Dhu -n-Nu n (Arabic: the possessor             ment.”
of the fish)
An epithet of the prophet Jonah (Arabic
Yunus); Abu-l-Fayd Thawban b. Ibra-
   ˆ        ˆ                ˆ        ˆ        While divorce is permissible in Islam,
  ˆ                ˙
hım Dhu-l-Nun al-Misrı (c. 180/796–
                         ˆ                     traditions from the Prophet declare it to
         ˆ     ˆ
c. 246/861), an Egyptian Sufı famous
                             ˆ ˆ               be a hateful practice in the eyes of God.
for opposing the Mu¤tazilah on the             Legislation in the Qur'a n and the
issue of the createdness of the Qur'an
                                    ˆ          sunnah of Muhammad ameliorated
                                               the pre-Islamic practice of easy divorce
and of writing the first systematic
treatise on Sufı practice, only known,
               ˆ ˆ                             without regard to the welfare of the wife
however, through later quotations.             or the children. Islamic law demands
                                               monetary settlement for a divorced
                                               woman and a waiting period of three
dietar y rules                                 menstrual cycles (¤iddah) before she can
The Qur'an and the sunnah divide
            ˆ                                  remarry. Any offspring from a union
foods into permitted (Halal) and for-
                            ˆ                  belongs “to the bed of the father,”
              ˆ         ˙       ˆ
bidden (Haram), or pure (tahir) and            making the father primarily responsible
          ˙                   ˙
impure (najis). Prohibited foods include       for the care of the children. The power
pork, alcoholic beverages (khamr) and          to initiate divorce has been traditionally
food improperly slaughtered or dedi-           located with the man, although in some
cated to an idol. Muslims are permitted        Islamic states, women have been granted
to receive food from Jews and Chris-           that power. In Shı¤ı Islam, the termina-
tians, and at all times issues of health       tion of a mut¤ah marriage does not
and survival take precedence over pro-         require a divorce, since it is a time-
hibitions and fasting.                         limited union. In all cases, under Islamic
                                               law, divorce is a personal contract
                                               between two individuals rather than a
      ˆ,  ˆ      ˆ    ˆ
Dihlawı Sha h Walı Alla h                      state-sanctioned contract.
See Walı Allah, Shah.
       ˆ    ˆ     ˆ
Dimashq                                        Small Muslim country on the coast of
                                               the Horn of Africa.
The city of Damascus is the largest city
in Syria and one of the oldest cities in the
world. It was conquered by Muslims in          Dome of the Rock
14/635, and under the 'Umayyad caliph          See qubbat al-sakhrah; al-Quds.
Mu¤a ˆwiyah became the capital of the
'Umayyad dynasty. It remained an               dowr y
important Islamic center even when the
                                               See mahr.
¤Abbasids moved the caliphate to Bagh-
dad in the 133/750. The city is rich in
Islamic monuments, including the               dress
famous Great Mosque of the 'Umayyads           Muslim dress varies widely among
built by the caliph Walıd I in the first/
                         ˆ                     different cultural regions, reflecting local
eighth century.                                custom and current ideology. There is no
     Druze                                                                                54

                                                   or religious dissimulation, giving the
                                                   impression that they are Muslims or of
                                                   any other religion in circumstances in
                                                   which it would be dangerous to reveal
                                                   their religion. They call themselves
                                                   muwahhidun, “unitarians.” They are
                                                   found chiefly in the areas around Leba-
                                                   non, Syria, and Israel, and have played a
                                                   major role in the shaping of modern
                                                   Lebanon. In Israel they have enjoyed
                                                   special status because of their separation
                                                   from Islam and Christianity.

Iranian Muslim women wearing the chador.
                                   ˆ               du¤a ' (Arabic: invocation)
                                                   Prayer or supplication, this term can
     one dress code among all Muslims. The         refer to a formal, ritual prayer or an
     Qur'an enjoins both men and women to
            ˆ                                      extra-rogatory prayer made at any time.
     guard their modesty, and women are            In the second, personal, sense, the
     commanded to cover their bosoms.              request to God can include anything
     Women are permitted greater freedom           and be uttered at any time. Jurists have
     of dress within the inner family circle       tried to classify the circumstances when
     than in public (Q. 24:30–1). Believing        such a prayer would be more efficacious,
     women are enjoined also to wrap their         but, in keeping with the tradition that
     outer garments around them, as a mark         nothing stands between the believer and
     of their belief and to forestall molesta-     God, such works have been hortative
     tion (Q. 33:59). All Muslims are to dress     rather than legislative. (See also salat.)
     appropriately for worship, with only
     indecency forbidden (Q. 7:31–3). Pas-         Duldul
     sages in the sunnah elaborate on              The name of the mule given Muham-
     Muslim dress, such as restricting men         mad by the Byzantine emperor Hera-
     from wearing silk or gold. Among some         clius (Arabic Muqawqis), and which
     Muslims, elaborate coverings for              was the Prophet’s mount in the battle
     women, along with other restrictions,         of Hunayn. It is also reported that ¤Alıˆ
     have become external signs of a religious         ˙ ˆ ˆ
                                                   b. Abı Talib rode this mule in the battle
     commitment to fundamentalist princi-                  ˙
                                                   of the Camel.
     ples. (See also ¤aba'ah; ¤awrah; burqu¤;
        ˆ           ˆ
     chador; hijab; modesty.)
                 ˙                                     ˆ
                                                   dunya (Arabic: nearest)
                                                   The term is used in the Qur'an and in the
                                                   religious tradition to mean the “world,”
     A religion separate from Islam that           that is, the physical, sensorial world, as
     developed from the teachings of               opposed to the spiritual world. While
     Muhammad b. Isma¤ıl al-Darazı (fl.
                             ˆ ˆ            ˆ      some Muslims practice strong asceticism
     408/1017) that held that the sixth            and rejection of this world, the over-
     Fatimid caliph, al-H a kim bi-'amr
       ˆ                          ˆ                whelming majority adhere to a balance
     Allah, was divine and˙ did not die but        between the quest for spiritual salvation
     went into ghaybah or occultation. The         and partaking in this life, following the
     religion is esoteric, elitist, and its mem-   maxim attributed to the Prophet, “There
     bers are permitted to practice taqiyyah,      is no ‘monkhood’ in Islam.”
55                                                                                 ˆ

    ˆ ˆs
Durra nı                                    who ruled from 1352/1933 to 1393/
This dynasty, also known as the Abdalıs,
                                      ˆ     1973, is currently seeking to regain his
was founded by 'Ahmad Khan ¤Abdalı
                              ˆ         ˆ   throne and reestablish the dynasty.
(1163/1747–1187/1772) in 1163/1747
in present-day Afghanistan, and lasted         ˆ
                                            Duru z
until it was overthrown in 1393/1973 by     See Druze.
a proto-Soviet military coup. At its
height, the Durranı empire stretched
                   ˆ ˆ
from Khurasan to Kashmir and the                 ˆ
                                            dustu r (Persian: one who exercises
Punjab, and from the Oxus river to the      authority)
Indian Ocean. It had the support of         In pre-modern times, the word meant
ethnic Uzbeks and Pashtuns, and was         rule, regulation, or the person who
strongly influenced by Sufı ideals. The
                          ˆ ˆ               exercised the office that enforced the
dynasty declined through the thirteenth/    rules and regulations. Hence it is
nineteenth century, and in the four-        included in the titles of viziers and other
teenth/twentieth century the rulers were    court officials. In modern Arabic, it has
primarily concerned with keeping the        come to mean “constitution,” as in the
family in power rather than developing      legislated constitutions of the various
the country. The last king, Zahir Shah,
                               ˆ     ˆ      states.

Egypt                                        ensoulment
Over ninety percent Muslim and pre-          Many Muslims believe that the soul of a
dominantly Sunnı, Egypt has been a
                  ˆ                          person is implanted in the body one
major Islamic center since the time of the   hundred and twenty days after concep-
second caliph, ¤Umar b. ¤Abd al-Khattab  ˆ   tion. This notion, found in the hadıth,
(r. 12/634–23/644). Its capital is Cairo                                      ˙
                                             has affected notions of abortion,
(al-Qahirah). Arabic speaking, home
       ˆ                                     inheritance associated with the death
of al-Azhar, major publishing houses         of infant heirs, and other similar areas.
and a strong intellectual life, Egypt has    Popular stories and practice, however,
been the center of much Islamic and          assume that the evil inclination of
Arabic thought. (See also Bulaq.)
                             ˆ ˆ             humans is implanted at birth, and some
                                             will recite the formula bismi-llah ar-
elephant                                           ˆ
                                             rahman ar-rahım, “In the name of God,
                                               ˙          ˙
                                             the Merciful and Compassionate,” to
See fıl.
                                             avert the devil’s plan.

See Ilyas.
                                             Islamic views about the end of time, the
                                             Day of Judgment (yawm ad-dın) and the
Elijah Muhammad (1897–1975)                  afterlife (al-'akhirah) vary greatly,
Born Paul Robert Poole, he was the           but most Muslims agree that prior to the
leader of the Black Muslim movement          Day of Judgment, the forces of evil, led
the Nation of Islam. Influenced by            by ad-Dajjal, the Deceiver or false
Fard Muhammad, he taught that blacks         Messiah, and Gog and Magog (Ya'juj      ˆ
in the United States were descended          wa-Ma'juj) will clash with the forces of
from the Arabian Shabazz tribe and that      good, led by the Mahdı and/or Jesus.
white people were descended from the         This will be followed by a general
devil. Under his leadership, the Nation      judgment of all souls, the righteous going
of Islam movement was separate from          to Heaven (see al-jannah) and the evil
worldwide Islam in its fundamental           going to torment in Hell (see jahannam).
beliefs and lack of tolerance.               (See also Iblıs; Munkar wa-Nakır.)
                                                          ˆ                    ˆ ˆ

Enoch                                        Eve
See Idrıs.
       ˆ                                     See Hawwa'.
57                             Ezra

exegesis         Ezra
See tafsır.
        ˆ        See ¤Uzayr.

See Dhu-l-Kifl.

fad a 'il (Arabic: excellence; sing.
      ˆ                                                  ˆ
                                              Fad lalla h, Muh ammad
    ˆ                                             ˙
                                              H usayn (born 1935)    ˙
  ˙                                            ˙
The genre of literature written in praise     Lebanese Shı¤ı scholar and leader of the
of, first, the Qur'an, then the Compa-
                     ˆ                        Hizbullah (Party of God), named by
nions (sahabah) and other religious            ˆ
                                              Ayatolla h Ru h olla h Khomeinı as
                                                       ˆ        ˆ      ˆ          ˆ
worthies, ˙ cities, provinces, and holy
         ˙                                    Marji¤ at-Taqlıd, a source of imita-
months. As a genre, it lists and extols       tion. He was instrumental in drafting the
the virtues of its subject. During the time   Lebanese Islamic constitution. His theol-
of the Crusades, a considerable litera-       ogy and views about revolutionary
ture developed around Jerusalem,              social action are intertwined, and he
known as fada' il al-Quds, which was
                 ˆ                            preaches that the Shi¤ite Islamic revolu-
intended to strengthen in the minds of        tion should be completed in Lebanon
Muslims their claim to that holy city.        and throughout Palestine, with the
Material from this corpus is actively         resultant subjugation of Christians and
used today by Palestinians in the Pales-      expulsion of Jews. He espouses an
tinian–Israeli conflict.                       activist Usulı form of Shı¤ism that
                                                            ˆ ˆ             ˆ
                                                           ˙ ˆ
                                              stresses ijtihad as a means to solve
Fadak                                         modern problems.

An ancient Arabian Jewish agricultural
town, the inhabitants of which made a
treaty agreement with Muhammad that           See ıman.
                                                  ˆ ˆ
they would be allowed to remain on their
land, sharing the produce, which was          Faith Movement
used to aid the poor and travelers. After
                                              See Ilyas, Mawlana Muhammad.
                                                     ˆ       ˆ ˆ
Muhammad’s death, his daughter Fati- ˆ                             ˙
mah and the caliph Abu Bakr disagreed
                         ˆ             ˙
about whether she should inherit the                      ˆn    ˆ ˆ,
                                              Fakhr ad-Dı ar-Ra zı Abu  ˆ
proceeds from the town or whether they        ¤Abd Alla h Muh ammad b.
                                              ¤Umar b. al-H usayn (543/1149–
should remain state property. Abu Bakr’s
                                 ˆ                         ˙
refusal to grant her claim is viewed by       606/1209)
Shı¤ı as an injustice. Sometime during or
   ˆˆ                                         One of the most prominent Sunnı        ˆ
after the reign of the caliph ¤Umar, the      theologians and religious philosophers,
Jews of Fadak were expelled, albeit with      he studied in the town of Rayy. He
token compensation that recognized            engaged in religious polemic against the
their ownership of the land.                  Mu¤tazilah, who forced him to leave
59                                                                   family planning

the city and undertake a series of trips,     family
finally settling in Herat. He is said to
                       ˆ                      The family and its extensions, the clan
have had an excellent memory, and to          and the tribe, have been basic social
have been a great teacher and an              units in Islamic societies up to and
excellent preacher. He was a prolific          including modern times. The Qur'an     ˆ
and encyclopedic writer whose works           ameliorates the situations of women and
cover history, fiqh, tafsır, kalam, and
                           ˆ      ˆ
                                              children. Women are protected from
falsafah, among others. Of his many           divorce during pregnancy and nursing,
                 ˆ ˆ
works, his Mafatıh al-Ghayb, his monu-        and children are assured economic sup-
mental commentary on the Qur'an,        ˆ
                                              port in the Prophetic traditions by being
demonstrates his anti-Mu¤tazilite views,      assigned “to the bed of the father.” In
as it was written against the tafsır of az-
                                  ˆ           pre-modern agrarian societies, the
Zamakhsharı. His Munazarat al-¤ Alla-
               ˆ           ˆ   ˆ          ˆ   extended family was the basic economic
mah Fakhr ad-Dın is an autobiographi-
                   ˆ                          unit, and the family metaphor is often
cal exposition of his various intellectual    extended to all Muslims as “brothers”
encounters with other scholars and            and “sisters” in the Islamic family.
shows his positions on various subjects.      Pressures from the modern world are
                                              threatening the family structure in mod-
                ˆ    ˆn
        ˆn, Riz a eddı (1859–
Fakhreddı                                     ern Muslim societies with the same
1936)         ˙
                                              range of reactions and transformations
Russian Muslim reformist and educa-           we see in the West.
tional advocate. He was an advocate of
a modified pan-Turanism and of Islamic         family law
                                              According to some, family law is the
                                              heart of the sharı ¤ah, or Islamic reli-
falsafah (Arabic from Greek:
                                              gious law, but it has no distinct existence
                                              in the traditional treatises outside laws
This concept tends to be opposed to           for marriage, divorce, women, inheri-
theology, kalam. The tradition of phi-
              ˆ                               tance, and other laws of personal status.
losophical thought was derived from the       In the last century, many Muslim states
Hellenistic Greek tradition and has been      have adopted reforms in family laws,
opposed by many Muslim thinkers, who          restricting polygamy, allowing for wife-
have seen such speculative thought as         initiated divorce, assuring equity in
antithetical to the religion of Islam.        property rights between husband and
Nevertheless, many early groups actively      wife, and, often following Western
promoted philosophical thinking and           models, adopting codes for family law.
the use of the tools of philosophy, such      These codes, which have been influenced
as logic, to promote their causes. The        in many instances by colonial forces,
Sunnı unease and rejection of philosphy
      ˆ                                       have fallen under stringent scrutiny and
has something to do with its association      attack by Islamist activists, however,
with Shı¤ı speculative theology. In the
         ˆˆ                                   who see the codes as contravening their
course of arguments about religion,           interpretation of the Qur'an.ˆ
kalam itself was strongly influenced by
philosophy, and the Islamic philosophi-
cal tradition has been a strong one.          family planning
Many famous Greek philosophers are            There is no unanimous opinion among
known in whole or in part because of the      Muslim jurists about family planning,
preservation of their texts by Islamic        meaning the limitation of the number
philosophers.                                 of children. Some, arguing from
   ˆ                                                                                   60

hadıths that permit coitus interruptus,
     ˆ                                         of Aristotle. He saw Islam as the
allow contraceptives. Some allow con-          ultimate home for philosophical
traceptives only if the wife permits           thought, and held that human reasoning
their use. Others, also relying on             was superior to all other forms of
h adı ths and prohibitions in the
    ˆ                                          knowledge, including religious knowl-
Qur'an, call contraception infanticide.
       ˆ                                       edge. He was a harmonizer between the
The Grand Muftı of Jordan, Shaykh
                  ˆ                            views of Aristotle and Plato, holding
¤Abdullah al-Qalqilı, issued a fatwah
         ˆ          ˆ                          that the differences resulted from a
in 1964 allowing contraception as long         misunderstanding of the underlying
as it was not injurious to the health.         truth. In the West, his works were
The use of abortion after 120 days             translated into Latin and influenced the
of gestation is almost generally con-          development of European medieval phi-
demned and not allowed as a method             losophy. He was known as Alfarabius,
of contraception.                              and was called the “Second Teacher,”
                                               the first being Aristotle.
fana ' (Arabic: annihilation)
Among the Sufı , this Arabic term
                   ˆ ˆ                         fard (Arabic: religious duty)
indicates the passing away of the mys-                ˙
                                               Religious obligations in Islam are
tic’s earthly ties and his absorption into
                                               divided between fard ¤ ayn, duties incum-
God, without, however, the loss of                                 ˙
                                               bent on each individual and fard
individuality.                                                                           ˙
                                               kifayah, those incumbent on the com-
                                               munity. An example of the first would be
   ˆh (Arabic: jurist; pl. fuqaha)
faqı                            ˆ              daily prayer, incumbent on each indivi-
An expert in fiqh, specialized legal            dual. Of the latter, the responsibility of
knowledge.                                     reciting a funeral prayer is fulfilled if at
                                               least one individual performs it, but the
faqı (Arabic: pauper)                          whole community sins if it is not
                                               performed. In most circles fard and
One who is poor or destitute. In
                                               wajib are synonymous, except ˙in the
religious terms, the word is used to refer
                                               Hanafı tradition, where fard refers to
to those renunciants who have given up          ˙                             ˙
                                               those obligations derived directly from
all worldly possessions. They are, in
                                               the Qur'an and wajib to those derived
some circles, regarded as having special
                                               from reason.
spiritual powers. In popular use, the
term refers to a beggar, and, since the
time of the British in Islamic India, to a     al-Fa ru qı Isma ¤ı Ra jı (1921–
                                                   ˆ ˆ ˆ,     ˆ ˆl ˆ ˆ
beggar who performs tricks and feats of        86)
magic for money.
                                               Islamic activist scholar born in Palestine
                                               and educated in the Arab world and the
         ˆ ˆ,     ˆ
al-Fara bı Abu Nas r                           United States. He sought the integration
Muh ammad b. Muh ammad                         of Islamic knowledge and modern learn-
(died c. 339/950)   ˙
                                               ing with the goal of revitalizing Islam
One of the chief philospohers of medie-        and expanding its influence in the West.
val Islam; very little is known of his life.   He served an active role in the Islam
He was Turkish and was supported               section of the American Academy of
during his lifetime by Sayf ad-Dawlah,         Religion and in the American Oriental
the Shı¤ı ruler of Aleppo. Through a
        ˆˆ                                     Society. He and his wife, Lois Lamya'    ˆ
Christian Nestorian teacher he was             al-Faruqı, were killed by an intruder in
                                                    ˆ ˆ ˆ
introduced to the philosophical thinking       their home.
61                                                                            ˆ

                    Courtyard of the al-Qarawiyyın mosque in Fas.

Fa s, also Fez                               tion is thought to have curative powers
This important town in Morocco was           for the sick; the seven letters of the
founded in the second/eighth century by      Arabic alphabet missing from the chap-
the Idrısids but came into prominence
        ˆ                                    ter are also thought to have magical
under the Almoravids beginning in the        powers.
fifth/eleventh century. It is known for its
Hispano-Muslim monuments, the most              ˆ
                                             Fa t imah (605–11/633)
famous of which is the al-Qarawiyyın    ˆ          ˙
mosque.                                      The daughter of the Prophet Muham-
                                             mad by his first wife, Khadıjah bt.ˆ ˙
                                             Khuwaylid. She married ¤Alı b. Abıˆ      ˆ
fasting                                      Talib and bore al-Hasan b. ¤Alı and
                                                ˆ                                ˆ
See sawm.
                                             al-Husayn b. ¤Alı. ˙ She is one of the
    ˙                                        “people of the cloak” (asha al-kisa' ),
                                                    ˙                       ˆb      ˆ
                                             consisting of her, ¤Alı, al-Hasan, and al-
al-fa tih ah (Arabic: the opening)                                       ˙
          ˙                                  Husayn, whom Muhammad took under
The first chapter of the Qur'an. Early
                                  ˆ                                 ˙
                                              ˙ cloak and pronounced as members of
collections of the Qur'an did not include
                        ˆ                    his family, an event of great importance
this first chapter, and some regard it as     to Shı¤ı Muslims. She has received little
an early liturgical prayer associated with   attention in Sunnı historical sources, but
the Qur'an as early as Muhammad’s
           ˆ                                 Shı¤ı hagiographic traditions consider her
lifetime. It is an important part of every   one of the most important women in
prayer salat, since it is recited at the
             ˆ                               early Islam. Modern Western historical
beginning of each rak¤ah, or seventeen       examinations of her life range between
times a day. The chapter is used as an       harshly critical and laudatory, reflecting
amulet in popular magic, and its recita-     the variances in Islamic sources.
Fatimids                                                                            62

Fa t imids                                   assure French Muslims an Islamic stan-
    ˙                                        dard of living according to a strict
The Isma¤ılı Shı¤ı dynasty that ruled in
          ˆ ˆ ˆ   ˆˆ
North Africa and Egypt from 297/909          interpretation of sharı ¤ah.
to 567/1171. Its rich intellectual tradi-
tion and active missionary work failed       feminism
to inculcate a permanent tradition of        The quest for rights for women and the
Shı¤ı Islam among the Egyptians. Its
   ˆˆ                                        creation of nonsexist postpatriarchal
rulers are regarded as Imams in the
                              ˆ              societies can be found throughout the
Isma¤ılı tradition. They are:
     ˆ ˆˆ                                    Islamic world. While some argue that an
  ¤Ubayd Allah       ˆ   297/909–322/934     original aim of Islam was to reform
  al-Qa'imˆ              322/934–334/946     human conduct for the benefit of women
  al-Mansur      ˆ       334/946–341/953     and children, feminism in the modern
  al-Mu¤izz    ˙         341/953–365/975     sense has its roots in the late nineteenth
  al-¤Azız   ˆ           365/975–386/996     century in letters, poems, and stories
  al-Hakimˆ              386/996–411/1021    that questioned the exclusion of women
  al-Zahir               411/1021–427/1036   from public society. By the mid-twentieth
  al-Mustansir           427/1036–487/1094   century, educated Muslim women were
  al-Musta¤lı      ˙
                   ˆ     487/1094–495/1101   publishing scholarship about gender
  al-Amir                495/1101–525/1130   roles in Islam and proposing new
  al-Hafiz ˆ              525/1130–544/1149   religious interpretations aimed at rede-
  al-Zafir˙ˆ              544/1149–549/1154   fining the understanding of Islam’s
  al-Fa'iz               549/1154–555/1160   foundation texts, the Qur'an and the
  al-¤Adid               555/1160–567/1171   hadıth. Women’s participation in the
            ˙ ˙                               ˙
                                             liberation movements of the twentieth
                                             century raised hopes for greater gender
fatwa (Arabic: legal judgement)
                                             equality, but the rise of so-called fun-
A definitive legal pronouncement given in     damentalism has acted as a counter to
response to a question about an Islamic      the gains made in the mid-twentieth
legal practice, it is given by a qualified    century. Groups like the Sisters in Islam
muftı and based on authoritative pre-
       ˆ                                     in Malaysia and the Women’s Action
cedents, not personal opinion alone.         Forum in Pakistan have made steady
They are generally advisory and informa-     progress, particularly through the use of
tive, with the inquirer agreeing to abide    Islamic liberation theology and the
by the response to his question. Histori-    espousal of family rights.
          ˆ ˆ
cally, fatawa have been separate from the
judgments of the qadıs. In modern times
                     ˆ ˆ                     Fez
          ˆ           ˙
the fatwa has sometimes been associated
                                             See Fas.
in the popular practice with declarations
of jihad or with death decrees.
                                             Fida 'iyya n-i Isla m
                                                ˆ     ˆ        ˆ
 ´ ´
Fe de ration Nationale des                   A political and religious organization,
Musulmans de France (FNMF)                   founded in Iran in 1945. Its members
                                             advocated a Shı¤ı Islamic revolution.
This federation of approximately one
                                             Rigid in their social views, they espoused
hundred Muslim organizations in France
                                             violence and terror to achieve their aims.
was founded in 1406/1985 by a French
convert to Islam, Daniel Youssef Leclerc,
who is president of a group dedicated to      ˆl
                                             fı (Arabic from Persian: elephant)
increasing the quality of halal food in
                              ˆ              The title of surah 105 in the Qur'an, it
                                                           ˆ                   ˆ
Paris. The goal of the organization is to    refers to the unsuccessful attack on
63                                                                       funerary rites

Mecca by the Ethiopian general Abra-          awaiting the Day of Judgment. In
hah, who used a war-elephant. The             common parlance, it refers to the
tafsır literature reports that the ele-
     ˆ                                        temptation of wealth, children, and
phant, who was named Mah mu d,      ˆ         other things of this world that lead a
                                 ˙            Muslim toward sin.
refused to enter the sacred precincts
and knelt before the Ka¤bah. These
events are supposed to have taken place       fit rah (Arabic: nature)
in 570, the year of Muhammad’s birth,           ˙
                       ˙                      The term is used in the Qur'an to   ˆ
but historians place the events some-
                                              indicate the inherent characteristics of
what earlier.
                                              an individual created by God. This term
                                              has caused much discussion among
fiqh (Arabic: understanding,                   theologians about how much of an
knowledge)                                    individual’s capacities are created by
Usually understood as Islamic jurispru-       God and is therefore fixed, and how
dence, it is the practice of discovering      much is open to what we would term
God’s law (sharı ¤ah), writing treatises
                  ˆ                           environmental influences, i.e. parents,
about it, and relating the practice of law    learning, etc. In spite of some schools of
to revelation. Historically, fiqh arose        thought that have exhibited a determi-
from a systematic analysis of the             nistic view, the Qur'anic perspective
Qur'an and hadıth combined with
      ˆ              ˆ                        promotes sufficient free will for almost
rigorous analogic reasoning, qiyas. In
                                    ˆ         everyone to be able to achieve salvation.
both Shı¤ı and Sunnı Islamic circles, this
        ˆˆ             ˆ
led to various “schools” madhhabs,            Followers
which were based regionally or on the
                                              See tabi¤un
                                                   ˆ ˆ
ideas of an eponymous founder.

Fir¤awn, or fir¤awn
                                              Originally applied to nineteenth-century
The Qur'anic word for Pharaoh, and
                                              American Protestants, who were react-
often used in a more general sense in the
                                              ing strongly to the threats of modernism,
tafsır for “tyrant.”
                                              the term has come to mean any religious
                                              group rigidly resisting change in the
firdaws                                        modern world. When applied to Islam,
See al-Jannah.                                it is often understood as synonymous
                                              with terrorism, and, for this and all of its
fitnah (Arabic: smelt or assay, test,          other pejorative meanings, many reject
prove)                                        its applicability to Islam. Some scholars
                                              see fundamentalism as part of an
Trial, temptation, discord, civil war,
                                              ongoing reformist action in Islamic
strife; the term originally meant to test
                                              history, while others see it as a purely
a metal by fire, and it retains a sense of
                                              modernist movement. Despite its Wes-
this meaning in the Qur'an, where the
                                              tern origins, the term has been translated
worth of the believers will be tested by
                                              into Arabic as 'Usuliyyah or Sala-
the fire of the yawm ad-dın. Subse-
                                              fiyyah and used by˙ Arab writers.
quently, the term is often used to refer to
the civil war that started with the killing
of the caliph ¤Uthman and led to the
                       ˆ                      funerar y rites
formation of the Khawarij and the
                            ˆ                 The proper conduct of a Muslim funeral
Shı¤ı. It can also refer to the trials that
   ˆˆ                                         is an obligation on the Muslim commu-
people will receive in the grave while                       ˆ
                                              nity, Fard kifayah, and the details of the
furqan                                                                              64

rites are a major subject of legal thought.   grave for the benefit of the deceased.
Funeral concerns begin even before a          (See also janazah.)
person’s death, with the shahadah and
a Qur'anic surah, preferably Ya sın
         ˆ      ˆ                     ˆ ˆ         ˆ
                                              furqa n (Arabic: proof)
(surah 36), recited by relatives and
friends. The dead should be prepared          This word is used in the Qur'an to ˆ
and buried as soon after death as             mean “criterion, salvation, discrimina-
possible. The body is washed three times      tion, and separation.” It is the title of
by a relative of the same sex or by a         Surah 25 in the Qur'an, where it seems
                                                ˆ                     ˆ
spouse, taking care to preserve the           to mean the distinguisher between good
modesty of the deceased, wrapped in a         and evil. It is also used in this sense
clean, white shroud made of three pieces      when referring to the scripture received
of cloth for men and five for women, and       by Musa. In Q. 8:29 it is said, “O you
                                                    ˆ ˆ
scented with a non-alcoholic perfume.         who believe, if you fear God, He will
Funeral prayers (salat al-janazah) are
                      ˆ          ˆ                                ˆ
                                              assign you a furqan and forgive you
recited standing ˙ with no prostration        your sins.” Western scholars point to the
(sujud). In the funeral procession, the
     ˆ                                                              ˆ
                                              Aramaic word purqan, meaning “salva-
mourners walk in front or beside the          tion,” as influencing the meaning of the
bier, and those who are riding or driving     Arabic word.
come behind. It is recommended that the
mourners remain silent, without music         futuwwah
or lamentation. The body is buried,           Related to the Arabic word for youth
facing Mecca, in a deep grave, without            ˆ
                                              (fata), futuwwah organizations have
a casket, but with a covering to keep the     been associated with Sufı orders and
                                                                       ˆ ˆ
dirt from the body. No bedding or other       craft guilds as well as˙ popular move-
materials should be placed in the grave.      ments in Islamic societies as fraternal
The person who places the body in the         orders. Often drawing from the impo-
grave should recite the shahadah in the       verished and disenfranchised segments
ears of the deceased. The grave can be        of society, the futuwwah groups have
marked with a small, simple headstone,        ranged from common gangs to instru-
but more elaborate monuments are              ments of religious and social reform.
discouraged by most scholars. Also,
legal scholars have resisted the intrusion
of local customs into the funeral prac-       Fyzee, Asaf ¤Ali Asghar (1899–
tice, such as transferring the deceased to    1981)
another country, reading the Qur'an inˆ       Noted Isma¤ılı Shı¤ı Indian jurist and
                                                         ˆ ˆ ˆ  ˆˆ
the cemetery, putting offerings of food,      reformer, Fyzee’s Outlines of Muham-
water, flowers or money in or around the                                         ˙
                                              madan Law sought to explain Islamic
grave, slaughtering an animal for the         law as a dynamic process in history and
funeral, maintaining mourning for a           to influence the modernization of Isla-
year, having the relatives of the deceased    mic law to fit the needs of modern
wear black, or planting flowers on the         Muslim societies.

Gabriel                                    mad during the Farewell Pilgrimage
See Jibrıl.
        ˆ                                  declared ¤Alı b. Abı Ta lib as his
                                                          ˆ        ˆ ˆ
                                           successor. Sunnı tradition also recog-
gambling                                   nizes the event but does not give it the
                                           same significance, or passes over it in
The Qur'an and subsequent Islamic law
                                           silence. By report, the event took place
forbids games of chance and gambling.      on the eighteenth of the month of Dhu-l-
This prohibition is extended to financial   Hijjah, which is marked by Shı¤ı as a day
speculation. (See also banks and bank-      ˙
                                           of solemn celebration.
ing; maysir; riba.)

                                                   ˆ ˆ, ˆ
                                           al-Ghannu shı Ra shid (born
Garden (Paradise)
See al-Jannah.
                                           Tunisian modernist and reformer, who
                                           advocates democratic religious modern-
Gasprinski (Gasprali), Isma ¤ı
                          ˆ ˆl
                                           ism with equality for men and women.
Bey (1851–1914)
Russian Tatar (Turkish) modernist,
                                           gharar (Arabic: risk, hazard)
reformer and proponent of Jadıdism.
He advocated the Westernization of the     The term is used in Islamic discussions of
Russian Tatar community, which he          finance to indicate the risk of unknown
sought to achieve through the creation     elements in a transaction that would
of newspapers and an elementary school     render the transaction invalid according
system. He also sought to create a         to Islamic law. While some scholars
national Turkish literary language,        allow a certain degree of risk, others
based on Ottoman Turkish.                  seek a risk-free Islamic financial system.

geomancy (Arabic, ¤ ilm ar-raml)               ˆb (Arabic: strange, rare)
The popular practice of divination         A term used in hadıth criticism to
through the use of sand. Found in many     indicate a tradition ˙that is not supported
parts of the Islamic world, it is con-     by multiple isnads.
demned by ¤ulama' as un-Islamic.
                                           Gharna t ah or Granada
Ghadı Khumm                                          ˙
                                           Granada was a major city in Islamic
The spot between Mecca and Madınah
                                 ˆ         Spain and the last area of Spain to resist
where, according to the Shı¤ı, Muham-
                          ˆˆ               the Reconquista, falling in 897/1492. Its
Ghassanids                                                                            66

                                               its religious use, it is found among both
                                               the Sunnı and the Shı¤ı, but it is most
                                                           ˆ             ˆˆ
                                               common among the Shı¤ı. It most often
                                               refers to the absence in the physical
                                               sense of a person who is absent from the
                                               world but present with Allah. In this
                                               sense, the term can apply to the figure of
                                               al-Khadir, whose presence is never-
                                               theless felt through his activities in the
                                               world. This is the meaning usually
                                               applied to the occultation of the Hid-
                                               den Imam of the Ithna ¤Ashariyyah
                                                         ˆ                  ˆ
                                               Shı¤ı. In this doctrine, the Imam is alive
                                                   ˆˆ                           ˆ
                                               and hidden from the view of his
                                               followers, and will return at some
                                               eschatological time. By extension, the
                                               term can refer to the periods of time in
                                               which the Imam is absent or hidden.

                                                         ˆˆ           ˆ ˆ),
                                               al-Ghaza lı (al-Ghazza lı Abu ˆ
                                               H a mid Muh ammad b.
                                               ˙           ˙      ˆ ˆ
                                               Muh ammad at -Tu sı (450/1058–
 The Alhambra Palace, Granada, Spain.              ˙          ˙ ˙
most famous monument is the Alham-             Ash¤arı theologian, jurist, and Sufı, he
                                                      ˆ                            ˆ ˆ
bra, the “Red Fortress,” built by the                                            ˙
                                               was trained as a jurist and practiced that
Nasrid dynasty. It is a series of buildings,   profession for some time. He appears to
and the best example of Islamic archi-         have had a crisis in mid-career and left
tecture and decoration in Spain.               Baghdad and a successful professorship.
                                               The reasons for his crisis have been
Ghassa nids                                    much discussed, but he gives religious
                                               reasons as the cause. He returned to
The pre-Islamic Arabian tribe, originally
                                               public life at the turn of the century,
from the Yemen, that settled on the
                                               near the end of 499/1105, convinced of
northwest border of the peninsula, allied
                                               his role as the “Renewer of Religion,”
with the Romans (Byzantines) as a client
                                               al-Mujaddid. In this period, he wrote his
state, and formed a barrier between the
                                               famous autobiographical work, al-Mun-
settled areas of Rome and the interior of
                                               qidh min ad-dalal (The deliverance from
Arabia. They were Monophysite Chris-                         ˙
                                               error). In ˙his philosophical/theological
tian and helped revive the Monophysite
                                               works, he criticized the thoughts and
church. In the history of Arabia, they
                                               influence of philosophy. See, for exam-
were a conduit of Roman ideas into the
                                                               ˆ         ˆ
                                               ple, his Tahafut al-falasifah. He also
peninsula. They were eliminated as a
                                               proposed an integration of theology,
tribe with the Islamic conquest, but
                                               mysticism, law and ethics in his famous
some Syrian Christian families today
                                               Ihya' ¤ulum ad-dın (The revival of the
                                                   ˆ     ˆ         ˆ
can trace their ancestry to this tribe.         ˙
                                               religious sciences), in which he held that
                                               knowledge of the Qur'an and the
ghaybah (Arabic: occultation)                  sunnah of the Prophet was sufficient
Originally an astronomical term for            to be a Muslim. His autobiography, al-
occultation, concealment, absence. In                                   ˆ
                                               Munqidh min ad -dalal, is a major
                                                                    ˙ ˙
67                                                                      guardianship

testament to his spiritual and intellectual   number of groups proposed speculative
journey.                                      and widely varied ideas about a range of
                                              theological issues. Many doctrines that
         ˆ ˆ,
al-Ghaza lı Muh ammad (1336/                  became standard among the Shı¤ı in later
1917–1417/1996 ) ˙                            periods were deemed as exaggerations
                                              by some writers, including the ghaybah
Egyptian reformer and former member
                                              of the Imam.
of al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (the Mus-
             ˆ               ˆ
lim Brotherhood) and advocate of Isla-
mic modernism. He is most noted for his       ghusl (Arabic: washing)
limitation of the use of hadıths that do
                               ˆ              The thorough washing of the whole
                         ˙ ˆ
not have a basis in the Qur¤an, allowing      body to achieve a state of ritual purity.
him to criticize both the extreme tradi-      It is usually performed before visiting a
tionalists and the radical left.              mosque, after sex, childbirth, contact
                                              with a dead body, and other major
       ˆ ˆ,
al-Ghaza lı Zaynab (born 1336/                contaminations. In order for it to be a
1917)                                         valid ghusl, as opposed to just a bath, it
                                              must be accompanied by the declaration
Egyptian writer and teacher, founder of
                                              of intent, niyyah, and be uninterrupted.
the Muslim Women’s Association and
                                              The times when such an ablution is
member of al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun
                       ˆ               ˆ
                                              necessary and the particular practices for
(the Muslim Brotherhood). She believes
                                              it vary among communities and schools
in women’s active participation in public
                                              of law (madhhabs). (See also janabah.)
life as long as it does not interfere with
the sacred duty of being a wife and
mother. She has been imprisoned for her          ˆ
                                              Gina n (Hindi)
views and the Muslim Women’s Asso-            Usually anonymous mystical poetry
ciation was disbanded by the Egyptian         ascribed to various Nizarı Isma¤ılı pırs
                                                                     ˆ ˆ    ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
government in 1964.                           and used in devotionals.

  ˆ ˆ
gha zı (Arabic: raider, warrior)              God
Originally meaning a person who took          See Allah.
part in a raid, or razzia, it came to be a
term of honor, particularly among those       Gog and Magog
nomadic and semi-nomadic Turks who
                                              See Ya'juj wa-Ma'juj.
                                                      ˆ         ˆ
used mounted cavalry attacks to spread
their rule and Islam. At some times in
history, the term refers to Turks in          Goliath
general, and more specifically those           See Jalut.
                                                   ˆ ˆ
who were proponents of jihad.   ˆ
                                              Gospels (Christian)
ghula t (Arabic: extremists,                  See Injıl.
A term of disrespect and opprobrium           Granada
applied to various early Shı¤ı groups
                                              See Gharnatah.
that expressed radical revolutionary                     ˙
political doctrines and eclectic theologi-
cal views from the perspective of the         guardianship (Arabic, walayah)
Ithna ¤Ashariyyah. In the early period
      ˆ                                       The guardian, or walı, is the protector of
of the development of Shı¤ı doctrines, a
                          ˆˆ                  the minor, the orphan, and of the
guardianship                                                                      68

woman in marriage. It is also used to       legitamacy of ¤Alı b. Abı Talib as the
                                                              ˆ       ˆ ˆ
describe the relationship between the                                    ˙
                                            successor to Muhammad. After the
                                                                ˙           ˆ
mawla, (client) and the walı in the early
       ˆ                   ˆ                1979 Iranian revolution, Imam Kho-
Islamic period when converts to Islam       meinı invoked this principle to justify
also became affiliates of Arab tribes.       the rule of the clerical elite. (See also
Among the Ithna ¤Ashariyyah Shı¤ı,
                  ˆ                   ˆˆ         ˆ
the term signifies the foundation of the

 ˆ ˆl     ˆ ˆl
Ha bı wa-Qa bı                              available, by tayammum. The Shı¤ı      ˆˆ
See Qabıl wa-Habıl.
     ˆ ˆ      ˆ ˆ                           include contact with unclean persons as
                                            well as substances, and the Khawarij ˆ
                                            included such moral actions as unclean
habous (French, from Arabic hubus)
                            ˙               thoughts, perjury, obscene proposals,
See waqf.                                   etc. While one is in this state of ritual
                                            impurity, it is not permitted to pray,
h ad a nah (Arabic: embracing a             touch the Qur'an, or circumambulate
˙ ˙
child)                                      the Ka¤bah. Each school of Islamic law
                                            madhhab offers variants on the general
The right to custody of children in
                                            principles mentioned here.
situations such as divorce. In most of
the schools (madhhabs) of Islamic law
the presumptive right to custody of         h add (Arabic: limit, border; pl.
                                             ˙ ˆ
minor children rests with the mother,       ˙
even though the father is obligated for     The term generally refers to the punish-
child support. In respect to this princi-   ment for certain crimes mentioned in the
ple, the right of hadanah lasts until       Qur'an or in sharı ¤ah, such as robbery,
                                                  ˆ             ˆ
about the age of seven for boys and until   theft, drinking intoxicants, false accusa-
pre-puberty, or around nine years, for      tion of unchastity, and adultery or
girls. For most schools, puberty will       fornication. While the punishments are
release a boy to dwell apart from both      severe, ranging from death to whip-
parents, while virgin girls are either      pings, the actual practice of convictions
bound or recommended to remain with         is very difficult in Muslim courts.
the parents. This right of custody can      Evidence is hard to adduce and confes-
apply to a non-Muslim parent unless         sions can be withdrawn, making actual
that parent tries to turn the child from    confessions virtually useless. In the field
Islam, at which time the custody reverts    of speculative theology kalam the term
to the Muslim parent.                       refers to a definition.

h adath (Arabic: innovation)                h adıˆth (Arabic: speech, report;
˙                                           ˙ ˆ ˆ
A minor ritual impurity derived from         ˙
contact with unclean substances, such as    In religious use this term is often
pus, urine, sperm, fermented beverages,     translated as “tradition,” meaning a
etc. This impurity can be removed by a      report of the deeds and sayings of
simple wudu' or, when water is not
              ˆ                             Muh ammad and his Companions.
            ˙                                   ˙
   ˆth   ˆ
hadı qudsı                                                                                   70

These reports form the basis of Islamic             This has resulted in a rich and important
law, Qur'an interpretation (tafsır),
               ˆ                            ˆ       biographical literature that aids both the
and early Islamic history and lore. Each            scholar of hadıths and the historian
hadıth is composed of two parts, an
     ˆ                                              alike. Much ˙ attention has been paid to
˙ ˆ
isnad or chain of authorities reporting             the authenticity of hadıths by Western
the hadıth, and the main text, usually                                   ˙
                                                    scholars, who have often criticized
short, called a matn. Criticism of each             Islamic scholars for relying chiefly on
of these elements has resulted in the                   ˆ
                                                    isnad criticism. While it is sometimes the
classification of each hadıth in Sunnı
                                ˆ               ˆ   case that “fabricated” traditions appear
circles as sahıh, hasan, da¤ıf, Saqım,
                    ˆ                 ˆ      ˆ      in the canonical collections, they usually
             ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙            ˙
or other classifications. The two most               represent the attitudes of the nascent
famous Sunnı collections of hadıths are
                  ˆ                     ˆ           schools of Islamic law. (See also sun-
by al-Bukharı and Muslim b. al-
                   ˆ ˆ              ˙               nah.)
Hajjaj. In addition, four other Sunnı
        ˆ                                       ˆ
collections are added to the two to make            h adı            ˆ
                                                           ˆth qudsı (holy hadıth)
a collection of six authoritative collec-           ˙                        ˙
tions: Abu Da'ud, Ibn Majah, an-
             ˆ        ˆ ˆ             ˆ             These report sayings of God that are not
Nasa'ı, and at-Tirmidhı. The Shı¤ı
       ˆ ˆ                      ˆ              ˆˆ   found in the Qur'an. They do not have
have their own collections based on                 the same holy character as the words of
lines of Shı¤ı transmitters. In modern
                ˆˆ                                  the Qur'an, are not recited in prayers
times, Muslim reformers have often                  (salat), and are not subject to the rules
                                                    of ritual purity. Even though they have
attacked over-reliance on hadıths as    ˆ
leading to uncritical adherence to past             isnads that go back to God, they are
authority (taqlıd), while others have
                       ˆ                            assumed to be of a different nature than
seen it as a useful tool for reinterpreta-          the words that came to humankind
tion of Qur'anic prescriptions.
                 ˆ                                  through Jibrıl to the Prophet. Many of
    Collections of reports about the                these traditions have clear parallels in
Prophet and the actions of the early                the text of Jewish and Christian scrip-
Muslims started in the Prophet’s lifetime           ture.
and accelerated after his death, ulti-
mately numbering in the tens of thou-               h ad rah (Arabic: presence)
sands. In the first Islamic century, there           ˙ ˙
                                                    This term can be used as the opposite of
were no collections of hadıths, only a
                                  ˆ                 ghaybah. Its more usual use is among
collective memory of the reports and                the S u fı indicating the communal
                                                            ˆ ˆ
actions of the first generation. As a                      ˙
                                                    dhikr, usually held on Friday, in which
result, a great number of suspect tradi-            the devotees are imagined to be more
tions arose, reflecting both self-inter-             fully present before God than in regular
ested creations and pious redactions of             activities. The term is also used as a title
family traditions, that is, those tradi-            of respect for saints and prophets, and
tions transmitted within family and clan            sometimes it is pronounced hazrat in
groups. Because of the importance of                non-Arabic Islamic languages.
such reports in all aspects of the com-
munity, but particularly in the growth of
Islamic law (sharı ¤ah), a branch of
                          ˆ                           ˆ
                                                    h a fiz (Arabic: preserve, memorize)
                                                    ˙     ˙
learning known as the science of hadıth       ˆ     The term is applied to one who has
(Arabic ¤ ilm al-hadıth) became one of    ˙         memorized the entire Qur'an. It is
                          ˆ                                                      ˆ
the major branches of Islamic thought.              highly recommended that a Muslim
The usual approach was to evaluate the              commit large portions of the Qur'an to
isnad or chain of authentication by                 memory, with the highest honors
examining the lives of the reporters.               reserved for those who know it fully. In
71                                                                                  hajj

some circles it is considered extremely      and the Prophet oversaw the replace-
meritorious to write out copies of the       ment of the stone into its proper place by
sacred text from memory and donate           having a representative of each faction
them to places of worship. In medieval       of Mecca hold the edge of a blanket.
biographies, the number of copies of the     Muhammad then rolled the stone onto
Qur'an so written out are indicated.
     ˆ                                       the ˙blanket with a stick, and all the
                                             Meccans lifted together on the blanket
H a fiz iyyah                                 to raise the stone into its place. The
 ˙   ˙                                       Prophet then pushed the stone into place
A branch of the Isma¤ılı Shı¤ı formed in
                      ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆˆ
                                             with his hands through the blanket. In
Egypt in the sixth/twelfth century. After
                                             this manner, no one could claim priority
the fall of the Fatimid dynasty, the
                      ˙                      by saying that they, or their descendants,
group was suppressed in Egypt and lost
                                             were better because they restored the
general support elsewhere.
                                             stone. There is a legend that the stone
                                             was originally white, but that it turned
H a 'irı Yazdı ¤Abd al-Karı
   ˆ ˆ       ˆ,           ˆm                 black through the misdeeds of human-
(1859–1936)                                  kind. Pilgrims on the hajj and the¤ umrah
Prominent Iranian educator and cleric,                                ˙
                                             try to kiss it if they can get close enough.
who held the doctrine that one could         In Western scholarship, it is still often
follow more than one Marji¤ at-Taqlıd ˆ      asserted that the stone is a meteorite. This
on different aspects of Islamic law. His     is based on speculation and a secular
most famous student was Ayatollah     ˆ      interpretation of tafsır traditions.
Ruhollah khomeinı
  ˆ    ˆ            ˆ.
                                             h ajj (Arabic: pilgrimage)
Ha jar                                       ˙
                                                                  ˆ        ˆ
                                             One of the five arkan al-Islam (Pillars
The biblical Hagar, mother of Isma¤ıl
                                    ˆ ˆ
                                             of Islam). It is required of each Muslim
by Ibrahım. She is said to have been an
       ˆ ˆ
                                             once during the lifetime provided that
Egyptian, who bore Isma¤ıl and accom-
                                             the person is of sufficient health, can
panied him when he was sent into the
                                             afford it, and meets other conditions to
desert. Arabic legend tells of her com-
                                             make the pilgrimage to Mecca between
passion for her son, and her help in
                                             the eighth and thirteenth of the month of
finding him a suitable wife.
                                             Dhu-l-Hijjah, the last month of the
                                             Muslim lunar calendar. When the pil-
al-h ajar al-aswad                           grim arrives at the outskirts of the holy
The Black Stone set in the corner of the     precinct around Mecca, the person,
Ka¤bah. The stone is said to have been       either male or female, puts on holy
given to Isma¤ıl and Ibrahım when they
             ˆ ˆ         ˆ ˆ                 garments of unseamed white cloth, vows
built the Ka¤bah. In Islamic narrative       abstinence from sexual intercourse, the
tradition, the stone was supplied from       wearing of perfume and other acts of
heaven by angelic intervention and then      grooming, and is in a state of ihram. On
placed into the Ka¤bah by the two            the model of the Prophet’s ˙ Farewell
patriarchs. When Western scholars read       Pilgrimage, in which he set forth the
that the stone was from heaven, they         pattern for the ceremony, Muslim pil-
rejected the possibility of divine inter-    grims perform a number of rites includ-
vention and asserted that it was a           ing circumambulating the Ka¤bah seven
meteorite, as the most plausible secular     times, running between as-Safa and  ˆ
explanation that still preserved the ele-                                   ˙
                                             al-Marwah, and standing on ˙the plain
ments of the story. During the lifetime of   of ¤Arafat on the ninth of the month.
Muhammad the Ka¤bah was rebuilt,             This standing, wuqu f, around the
hakam                                                                                72

Muslims from around the world take part in the hajj each year. Here Muslims traveling to
 Mecca arrive at the Hajj terminal at King Abdul Aziz airport, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Mount of Mercy, where Muhammad                the government, and prospective pil-
delivered his Farewell Sermon, is the         grims must register and receive instruc-
central part of the hajj, without which it    tions before they can go. At the end of
is invalid. Some scholars see this as a       the pilgrimage, many Muslims also add
parallel to the standing around Sinai at      a visit to Muhammad’s tomb in Madı-    ˆ
                                              nah, although this is not a canonical
the receipt of the Torah, and the plain of
¤Arafat is thought by many to be the          part of the hajj. The lesser pilgrimage,
                                              the ¤ umrah, which can be performed any
closest place to God. On the tenth,
pilgrims sacrifice an animal and eat a         time and has fewer requirements, does
ritual meal at Mina in commemoration
                      ˆ                       not satisfy the requirements of the hajj.
of the intended sacrifice by Ibrahım of
                                    ˆ ˆ
his son, Isma¤ıl. Parts of the sacrifice are
             ˆ ˆ                              h akam (Arabic: judge)
distributed as alms, and Muslims all          ˙
                                              This term is generally used for a person
over the world celebrate this day, called
                                              who is an arbitrator or who settles cases
¤I d al-Ad h a , as one of the most
 ˆ             ˆ
                                              through the use of personal wisdom.
important ˙ feast days in the Muslim
                                              Such “judges” are on the periphery of
calendar. The hajj has been an important
               ˙                              Islamic law (sharı ¤ah), yet serve a
social factor in unifying Muslims, and
                                              useful function in adjudicating claims
many teachings have spread throughout
                                              without resort to a full hearing under the
the world as a result of contacts made on
                                              strictures of sharı¤ ah. They often make
the pilgrimage. Muslims who return
                                              use of Qur'anic material and practices
from the pilgrimage are accorded special
                                              from the religious law courts.
status in their communities and often
incorporate a title in their names sig-
nifying that they have performed the          al-H akı ˆm, Muh sin (1889–1970)
                                                   ˙             ˙
rite. In numerous Muslim countries            Prominent Iraqı Shı¤ı mujtahid or
                                                               ˆ    ˆˆ
travel arrangements are organized by          interpreter of Islamic law, he was the
73                                                                     ˆ
                                                                al-Hallaj, al-Husayn
                                                                   ˙          ˙

architect of modern Shı¤ı activism. He
                        ˆˆ                    The Qur'anic food regulations are simi-
and his sons were persecuted by the Iraqıˆ    lar to the regulations found in the Torah,
Ba¤th government, and he forbade Shı¤ıs
                                      ˆˆ      but are less strict than those found in
from being members of the Ba¤th Party.        rabbinic Jewish texts. The Qur'a n      ˆ
                                              allows Muslims and Jews to eat together,
     ˆ                ˆ
al-H a kim bi-'Amr Alla h (375/               avoiding those foods that have been
985–411/1021)                                 offered to idols, are unclean (such as
                                              pigs), or have been improperly slaugh-
He was the sixth caliph of the Shı¤ı     ˆˆ
                                              tered. Historically, the term has a larger
Fatimid dynasty in Egypt. He is famous
                                              context in the discussion of acts that are
for˙ his persecution of Jews and Chris-
                                              permissible or impermissible.
tians, his erratic behavior, and for the
support accorded him by his followers,
the Druze, who thought him to have            H alı               ˆ
                                                   ˆmah bt. Abı Dhu'ayb
divine qualities. He was declared caliph      She was the foster mother of Muham-
at the death of his father, when he was       mad and his wet nurse when he ˙ was
only eleven years of age. His reign was       with the bedouin tribe the Banu Sa¤d b.
marked by a strong promotion of               Bakr. According to legend, she and her
Isma¤ılı beliefs and an active suppres-
     ˆ ˆ ˆ                                    family prospered greatly while Muham-
sion of the Sunnı in his realm. He also
                   ˆ                          mad was with them, and she asked to˙
issued edicts forcing Christians and Jews     keep him even after he was weaned. It
to wear five-pound religious symbols           was during the time he was with her that
around their necks when in public and         two angels appeared before the boy
greatly reduced their economic and            Muhammad, cut him open, washed his
political roles. He issued various rulings,       ˙
                                              heart in a pan of snow, weighed it
which were later retracted, so that he        against all of mankind, and restored it
has earned a reputation for being             into him. This miraculous event, promi-
arbitrary and erratic. On the other hand,     nent in the sırah, was an early literary
he exhibited traits of piety, simplicity,     indication of Muhammad’s immaculate
and compassion, so that historians have       nature.           ˙
difficulty fitting him into one category.
He claimed for himself, and his fol-                     ˆ
                                              al-H alla j, al-H usayn b.
lowers claimed for him as well, that he            ˙ ˆ          ˙
                                              Mans u r (244/857–309/922)
was divine, or the manifestation of the               ˙
                                              Famous and provocative mystic who
divine on earth. One version of his
                                              proclaimed himself the “Divine Truth.”
ultimate end is that he was murdered
                                              His declaration of having achieved
by his sister, because he would not agree
                                              fana ', “' Ana al-haqq” (“I am the
                                                   ˆ         ˆ
to let her marry the man she loved. The                           ˙
                                              truth”), earned him a cruel execution.
version given by his followers, those
                                              From an early age, al-Hallaj showed a
who would become the Druze, was that                                   ˙
                                              keen interest in the esoteric side of
he went into ghaybah and still lives to
                                              religion. Before he was twelve years of
guide the world. News of his persecution
                                              age, he had memorized the entire
of Christians featured in the reports in
                                              Qur'an and was seeking to discover
the West that led to the Crusades.
                                              the hidden meanings of the text. During
                                              his first pilgrimage (hajj), he vowed to
h ala l (Arabic: clear, permitted)                                  ˙
                                              remain in the holy site for a year, fasting
The term is often used in opposition to       and keeping silent. When this was
the term haram. In common use, it has
             ˆ                                finished, he gave up the Sufı habit and
                                                                           ˆ ˆ
come to ˙mean food that is properly                                      ˙
                                              began to preach more freely. Throughout
slaughtered and prepared for Muslims.         his life, he maintained a monogamous
halqah                                                                                 74

marriage and a strict adherence to Sunnı ˆ     most famous work was Shakwa al-   ˆ
Islam, in spite of his contact with a          gharıb (The complaint of the stranger).
number of Shı¤ı and his use of Shı¤ı
                ˆˆ                      ˆˆ
terminology. By the time of his second              ˆ
                                               H ama s
pilgrimage he had a large following and         ˙
                                               Harakat al-Muqawamah al-Islamiyyah,
                                                             ˆ            ˆ
a number of opponents, who accused              ˙
                                               the Movement of Islamic Resistance,
him of sorcery and other impious acts.
                                               was founded in December 1987 as an
In response to these charges and to the
                                               expression of Islamic religious resistance
charge that he had attained the beatific
                                               to Israel as opposed to the nationalistic
vision of God, he replied with the
                                               ideology of the Palestine Liberation
famous shath, or ecstatic expression,
             ˙˙                                Organization. Claiming ties to al-Ikh-
“' Ana al-haqq,” which resulted in his
                                               wan al-Muslimun (the Muslim Broth-
arrest and˙ imprisonment for nine years.
                                                 ˆ               ˆ
                                               erhood), the group claims to perpetuate
As a result of political intrigues, he was
                                               the jihad against Israel, regarding
re-tried, found guilty, and sentenced to
                                               Palestine as a perpetual waqf for Islam.
die by beheading. His legacy was to be a
                                               The group has rejected any peace
martyr for esoteric mysticism and to be
                                               initiatives that would compromise its
the most famous of all Sufı martyrs. (See
                           ˆ ˆ
                         ˙                     aim of the elimination of Israel and the
also al-Haqq.)
          ˙                                    ultimate re-Islamization of Palestine.

h alqah (Arabic: circle)                       h amdalah (Arabic)
˙                                              ˙
This term is used particularly by the Sufı
                                         ˆ ˆ   The verbal form derived from the phrase
to indicate a study group or a group of˙
                                               al-hamdu li-llahi, “Praise be to God,” it
followers of a shaykh. It is also used more       ˙
                                               means to utter that phrase. (See also
broadly to indicate a group of students        basmalah.)
gathered around a teacher (in a circle).
                                               H anafı or H anafiyyah
Hamˆ                                            ˙              ˙
 ˙                                             One of the four main schools of law in
One of the sons of Nuh (Noah), he is
                        ˆ                      Sunnı Islam, named after Abu Hanı-
                                                     ˆ                           ˆ       ˆ
                           ˙                                                        ˙
not mentioned in the Qur'an but is
                               ˆ               fah. The school (madhhab) was chiefly
found in extra-Qur'a nic literature.
                         ˆ                     the product of two of Abu Hanıfah’s
                                                                              ˆ      ˆ
There are numerous stories about this                                           ˙
                                               students, Abu Yusuf and ash-Shaybanı,
                                                             ˆ ˆ                       ˆ ˆ
figure, including stories about him hav-        who built the system on the traditions of
ing sexual relations in the ark and            the Iraqı towns of Basrah and Kufah.
                                                        ˆ                           ˆ
assaulting his father, stories which are                              ˙
                                               This school was favored by the early
also known in Jewish legend. Some              ¤Abbasid caliphs and became well
                              ˆ ˆ
Muslim authors relate that ¤Isa, (Jesus)       established in Syria and Iraq. It also
raised him from the dead for a while, in       spread eastward to Khurasan, Transox-
order to have him relate stories about         ania, and China. The school places
the flood. Muslim authors also preserve         emphasis on individual legal judgment
the same genealogical relations with           (ra'y), and today has its greatest follow-
other nations that are found in the            ing in the Middle East and South Asia.
biblical account.
                                               H anafı H asan (born 1354/1935)
al-Hamadha nı ¤Ayn al-
                 ˆ ˆ,                          ˙           ˙
                                               Egyptian reformer and Islamic moder-
Qud a t (492/1098–525/1131)                    nist, he is a prolific academic writer,
Famous mystic, whose pronouncements            whose main aim has been to revive Islam
resulted in his execution as a heretic. His    and place it intellectually and theologi-
75                                                                                ˆ

cally in the center of world traditions.     centuries. Similarly, the literary roles
His Muqaddimah fı ¤ilm al-istighrab
                      ˆ                ˆ     played by the early hanıfs contemporary
(Introduction to the science of occident-    with and slightly before the time of the
alism) stands as a critique of the West      Prophet serve a similar function.
and an attempt to stem Western influ-
ence by showing that Islam is more           h aqa 'iq (Arabic: truth; sg. haqıqah)
                                                    ˆ                           ˆ
universal and better suited to the human      ˙                              ˙
condition.                                   Among the doctrines of some of the
                                             Isma¤ıliyyah is the notion that the
                                                  ˆ ˆ
                                             truths of the universe are hidden in the
H anbalı or Hanbaliyyah
 ˙                                           Qur'an and the law, (sharı ¤ah). With
                                                    ˆ                      ˆ
One of the four main schools of law in       the coming of the Qa'im, all hidden
Sunnı Islam, named after Ahmad b.
      ˆ                                      truths will become manifest, and the
Hanbal. The madhhab is generally             haqa' iq will be known to all and not just
regarded as the most stringent, a reputa-    ˙ the initiate elect. This eschatological
tion enhanced by its adoption, in mod-       end will come after a series of cycles
ified form, by the Wahhabıs as the
                            ˆ ˆ              have passed, and in this last time the
official school of law in Saudi Arabia.       Qa'im will judge the world and rule
                                             triumphant. Until that time, the truths
h anı (Arabic: monotheist)                   are held by the Imam in ghaybah and
˙                                            only released through a series of spe-
A term found in the Qur'an (e.g. Q.
10:105) and early literature meaning         cially appointed teachers.
one who follows the true, monotheistic
worship of God. In the Qur'an, it is used
                             ˆ               al-h aqq (Arabic: truth, correctness)
particularly to refer to Ibrahım as the
                             ˆ ˆ                  ˙
                                             This term, meaning right, correctness, or
paradigm of one who comes to follow          certainty, has come to mean the Divine
true monotheism. In this usage, it is        Truth. As such, it is one of the ninety-
contrasted with those who worship            nine names (al-'asma' al-husna) or
                                                                     ˆ            ˆ
idols. In some early texts, both Muslim      attributes of God. The Sufı ˙
                                                                         ˆ ˆ mystic al-
and Christian, the term hanıf is synon-
                              ˆ                                        ˙
                                             Hallaj claimed this title for himself
ymous with Islam. In this˙ usage, there is     ˙
                                             after he had had a beatific vision in
the implied understanding that Islam         which he felt himself to have been united
represents true, pure monotheism, and        with God, and his statement “' Ana al- ˆ
there is some indication that the term       haqq” (“I am the truth”) earned him
was applied to the early Muslims before      ˙
                                             death at the hands of those who thought
Islam became generally used. There is        him to be a blasphemer.
also an apologetic element in the use of
the term, particularly among the extra-
Qur'anic authors, where the term is said
     ˆ                                           ˆ
                                             h ara m (Arabic: forbidden,
                                             proscribed, sacred)
to refer to those monotheists who are
neither Jews nor Christians. The figure       The Arabic root of this word yields a
of Ibrahım is thus regarded as a person
       ˆ ˆ                                   number of important Islamic terms. It
who was rightly guided to the right          has the base meaning of something
religion before Judaism’s founder,           sacred and, therefore, set aside from
Musa, Christianity’s founder, ¤Isa, and
   ˆ ˆ                           ˆ ˆ         common use. From this use, it came to
Islam’s prophet, Muhammad. In the            mean something forbidden or pro-
sırah traditions, Ibrahım’s legacy is thus                ˆ
                                             scribed. Haram can mean the opposite
 ˆ                   ˆ ˆ
open for claim by Muslims in their           of hala˙l, when referring to food,
polemical discussions with Jews and               ˙
                                             indicating the classes of forbidden food,
Christians in the first two Islamic           such as pork and those animals not
al-haram ash-sharı                                                                   76

            Madınah, showing the sacred precinct, haram, around the city.
               ˆ                                     ˆ

properly slaughtered. When referring to     popular parlance, bounds one side of the
the holy cities of Islam, Mecca, Madı-  ˆ   construct. The platform on which the
nah, and Jerusalem (al-Quds), it refers     modern structures stand was probably
to the sacred precinct, haram, around       built by the emperor Herod as part of
each city in which a person must behave     the Temple complex. The history of the
in accordance with the sanctity of the      importance of this site has developed
site. The pre-Islamic use of the term was   over time. In the earliest period, most,
applied to the sacred precincts around      but not all, Muslim scholars held that
the Ka¤bah, which could not be entered      this was the location of the night
without special rites and clothing. By      journey, mi¤raj, during which Muham-
extension, those animals and articles of    mad traveled on the back of al-Buraq   ˙ ˆ
clothing that were permitted in the         from Mecca to Jerusalem and then
sacred area were unavailable to those       ascended up to heaven. By the end of
outside. The word h arı m (harem),
                            ˆ               the second Islamic century, the majority
derived from the same root, refers to       of Muslim authors identified Jerusalem
the portion of the Muslim house in          as the location, particularly because the
which women are protected from              qubbat as -s akhrah had been con-
encountering males not entitled to enter                ˙ ˙
                                            structed. Traditions about the sacrality
the harım. Ihram, a word also derived
        ˆ        ˆ                          of the site increased during the period of
     ˙       ˙
from the same root, designates the state    the Crusades, when a genre of literature
of ritual purity on the pilgrimage,         known as fada' il al-quds, “the virtues of
(hajj), and the ritual garments worn        Jerusalem,” ˙developed in part as propa-
while in that state.                        ganda to rally Muslim sentiment against
                                            the Crusaders. The sacredness of al-
                                            haram ash-sharıf in modern times has
al-h aram ash-sharı       ˆf                ˙
    ˙                                       become intermixed with the Palestinian
Located in the Temple area of Jerusalem,    conflict with the state of Israel over
this is the third of the three sacred       ownership of the territory. Some modern
precincts of Islam, the others being        authors, relying solely on sources from
Mecca and Madınah. It encompasses
                   ˆ                        the fada' il al-quds literature, incorrectly
the qubbat as-sakhrah, or the Dome                 ˙
                                            deny any Jewish religious claim to this
               ˙ ˙
of the Rock, and the al-Aqsa mosque.
                                ˆ           site. Christian claims to the rock that is
This area is located in the same area as    under the Dome of the Rock are also
the Jewish Second Temple, the wall of       ancient, with early pilgrims believing
which, known as the “Wailing Wall” in       that the depression in the rock was the
77                                                                               ˆ ˆ

                     ˆ ˆ
footprint of Jesus (¤Isa), and not that of    treaty in existence. No war against an
Muhammad as Muslims claim. (See also          enemy could be prosecuted unless the
    ˙ˆ                                        enemy was invited to Islam and refused.
 ˙                                            Muslim warriors were forbidden from
al-H aramayn, or al-H arama n       ˆ         shedding blood unnecessarily, from
      ˙                      ˙                harming non-combatants, or wantonly
The “Two Sanctuaries,” i.e. Mecca and
                                              destroying property. Since warfare is a
Madınah. From an early date, both the
                                              religious duty, a considerable body of
Ka¤bah in Mecca and the sites in
                                              legal literature has developed governing
Madınah associated with the Prophet’s
                                              every aspect of war, from training to
residence were places of pilgrimage,
                                              concluding peace. During the period of
such that those on hajj would, if
                        ˙                     the Crusades there was a marked
possible, visit Madınah as well. The
                                              increase of jihad literature, which was
sacrality of the two places extended in
                                              paralleled by similar discussions in the
the minds of some to the whole of the
                                              Christian West about holy war. (See also
Hijaz, as is seen in the prohibition of
 ˙                                              ˆ                ˆ
                                              dar al-harb; dar al-islam.)ˆ
non-Muslims having permanent resi-                      ˙
dence in the area in early times. In
Mamluk and Ottoman times, the term
          ˆ                                   Harem
al-Haramayn also referred to al-Quds          See haram.
   ˙                                              ˙
(Jerusalem) and al-Khalıl (Hebron),
two sites that were waqfs in the Otto-
                                              h arı (Arabic: silk)
man Empire.                                   ˙
                                              In the Qur'an, it is said that silk will
h arb (Arabic: war)                           be the clothing of those in Paradise. On
˙                                             earth, however, many understand silk
In Islamic law, all war is forbidden          to be forbidden to men but permitted
except that warfare that has a specific        for women. This results from the
religious aim, jihad, which is a fard
                     ˆ                        hadıth that relates that the Prophet
kifayah, or communal duty imposed on      ˙    ˙
                                              was given a silk robe to wear during
a sufficient number of individuals but         prayer (salat). He put it on, started to
not necessarily all the members of the                 ˙
                                              pray, and then stopped and removed
community. In the time of the Prophet,        the robe in disgust. Exceptions are for
the wars involving the early community        small decorations and those who suffer
fell into this category because they either   from irritations that silk helps allevi-
advanced the spread of Islam or were          ate.
defensive, both categories permitted
under the rubric of “holy war,” or jihad.
The rules for warfare developed along         Ha ru n b. ¤Imra n
                                               ˆ ˆ           ˆ
with both the Islamic conquests and the       Aaron, brother of Moses (Musa), in the
                                                                            ˆ ˆ
growth of Islamic law (sharı ¤ah). The
                                ˆ             Qur'an. He is mentioned in the Medı-
                                                      ˆ                               ˆ
prosecution of an authorized war was a        nan period of the Qur'an as involved in
communal rather than an individual            the construction of the Golden Calf, but
duty and presumed the existence of an         the primary responsibility rests with as-
Islamic state, the head of which, either      samirı. Numerous legends occur in the
                                               ˆ       ˆ
an imam or caliph, would call the
         ˆ                                    tafsır literature, including the account
faithful to arms. It was presumed that        of Harun’s death, in which he and his
                                                     ˆ ˆ
a state of warfare would exist as long as     brother Musa come upon a cave in
                                                          ˆ ˆ
there was an area not under Islamic           which is a throne marked for the one
control, which would only be modified          who fits it. As it is too small for Musa,
                                                                                    ˆ ˆ
in specific cases when there was a peace       Harun sits in it, at which point the angel
                                                 ˆ ˆ
hasan                                                                                78

of death appears and takes him. Musa is
                                    ˆ ˆ                       ˆ
                                              H asan al-¤Askarı (230/844–260/
later accused of having killed his            ˙
brother, and Harun appears to testify
                ˆ ˆ                           The eleventh Imam of the Shı¤ı and
                                                                   ˆ            ˆˆ
on his behalf. In the Isma¤ılı Shı¤ı
                             ˆ ˆ ˆ      ˆˆ
                                              father of the twelfth Imam, Muham-
tradition, Harun is designated as a
             ˆ ˆ                              mad b. al-Qa 'im. Circumstances
                                                                ˆ                  ˙
hujjah, or living proof of the invisible      around his death caused questions about
God, along with his brother, Musa.
                                ˆ ˆ           his succession. According to the tradi-
                                              tions of the Ithna ¤Ashariyyah, he was
h asan (Arabic: good)                                     ˆ
                                              elected Imam after the death of his
˙                                             brother, Muhammad Abu Ja¤far. Since
A technical term in hadıth criticism,
                        ˆ                                   ˙
                                              their father was still alive, some dissent
meaning “fair” or “good.”                     arose among the faithful, who held that
                                              the imamate entered ghaybah at that
al-H asan b. ¤Alı (3/624–49/669)
                           ˆ                  point. At his death, the majority of the
       ˙                                      Shı¤ı turned to Hasan’s son, Muhammad
The son of ¤Alı b. Abı Talib and
                       ˆ       ˆ ˆ                            ˙
                                              b. al-Qa'im, who, at the age ˙ of five,
Fatimah, daughter of Muhammad, he
   ˆ                              ˙
     ˙                                        made one appearance and entered ghay-
                             ˆ ˙
was the second Shı¤ı Imam and is said
by Sunnı scholars to have renounced the
office of caliph in favor of the Sunnı     ˆ
Mu¤a    ˆwiyah b. Abı Sufyan. Reports of
                         ˆ   ˆ                                  ˆ
                                              al-H asan al-Bas rı (21/642–110/
Hasan’s early life are filled with hagio-      728)˙          ˙
graphic details, which claim that he was      One of the tabi¤un noted for his piety
                                                              ˆ ˆ
the most like the Prophet and that he         and asceticism, he was a famous
and his brother Husayn used to climb          preacher and teacher. He admonished
on the Prophet’s˙ back during prayer.         his listeners to live their lives with the
After the death of his father, ¤Alı b. Abı
                                      ˆ   ˆ   yawm ad-dın foremost before them. He
Talib, some people swore allegiance to
   ˆ                                          was a strong critic of the political
him, but Mu¤awiyah immediately con-
                  ˆ                           leaders of his time, calling them to
tested his claim to the office of caliph.      account for what he perceived to be
After a period of negotiation and troop       their lapses and straying from Islam.
maneuvers, Hasan was attacked by one          Because of his strong ascetic practices,
of the Khawarij, who claimed that he          he is regarded as the founder of Islamic
had become an infidel like his father. As      mysticism, Sufism. Few of his actual
he was recovering from his wounds,                          ˙
                                              writings survive, but he is quoted
negotiations continued with Mu¤awiyah   ˆ     extensively. The Mu¤tazilah claim that
and resulted in Hasan’s abdication. The       he was one of their own and had been
Shı¤ı and Sunnı accounts of the details of
     ˆˆ           ˆ                           present at the founding of the move-
the abdication vary, and it is impossible     ment, when his student Wasil b. ¤Ata'
                                                                            ˆ          ˆ
to reconcile the two views. After a           left his lecture to gather˙ the early  ˙
period of living with a great number of       Mu¤tazilite following.
wives and concubines, he died after a
long illness. Shı¤ı sources claim that his
                                              H asan-i S abba h (died 518/1124)
death was the result of poison at              ˙           ˙        ˙
Mu¤awiyah’s instigation, but the same
        ˆ                                     Nizarı Isma¤ılı Shı¤ı leader and its first
                                                     ˆ ˆ   ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆˆ
sources say that there were seventy           da¤ı. He captured Alamut in 483/1090,
                                                 ˆ ˆ                    ˆ
assassination attempts that were mira-        fortified it, and made it the center of his
culously thwarted each time. Hasan is         opposition to the Crusaders and those
featured prominently in Shı¤ı religious       Sunnı who opposed him. He was con-
                                 ˆˆ                   ˆ
drama.                                        verted to the Isma¤ılı cause as a student
                                                                ˆ ˆ ˆ
79                                                                            Hawwa'

and was trained in Egypt. On his return        claims to legitimacy through the line of
to Iran, he travelled extensively, foment-     Fatimah and ¤Alı b. Abı Talib. The
                                                 ˆ                ˆ       ˆ ˆ
                                                   ˙                         ˙
ing rebellion against the Sunnı Saljuks.
                                ˆ      ˆ       term Hashimiyyah was also used by the
In 1092 his group broke with the               ¤Abbasids as the name of their adminis-
Egyptian Fatimids over issues of succes-
            ˆ                                  trative center before the building of the
sion and were subsequently called Nizarı       city of Baghdad. This was not a single
                                         ˆ ˆ                   ˆ
because of their support for Nizar asˆ         place, but the movable name of the
Imam. He was an ascetic, intellectual
   ˆ                                           location of the caliph.
leader, who demanded of his followers
the same strict lifestyle he adopted for       h ashı ˆsh (Arabic: grass)
himself. He is said to have executed his       ˙
                                               The name for Indian hemp, Cannabis
two sons for grave sins. His surviving
                                               sativa, which, when ingested or smoked,
written works show him to have been a
                                               has psychotropic effects. It has a long
very logical apologist for the reformist
                                               history of cultivation and use as a
Nizarı movement.
     ˆ ˆ
                                               narcotic in the Middle East and India,
                                               and stories of its use abound in popular
Ha shim                                        literature. It was said, incorrectly, that
The great-grandfather of Muhammad,             the Nizarı Isma¤ılı Shı¤ı used the drug
                                                        ˆ ˆ     ˆ ˆ ˆ   ˆˆ
Hashim b. ¤Abd Manaf, gave ˙his name
  ˆ                   ˆ                        to induce suicides to slay political
to Muhammad’s clan. He is credited             opponents, giving the West the term
with advancing the system of trade in          “assassin” from it. The use of this drug
Mecca and making the city the domi-            to induce mystic visions is to be found
nant trading center of Arabia.                 chiefly in Western corruptions of Sufism.

Ha shimites                                    h awd (Arabic: basin, pool, cistern)
                                               ˙     ˙
The dynasty that ruled Mecca from the          This term refers to the container of
fourth/tenth century to 1343/1924. They        water used for ablutions in mosques.
were Sharıfı, that is, claiming relation-
           ˆ ˆ                                 In hadıths, it also refers to a pool in
                                               Paradise that will be used for purifica-
ship with and descent from Muhammad
through the line that went back to his         tion on yawm ad-dın. (See also ghusl.)
great-grandfather, Hashim b. ¤Abd
Manaf. This line provided the kings of
     ˆ                                             ˆ
                                               al-ha wiyah
Syria, Iraq and Jordan, and the dynasty        One of the seven ranks of Hell men-
took the title Hashimite.
                ˆ                              tioned in Q. 101:9.

Ha shimiyyah                                   H awwa '  ˆ
A Shı¤ı group that originated in Kufah
      ˆˆ                          ˆ            The name of Eve in extra-Qur'anic     ˆ
and supported the ¤Abbasid revolt
                           ˆ                   writings. She is unnamed in the Qur'an  ˆ
against the 'Umayyads. The original            and only referred to as the “spouse.” She
¤Abbasid claim to legitimacy seems to
      ˆ                                        was created from a left rib removed
have been based on the tracing of a            from Adam by God, and Adam named
relationship to Muhammad through the           her Hawwa' because she was formed
  ˆ               ˙
Hashimite line. The third caliph, al-          from ˙a living being. She is credited with
Mahdı, abandoned this claim in favor of
        ˆ                                      leading Adam into the sin of eating the
the argument that they were legitimate         forbidden fruit, which is variously iden-
because of their relationship to al-           tified in the Muslim sources as grapes or
¤Abbas b. ¤Abd al-Muttalib. From that
      ˆ                                        wheat. After the expulsion from Para-
point, Shı ¤ı Islam concentrated its
           ˆ ˆ                                 dise, Adam and Hawwa' went to Arabia.
hayd                                                                                 80
˙  ˙

The couple made a pilgrimage (hajj) to                ˆ
                                             Hidden Ima m
Mecca, where Adam fulfilled ˙all the          Among some Shı¤ı, it is believed that the
rites of that ceremony. Hawwa' had her
                              ˆ              last Imam did not die, but disappeared
first menstruation there,˙ and Adam dug       from view. (See also ghaybah, Muham-
the well of Zamzam with his foot to          mad al-Qa'im.)
                                                       ˆ                         ˙
provide water for her purification. In
many mystical circles, Hawwa' is the
symbol of the spiritual˙ and mystical             ˆ
                                             h ija b (Arabic: partition)
elements of Paradise.                        In modern and popular usage, the word
                                             hijab means the veil or head covering
                                             worn by some Muslim women. In the
h ayd (Arabic: menstruation)
˙      ˙                                     Qur'an, the word is non-gendered and
In Islamic law, menstruation is regarded
                                             means a separation, cover, screen or
as a natural event that nevertheless
                                             protection. It was the screen beyond
produces a state of impurity for the
                                             which Maryam (Mary) concealed her-
woman. She does not, however, contam-
                                             self from her family, and it referred to
inate men who have contact with her,
                                             the separation of the wives of the
except that sexual intercourse with a
                                             Prophet from society. On the yawm
menstruating woman is condemned
                                             ad-dın, those who are saved will be
without penalty in the Qur'a n. A  ˆ
                                             separated from those condemned to Hell
woman in such a state of impurity may
                                             by a hijab. In classical commentaries,
not recite more than a few verses of the              ˙       ˆ
                                             the word hijab refers to the institution of
Qur'an, walk through a mosque, fast
      ˆ                                                     ˙
                                             veiling, while other words are used for
during Ramadan, or perform the salat.
                 ˆ                     ˆ
               ˙                    ˙        the actual veil itself. The wearing of such
She may, however, attend the hajj, since
 ˆ                              ˙            a veil marks the transition from child-
¤A'ishah began a period while setting out
                                             hood to adulthood, and is often taken at
on the hajj, and the Prophet gave her
         ˙                                   puberty, although some communities
permission to continue, wrapping her-
                                             have girls of a younger age dress in a
self with extra cloth. The hayd is used as
                           ˙ ˙               veil in imitation of their mothers. In
a marker for the ¤iddah, or period of
                                             some Sufı writings, the hijab is the
                                                          ˆ ˆ
waiting after divorce (talaq), before
                              ˆ                                            ˙
                          ˙                  curtain˙ that separates us from the truth
                                             of Allah, which can be penetrated by
                                             proper mystical devotion. In popular
Heaven                                       usage, this term has recently replaced the
See al-jannah.                                                        ˆ
                                             Qur'anic word khimar, the name of the
                                             garment that covers a woman’s bosom.
                                             (See also burqu¤; chador; (dress.)
See al-ha
        ˆwiyah; jahannam.
                                             al-H ija z (Arabic: barrier)
Hereafter                                    The northwestern part of the Arabian
                                             peninsula containing the holy cities of
See al-akhirah.
       ˆ                                     Mecca and Madınah. For Muslims this
                                             is the holy land, al-bilad al-muqaddasah,
heresy                                       the birthplace of Islam, and, as such, it
See bid¤ah.                                  has been restricted to Muslims in whole
                                             or part. After the death of the Prophet,
                                             the two cities of Mecca and Madınah  ˆ
heretic                                      became known as al-Haramayn, the
                                             two cities that were haram, or sacred.
See ilhad; zindıq.
        ˆ      ˆ
      ˙                                                              ˙
81                                                                                  ˆ

Non-Muslims were excluded from these         the camel stopped, he made his head-
sites and, by extension, were allowed        quarters. The people who had been sent
into the rest of the Hijaz only in limited
                        ˆ                    to Abyssinia in 615 and were brought to
ways. Until modern˙ times, the area has      Madınah were counted as having made
been poor and dependent on pilgrim           the hijrah. In subsequent Islamic history,
revenues to sustain its population.          the term has taken on a metaphoric
                                             sense to mean an Islamic religious
hijrah (Arabic: dissociation,
migration from one polity to another)
                                             hila l (Arabic: crescent)
Meaning to migrate or change one’s
affiliation from one group to another,        The crescent or new moon, it has
the term generally refers to the migra-      become the symbol of Islam because of
tion of the Prophet Muhammad from            its association with the sighting of the
                  ˆ          ˙
Mecca to Madınah in 622 c.e., which          new moon at the start and finish of the
became the first year of the Muslim           holy month of Ramadan. It is important
calendar on the establishment of the         in Islamic religious˙ law (sharı ¤ah),
Muslim state. The Prophet lost the full      because the Muslim calendar is lunar,
support of his clan after the death of his   and the beginnings of festivals are
uncle, Abu Talib, who was replaced by
           ˆ ˆ                               determined by the sighting of the new
    ˆ        ˙
Abu Lahab, a supporter of Muham-             moon. The details of such sightings vary
mad’s bitterest enemies and one of the˙      from one legal school (madhhab) to
people mentioned in the Qur'a       ˆ n as   another. The crescent moon began to
condemned to Hell. After attempts to         appear, usually accompanied by a five-
find a suitable affiliation with the           or six-pointed star, in the first Islamic
inhabitants of at-Ta'if, the Prophet con-
                      ˆ                      century as a symbol on coins and
                  ˙ ˙
cluded the treaty of al-¤Aqabah with the     decorations. By the fifth/eleventh cen-
Arab tribes of the city of Yathrib,          tury, the crescent was used to replace the
known as Madınah. According to the
                  ˆ                          cross, when churches were converted to
traditions found in the sırah, in the year
                           ˆ                 mosques. In Ottoman times, the crescent
622 Muhammad began to send his               and the star became emblems on Muslim
          ˙                                  battle flags and royal standards. In the
followers north to Madınah. His ene-
mies among the Quraysh plotted to kill
the Prophet by having a representative
of each of the clans simultaneously stab
him, in order that the guilt would be
spread evenly among them. When they
arrived at Muhammad’s house, however,
they found ¤Alı b. Abı Talib in his bed.
                        ˆ ˆ
The Meccans pursued the Prophet and
Abu Bakr, but they hid in a cave, the
entrance to which was miraculously
covered by a spider’s web, leading the
Meccans to believe that the cave was
uninhabited. According to tradition,
they arrived by a circuitous route at
the south side of the city on the twelfth
of the month of ar-Rabi¤ al-'Awwal in
the year 622. He loosed his camel,               The hilal, which has become the
which went into the city, and where                      symbol of Islam.
al-Hillı ¤Allamah
       ˆ,    ˆ                                                                         82

twentieth century, these symbols became       particularly the religious sciences, is the
the flag of the Republic of Turkey when        notion that the student who studies the
it was declared in 1923. Pakistan also        Qur'an and related texts will become a
adopted it, as have a number of Muslim        moral person, a true Muslim.
countries around the world. In the
United States, the crescent has become        h inna ' (Arabic: henna)
the official symbol for deceased Muslims       ˙
                                              A plant used for dye, medicine, and,
in the United States military, parallel to
                                              from its flower, perfumed oil. As a dye, it
the cross for Christians and the star of
                                              is widely used in the Islamic world to
David for Jews.
                                              color the hair of both sexes, grey beards,
                                              and by women to decorate their hands
al-H illı ¤Alla mah b. al-
         ˆ,         ˆ                         and feet. In some communities, men use
Mut ahhar (648/1250–726/1325)                 it to dye their beards on return from the
Scholar and jurist of the Ithna ¤Ashar-
                                  ˆ           hajj. There is no prohibition in the
iyyah Shı¤ı, prominent in the Mu¤tazi-
            ˆˆ                                 ˙ ˆ
                                              hadıths against using it for decoration
lah, and a theorist noted for his             on the skin unless it resembles an all-
writings on ijtihad. He is said to have
                      ˆ                       over tattoo, so parts of the skin usually
written over five hundred works on all         remain uncolored. In the popular imagi-
aspects of Islamic learning, only a few of    nation, the plant has properties to ward
which have been published. Two of his         off evil as well as to cure certain
works, al-Bab al-hadı ¤ ashar and Sharh
                ˆ       ˆ ˆ                   illnesses.
                      ˙                   ˙
tajrıd al-i¤ tiqad, are regarded as founda-
tional texts for Ithna ¤Asharı Shı¤ism.
                          ˆ       ˆ   ˆ       H ira ', Mount
His preaching converted the Ilkhanid    ˆ      ˙
                                              The mountain northeast of Mecca in a
ruler of Persia to Ithna ¤Asharı Shı¤ism,
                            ˆ      ˆ ˆ
                                              cave of which Muhammad practiced
making it the state religion of Persia for                          ˙
                                              tah annuth (meditation). He also
the first time.                                   ˙
                                              received his first revelation of the
                                              Qur'an from the angel Jibrıl there. It
                                                    ˆ                       ˆ
h ilm (Arabic: well-behaved, civilized)       is also called Jabal an-Nur, the “Moun-
This term is the opposite of the Arabic       tain of Light.” (See also khalwah.)
word jahl, from which we get the word
jahiliyyah, referring to the period
 ˆ                                                    ˆ
                                              al-h isa b (Arabic: reckoning)
before the coming of Islam. It is linked          ˙
                                              The word is often used in the Qur'an inˆ
to the concept of ¤ilm, which means
                                              the sense of the final reckoning, the
knowledge or science, but it has broader
                                              yawm al-hisa At the time of the final
civilizational aspects than those two
                                              judgment ˙ of each soul, the person will
terms usually imply in English. From
                                              receive a record of all their deeds, in the
the perspective of the coming of Islam,
                                              right hand if they are destined for
the eradication of the behaviors of the
                                              Paradise, and in their left hand if destined
jahiliyyah meant an end to the barba-
                                              for damnation. The imagery used in the
rities of that period and their social
                                              Qur'an is a commercial metaphor in
injustices. The term appears in the
                                              which each deed is valued positively or
Qur'an to indicate kindness, forbear-
                                              negatively and made part of the final
ance, and patience, all aspects of the
                                              accounting. (See also yawm ad-dın.)  ˆ
message that Muhammad strove to
correct in his fellow˙ Quraysh. The link
between hilm and ¤ ilm has profoundly         h isbah (Arabic: reckon)
           ˙                                  ˙
affected Islamic views of education.          From a root meaning to reckon or sum
Fundamental to a study of the sciences,       up, the term refers to the institution in
83                                                                               Houris

the Islamic state to regulate markets and       H izb an-Nahd ah
maintain public order.                          ˙                 ˙
                                                The principal Islamist party in Tunisia.

h iyal (Arabic: devices; sg. hılah)
                                 ˆ                               ˆr
                                                H izb at-Tah rı al-Isla mı  ˆ ˆ
˙                              ˙                ˙              ˙
Legal stratagems designed to mitigate           The Islamic Liberation Party, founded in
the severity or, sometimes, the unin-           1953 by a Palestinian, Taqı ad-Dın an-
                                                                            ˆ     ˆ
tended consequences of a law. Some of           Nabhanı. It seeks to establish a post-
                                                      ˆ ˆ
the earliest of these strategems were in        colonial Islamic state to replace the
the commercial field, where the prohibi-         existing states, which are not founded
tion of lending money at interest had the       on principles of sharı ¤ah.
possible effect of eliminating business. In
order to get around this, some people           H izbulla hˆ
employed a simultaneous double sale, in          ˙
                                                A militant revolutionary party formed in
which the object was sold at one price          Iran after the revolution of 1979. It was
and re-purchased at a higher price to be        used as a vigilante movement by the
paid in the future. The difference              Islamic Republican Party, and as a
between the prices would be the equiva-         paramilitary group to enforce their
lent of what would be termed interest in        policies. Formed from Iranian roots,
the West, and would satisfy the legal           the party in Lebanon has developed a
requirements of sharı ¤ah. These legal
                                                strong support base among the Lebanese
fictions were favored by the Hanafı          ˆ   Shı¤ı and has adopted a strong anti-
madhhab and condemned by the Mal-  ˙    ˆ
                                                American, anti-Israeli, anti-Phalangist
ikı and the H anbalı . al-Bukha rı
   ˆ                       ˆ           ˆ ˆ
                                                stance. It has adopted the dual tactic of
reserved a whole section of his sahıh     ˆ     participating in parliamentary elections
for condemnation of the practice. ˙ ˙ ˙         and committing acts of violence to
                                                further its aims of creating an Islamic
h izb (Arabic: one-sixtieth)                    state in Lebanon.
In the Qur'a n, the term refers to
factions which weaken a religion and                   ˆl      ˆ ˆ
                                                H izkı b. Bu dhı or Bu zı  ˆ ˆ
lead to its destruction. In modern usage,       The biblical prophet Ezekiel. His name
it means “party,” as in hizb Allah, the
                                   ˆ            is not found in the Qur'an, but the
                          ˙                     tafsır traditions equate him with the
“party of God,” Q. 58:22. In Sufism, the
                                 ˆ                   ˆ
term refers to a particularly helpful           prophet sent to the people mentioned in
prayer for a specific occasion, such as a        Q. 2:243, who were killed by God and
prayer for traveling.                           then brought back to life. In the
                                                Isra'ıliyyat traditions, many features
                                                   ˆ ˆ    ˆ
                                                of Ezekiel’s life are taken from Jewish
h izb Alla h (Arabic: party of God)             and Christian commentaries.
In the Qur'an it is opposed to the hizb
          ˆ                        ˙
ash-Shaytan, the party of the devil, Q.         holy war
58:19.  ˙
                                                See jihad.

H izb ad-Da¤wah al-                             Houris
˙ ˆ
Isla miyyah
                                                Properly huriyyah or hawra' ; in the
The Islamic Missionary Party, a major                     ˙             ˙
                                                Qur'an, they are female companions
Shı¤ı party in Iraq in opposition to the
  ˆˆ                                            in Paradise, e.g. Q. 52:20. In Islamic
Ba¤thist regime.                                legend, they are perpetually virgins.
Hubal                                                                              84

Hubal                                       carries important correspondence for
The name of a major pre-Islamic deity.      Sulayman.
His statue was located in the Ka¤bah,
and divining arrows were cast before it.          ˆ
                                            h udu d
The practice of casting such arrows is      ˙
                                            See hadd.
condemned in Q. 5:90. The statue was            ˙
guarded by a hijab and seems to have
                                            h ujjah (Arabic: proof; the
been generally ˙worshipped by the poly-     ˙
                                            presentation of proof)
theistic Quraysh.
                                            This term is used in various technical
Hu d                                        senses in philosophical and theological
                                            argument. Among the Isma¤ılı Shı¤ı, it
                                                                         ˆ ˆ ˆ   ˆˆ
The prophet sent to the people of ¤Ad.ˆ
                                            represents the person through whom the
Like Muhammad, he found his people          transcendent God becomes manifest. As
strongly resistent to his message. As a     such, it refers to a high level of rank in
punishment, God withheld rain from          the da¤wah organization.
them for three years. Hud suggested that
they make a pilgrimage to Mecca to
pray for rain, but they prayed to more      H ujjatiyyah
deities than just Allah, so God caused
                      ˆ                     From the Arabic word meaning proof,
three clouds to appear. The leader of the   this ultra-conservative Iranian Shı¤ıˆˆ
people of ¤Ad, Qayl, chose a black one,     movement holds that the Imams are the
and God sent a terrible wind that           means by which those lower than they
destroyed all the unbelievers of ¤Ad. ˆ     can achieve access to God. The group is
Hud and his small band of faithful then
   ˆ                                        violently anti-Baha'ı. After 1979, the
                                                                ˆ ˆ
settled in Mecca.                           Hujjatiyyah were accused of opposition
                                            to the rule of clerics and driven under-
al-H udaybiyyah                             ground, where its followers await the
    ˙                                       return of the Hidden Imam.ˆ
A town near Mecca in which Muham-
mad and the Meccans signed a mutual  ˙
non-aggression treaty in 6/628 granting            ˆrı
                                            al-Hujwı ˆ (died 467/1075)
the Muslims the right to make an            A well-known Sufı who wrote the Kashf
                                                             ˆ ˆ
¤ umrah (lesser pilgrimage) the following   al-mah ju b (Disclosure of the Con-
                                            cealed), in which he outlines the mystic
year in exchange for the return of those
Quraysh who had made the hijrah             path, while advocating that the mystic
without their guardians’ permission.        also follow the sharı ¤ah.
The treaty was rendered moot by the
Muslim conquest of Mecca in 8/630.          al-H usayn b. ¤Alı (4/626–61/680)
                                            The third Imam of the Shı¤ı, the son of
                                                         ˆ            ˆˆ
hudhud                                      ¤Alı b. Abı Talib and Muhammad’s
                                                ˆ       ˆ ˆ
The hoopoe bird, one of the few men-                    ˆ ˙               ˙
                                            daughter, Fatimah. He, along with a
tioned explicitly in the Qur'an. In ˆ       small group  ˙ of supporters, was mas-
Islamic legend, it is regarded as a pious   sacred on yawm ¤Ashura in 61/680 at
                                                               ˆ ˆ ˆ
and faithful bird, monogamous and           the battle of Karbala', an event com-
devoted to its parents. It has a major      memorated by Shı¤ı to this day. For this
role in the story of Sulayman and ˆ         reason, he is known as the Prince of
Bilqıs (Q. 27), where it reports finding
     ˆ                                      Martyrs, and his death, remembered as
the queen. In the tafsır traditions, it
                          ˆ                 heroic, has served as a paradigm of
also has the power to find water and         martyrdom.
85                                                      hypocrisy, hypocrites

h usayniyyah                              throughout the Shı¤ı communities in
˙                                         the Islamic world. Some husayniyyah
Sites for the ritual ceremonies commem-                           ˙
orating the martyrdom of al-Husayn b.     are permanent and endowed by waqfs.
¤Alı, they were originally temporary
tents in memory of the Imam’s lastˆ       hypocrisy, hypocrites
encampment. The practice dates from
the tenth century and has spread          See munafiqun.
                                                 ˆ  ˆ

¤iba dah (Arabic: religious practice)
   ˆ                                              caused Allah to cast him out of heaven
This word, mentioned in the Qur'an,   ˆ           and be cursed until the end of time. Iblıs
(Q. 18:110; 19:65), means the obser-              then requested that his punishment be
vances and devotional actions necessary           deferred to the yawm ad-dın and that
to be a Muslim. In fiqh a distinction is           he be given permission to lead astray all
made between ¤ibadat and mu¤amalat,
                   ˆ ˆ            ˆ     ˆ         humans and jinn who are not steadfast
the latter being the social requirements          and faithful. He started his temptations
and obligations in Islam. In institutions         with H awwa' (Eve) and Adam by
                                                  persuading them to eat fruit from the
like divorce (talaq) and marriage
(nikah), many ˙
    ˆ            scholars would divide            forbidden tree, making both of them
between the two.                                  culpable. In the tafsır literature he is
                                                  said to have entered the mouth of the
                                                  snake, which was at that time a beauti-
    ˆ                   ˆ
Iba d iyyah or Aba d iyyah                        ful creature. As part of the curse for
       ˙                   ˙
The Ibadıs are a moderate branch of the
          ˆ ˆ                                     tempting Adam and Hawwa', the snake
           ˙ named after ¤Abd Allah b.                                   ˙
                                                  was stripped of its fine feathers and its
Khawarij ˆ                            ˆ
Ibad (fl. first/seventh century). They are
   ˆ                                              legs and made to crawl forever in the
tolerant of other sects of Islam, believing       dust as an enemy to humans. His usual
that Muslims who are not of their                 approach to humans is to whisper in the
persuasion are not mushrikun (poly-
                                 ˆ                ears. For this reason, the last two
theists), as the more extreme 'Azraqı     ˆ       chapters of the Qur'an are frequently
Kharijites hold. This means that they
     ˆ                                            recited at the perception of temptation
reject the notion that those Muslims              or worn as amulets to ward off the evil.
must be killed for apostasy. Marriage             Parents will also say the basmalah in
with non-Ibadıs is possible, but they are
              ˆ ˆ                                 the ears of newborns to prevent Iblıs    ˆ
resistant to outside contact. They are            from having an influence on them. At
found today chiefly in Oman, but also in           the yawm ad-dın, Iblıs and all his
                                                                    ˆ        ˆ
East Africa and North Africa.                     helping hosts will be cast into the fires
                                                  of Hell. Some mystics hold out the hope
                                                  that he will repent and be spared the
Iblı                                              final punishment. In extra-Qur'anic lit-
The name in the Qur'an for the devil
                        ˆ                         erature, many popular stories about the
(e.g. Q. 2:34), derived from the Greek            Devil are elaborated. In one, Nuh      ˆ
                                                  (Noah) was supervising the loading        ˙
word diabolos. The Qur'an lists Iblıs as
                          ˆ        ˆ
the angel who refused to bow to Adam,             of the ark when the pair of asses
because he was made of clay. This                 approached. Iblıs is said to have grabbed
87                                              Ibn ¤Abd al-Wahhab, Muhammad

the tail of one of the asses so that it       figure. He was an advisor to ¤Alı b. Abı
                                                                              ˆ      ˆ
could not advance up the gangplank.           Talib and held some minor posts. He
Nuh, in exasperation, said, “Woe to
   ˆ                                          was involved in the appropriation of the
you; enter, even if the devil is with you.”   town funds of Basrah, but he seems to
This gave permission for Iblıs to enter                          ˙
                                              have been immune to scandal. He is best
the ark. There is extensive discussion        known to history as a great scholar
about whether the devil is a fallen angel,    whose extensive knowledge of the
a jinn, or both. The discussion hinges on     Qur'an and hadıths helped establish
                                                   ˆ             ˆ
the nature of angels and whether or not       the basis for ˙ the development of the
they are created sinless and obedient to      Islamic sciences.
God. Another point of discussion among
commentators is the nature of Iblıs’ sin.
                                     ˆ        Ibn ¤Abd Alla h (Arabic: son of the
He was asked, so the argument goes, to        servant of Allah)
bow to a human creature, which would
                                              This name is often taken by converts to
be to disobey the command to worship
                                              Islam as their new patronymic.
only God and to bow to none else but
God. Most see Iblıs’ actions as derived
from pride rather than humility, and that     Ibn ¤Abd al-Wahha b,
he was punished for his pride. Some           Muh ammad (1115/1703–1206/
Sufıs, however, see the connection
  ˆ ˆ
between what they perceive to be true         Founder of the Wahhabı movement,
                                                                            ˆ ˆ
worship and what they are required to         which is based on the writings of Ibn
do in the world, and are sympathetic to       Taymiyyah and extreme H anbalı            ˆ
Iblıs’ plight. (See also Shaytan.)            thought. He was born in Arabia in a ˙
    ˆ                            ˆ
                               ˙              town in the Nejd called al-¤Uyaynah to a
                                              family of Hanbalı scholars. He began his
Ibn ¤Abba s (c. 619–68/688)
                                              education ˙with his father by learning the
The common name for ¤Abd Allah b. al-
                                 ˆ            Qur'an by heart. After studying what
¤Abbas, a prominent early Companion,
      ˆ                                       was available to him in his home town,
muhaddith, and commentator on the             he left for a series of journeys “in search
    ˙ ˆ
Qur'an. Because of his erudition, he is       of knowledge.” He went to Mecca on
often called al-Bahr, the “Ocean” of          hajj, but was dissatisfied with what he
wisdom. He was born before the hijrah          ˙
                                              learned there. While in Madınah, how-
to a Muslim mother and was regarded as        ever, he studied with ¤Abd Allah b.   ˆ
having been a Muslim all his life. Early      Ibrahım an-Najdı, who was a supporter
                                                  ˆ ˆ            ˆ
in his life he began to collect sayings       of Ibn Taymiyyah. He then went to
about the Prophet (h adı ths), and
                             ˆ                Basrah, Baghdad, where he married a
develop collections of ˙material about           ˙
                                              wealthy woman and remained for five
the Qur'an. These collections were both
          ˆ                                   years, to Damascus and Cairo. He then
oral and written, and he used them as         returned to Arabia, wrote a treatise on
the basis for his daily public teachings      the unity of God, and began preaching
on the entire range of Islamic topics.        his reformist message against the venera-
Because of his reputation as a scholar, he    tion of saints and other innovations,
was frequently asked for legal opinions       (bid¤ah). Some of the local Arabian
(fatwas) about matters, and was one of
        ˆ                                     Shı¤ı became alarmed at his preaching,
the first to engage in commentary on the       and he moved to the town of Dar¤iyyah,
Qur'an, tafsır. He had minimal invol-
      ˆ       ˆ                               near present-day Riyad, and secured the
vement in the political turmoil of his        protection of the amı˙ Muhammad b.
time. He participated in several cam-                                           ˙
                                              Sa¤ud. His reformist ideology suited the
paigns, but was not a central military        ambitions of the amır, and their associa-
            ˆ,    ˆ     ˆn
Ibn al-¤Arabı Muhyı ad-Dı                                                             88

tion led to the beginning of a Wahhabıˆ ˆ      works. His best-known works are The
state. He was active in writing and            Bezels of Wisdom (Fusus al-hikam) and
                                                                       ˙ ˙      ˙
propaganda until his death at the age          The Meccan Revelations (al-Futuhat     ˆ ˆ
of eighty-nine. The movement he started        al-makkiyyah). Like many Sufıs, Ibn˙ al-
                                                                                ˆ ˆ
took the doctrines of Ibn Taymiyyah to                                        ˙
                                               ¤Arabı believed that human knowledge
new lengths. He was opposed to all             is limited, and that knowledge acquired
survivals among the bedouin of pre-            through sense perception and reason is
Islamic practices, to any form of Sufism
                                    ˆ          inferior to religious knowledge acquired
and any kind of reliance on taqlı˙d, the
                                  ˆ            through inspiration from God to the
adherence of a person to a doctrine            soul. For this reason, he felt that humans
because of the authority of others. This       should undertake spiritual journeys to
meant, also, that he was opposed to Shı¤ı
                                       ˆˆ      God, insofar as they are able. The
doctrines as well, which naturally relied      ultimate goal would be union with
on the authority of ¤Alı b. Abı Talib
                          ˆ      ˆ ˆ           God while still living among humans
and the line of Imams. The reports that
                    ˆ                          on earth. At no point did he advocate
Ibn ¤Abd al-Wahhab was expelled from
                    ˆ                          abandoning the practice of the require-
his home town by his own family seem           ments of Islam – the daily prayers, the
to be exaggerated. On both religious and       fasting, etc. He believed God to be
personal grounds, he was opposed to the        completely transcendent, with emana-
Ottoman Empire, which had killed his           tions coming from Him that seem
brother and condoned a wide variety of         similar to Neoplatonic emanations, but
practices he saw as innovations and            he does not clearly explain how this
heresies.                                      process works. For him, knowledge
                                               from God comes to humans through
                                               these emanations, like the inspiration to
              ˆ,      ˆ  ˆn
Ibn al-¤Arabı Muh yı ad-Dı
                                               the prophets, and must be received
(560/1165–638/1240) ˙
                                               through faith, but humans must make
A famous Su fı writer and master,
                 ˆ ˆ                           the journey toward God in order to be
dubbed ash-shaykh al-akbar (the great          receptive. Some are more receptive than
shaykh), he is best known for his              others, like prophets chosen for their
doctrine of the oneness of being (wahdat       role, and Ibn al-¤Arabı regarded himself
                                       ˙       as particularly talented in this area.
al-wujud). Born in Spain, he spent the
first thirty years of his life in and around    Without claiming prophethood, he
Seville. As a result of a childhood illness,   regarded his writings as divinely
he changed his life and became more            inspired. The techniques he advocated
religious. The genuineness of this experi-     for the spiritual journey involved
ence impressed his father and one of his       silence, withdrawal from human con-
father’s friends, the famous philosopher       tact, wakefulness, and hunger. At a final
Ibn Rushd. At the age of thirty, he left       stage, the hijab that separates humans
Seville and went first to Tunis and then        from God is lifted, and the successful
to Fas, where he began his writing. At
     ˆ                                         mystic perceives a manifestation of God.
the age of thirty-eight, he traveled to        Ibn al-¤Arabı did not establish a tar-
                                               ıqah, so his influence is to be found   ˙
Cairo and then made the h ajj to               ˆ
Mecca, where he stayed for two years.          among those who carried copies of his
Additional journeys took him to Bagh-          works to Iran and the Yemen. His
dad and finally to Dimashq (Damas-
  ˆ                                            greatest influence was in the Ottoman
cus), where he married several wives           Empire, where his works were used as
and lived a quiet life of teaching and         school texts. In the West, he had some
writing. He was a prolific writer, cred-        influence on the Catalan philosopher
ited with over four hundred different          and missionary Raymondus Lullus (died
89                                                                              ˆ
                                                                        Ibn Battutah
                                                                              ˙˙ ˙

c. 1315), and possibly on Dante’s Divina     a “saint” for his efforts and his simpli-
Comedia.                                     city.

Ibn ¤Aru s, Abu al-¤Abba s
          ˆ        ˆ           ˆ                     ˆ
                                             Ibn Ba jjah, Abu Bakrˆ
Ah mad (died 868/1463)                       Muh ammad b. Yah ya b. as -  ˆ
   ˙                                           ˆ ˙
                                             S a 'igh al-'Andalusı as- ˙ˆ        ˙
One of the most prominent and popular
                                             Saraqustˆ (c. 500/1106–533/1138)
walıs (saints) of medieval Tunisia. He
lived as an itinerant worker of miracles     Andalusian Islamic Neoplatonic philoso-
and violated the moral and religious         pher, who influenced Ibn Rushd. He
codes, claiming that he was beyond           was also a well-known musician and
those mundane restrictions. His popu-        poet, and the composer of popular
larity allowed him to withstand the          songs. Little is known of his life. When
criticism of the ¤ulama', and he was
                        ˆ                    his Iberian hometown of Saragosa fell to
buried in a za   ˆwiyah, or tomb, that       the Almoravids, he served as a wazır    ˆ
became the object of popular venera-         until he was thrown into prison at a
tion. The ¤Aru siyyah tarı qah was
                 ˆ           ˆ               political change. He went to Seville and
named for him.            ˙                  assumed another post as wazır thatˆ
                                             lasted for twenty years. He died in Fas,
Ibn Ba dı ¤Abd al-H amı
      ˆ ˆs,             ˆd,                  some say by poisoning. Ibn Bajjah’s main
            ˆ ˆs   ˙
also Ben Ba dı (1307/1889–1359/              concern in his writings is the possibility
1940)                                        of the union of man and God. He
                                             thought this could be achieved through
Algerian Islamic reformer, head of the
                                             the exercise of the intellect, by which a
Algerian ¤ulama', and architect of
                                             person is capable of comprehending
Algerian independent identity. Through
                                             increasingly abstract forms until the
his Islamic reform, he led the resistance
                                             Active Intellect is reached. His work is
to the French, restored Arabic as the
                                             decidedly Neoplatonic and based, appar-
national language, opposed the Sufı    ˆ ˆ
                                             ently, on several Neoplatonic treatises
orders, and interpreted the Qur'an in
                                             that were available to him in Arabic
modernist terms, emphasizing human
                                             translation. In the West, he was known
reason and free will. He studied at the
                                             as Avempace, and translations of his
Islamic University in Tunis, worked as a
                                             works helped bring knowledge of Neo-
teacher and, in 1925, founded the
                                             platonism and Aristotle to the West.
newspaper al-Muntaqid (The critic).
This short-lived publication was
replaced by ash-Shihab, which became                     ˆ
                                             Ibn Bat t u t ah (703/1304–779/1369)
                                                       ˙˙ ˙
a monthly platform for his reformist         The most famous Muslim traveler, he
ideas, and continued until 1939. He was      tells in his Rihlah (Travelogue) of his
particularly devoted to ridding Algeria                      ˙
                                             travels from the Middle East and Africa
of the influence of the marabouts,            to China. He often earned his way by
whom he saw as playing on ignorance          serving as a Malikı judge (qadı). His
                                                               ˆ   ˆ         ˆ ˆ
and superstition, and the influence of                                         ˙
                                             travel account combines both the genre
French culture and ideals. Indeed, he        of Muslim geography and the personal
saw the two elements as linked, to the       travel tale in such a way that he creates
detriment of Algerian independence and       almost a new genre, of which he is the
development. In 1931, he became the          foremost example. His descriptions of
president of the Association of Algerian     India, the areas under Turkic domina-
Muslim ¤ ulama' and worked tirelessly
                ˆ                            tion and China contain a wealth of
promoting an Islamic cultural renewal.       information not found elsewhere in
At his death in 1940, he was regarded as     Islamic literature of the time.
                   ˆ ˆ
Ibn Hajar al-¤Asqalanı                                                                 90

Ibn H ajar al-¤Asqala nı   ˆ ˆ,              and the dynasty changed, Ibn Hazm
           ˆ        ˆn   ˆ
Shiha b ad-Dı Abu al-Fad l                   became the wazır to the 'Umayyad      ˙
Ah mad b. Nu r ad-Dı ¤Alı b.
                    ˆ      ˆn        ˙
                                     ˆ       claimant to the kingdom of Granada.
Muh ammad (773/1372–852/1449)                At his sponsor’s defeat, Ibn Hazm was
        ˙                                                                     ˙
A historian and scholar of hadıths, he
                                  ˆ          put in prison for a time, a pattern that
was a great writer of biographical           was repeated several times, until he went
encyclopedias that are rich sources of       into semi-seclusion and withdrew from
information about transmitters of tradi-     public life. His political writings reflect a
tion. His parents died when he was           strong bias against the Malikı madh-
                                                                           ˆ     ˆ
about three, but his mother left him a       hab for its support of whoever might be
small fortune and he was able to live in     in power, while his juristic writings
the house of his birth and pursue his        reflect a strong bias against the Hanafı     ˆ
studies. After several rihlahs, journeys     madhhab. In the West, he is best ˙known
for knowledge, and a good marriage, he       for his treatise on love, Tawq al-hama-   ˆ
started a career that saw him advance
                                             mah (The dove’s neckring), as well˙ as his
from lecturer to professor to judge in a     writings on comparative religion, Kitab  ˆ
relatively smooth path. His real fame        al-fisal fı al-milal wa al-ahwa' wa al-
                                                       ˆ                       ˆ
                                                 ˙                         ˙
lies in his works on ¤ilm al-hadıth, the
                                   ˆ         nihal.
                              ˙                ˙
science of tradition. He wrote immense
biographical dictionaries, al-Isabah fı  ˆ           ˆ       ˆ
                                             Ibn Hisha m, Abu Muh ammad
tamyız as-sahabah and Tahdhıb˙ at-tahd-
         ˆ        ˆ             ˆ                                   ˙
                                             ¤Abd al-Ma lik (died 218/833)
             ˙ ˙
hıb being˙ the most famous. He also
wrote biographies of Egyptian judges         Editor of the first biography of Muham-
                                             mad (sırah), written by Ibn Ishaq. He
                                                      ˆ                            ˆ ˙
and a biography of famous men of his                                             ˙
time. His commentary on the Sahıh of   ˆ     spent his life in Egypt, but his family was
al-Bukharı, the Fath al-barı, is˙a ˙ ˙
              ˆ ˆ          ˆ ˆ       model   of southern Arabian origin, and he
of juridical explication. He enjoyed a       wrote a work on the antiquities of South
reputation of sound scholarship and                                    ˆ        ˆˆ
                                             Arabia, called the Kitab at-tıjan. His
criticism in his time, and his works are     edition of the sırah epitomized Ibn
still standards to be consulted about        Ishaq’s original, confining it only to
                                             those materials that he felt were relevant
˙                                            to the life of the Prophet. He criticized
                                             Ibn Ishaq for introducing elements that
Ibn H anbal                                         ˙
                                             were problematic or shameful for a
See Ahmad b. Hanbal.                         sacred biography, but his criticism
     ˙       ˙                               reflected the changed and more insular
                                             attitudes of the Islamic community that
Ibn H azm, Abu Muh ammad                     had developed after the sı rah wasˆ
   ˆ˙              ˙ ˆd (384/
¤Alı b. Ah mad b. Sa¤ı                       composed.
Iberian jurist, theologian, poet, and
                                             Ibn Idrı Ahmad (1163/1749–
specialist in comparative religion, he
was a prolific writer and proponent of
the Zahirı school of law (madhhab).
       ˆ   ˆ                                 Eponym of the Idrısiyyah Sufı move-
                                                                 ˆ          ˆ ˆ
He was born in Cordova, but little is                                     ˙
                                             ment, he was born in Morocco, studied
known of his family background. His          in Fas, and spent his later years in the
father was a wazır in the court of the
                  ˆ                                                                ˆ
                                             Arabian Peninsula. His son, ¤Abd al-¤Al,
ruler, Mansur, and Ibn Hazm spent his
              ˆ                              is credited with starting the movement
            ˙           ˙
early years in the court and in the          formally, and his students carried his
harem. When his father fell from favor       ideas to Malaysia and Africa.
91                                                             Ibn Khaldun, ¤Abd ar-Rahman
                                                                        ˆ               ˆ

Ibn Ish a q, Muh ammad b.                                tion. His vision of world history was so
Ish a q ˙b. Yasa r b. Khiya r
    ˆ                     ˆ                              influential that it is said that the famous
  ˙          ˆ
al-Madanı (85/704–150/767)                               historian at-Tabarı used Ibn Ishaq’s
                                                                               ˆ                 ˆ
                                                         material and ˙                        ˙
                                                                      ˙ plan as the basis for his
Born in Madınah to a mawla family of
                  ˆ                    ˆ
                                                         universal history. (See also sırah.)
traditionists, he collected stories and
poems about the Prophet and wrote
the first complete biography of Muham-                    Ibn Kathı Abu Ma¤bad ¤Abd
                                                                   ˆr,  ˆ
mad, called the Sırat rasul Allah or as-
                         ˆ         ˆ       ˆ ˙               ˆ         ˆr       ˆ
                                                         Alla h b. Kathı al-Makkı (fl. c.
Sırah. It started with the creation of the
  ˆ                                                      90/710)
world and continued through the life of                  Born in Mecca, he was a perfume dealer
the Prophet up to the ¤Abbasid cali-   ˆ                 by trade, but became an authority on
phate. It was later abridged by Ibn                      tajwıd, or recitation of the Qur'an. His
                                                              ˆ                           ˆ
Hisham to just the materials on the life
       ˆ                                                 reading is counted among the Sunnı asˆ
of the Prophet, and is the most popular                  one of the seven canonical readings.
biography of Muhammad in existence.
Ibn Ishaq was born into a scholarly
family,   ˙for his father, Ishaq, and his two
                                 ˆ                       Ibn Khaldu n, ¤Abd ar-
uncles, Musa and ¤Abd ar-Rahman,
                ˆ ˆ                                ˆ           ˆ
                                                         Rah ma n b. Muh ammad Walı  ˆ
                                             ˙                           ˙
                                                            ˙ ˆn (732/1332–808/1406)
were transmitters of Prophetic tradition.
We know little of his life, but he                       Historian, proto-sociologist, and social
developed a solid reputation for his                     theoretician, he is best known in the
                           ˆ ˆ
knowledge of maghazı material, which                     West for his Muqaddimah (Introduc-
included more than just the military                     tion) to his historical writings, in which
aspects of the Prophet’s career. At one                  he sets forth a cyclical theory of the
point, Ibn Ishaq seems to have earned
                     ˆ                                   interactions between nomadic and
the enmity of ˙Malik b. 'Anas, probably
                       ˆ                                 urban civilizations. He describes a prin-
for reasons of rivalry and their differing               ciple of group solidarity (Arabic: ¤ asa-
visions of what constituted proper                       biyyah) that makes a state cohere and, ˙
sacred biography. Ibn Ishaq went to Iraq
                                 ˆ                       when lost, leads to decay and destruc-
and became associated ˙with the newly                    tion. He was born in Tunis to a family
forming ¤Abbasid court, where he was
                    ˆ                                    that had left Seville before the advance
the tutor to the young prince, al-Mahdı.             ˆ   of the Reconquista. He received an
It was partly as a textbook that he                      excellent traditional Islamic education,
conceived the shape of as-Sırah, which
                                     ˆ                   punctuated by the intrustion of political
included a comprehensive history of the                  chaos and the Black Death. He moved to
world from creation through the life of                  Fas and became associated with the
Muhammad. He continued this history                      court there, continuing his studies. When
with a history of the Caliphs up to the                  he was twenty-eight years of age, he
¤Abba sids. While authorities differ
       ˆ                                                 moved to Gharnatah. The political
about his reliability as a transmitter of                                       ˙
                                                         intrigues finally drove him back to North
legal hadıths, all concur that he was a
              ˆ                                          Africa and away from public office. He
master at the Prophet’s biography. as-                   moved to Cairo (al-Qahirah), where
Sırah is the first to bring together a
  ˆ                                                      he took a position as a teacher of
vision of the Prophet in a critical and                  Malikı fiqh. His successes provoked
                                                             ˆ   ˆ
comprehensive way, and set the pattern                   jealousy, and he was dismissed from the
for our understanding of Muhammad’s                      post, a pattern that was repeated reg-
life. All subsequent understandings of   ˙               ularly. In addition to his Muqaddimah,
the Prophet are indebted to Ibn Ishaq’s          ˆ       Ibn Khaldun wrote an autobiographical
vision and assiduous collecting of tradi-      ˙         work that, unfortunately, does not give
Ibn Majah                                                                           92

full insight into his motives and character.   making the toothpicks he used. This
He also wrote a universal history, the         gave him daily contact with the Pro-
Kitab al-¤ibar, which has received less        phet, and he heard the Qur'an directly
interest and scholarly attention. In part,     from his mouth. He is said to have been
this is because it does not meet the           the first besides Muhammad to recite
standards of historical thinking set forth     the Qur'an in public,˙ and was taunted
in his Muqaddimah, and in part it is           by the non-Muslim Quraysh for that.
because of some serious historical lapses      He was among those who made the
in the work. He is, for example, not           little hijrah to Abyssinia, and returned
always accurate on dates and on the            in time to be among those who made
beliefs of the groups he discusses.            the hijrah to Madınah. As a source of
Western scholarship has discovered Ibn         hadıths, he has a mixed reputation due
Khaldun’s Muqaddimah and has pro-               ˙
                                               to the twin factors of his fall from
claimed him to be the “father” of              public grace because of certain jealou-
sociology or social history. He has been       sies and his being credited with Shı¤ıˆˆ
judged unique, and it is hard to point to      tendencies. He is most famous for his
a predecessor who can be viewed as his         recension of the Qur'an, which differed
model. It is also true that he left no         slightly from the ¤Uthmanic recension in
successors, and his fame in modern             the order of the surahs and in various
times reflects his discovery or rediscov-       readings.
ery within the context of contemporary
social and historical theories.
                                               Ibn Muljam, ¤Abd ar-Rah ma n
                                                     ˆ ˆ
                                               al-Mura dı (died 40/661) ˙
Ibn Ma jah, Abu ¤Abd Alla h
       ˆ      ˆ         ˆ
Muh ammad b. Yazı ˆd (209/824–                 The chief conspirator and assassin of
273/887)                                       ¤Alı b. Abı Talib, he was a member of
                                                   ˆ      ˆ ˆ
                                                          ˆ ˙
                                               the Khawarij. Much legend surrounds
A prominent muhaddith, his collection
                  ˙                            the motives for his assassination. It is
of traditions, Kitab as-Sunan, is one of
                                               said that he did it to win the love of a
the six authoritative collections in Sunnı
                                               woman whose relatives had been slain at
Islam. Born in Qazwın, he traveled
                                               Nahrawan, but general hatred of ¤Alı
                                                        ˆ                             ˆ
extensively in Iraq, Syria, Arabia, and
                                               among the qurra' seems to have been
Egypt to collect hadıths. His collection,
                                               his main motive. He was slain in the
which contains˙ over four thousand
                                               attack, and it is only speculation that
items, has been considered the weakest
                                               others in the conspiracy planned to slay
of the six canonical collections.
                                               Mu¤awiyah also.

Ibn Mas¤u d (died c. 33/653)
                                               Ibn Nuba tah, Abu Yah ya ¤Abd
                                                          ˆ        ˆ     ˆ
Companion to Muhammad and an                                           ˙
                        ˙                      ar-Rahˆm b. Muh ammad b.
early convert, was sent by the Prophet                            ˙
                                               Isma ¤ı˙ (died 374/985)
                                                   ˆ ˆl
to Ethiopia, and later lived in Madınah
and Ku fah. He was an assiduous
        ˆ                                      He was a prominent preacher in the
collector of Qur'a n, although his
                      ˆ                        Syrian court of Aleppo, and wrote
recension differed from that of the            religious and political sermons in
caliph ¤Uthman. The sources say that
               ˆ                               rhymed prose, often using verses of the
he was either the third or the sixth           Qur'an to end his lines. Some of his
person to convert to Islam, and his zeal       sermons had a topical theme of support-
earned him a special affection from the        ing the war against the Byzantines, but
Prophet. He was given the posts of             they have been preserved as models of
carrying Muh ammad’s sandals and               literary sermons.
93                                                  Ibn Sı ˆ , Abu ¤Alı al-Husayn
                                                         ˆna     ˆ    ˆ

      ˆ ı             ˆ
Ibn Qa dˆ Shuhbah, Abu Bakr                much of the Neoplatonic overlay that
b. Ah mad b. Muh ammad b.                  characterized late Hellenistic and Isla-
    ˙          ˙
¤Umar Taqı ad-Dı
           ˆ   ˆn (779/1377–               mic thought. One of the chief character-
851/1448)                                  istics of Ibn Rushd’s writings is his belief
A judge, qadı, and teacher of fiqh in
           ˆ ˆ                             that religion and philosophy are ulti-
Dimashq (Damascus), he is best known       mately able to be reconciled and that
for his monumental biographical history    reason is a tool for faith. His most
of the Shafi¤ı madhhab.
         ˆ ˆ                                                          ˆ
                                           famous work, the Tahafut at-tahafut    ˆ
                                           (The refutation of the refutation), a
                                           commentary on al-Ghazalı’s Tahafut
                                                                        ˆ ˆ       ˆ
Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah,                          ˆ
                                           al-Falasifa, sets out to restore philoso-
             ˆn ˆ
Shams ad-Dı Abu Bakr                       phy and rid it of its Neoplatonic
Muh ammad b. Abı Bakr (691/                misinterpretations. Ibn Rushd probably
1292–751/1350)                             enjoyed more of a reputation in the West
Born and educated in Dimashq               than among his fellow Muslim philoso-
(Damascus), he was the most famous         phers.
pupil of Ibn Taymiyyah. His career was
marked by conflicts with those opposed      Ibn Sa¤d, Abu ¤Abd Alla h
                                                        ˆ          ˆ
to neo-Hanbalı views. He was the
                   ˆ                       Muh ammad b. Sa¤d b. Manı    ˆ¤
author of a considerable number of           ˆ ˙      ˆ    ˆ
                                           Ka tib al-Wa qidı (168/784–230/
treatises on Hanbalism which are still     845)
today widely ˙  regarded in Wahhabı and
                                ˆ ˆ        He is known for his monumental bio-
Salafı circles.
     ˆ                                                                ˆ
                                           graphical dictionary, Kitab at-tabaqat ˆ
                                                    ˆ                      ˙˙
                                           al-kubra (The book of classes), which
               ˆ     ˆd
Ibn Rushd, Abu al-Walı                     was designed to assist in the assessment
Muh ammad b. Ah mad (520/                  of the members of isnads in the study of
1126–595/1198)   ˙                         hadıths. He was born in Basrah and
                                            ˙                              ˙
                                           made numerous journeys to find tradi-
Famous Iberian philosopher, judge, and
                                           tions for his work. He settled in Bagh-
doctor, he was known in the West as
                                           dad and became the secretary to the
Averroes, and his commentary on Aris-
                                           famous historian al-Waqidı. His dic-
                                                                    ˆ    ˆ
totle influenced both Islamic and Wes-
                                           tionary includes biographical notices on
tern philosophy. He came from a
                                           4,250 men and women who appear in
prominent Cordovan family and
                                           isnads. While his work is dependent on
received an excellent Islamic education,
                                           the work of his predecessors, he was a
although the science of law interested
                                           critical and careful scholar and pro-
him more than hadıths. He also studied
                ˙                          duced a work of considerable reliability.
kalam and medicine. His biographers
                                           Above all, it set a pattern for similar
do not give much information about his
                                           biographical dictionaries, which are a
philosophical studies except to mention
                                           major part of Islamic historiography.
that he was attracted to the “Greek
sciences.” He apparently learned his
philosophy from a physician, and, when     Ibn Sı ˆ , Abu ¤Alı al-H usayn
                                                 ˆna      ˆ   ˆ
                                           (369/979–428/1037)     ˙
he wrote his analyses of Aristotle, he
criticized Ibn Sı na ’s philosophical
                   ˆ ˆ                     Philosopher, physician, and polymath,
understandings of Aristotle while still    he was known in the West as Avicenna.
praising his medical writings. His         His Neoplatonic interpretations of Aris-
approach to Aristotle involved viewing     totle influenced Thomas Aquinas, and
the Greek philosopher primarily as a       his famous medical treatise, the Qanun
logician. This allowed him to strip away   fı at-tibb (The canon of medicine),
                                                ˙ ˙
Ibn Sı ˆn, Abu Bakr Muhammad
     ˆrı     ˆ                                                                         94

enjoyed circulation in the West in           to tradition) and regarded much of Sufı ˆ ˆ
translation. He was born near Bukhara                                              ˙
                                             practice to be bid¤ah (innovation) along
                                       ˆ ˆ
and was a prodigy, who was teaching his      with many kalam and falsafah doc-
teachers at the age of fourteen, directing   trines. He held that the gate of ijtihad ˆ
physicians at sixteen and was regarded a     was still open, that the Qur'an, the
master of the known sciences at eigh-        sunnah, and the practice of the early
teen, at least according to his biogra-      Muslims were paramount, and that
phers. He earned his living as a             pietistic faith, ıman, was the source for
                                                               ˆ ˆ
physician in various princely courts,        an individual’s choices. Born in Harran,ˆ
but was sometimes the object of intri-                                         ˙
                                             he took refuge in Damascus (Dimashq)
gues and jealousies, which caused him        with the coming of the Mongols and
either to flee or, occasionally, be impri-    was educated there in the Hanbalı           ˆ
soned. His Kitab ash-shifa' and his
                  ˆ           ˆ              madhhab. His hostile attitude ˙toward
treatise on animals were translated into         ˆ
                                             kalam and his strong anthropomorph-
Latin and had a profound influence on         ism in the interpretation of the Qur'an   ˆ
Western thought at a time when Aris-         earned him enemies, who were to plague
totle was little known in the West.          him throughout his life. He adopted a
                                             strong polemical attitude toward those
Ibn Sı ˆn, Abu Bakr
        ˆrı       ˆ                          with whom he disagreed, and used his
Muh ammad (34/654–110/728)                   association with the court to advance his
      ˙                                      views. He viewed himself as one who
A renowned and reliable transmitter of
                                             could reconcile the approaches of the
hadıth, he is best known as the first
 ˙                                                                ˆ
                                             exponents of kalam, the Traditionists,
Muslim interpreter of dreams. Dream
                                             and the Sufıs, all the while preaching
                                                           ˆ ˆ
interpretation, long known in the                        ˙
                                             against them all. He was strongly
ancient world, was given a sanction by
                                             opposed to all forms of bid¤ ah, which
the story of Yusuf in the Qur'an. Ibn
               ˆ                  ˆ
                                             he saw in the veneration of walıs, in
Sa¤d mentions a long list of dreams
                                             philosophy and theology, and in taqlıd.  ˆ
interpreted by Ibn Sırın, but it is not
                                             On matters of Qur'an interpretation, he
until the third/ninth century that his
                                             was a strict anthropomorphist and
fame as an interpreter reached its height.
                                             literalist, and he felt that God walked
From that period, judging by the num-
                                             and talked just as humans do, citing
ber of manuscripts on dream interpreta-
                                             evidence from the Qur'an to back his
tion ascribed to him or by the number of
                                             point. He was strongly attracted to the
quotations of his work, the field of
                                             doctrines held by the sahabah (Compa-
dream interpretation was extremely                                     ˙
                                             nions), to those that˙ came afterward,
popular. This has resulted in a number
                                             and was, in this sense, an advocate of
of spurious works ascribed to Ibn Sırın
                                             salafiyyah. He regarded himself as a
that are obvious forgeries. During his
                                             mujtahid, that is, one able to interpret
lifetime, he seems not to have made
                                             the primary sources of Islamic law, and
sufficient money, either from his dream
                                                                     ˆ       ˆ
                                             did not regard the bab al-ijtihad to have
interpretation or from his work as a
                                             ever been closed, at least not to those
cloth merchant.
                                             with his knowledge. He held that the
                                             state must exert power over humans to
Ibn Taymiyyah, Taqı ad-Dı ˆ       ˆn         get them to act in the right manner, and
Ah mad (661/1263–728/1328)                   was, therefore, a strong advocate of a
Influential Hanbalı jurist, whose views
                   ˆ                         powerful theocratic government. He
have influenced modern Sunnı move-
                               ˆ             was strongly critical of even the most
ments, particularly the Wahhabı. He
                               ˆ ˆ           revered Muslims, claiming at one point
was opposed to taqlıd (blind adherence
                     ˆ                       that even the caliph ¤Umar made
95                                                                            ˆsiyyah

mistakes. While he had great influence        It is also known as the Greater Bairam,
during his lifetime, the adoption of his           ˆ
                                             qurban bairam. Not only do Muslims on
views by the Wahhabıs has done much
                     ˆ ˆ                     hajj sacrifice, but, according to most
to preserve his legacy.                      ˙
                                             authorities, it is incumbent on all free
                                             Muslims to sacrifice as well. Thus, on
Ibn Tu mar t (c. 471/1078–524/1130)          the day of sacrifice, Muslims around the
                                             world are united in the sacrifice and
He was known as the Mahdı of the
                                             festive meal associated with it.
Almohads. He was a religious reformer,
who preached the doctrine of tawhıd,ˆ
the unity of God. He used ideas from         ¤iddah (Arabic: count, enumerate)
both Sunnı and Shı¤ı Islam. When his
           ˆ      ˆˆ
                                             The legal waiting period before a
doctrine was combined with Berber            divorced or widowed woman can
ambitions, he founded a dynasty that         remarry.
ruled the Maghrib and al-Andalus.
(See also al-Muwahhidun.)
                  ˙˙                          ˆ
                                             ¤I d al-Fit r
   ˆ ˆm b. A zar
Ibra hı                                      The feast of the breaking of the fast of
Abraham, a prophet and patriarch,            Ramadan, also known as the Lesser
                                                    ˙ ¸
                                             Bairam, seker bayram. Even though it is
father of Isma¤ıl by Hajar (Hagar),
               ˆ ˆ          ˆ
and Ishaq by Sara (Sarah). The Qur'an
         ˆ      ˆ ˆ                     ˆ    known as the “lesser” festival, it is
regards him as a strong monotheist, a        celebrated with great festivities, as it
proto-Muslim, a h anı f, who was
                          ˆ                  marks the end of the month-long period
neither a Jew nor a Christian. He turned     of fasting and the attendant hardships. It
from his father’s tradition of idolatry to   is customarily a time of paying the
monotheism through a series of steps         zakat if it has not been given before-
that show the powerlessness of idols and     hand.
stars, was persecuted by a ruler identi-
fied in the commentaries as Nimrod, and        ˆ
                                             ¤I d al-Qurba n
was saved, according to those stories, by
Jibrıl (Gabriel). He was commanded by
     ˆ                                       See ¤Id al-Adha.
                                                  ˆ         ˆ
God to sacrifice his son, identified in
later Muslim tradition as Isma¤ıl, who
                                 ˆˆ             ˆs
was saved by God’s intercession. He and
Isma¤ıl are said to have erected the
    ˆˆ                                       A prophet named in the Qur'an, (Q.
Ka¤bah and performed the hajj.               19:56), known for patience and right-
                              ˙              eousness. In extra-Qur'anic writings, he
                                             is often identified with Enoch, and is
   ˆ ˆm b. Muh ammad
Ibra hı
                  ˙                          said to have entered heaven alive and
The son of Muhammad and Mariyah
                            ˆ                never to have died. In some stories he is
              ˙ in infancy.
the Copt. He died                            credited with inventing writing and
                                             making clothing, and he is often
iconography                                  regarded as a patron of craft guilds.
See images.
¤I d al-Ad h aˆ
          ˙˙                                 A Sufı tarıqah founded on the teach-
                                                  ˆ ˆ    ˆ
The feast of sacrifice, celebrated            ings of ˙Ibn Idrıs (1749–1837), with
                                                ˙            ˆ
throughout the Muslim world to mark          branches and influence from the Balkans
the end of the annual pilgrimage (hajj).     to Indonesia.
ifranj                                                                              96

ifranj (Arabic: Frank)                      embodiment of God’s word in Jesus by
The Arabic term for Frenchman or            saying that the Qur'an was God’s
European, also appearing as faranj or       embodied word. This notion seems to
firanj. In the eschatological writings       have given particular force to the argu-
from the time of the Crusades, Eur-         ment between the Mu¤tazilah and the
opeans were regarded as a scourge from      Traditionists over the issue of whether
God and in the same category as disease,    or not the Qur'an was created or eternal.
famine, and earthquake. This view led       From the doctrine of inimitability, many
many Muslims to react to the incursion      authors advanced elaborate theories of
of the Europeans as a spur for religious    Arabic literature that took into account
revival and reform.                         the Qur'an’s central role in forming the
                                            Arabic literary canon. (See also mih-
                                            nah.)                                  ˙
¤ifrı (Arabic: demon)
The term for a particularly malevolent        ˆ
                                            ija zah (Arabic: authorization)
class of jinn. In popular tales, it is a
                                            In the transmission of hadıths, it means
creature at least forty times larger and                            ˙
                                            the authorization to transmit the tradi-
more powerful than a jinn, although it
                                            tion to another. In the early schools, this
can be condensed and contained within
                                            was usually indicated by having the
a jar. They are divided into males and
                                            transmitter, the professor, write out the
females and are capable of salvation as
                                            permission at the end of the notes the
well as damnation, just as are all jinn.
                                            students had written out. From this a
                                            tradition of diplomas arose, some of
ift a r                                     them written in rhymed prose (saj¤ ), and
The first meal eaten to break the fast       quite elaborate.
during Ramadan.
                                            ijma ¤ (Arabic: consensus)
ih ra m (Arabic: sacred state)              In Sunnı Islamic jurisprudence, it is the
 ˙                                          doctrine that the consensus of those with
Both the state of ritual sacrality during
the hajj and the two white seamless         sufficient knowledge to practice ijti-
pieces of cloth that symbolizes the         had, or independent judicial reasoning,
pilgrim state. (See also haram.)
                            ˆ               constitutes one of the sources of fiqh.
                         ˙                  According to classical Islamic jurispru-
                                            dence, the consensus of all of the
i¤ja z (Arabic: miracle)                    jurisprudents constitutes one of the main
The notion of the inimitability of the      sources of Islamic law. This parallels the
Qur'an, whereby it would be impossi-
       ˆ                                    Western notion of the consensus doc-
ble for humans to produce a book like it.   torum ecclesiarum, and assumes that
The polemics between Muslims and            such a consensus must be divinely
Christians about the nature of scripture    inspired. The Khawarij denied this
and the rise of speculative theology        principle, this being one of the doctrinal
(kalam) gave rise to the doctrine that
     ˆ                                      views that set them apart from the rest
the Qur'an was a miracle of speech from
         ˆ                                  of the Muslims. Over time, this principle
God that could not be imitated. While       has been applied to ratify the customary
there seem to be few historical critics     practices of certain communities, such as
who advanced an argument that the           the inclusion of the practices of Kufah
Qur'an could indeed be reproduced by
      ˆ                                     and Madınah, and to include the
humans, the notion of i¤ jaz seems to
                           ˆ                veneration of walıs as the sunnah of
parallel the Christian notion of the        the community.
97                                                                ˆ           ˆ
                                                           al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun

ijtiha d (Arabic: strive)                     the attempts to negotiate the inclusion
A word derived from the same root as          of difference within each school while
jihad, to strive or make an effort, to
     ˆ                                        still retaining a distinct identity. The
exert oneself, in jurisprudence it means      oldest schools of law recognized geo-
the exercise of independent judgment by       graphic differences, so that the schools
one who has sufficient knowledge, as           of Madınah, Kufah, and Basrah were
                                                        ˆ      ˆ
                                              able to maintain differences in practice
opposed to taqlıd, or the imitation of
those precedents that went before.            without condemning each other. When
According to some Sunnı theorists, the
                              ˆ               the schools became associated with
              ˆ            ˆ
so-called bab al-ijtihad, or gate of          particular individuals, this tolerance of
independent legal thought, was                difference was preserved, so that it was
“closed” at the time of the canonization      possible to have representatives of the
of the schools of Islamic law, but the        several Sunnı madhhabs in the same
Hanbalı, particularly Ibn Taymiyyah,
          ˆ                                   city, but there was strong disapproval of
held that the gate was never closed.          an individual moving from one law
Among the Ithna ¤Ashariyyah Shı¤ı,
                    ˆ                   ˆˆ    school to another to engage in forum
ijtihad is the function of the mujtahid       shopping. Within each school, differ-
to determine the will of the Hidden           ence was tolerated only when it was the
Imam. As Islamic schools of law (madh-
    ˆ                                         result of the process of ijtihad. Even
habs) developed into hierarchical insti-      then, there was an attempt to impose
tutions, the notion developed that only       conformity on the members of the
certain individuals were entitled to          school. In the field of Qur'an interpre-
challenge the fundamental tenets of the       tation and reading, Sunnı Islam recog-
law, the so-called 'usul al-fiqh. In
                            ˆ                 nizes seven canonical “readings” of the
particular, this meant the ability to         Qur'an. These “readings” have primar-
exercise independent reasoning in cases       ily to do with manners of recitation, and
where there was insufficient precedent to      do not represent differences in meaning
decide a case. As a means of preserving       from one practice to another. Move-
the boundaries of each school, members        ments that have attempted to abolish
were encouraged to remain within the          the differences among the schools have
bounds of the founding judgments that         failed, and the maxim, Ikhtalafa al-
gave each school its identity. Reform        ¤ ulama' (“The ¤ ulama' always disagree”)
                                                      ˆ             ˆ
movements in Islam have always been in        represents the preservation of Islamic
a position of having to challenge such        universalism.
strictures, usually labeled as taqlıd, and
encourage a renewed view of the inter-              ˆ            ˆ
                                             al-Ikhwa n al-Muslimu n
relationship of Qur'an, hadıth, and
                        ˆ        ˆ
human judgment (ra'y) ˙ to achieve           The Muslim Brotherhood, an organiza-
tajdıd. ˆ                                    tion founded in Egypt by Hasan al-
                                             Banna' in 1928 as an Islamic reformist
                                             movement to return Islam to the funda-
ikhtila f (Arabic: difference of             mentals found in the Qur'an and the
opinion)                                     sunnah, and to oppose Western coloni-
w>The opposite of ijma¤, the acceptance
                        ˆ                    alism and imperialism. The organization
of diverse opinions on legal matters         was banned in Egypt in 1954, but has
assured the open and dynamic character       continued to operate underground.
of the schools (madhhabs) of Islamic         When the movement was founded in
law by providing the interpretive space      1928 it spread throughout Egypt, setting
for new ideas and situations. The history    up schools, hospitals, clinics, mosques,
of Islamic law is, in part, the history of   and commercial ventures, all designed to
Ikhwan as-Safa'
    ˆ        ˆ                                                                          98
        ˙ ˙

raise the standard of living of the poor.           ˆ
                                                ilh a d (Arabic: apostasy, straying from
In 1936 the movement added the cause              ˙
                                                the right path)
of the Palestinians, which gave it more         In the Qur'an, it is said that those who
international appeal. Al-Banna' was  ˆ          willfully deviate from God’s signs will
imprisoned during the period of World           earn a painful punishment. In the early
War II because of his strong opposition         history of the Islamic community, the
to the British, one of the founding             term was applied to those who rebelled
principles of the movement. After               against the authority of the caliph. As
1949, when he was assassinated, the             such, the term was applied to the
movement continued to act against the           Khawarij. In the ¤Abbasid period, the
                                                       ˆ                 ˆ
British, particularly in the Suez Canal         term was applied to such people as
area. During the time of Nasser, the            materialists and atheists. The Isma¤ılı
                                                                                     ˆ ˆ ˆ
Brotherhood was suppressed or tightly           were termed mulhids, as were all Shı¤ı  ˆˆ
controlled, although their energy and                        ˆ ˆ ˙
                                                and many Sufıs in the Ottoman period.
ideology was useful to the regime. Their                   ˙
                                                (See also riddah.)
belief in the supremacy of the ideal of an
Islamic state and the need to act against
                                                ilha m (Arabic: to swallow)
imperialism has been a popular idea,
even when Islamic governments have              This term is normally paired with wahy,
been afraid of the revolutionary energies       and both are understood to mean
of the movement. It still is a vital force in   inspiration or revelation from God.
the Islamic Middle East today.                      ˆ
                                                Ilham is held to be the kind of individual
                                                inspiration given to walıs (saints), and is
                                                felt to be knowledge cast into the minds
Ikhwa n as -S afa '
        ˆ            ˆ                          of those holy persons that does not have
             ˙ ˙
The Brethren of Purity, a syncretic,            the status of scripture. Wahy, on the
                                                other hand, is felt to be the kind of
mostly Neoplatonic philosophical move-
ment in Basrah in the fourth/tenth              revelation given to prophets.
century. They were influenced by
Isma¤ılı Shı¤ı thought. Their work is
    ˆ ˆ ˆ   ˆˆ                                  ˆliya
                                                I   ˆ
contained in an encyclopedic body of
                                                Derived from the Latin Aelia Capitolina,
fifty-two epistles (rasa' il).
                                                this name is used as a synonym for al-
                                                Quds, Jerusalem, in early Islamic texts.
¤Ikrimah (died c. 105/723)
Starting as a slave to Ibn ¤Abbas, heˆ          ¤ilm (Arabic: knowledge; pl. ¤ ulum)
became one of the distinguished mem-            A term used extensively in the Qur'an  ˆ
bers of the generation of ta bi¤u nˆ    ˆ       for knowledge, learning, and science. It
(Followers), and was the main trans-            is contrasted with jahl, ignorance, and is
mitter of information about the Qur'an  ˆ       related to hilm, civilized behavior. It is
attributed to Ibn ¤Abba s. He was                           ˙
                                                generally understood to be more than
regarded as a reliable transmitter, parti-      just common knowledge (ma¤ rifah), and
cularly by the older traditionists, but so      implies the acquisition of such elements
many traditions were attributed to his          as wisdom (hikmah) and politeness
master through him that later scholars                         ˙
                                                (adab). Knowledge of the Islamic
came to suspect the authenticity of his         sciences are thought to be life-changing,
transmission. He is said to have been           and in Islamic tradition, knowledge is
one of the Khawarij, but that did not
                  ˆ                             not merely passive but necessarily leads
seem to color his reputation as a               to action. Thus, the bifurcation that
transmitter.                                    sometimes is expressed in Christian
99                                                                                 ˆ

thought between belief (ıman) and deed
                         ˆ ˆ
(¤ amal) is not found in classical Islamic
thought, since knowledge of God leads
to belief, whch leads to action. (See also

¤ilm ar-rija l (Arabic: the study of
This is the Islamic science devoted to the
biographical study of individuals fea-
tured in the isnads of hadıth. The
                   ˆ            ˆ
purpose is to determine the exact times
and locations of their lives to discern
                                                    Decorative stonework from the tomb of
whether the chain of authentication
                                                    Shah Rukn-i-‘Alam, Multan, Pakistan.
could have been possible and to deter-
mine the character and, insofar as
possible, the veracity of the person.            ˆ          ˆ ˆ
                                              Ilya s, Mawla na Muh ammad
Also, since so many people have similar       (1302/1885–1363/1944) ˙
names, the science includes a determina-      Indian Sufı and founder of the Faith
                                                        ˆ ˆ
tion of the exact name and genealogy of               ˙
                                              Movement, whose mission was to bring
the individual. In the al-jarh wa-t-          Islam to the illiterate Indian poor.
ta¤dıl literature, of which this is a part,
it is sometimes the case that isnads will,
for example, include children under the       images
age of two transmitting from aged             Contrary to popular belief, the Qur'an  ˆ
transmitters and from people of bad           does not prohibit the making of images,
character. This science has given rise to a   but does prohibit idol worship. Some
major tradition of biographical litera-       hadıths assert that an artist who makes
ture that is one of the hallmarks of           ˙
                                              images will receive punishment on the
Islamic historiography.                       Day of Judgment. Varying interpreta-
                                              tions of the prohibition have produced
Ilya s                                        an almost total ban on images associated
                                              with mosques and religious writings,
A prophet in the Qur'an sometimes
                           ˆ                  while there has been a rich secular
identified in the commentaries with the        tradition of painting and sculpture at
biblical Elijah/Elias. He is said to have     various times in some regions. It has also
been given power over rain by God, and        produced the elaborate art form of
he used it to turn his people away from       calligraphy. The relationship between
sin. When they suffered from a drought,       the ban in Islam and the Iconoclast
they came to him, claimed to repent, and      Movement in the Greek Church remains
he prayed for rain to deliver them from       an open scholarly question.
certain death. When they continued to
worship idols and sin, he asked God to
                                              Ima m
take him, so God sent him a horse of
fire, and he rode on it to heaven, was         The Arabic root of this word is cognate
clothed with feathers of fire, his need for    to the word ' umm, mother, and 'ummah,
food and drink removed, and he                religious community. Over time it has
remained in heaven, half human and            taken on several distinct meanings: (1) A
half angelic.                                 leader, particularly a prayer leader, a
imamah                                                                              100

function that might be assumed by any         ˆma n (Arabic: belief, faith)
                                              I ˆ
male Muslim over the age of majority.         This word has the sense of not only
There are no special rites of ordination      belief, but also of safety and security. It
or sacerdotal powers necessary to             is linked in this way with the very name
assume this function. (2) Some of the         Islam, since acceptance of Islam, sub-
early caliphs are also called Imams. (3)      mission, brings peace and security,
The seven leaders of the Nizarı Isma¤ılı
                              ˆ ˆ     ˆ ˆ ˆ
                                              salam. For most commentators, ıman
                                                   ˆ                               ˆ ˆ
Shı¤ı, descended from ¤Alı and Fati-
   ˆˆ                        ˆ         ˆ
                                              means both an inner state and an out-
mah, are called Imams. (4) The twelve    ˙
                                              ward expression. Most schools of Isla-
leaders of the Ithna    ˆ ¤Asharı Shı¤ı,
                                  ˆ      ˆˆ
                                              mic law are not satisfied merely with the
descended from ¤Alı and Fatimah, are
                      ˆ       ˆ                               ˆ ˆ
                                              expression of ıman. It must be accom-
          ˆ                     ˙
called Imams. (5) In modern times it has      panied by deeds that demonstrate that
been used as both a term of respect for       belief. At a minimum, after the declara-
the ayatollahs of Iran and, in a more
     ˆ       ˆ
                                              tion of faith (shahadah), the believer
ambiguous sense, as the title of Ayatol-      must perform the daily prayers as proof
lah Khomeinı, implying, according to
 ˆ             ˆ
                                              of his belief.
some, that he was equal to or the
embodiment of the Hidden Imam. (See
also Agha Khan.)
          ˆ     ˆ                             India
                                              Muslims comprise about twenty percent
ima mah (Arabic: governance or rule)          of the total population of India, are
                                              found in most areas of the subcontinent
The word is used in several senses in the
                                              and have formed a significant part of
Islamic world. Among the Shı¤ı, it refers
                                              Indian culture. Traders brought Islam to
to the rule of the Imam. Among the
                                              India in the eighth century, and by the
Sunnı, who use the word imam in a
      ˆ                          ˆ
                                              twelfth century Muslim conquerers had
more general sense, it refers to the
                                              established influential kingdoms. Until
leadership of the Islamic community
                                              the establishment of the Mughal
after the death of the Prophet. For most
                                              dynasty in the sixteenth century, Mus-
Sunnı, this leadership is held by the
                                              lims from various ethnic origins came
person who is caliph.
                                              into India, both for trade and for
                                              conquest. The majority of Muslims are
  ˆ ˆ    ˆ¤ı
Ima mı Shı ˆ                                  Sunnı, with a minority of all types of
See Ithna ¤Ashariyyah Shı¤ı.
        ˆ               ˆˆ                    Shı¤ı including Isma¤ıliyyah. Islamic
                                                 ˆˆ                 ˆ ˆ
                                              preachers and mystics have appealed to
                                              many in India, particularly among the
  ˆ   ˆ
ima mza dah (Persian: imam’s son)
                                              lower castes. Converts to Islam in India
Tombs of the Imams visited and vener-
                   ˆ                          have brought many ideas from Hindu-
ated by the Shı¤ı as shrines, some of the
                ˆˆ                            ism into popular Islamic practice, and in
more popular being at Karbala ',         ˆ    places like Bengal, worship at local
Mashhad, Najaf, and Qom. Pilgrim-             shrines is similar for both Hindus and
age to these sites and the rites associated   Muslims. In 1947, shortly before India’s
with them vary according to the site, but     independence from Britain, many Indian
usually are determined by the season of       Muslims left India for the newly formed
the year. In the popular imagination          Muslim state of Pakistan.
these are locations of powerful blessings,
barakat, that can effect healing, wealth,
and other worldly rewards through the         Indonesia
intercession of the tomb’s inhabitant.        With a population of over two hundred
(See also barakah.)                           million, ninety percent of whom are
101                                                                                 ˆl

             Tomb of the Mughal emperor Humayun, New Delhi, India.

Muslim, Indonesia is the largest Muslim     forced from office, and replaced by his
country in the world. Islam was brought     vice-president, Megawati Sukarnoputra.
by Muslim traders from India and from
southern Arabia, chiefly the Hadhra-         infidel
maut, following pre-Islamic trade
routes. By the thirteenth century Islam     See kafir.
was well established, and by the eight-
eenth century the majority of Indone-       inheritance
sians were Sunnı Muslims and followers
                  ˆ                         The Islamic system of inheritance,
of the Shafi¤ı madhhab. Hindu and
            ˆ ˆ                                                         ˆ ˆ
                                            known in Arabic as mı ra th, relies
animist beliefs were not obliterated but    heavily on verses in the Qur'an, which
incorporated into the popular culture       has more to say on this subject than any
and Islamized. Throughout the last two      other. Commentators agree that the
centuries, Indonesian Islam has been        Qur'anic verses reform the pre-Islamic
informed by the great numbers of            Arabian practices, particularly in allow-
students who have studied in Mecca          ing women to inherit. Sunnı and Shı¤ı
                                                                          ˆ         ˆˆ
and other places in the Arab Middle         theories and practice differ sharply. The
East. In the second half of the twentieth   Shı¤ı view is that the Qur'an totally
                                              ˆˆ                            ˆ
century, Arab Muslims and Indonesians       supplanted all prior practice, while the
who have studied in the Arab world          Sunnı view holds that the inheritance of
have engaged in da¤wah to rid Indone-       the agnates (Arabic: ¤ asabah) is only
sian Islam of non-Islamic elements.                                  ˙
                                            ameliorated by the verses, thus giving
Some of this has been played out against    male heirs a greater preference in the
the background of anticolonialism           Sunnı practice. Inheritance rules restrict
against the Dutch and the Japanese,         the amount of property that a person
resulting in the intermingling of Arabism   can dispose by testamentary bequest,
and Islamic reform. The revolution of       and many Muslims use the instrument of
1419/1998 brought an end to the auto-       the waqf for estate control.
cratic, non-Islamic rule of Suharto and
led to the presidency of Abdurrahman
Wahid, a widely respected Muslim               ˆl
                                            injı (Arabic: Gospel)
intellectual. In 1422/2001, however, he     This is the word in the Qur'an for the
was charged with corruption himself,        Greek Evangelion, Gospel. The degree
innovation                                                                         102

to which the Qur'an represents the
                       ˆ                     in sha ' Alla h
                                                  ˆ      ˆ
Gospels has been a subject of heated         The Arabic phrase meaning “if God
debate in the polemics between Muslims       wills” is commonly used by Muslims to
and Christians from the beginnings of        express God’s control over the future.
the encounter between the two religions.
Western polemicists assert that the
                                             Institute for Ismaili Studies
Qur'anic views of Jesus, Maryam, and
the Christian doctrines are confused or
wrong. Muslims insist, on the other          The IIS was established in 1977 in
hand, that the Christian scripture has       London, with the object of promoting
been corrupted (tahrıf), and that the
                          ˆ                  scholarship and learning of Muslim
Qur'anic view is the ˙
      ˆ               correct one. What is   cultures and societies in general, the
clear from both Qur'anic and historical
                        ˆ                    intellectual and literary expressions of
evidence is that many of the main ideas      Shı¤ısm in general, and Isma¤ılı Shı¤ı in
                                                ˆˆ                       ˆ ˆ ˆ    ˆˆ
of Christianity were well known in           particular. Through the sponsorship of
Arabia during the lifetime of Muham-         the Agha Khan and the Isma¤ılı Shı¤ı
                                                       ˆ    ˆ                ˆ ˆˆ    ˆˆ
mad, and that the references in˙ the         community, the IIS continues a tradition
Qur'an to Jesus reached listeners who
      ˆ                                      of da¤wah on an intellectual and ecu-
understood the allusions with some           menical level.
subtlety. In post-Qur'anic literature, the
Gospels became quite well-known, both        intention
through their use among Christian            See niyyah.
Arabs and through translations into
Arabic. There is, however, no evidence
that there was a translation of the          intercession
Gospels into Arabic prior to the rise of     See shafa ¤ah.
Islam. Arabic Christians lived under and
among Muslims for a long time, and           interest
shared stories related to Gospel stories
                                             See banks and banking; riba.
have found their way into popular
literature. When Protestant missionaries
came to the Islamic world, they brought      Internet
with them the techniques of biblical         The growth of the use of the Internet has
scholarship, which they used to try to       increased the dissemination of Islamic
prove that the Qur'an was false and that
                    ˆ                        knowledge greatly. It is possible to find
the Gospels were true. Muslim scholars       many major Islamic texts available on-
soon used Western critical techniques        line, either in translation or in the
against the variety of apochrypha and        original Islamic languages. It is possible,
pseudepigrapha to counter those argu-        for example, to access multiple transla-
ments and returned to the old argument       tions of the Qur'an as well as copies of
that Christian scripture had been cor-       the Qur'an in Arabic, recited in Arabic,
rupted by tahrıf.
               ˆ                             and explained. It is also possible to learn
                                             how to perform the hajj or the ¤ umrah,
                                             schedule transportation and link up with
                                             other Muslims from an on-line compu-
See bid¤ah.                                  ter. For Muslims in small communities,
                                             where resources are limited, it is possible
                                             to find on-line ordering sites for Islamic
                                             needs, such as clothing and books.
See mihnah.                                  Several problems arise with the use of
103                                                                               Iram

the Internet that are parallel to problems    both Urdu and Persian. His notions of
in research in general. The sites are often   the strengthening of the ego rather than
anonymous, so their biases are not easily     its annihilation (fana') were not well
detected, and they are ephemeral as they      received at first, but by 1928 he
migrate from one service provider to          delivered a series of lectures titled “Six
another. (See the bibliography at the         Lectures on the reconstruction of reli-
back of this book for a short list of         gious thought in Islam,” which sought
Islamic URLs.)                                to harmonize European and Islamic
                                              thinking. At the same time, he
interpretation of the Qur'a n                 expressed the need to form a separate
                                              Islamic state in the area of present-day
see tafsır; ta'wıl.
        ˆ       ˆ                             Pakistan. He was also instrumental in
                                              the foundation of the University of
intiz a r (Arabic: waiting)                   Kabul in Afghanistan. Iqbal’s thought
     ˙                                        is a true synthesis of Western and
A term introduced by the Iranian Shı¤ıte
theologian ¤Alı Sharı¤atı (died 1977),
                ˆ      ˆ ˆ                    Islamic thinking. Influenced by
meaning both the active waiting for the       Nietzsche, he believed that Allah is ˆ
return of the Hidden Imam and the
                             ˆ                the supreme ego, but that each human is
rejection of the status quo.                  given an ego that must be developed.
                                              This does not lead to a separation
                                              between God and humans, but, because
Iqbal, Muhammad (1877–1938)                   the development comes through prayer
Poet, philosopher, theologian, and advo-      and the Qur'an, to a closer union.
cate for an independent Muslim state, he      Through the resulting cooperation
was born in Sialkot in the Punjab,            between God and the human ego, the
educated in Lahore, Munich, and Cam-          divine will can be carried out, with the
bridge, and served as a politician,           result that the Islamic mission is
lawyer, professor, and mentor to Muslim       strengthened. Since his death, his phi-
intellectuals. He composed speculative        losophy has been criticized, but in
tafsır and was an advocate of ijtihad.
     ˆ                               ˆ        Pakistan any criticism is regarded as
His The Reconstruction of Religious           near sacrilege.
Thought in Islam was an attempt to
harmonize Islamic and Western thought,
                                              iqt a ¤ (Arabic: fief)
and his advocacy of an independent               ˙
Muslim state led him to be regarded as        Land granted under feudal tenure,
the intellectual father of the state of       which, in South Asia under the Mugh-
Pakistan, formed after his death. While       als, allowed some Hindus to be
he was a student in Lahore, he met the        included as part of the dhimmı class.
British Islamicist Thomas Arnold, who         These grants of land were also called
encouraged him to go to England to            jagırs in India.
                                               ˆ ˆ
study. While there, he studied Hegelian
philosophy, which led him to Munich
for his Ph.D. After his return to Lahore
he taught philosophy and developed his        Identified with the biblical Aram, the
legal practice, but experienced a crisis      son of Shem, he is said to be an ancestor
when comparing the state of develop-          of the tribe of ¤Ad and the tribe of
ment between Europe and India. He             Thamud. It is also identified on the basis
came to feel that an Islamic renewal was      of Q. 89:7 as a place in pre-Islamic
needed to vitalize the Muslim world,          Arabia that God destroyed because of
and he began to express these ideas in        the wickedness of the people.
Iran                                                                           104

Known in pre-modern times as Persia, it
came under Muslim political domina-
tion in 16/637 by the Arabo-Muslim
invasion, becoming predominantly Mus-
lim in religion only after the ninth
century. The populace retained the
Persian language, which became Ara-
bized through the script and the exten-
sive use of Arabic vocabulary. Until the
sixteenth century, Iran was mostly
Sunnı, with small pockets of Shı¤ı, but
       ˆ                          ˆˆ
after the Safavid dynasty, it was
chiefly Shı˙ ˆ. In modern times, the
           ˆ ¤ı
secularizing and Westernizing Pahlavi
dynasty was overthrown by the revolu-
tion of 1399/1979 that established an
Islamic republic, strongly Shı¤ı and
intolerant of political and religious
dissent, particularly that of the Marx-
ists, the mujahidın, and the Baha'ı.
              ˆ ˆ                ˆ ˆ
                                            Courtyard of the Masjid-i Shah (Royal
Iraq                                               Mosque), Isfahan, Iran.

The area of the confluence of the Tigris
and Euphrates rivers had been home to      rise among Spanish-speaking Christians
Arabs from before Islam, and Muslims       to the use of the name Jesus, a practice
found allies in the Muslim conquest of     not generally found elsewhere in the
13/635. With the founding of the           Christian world. (See also Jesus.)
¤Abbasid caliphate and the construc-
tion of the capital city of Baghdad, ˆ     Isaac
Islam was established in the middle of
ancient Jewish and Christian centers.      See Ishaq.
With the decline of the caliphate in the
thirteenth century, Iraq became a pro-     Ish a q ˆ
vince of the Persian, Ottoman or                ˙
British empires until the twentieth cen-   The biblical Isaac, the son of Ibrahım
                                                                               ˆ ˆ
tury. Modern Iraq has a mixed popula-      (Abraham), by Sa ra . He was the
                                                                ˆ ˆ
tion of Arabs and Kurds, Shı¤ı and
                                 ˆˆ        younger brother of Isma¤ıl (Ishmael).
                                                                     ˆ ˆ
Sunnı Muslims, and is currently ruled
       ˆ                                   The foretelling of Ishaq’s birth is men-
by a secularist dictatorship.              tioned in the Qur'an,˙ and commentators
                                           see his birth as a reward for Ibrahım’s
                                                                              ˆ ˆ
 ˆ ˆ                                       willingness to sacrifice Isma¤ıl. The ear-
¤I sa                                      liest Muslim interpreters of the story of
This Arabic name for Jesus is used as a    Ishaq disagree as to which of the two
personal name among Muslims, as are           ˙
                                           sons of Ibrahım was the intended sacri-
                                                       ˆ ˆ
the names of other figures common to        ficial victim. By the end of the second/
the Bible and the Qur'an. The long
                          ˆ                eighth century, most scholars agreed that
association between Muslims and Chris-     it was Isma¤ıl and argued polemically
tians in the Iberian peninsula has given   with Jews and Christians on this point.
105                                                                              Islam

isha ra t as-sa ¤ah (Arabic: the
    ˆ ˆ         ˆ                             sense of piety that underlies the mission
signs of the hour)                            of modern reformers as they try to
This means the signs of the eschaton.         connect the modern community with
Numerous signs are mentioned in the           the pious deeds of the first generation of
Qur'an, such as the oven giving forth
      ˆ                                       Islam.
water, mountains collapsing, and seas
boiling. Many more signs are mentioned        Islam
in hadıth and tafsır literature, includ-
        ˆ           ˆ
ing˙ worldwide corruption, wars with          The name of the religion of Muslims is
ad-Dajjal and Ya'juj wa-Ma'juj, the
          ˆ           ˆ          ˆ            derived from an Arabic root meaning
appearance of the Mahdı and Jesus,
                          ˆ                   “peace.” In this form, it means “sub-
and, according to some, the appearance        mission,” to the will of God. In the
of Muhammad.                                  message of the Qur'an, humans are told
        ˙                                     that following correct action brings the
                                              surety of reward. In this sense, the
                                              “peace” was understood by the early
See Isma¤ıl.
       ˆ ˆ                                    Muslims as a lack of the anxiety
                                              associated with polytheism, in which
¤ishq (Arabic: love, desire)                  the individual is unsure of which deity to
This word, which does not appear in the       assuage and whether any action would
Qur'an, has come to mean passionate
     ˆ                                        produce positive results. Muslim com-
love of the sort that indicates a strong      mentators believe that Islam is the
need in the individual. Sufıs have
                              ˆ ˆ             original, authentic monotheistic worship
adopted this term to express˙ the lack in     of God and that Muhammad was the
                                              last of the line of Muslim prophets sent
humans that drives them to love God
and seek union with the divine.               to humankind to preach Islam. Islam is
                                              also understood as the name of the
                                              religion of God. In Q. 5:3 we read,
    ˆ ˆ
ishra qı (Arabic: radiant)                    “This day have I perfected for you your
The term for “illuminationism” in Sufı
                                    ˆ ˆ       religion, dın, and completed My favor
and gnostic circles, and particularly         on you and chosen for you Islam as a
associated with the writings of as-           religion.” The word for religion, dın, ˆ
          ˆ                                   means also the debt or obligation that
                                              the believer owes to Allah, so Islam
al-'Iskandar                                  implies a series of actions as well as
                                              belief. This is seen in Q. 49:14–15: “The
See Dhu-l-Qarnayn.
                                              dwellers of the desert say: We believe.
                                              Say: You do not believe but say, We
is la h (Arabic: reform)                      submit; and faith has not yet entered
  ˙ ˙
In modern times this term has come to         into your hearts; and if you obey Allah ˆ
be associated with Muhammad ¤Abduh            and His Apostle, He will not diminish
                     ˆ ˙
and Rashıd Rida, although others,
            ˆ                                 aught of your deeds; surely Allah is ˆ
including conservatives, have tried to        Forgiving, Merciful. The believers are
claim the reformist title. The term has its   only those who believe in Allah and His
roots in the Qur'an and in early Islamic
                   ˆ                          Apostle then they doubt not and struggle
literature, where humans are enjoined to      hard with their wealth and their lives in
act as holy, righteous persons, salih (also   the way of Allah; they are the truthful
                                ˙ ˙
used as a common given name). The             ones.” In other words, faith, ıman, for a
                                                                             ˆ ˆ
term for pious acts, ¤ amal salih, also
                                 ˆ            Muslim results in the interior change of
comes from this same root.˙ It ˙ is this      the person, submission, islam, which
Islam-bol                                                                           106

results in the outward deed that demon-       such as, for example, the time that the
strates the person’s Islam. The relation-     Prophet neglected to say “in sha' Allah.”
                                                                             ˆ     ˆ
ship between deed and faith has resulted      The doctrine is also invoked by some
in Islam having fewer creeds than             scholars in association with ijma¤ (con-
Christianity and striking a balance           sensus), holding that the totality of the
between belief and action. This is seen       Muslim community cannot agree on
in the centrality of Islamic law, (shar-      error.
ı ¤ah) as the main expression of the
individual’s religion, and Islam becomes      Isma ¤ı
                                                 ˆ ˆl
all-pervasive in its sacralization of daily
                                              The prophet Ishmael, the son of Ibra-   ˆ
life. Thus, even the most mundane and
                                              hım by Hajar. He is mentioned in the
                                                ˆ        ˆ
seemingly secular acts fit within sharı¤ ah
                                              Qur'an as a prophet and a messenger,
and are part of what it means to be a
                                              who helps his father build the Ka¤bah
Muslim. The location of the Muslim
                                              and establishes monotheistic worship in
within the law also indicates an addi-
                                              Mecca. Popular legends develop the
tional feature of the religion, the con-
                                              themes of the Qur'an and tell that, when
nection with community. Muslims
                                              he was young, Ibrahım, responding to
                                                                   ˆ ˆ
understood both from the Qur'an and ˆ
                                              divine command, escorted him from the
from the Prophet’s example that the
                                              family and took him with his mother,
obligation, dın, was to fellow humans as
                                              Ha jar, into the desert, where they
well as to God. The ideal of the solitary
                                              wandered until they came to Mecca.
mystic is less frequent in Islam than in,
                                              There, by a miracle, he found the water
for example Christianity or Hinduism,
                                              of the well of Zamzam and was saved.
because of the community connection.
                                              We are told that he married, but not
Modern reformers invoke this sense
                                              well, and was visited by Ibrahım, who
                                                                            ˆ ˆ
when they call for islah and tajdıd.
                          ˆ              ˆ
                                              advised him to get another, more pious
Many additional words ˙and terms are
                                              wife. He is said by most commentators
derived from the same Arabic root, s-l-m,
                                              to be the ancestor of the Arabs in the
the most frequent of which is the
                                              Abrahamic line and the intended sacri-
greeting Salam, “Peace.”
                                              fice commanded by God, although this
                                              doctrine did not take hold until the
Isla m-bol                                    polemics of the second Islamic century.
See Istanbul.                                 We are also told that he was patient and
                                              instructive to his father as his father
                                              bound him for sacrifice. He is said to
Islamic calendar
                                              have comforted his father and helped
See Calendar.                                 keep him steadfast, so that Isma¤ıl   ˆ ˆ
                                              becomes the model for proper piety
¤is mah (Arabic: sinless, without             and steadfastness in the face of adver-
error)                                        sity.
The doctrine of impeccability, or sinless-
ness, was first articulated by the Shi¤ıs,
                                      ˆˆ      Isma ¤ı ˆ, or Isma ¤ı
                                                 ˆ ˆlı         ˆ ˆliyyah
who hold that Muhammad, Fatimah, ˆ            Those Shı¤ı who hold that the seventh
                      ˆ˙           ˙
and each of the Imams are without sin.        Imam, Isma¤ıl b. Ja¤far was the last of
                                                 ˆ        ˆ ˆ
Among the Sunnı, this notion is applied
                   ˆ                                            ˆ
                                              the line of Imams before going into
to Muhammad and to the prophets, but          ghaybah, or occultation. From this,
it is regarded as a gift from God and not     they are also called Seveners. They hold
part of their natural state. This allows                     ˆ ˆ
                                              to esoteric (batinı) interpretations of the
for certain occasions of inadvertance,              ˆ         ˙
                                              Qur'an, as well as exoteric (zahirı)  ˆ ˆ
107                                                                              ˆ ˆl

interpretations and are referred to also     al-isra ' (Arabic: night journey)
as the Ba t iniyyah. The Fa t imid
            ˆ                   ˆ            The night journey of Muhammad from
              ˙                   ˙
dynasty was ruled by members of this                                   ˙
                                             Mecca to the Masjid al-Aqsa, usually
group and was responsible for patron-                                        ˙
                                             identified with al-Quds (Jerusalem), on
izing many Isma¤ılı Neoplatonic theolo-
                  ˆ ˆˆ                       the back of al-Buraq, depicted in
gians and sending missionaries to many       Islamic paintings as a winged horse with
parts of the Islamic world. They are         a human head. From the location of the
found all over the world with major          Masjid al-Aqsa, it is believed that
communities in South Asia, East Africa,                       ˙
                                             Muhammad made an ascent (mi¤raj)       ˆ
and the United States of America. (See       and ˙ a tour of heaven. Reports of his
also Agha Khan, Assassins.)
      ˆ   ˆ     ˆ                            journey caused some consternation
                                             among the faithful, and provoked ridi-
Isma ¤ı b. Ja¤far (died 145/762)
   ˆ ˆl                                      cule from Muhammad’s enemies. Coun-
                                             tering this, Muhammad was able to
The eldest son of Ja¤far as-Sadiq, the
                              ˆ                                   ˙
                                             describe the location of some lost
                          ˙ ˙ ˆ ˆ
Imam and eponym of the Isma¤ılı Shı¤ı.
  ˆ                         ˆ      ˆˆ        animals and predict the arrival of a
                                             caravan that he saw while on the
isna d (Arabic: support)                     journey. Early traditions reflect an
                                             ambivalence about whether this was a
The genealogic chain of authorities          physical or spiritual journey, but in the
attached at the head of a hadıth to  ˆ       popular stories about Muhammad it
indicate the line of transmission from its                                 ˙
                                             was a miraculous story of great appeal.
source. Scholars use this chain to           Sufis see in this story the possibility of
authenticate hadıths. The development
                   ˆ                         ˙
                                             both a heavenly ascent and the beatific
of the science (¤ilm) of hadıth, and the
                              ˆ              vision of God. (See also al-haram ash-
                    ˆ     ˙
association of isnads with the traditions                                 ˙
                                                   ˆ      ˆ
                                             sharıf; Jibrıl.)
has had a profound effect on Islamic
historical consciousness and a sense of
connection with each generation of              ˆ ˆl
                                             Isra fı
Muslims back to the time of the Prophet.     The archangel who is assigned the task
The use of the isnad started in the pre-     of blowing the trumpet to signal the
Islamic period, when traditions of the       yawm ad-dın. He is not mentioned in
“battle days” of the Arabs were accom-       the Qur'an, but Islamic extra-Qur'anic
                                                       ˆ                           ˆ
panied by a recitation of the noble          legend contains many stories about
genealogies from that event to the time      him. He is a huge angel, with his feet
of the listener. Early Muslims adopted       under the lowest level of the earth. His
this custom when reciting the major          head reaches up to the throne of God.
events in the life of the Prophet and the    He has four wings and is covered with
community ('ummah), and it soon              hair and tongues, which indicate his
became conventional to apply this to         main function of reading out divine
all traditions reported about the Prophet    decrees to the rest of the archangels. He
and the early Companions (sahabah).  ˆ       is said to have been Muhammad’s
                                 ˙ ˙
In order to determine the veracity of the                                   ˙
                                             guide into prophecy before Jibrı l      ˆ
individuals involved and whether or not      brought the Qur'an. He is also said to
they could have been connected with the      have met Dhu-l-Qarnayn when he
other members of the chain, Muslim           traveled to the land of darkness. His
scholars developed an elaborate science      trumpet will not only signal the begin-
of biographical dictionaries that are the    ning of the yawm ad-dın, but will also
major characteristic of Islamic historio-    have the power of raising the dead and
graphy. (See also ¤ilm ar-rijal.)
                                ˆ            refreshing those in Paradise.
   ˆ ˆliyyat
          ˆ                                                                            108

isra 'ı   ˆ
   ˆ ˆliyya t                                     Istanbul
The term designating the Jewish, and              The capital of the Ottoman Empire
sometimes Christian, stories about bib-           from its capture in 857/1453 to the end
lical figures and motifs that were incor-          of the empire in 1342/1923. The name
porated into early Islamic commentaries           of the city, which had been Constanti-
on the Qur'an and in the sırah. After
                ˆ                ˆ                nople, was a Turkish derivitive from the
the second Islamic century, collecting            Greek, ‘es ten polis, “This is the city,”
and elaborating this material fell out of         which reflects the popular name used by
favor, but by that time, it had become            the Greek inhabitants. Muslims also
an important component of tafsır. In    ˆ         called the city Islam-bol, meaning “the
the first Islamic century, many stories,           place where Islam is abundant.” When
legends, and literary traditions were             the Turks captured the city, they trans-
used by commentators on the Qur'an,         ˆ     formed a number of churches into
polemicists, and popular preachers                mosques, the most famous of which
(qass) to explain and advocate for                was the Aya Sofya, the Church of Holy
Islam. Much of this material came from            Wisdom, which became the central
Jewish and Christian sources through              mosque of the city. Under the Ottomans,
the medium of converted Jews and                  the city grew in size and changed into a
Christians in the Arabian Peninsula. A            more characteristically Middle Eastern
number of famous transmitters are                 city. Craft guilds and workers were
associated with the transmission of this          clustered by trades around market areas,
material, including Ka¤b al-Ahbar and ˆ           and central markets were distributed
Wahb b. Munabbih. Ibn Ishaq incor-  ˙
                                    ˆ             throughout the city for ease of control
porated some of their traditions in his           and tax collection. Many of the resulting
famous biography of the Prophet, Sırat    ˆ       neighborhoods and their mosques were
     ˆ     ˆ
rasul Allah, but even more was uncriti-           established by waqfs that assured their
cally used by popular preachers. Book-            continued upkeep. In addition to shops
sellers in the major metropolitan centers         and lodging for resident merchants,
enjoyed a brisk business translating and          provisions were made for foreign mer-
selling material they claimed to be the                                     ˆ
                                                  chants in shops called khans. These, too,
seventy scriptures revealed in the                were clustered in groups, often accord-
seventy languages of humankind. By                ing to either the type of goods or the
the middle of the second Islamic cen-             nationality of the merchants. The Otto-
tury, interest in isra' ıliyyat had dimin-
                       ˆˆ    ˆ                    mans improved the harbor for both
ished, and Muslims made greater use of            commercial and military use, and the
Islamic and Arabic materials to explain           city became one of the major world
the Qur'an. This corresponded to the
            ˆ                                     cities. The city became even more
time that Jewish and Christian commu-             internationalized after the influx of
nities were settling into their respective        refugees from Spain after 1492, and
roles in the developing Islamic empire.           after the expansion of the empire into
Isra' ıliyyat literature has had a major
    ˆˆ     ˆ                                      the Mediterranean in the next century.
impact on Islamic literature in two               Istanbul lost its role as the seat of
ways. Much of the content for tafsır          ˆ   government with the development of
on the prophets and biblical figures               the Republic of Turkey under Mustafa
comes from this source. Additionally,             Kemal Ataturk in 1923, and also lost
the literary patterns of tafsır have been
                               ˆ                  its central position as one of the world’s
influenced by the patterns of commen-              centers for Islamic learning. It has
tary on scripture found among Jews and            retained its role as the chief city of
Christians.                                       Turkey, and, in recent years, has seen a
109                                                          Ithna ¤Ashariyyah Shı ˆ
                                                                 ˆ               ˆ¤ı

resurgence of Islamic institutions, which    Imam, Muhammad al-Qa'im, disap-
                                                ˆ                          ˆ
were diminished during the initial peri-                  ˙
                                             peared, or went into ghaybah, in 329/
ods of secularization under the republic.    940, and Twelver Shı¤ıs wait his return.
                                             The Twelvers are the majority group
istinja ' (Arabic: escape)
      ˆ                                      among the Shı¤ı, living in Iran, Iraq, and
                                             Lebanon. Ithna ¤Ashariyyah Shı¤ı share
                                                             ˆ                 ˆˆ
The purification that a believing Muslim
                                             with all Shı¤ı the view that rightful rule
must do after fulfilling natural needs.
                                             of the Islamic community ('ummah),
This must be done immediately. Failure
                                             was passed by Muhammad to ¤Alı b.      ˆ
to do so places the person in a state of
                                             Abı Talib and a line˙of Imams who were
                                                ˆ ˆ                      ˆ
ritual impurity that would render invalid         ˙
                                             his heirs. They are:
any prayer (salat), recitation of the
       ˆ        ˙
Qur'an, or other action that requires         1.   ¤Alı b. Abı Talib (died 41/661)
                                                       ˆ       ˆ ˆ
ritual purity. (See also ghusl; janabah;
                                   ˆ          2.   al-Hasan b. ˙¤Alı (died 49/669)
wudu'.)                                                ˙
      ˆ                                       3.   al-Husayn b. ¤Alı (died 61/680)
    ˙                                         4.   ¤Alı˙ b. al-Husayn Zayn al-¤Abidın
                                                       ˆ                          ˆ ˆ
istinsha q (Arabic: sniff)                         (died 95/714)
                                              5.   Muhammad al-Baqir (died 126/743)
The recommended practice of inhaling                     ˙
                                              6.   Ja¤far as-Sadiq (died 148/765)
water into the nostrils during the per-                     ˙ ˙
                                              7.   Musa al-Kazim (died 183/799)
                                                      ˆ ˆ         ˆ
formance of the ritual cleansing, wudu'
                                      ˆ                             ˙
                                    ˙         8.   ¤Alı ar-Rida (died 203/818)
                                                       ˆ          ˆ
and ghusl.                                                     ˙
                                              9.   Muhammad Jawad at-Taqı (died
                                                                          ˆ     ˆ
istisqa ' (Arabic: seek water)
      ˆ                                      10.   ¤Alı an-Naqı (died 254/868)
                                                       ˆ            ˆ
The communal prayer for rain.                11.   al-Hasan al-¤Askarı (died 260/874)
Although the practice is attested in the     12.       ˙
                                                   Muh ammad al-Qa 'im (entered
pre-Islamic period, it is because of the                 ˙
                                                   ghaybah 260/874).
actions of the Prophet that the modern-
                                             During the period in which the Imams     ˆ
day custom continues. It is reported that
                                             were living in the world, they functioned
Muhammad led the community in
      ˙                                      as both temporal and religious leaders
asking for rain by standing atop a
                                             with a divine mandate. Their position as
minbar (pulpit) erected for him, raising
                                             Imams authorized them to interpret
his arms, and turning his cloak inside
                                             scripture and to make pronouncements
out. In popular practice, the petitioners
                                             about the conduct of the community.
turn their clothes inside out, make
                                             For this reason, their sayings and actions
babies cry, and, if it is at the site of a
                                             were collected in a manner similar to the
walı, invoke the name of the saint as
                                             way the Sunnı collected the sayings of
well as Allah. Sometimes objects are
                                             the Prophet and the companions (saha-      ˆ
cast into a body of water. Among the
                                             bah). In addition to these collections˙ of
theologians, none of the folkloric prac-
                                             hadıths, two works, the Nahj al-
tices are condoned, and only prayers to       ˙ ˆ
                                             Balaghah (The way of eloquence), a
Allah, sometimes coupled with repen-
                                             collection of sayings, letters, and ser-
tance and the reading of passages from
                                             mons attributed to ¤Alı b. Abı Talib, and
                                                                     ˆ        ˆ ˆ
the Qur'an that have to do with God’s
          ˆ                                                                    ˙
                                             the Sahıfah sajjadiyyah (Page of prostra-
withholding rain, are allowed.                    ˙ ˙ attributed to ¤Alı b. al-Husayn
                                             tion),                     ˆ
                                                         ˆ                        ˙
                                             Zayn al-¤Abidın, complement the tradi-
Ithna ¤Ashariyyah Shı ˆ
    ˆ               ˆ¤ı                      tions and the Qur'an. While the Shı¤ı
                                                                   ˆ                    ˆˆ
The Twelver Shı¤ı, so-called because of
                  ˆˆ                         reject for the most part the hadıths of the
their belief in a line of twelve Imams in                                 ˙
                                             Sunnı, their use of Shı¤ı hadıths looks in
                                   ˆ                ˆ                ˆˆ     ˆ
the line from Muhammad. The twelfth          both form and content ˙like their Sunnı      ˆ
i¤tikaf                                                                            110

counterpart, and there have been peri-       usually done for a fixed number of days
ods in Islamic history in which legal        in response to a vow. The person who
scholars have studied in each group’s        undertakes i¤ tikaf must not leave the
schools of law. With the major ghaybah       mosque, except to perform necessary
of Muhammad al-Qa'im, the commu-
                       ˆ                     acts of nature and to perform necessary
nity began to collect and compile their      ablutions to maintain ritual purity. As
literary collections and construct their     in all such vows, the individual is
institutions of ¤ulama' to deal with the
                       ˆ                     restricted in the fasting to those periods
absence of their leader as a present,        of time in which the body will not be
accessible source for law and interpreta-    harmed, for all the schools of law,
tion. It has been the post-ghaybah           (madhhabs) regard such over-fasting
period that has seen the development         as a grave sin.
of the great theological works. The Ithnaˆ
¤Ashariyyah Shı¤ı practices are similar to
                ˆˆ                           ¤Izra 'ı
                                                 ˆ ˆl
those of the Sunnı, and do not differ
                                             The angel identified with the angel of
from them any more than the several
                                             death, malak al-mawt. He is said to be
Sunnı groups differ among themselves.
                                             so large that if all the water on earth
They do place emphasis on visiting and
                                             were poured on his head, none would
venerating of the tombs of the Imams  ˆ
                                             reach earth. He has four thousand
and walıs. For many Shı¤ı, the expecta-
          ˆ                ˆˆ
                                             wings, and his body is covered with eyes
tion of the coming of the Imam in  ˆ
                                             and tongues, the number of which
ghaybah is linked with the eschaton,
                                             corresponds to the number of those alive
yawm ad-dın, in the same way that the
                                             on the earth, both humans and jinn. He
Sunnı expect the Mahdı.
      ˆ                   ˆ
                                             is a pitiless angel, which is the reason
                                             God appointed him the angel of death.
i¤tika f (Arabic: devote oneself fully)      He is said to carry a scroll containing the
The practice of secluding oneself in a       names of those who are about to die, but
mosque, fasting, reciting the Qur'an,
                                   ˆ         he is ignorant of who will die when, that
and engaging in prayer (Salat). This is
                            ˆ                matter being reserved to God.

jabr (Arabic: fate, predestination,             the nucleus of those who would become
compulsion)                                     the Isma¤ıliyyah Shı¤ı. Others accepted
                                                         ˆˆ            ˆˆ
This word was a technical theological           ¤Abd Allah, Isma¤ıl’s brother, but he too
                                                          ˆ       ˆˆ
term used in debates over free will and         died within a few weeks. For the
determinism.                                    majority of Shı¤ı, the imamate passed
                                                                 ˆˆ          ˆ
                                                to Musa, whose mother, Hamıdah, was
                                                      ˆ ˆ                          ˆ
                                                a slave. Those who regarded Musa al- ˆ ˆ
Jacob                                                                ˆ
                                                kazim as the Imam became the Ithna
                                                  ˆ                                        ˆ
                                                ¤Asharı. Some Muslims held that Ja¤far
See Ya¤qub.
        ˆ                                              ˆ
                                                himself did not die, but went into
                                                ghaybah. These are called the Nawu-    ˆ ˆ
Ja¤far as -S a diq (80/699–148/765)
             ˙ ˙                                siyyah. Ja¤far is credited with being one
The sixth Shı¤ı Imam, he was recognized
                ˆˆ     ˆ                                            ˆ
                                                of the greatest Imams. He is said to have
by both the Isma ˆlı (Seveners) and the
                     ˆ¤ı ˆ                      written on magic, alchemy, divination,
Ithna ¤Ashariyyah (Twelvers). He was
      ˆ                                         and to have been a master Sufı.  ˆ ˆ
a noted transmitter of hadıths, pious
                                 ˆ                                             ˙
and learned. It is said that the ¤Abbasids
                                                jafr (Arabic: divination through
offered him the position of caliph
(khalıfah), which he refused. After his
death, the Shı¤ı split over the succession
                ˆˆ                              The Shı¤ı believe that the Imams inher-
                                                        ˆˆ                     ˆ
of the imamate. He held a unique
              ˆ                                 ited through Fatimah the power to
                                          ˆ                        ˙
position as the first of the Imams               foretell the future of individuals and
recognized for his leadership by the            nations. One esoteric tradition narrates
Sunnı as well as the two branches of
       ˆ                                        that when Muhammad was dying, he
the Shı¤ı, the Isma¤ılı and the Ithna                           ˙
                                                told ¤Alı to wash his body and then
          ˆˆ             ˆ ˆˆ               ˆ             ˆ
¤Asharı. When he died in 148/765, there
         ˆ                                      clothe him and sit him up. When ¤Alı did
were rumors that he had been poisoned           so, the Prophet told him all that would
by the caliph al-Mansur, and was buried
                             ˆ                  happen from that time to the yawm ad-
           ˆ               ˙
in Madınah. His tomb was the object             dın. ¤Alı passed this information on to
                                                  ˆ      ˆ
of pious veneration and pilgrimage until        his sons, who, in turn passed it on to the
it was destroyed by the Wahha ˆs. His
                                    ˆbı                     ˆ
                                                line of Imams. Many esoteric traditions
death provoked a crisis of succession.          became associated with this concept,
He had designated his son, Isma¤ıl as his
                                   ˆˆ           such as the interpretation of texts
heir, but he predeceased his father. There      (including the Qur'an) by means of
were those who said that Isma¤ıl was not
                                 ˆˆ             number letter substitution in the manner
dead but in ghaybah, and these formed           of the late ancient Neopythagoreans.
 ˆ ˆr
jagı                                                                                   112

Both the body of literature and particu-       knowledge of God and the Qur'an will ˆ
lar books attributed to Ja¤far as-Sadiq
                                    ˆ          have a transformative effect on the
and to ¤Alı were titled jafr.
          ˆ                     ˙ ˙            believer so that he will behave well.
                                               Morality comes from God and is known
 ˆ ˆr
ja gı (Hindi: grant of land)                   best by humans through the revelation
                                               of scripture and through the model of
A grant of land given in India to those        Muhammad’s behavior. Many Muslims
who had rendered government service.           have˙ felt that the study of literature, art,
The holders were exempt from taxation          music, rhetoric, etc. will make one ' adıb,
on the land and were regarded as               “polite and well-mannered,” which has
dhimmı. Many of the land holders were
        ˆ                                      been the basis for Islamic support for
Hindu and continued polytheistic wor-          education and the arts. In some moder-
ship even while holding dhimmı status.
                               ˆ                                       ˆ
                                               nist circles, the term jahiliyyah refers to
(See also iqta¤.)
              ˆ                                Western secularism.

jahannam (Arabic from Hebrew:                  al-jahˆmı
Gehenna)                                             ˙
                                               One of the seven ranks of Hell.
This word, mentioned frequently in the
Qur'an, is used either for Hell generally
                                               al-Ja h iz , Abu ¤Uthma n ¤Amr
                                                    ˆ            ˆ            ˆ
or for one of the seven ranks of Hell. It is          ˙
                                               b. Bah r˙ (160/776–255/868)
a synonym of an-Nar, the fire, and is
                        ˆ                             ˙
often used interchangeably with the            A distinguished Mu¤tazilı writer and
range of the words for Hell. At other          advocate of the belletristic style of adab,
times, commentators regard jahannam            his writings greatly influenced Arabic
as a particular location in Hell with          prose style. (See also Mu¤tazilah.)
particular punishments. In those tradi-
tions, it is one of the upper areas of Hell                 ˆ
                                               Jahm b. S afwa n (executed 128/
designated for Muslims who have com-           746)    ˙
mitted grave sins for which they have          Early Mu¤tazilı theologian who held that
not repented, but, according to some           Hell and Paradise are not eternal, that
commentators, the possibility exists for       the attributes of God are allegorical, that
some inhabitants to repent and move to         the Qur'an is created, and that human
Heaven.                                        actions are predetermined. A sect called
                                               the Jahmiyyah was named after him.
ja hiliyyah (Arabic: ignorance)                (See also Mu¤tazilah.)
This word refers to the period before the
rise of Islam in Arabia. It can also mean       ˆ ˆ
                                               Ja lu t
the period before the coming of Islam to       The biblical Goliath, who attacked
various specific localities. It is derived      Talut (Saul). From the one Qur'anic
                                                  ˆ ˆ                                  ˆ
from an Arabic root that means “ignor-          ˙
                                               story (in Q. 2:249–51), commentators
ance,” but it means more than just a           attach a number of stories of the
lack of knowledge. It is generally con-        Isra'ıliyyat variety. As an example,
                                                     ˆ ˆ  ˆ
trasted with the word “Islam,” so it           Da'ud, when he comes to kill Jalut,
                                                   ˆ ˆ                                ˆ ˆ
means all the values that are the              gathers three stones, which represent the
opposite of Islam. It is the antonym of        biblical patriarchs. These stones com-
both ¤ilm, “knowledge,” and hilm,              bine into one, and Jalut is killed with the
                                                                   ˆ ˆ
“good behavior, kindness.” These     ˙         force of the patriarchs. Commentators
notions speak to one of the central            also make Jalut into a paradigm oppres-
                                                            ˆ ˆ
characteristics of Islam, namely that          sor of the faithful, and the conflict
113                                                                        al-jannah

between the outnumbered Muslims and         for the lapidation or stoning of Iblıs   ˆ
the Meccans at the battle of Badr is seen   (the devil). This action is in emulation of
as a repetition of the conflict between      Ibrahım, Isma¤ıl, and Hajar, each of
                                                ˆ ˆ         ˆ ˆ           ˆ
Jalut and the Banu Isra'ıl.                                             ˙
                                            whom was tempted by the devil, as well
 ˆ ˆ              ˆ     ˆ ˆ
                                            as the actions of Muhammad in the
                                            “Farewell Pilgrimage.” It is a mandatory
jama ¤ah (Arabic: group, community)
                                            part of the pilgrimage.
This term meaning “community” comes
from post-Qur'anic usage as a synonym
of 'ummah. It is connected to another           ˆ
                                            jana bah (Arabic: major ritual
word from this root, Jum¤ ah, “Friday,”     impurity)
meaning the day on which the commu-         A major ritual impurity, such as contact
nity gathers together for prayer (salat).
                                     ˆ      with blood and other bodily fluids, that
                                  ˙         renders one unfit for prayer. Such an
Jama ¤at-i Isla mı
   ˆ          ˆ ˆ                           impurity can be removed by a major
                                            ritual ablution. While in this state, the
A fundamentalist revivalist party           Muslim cannot engage in prayer
founded by Sayyid Abu al-A¤la Maw-
                       ˆ       ˆ            (salat), circumambulate the Ka¤bah,
dudı in the early 1940s with the aim of
  ˆ ˆ                                        ˙
                                            or recite the Qur'an, beyond uttering
transforming Pakistan into a theocratic     phrases of the scripture to ward off evil.
Islamic state.                              (See also ghusl.)

al-Jama ¤at al-Isla miyyah
          ˆ            ˆ                       ˆ
                                            jana zah (Arabic: bier)
(Arabic: Islamic organizations)
                                            The corpse, the bier on which the corpse
A loose federation of Islamic groups in     is placed, or the funeral procession. (See
Egypt that operate through independent      also funerary rites.)
mosques and student groups with the
general aim of promoting Islamic resur-
                                            Janissaries (Turkish yeniceri: new
gence and revival.
                                            Muslim slave troops in the Ottoman
jama ¤at kha nah, also
   ˆ       ˆ
                                            army. They were recruited from among
                                            Balkan Christians, converted to Islam,
A prayer-hall for Isma¤ılı Shı¤ı.
                     ˆ ˆ ˆ   ˆˆ             given a thorough education, and placed
                                            in high rank in Ottoman military
ja mi¤ (Arabic: general)                    society.
A masjid jami¤ is the term for a central
mosque where Friday prayers are said        al-jannah (Arabic: garden)
and a sermon delivered. (See also mas-      This is a common Qur'anic name for
jid.)                                       Paradise (firdaws), the place of reward
                                            for the deceased Muslim faithful. The
al-Ja mi¤ as-Sayfiyyah                       Qur'an describes many of the wonders
                                            of al-jannah, including the food,
The principal educational institution of
                                            drink, and companionship that the
the Da'udı Bohra Isma¤ılı, founded in
     ˆ ˆ ˆ            ˆ ˆ ˆ
                                            faithful will enjoy. The hadıths elabo-
1814 in Surat, India.                                                 ˙
                                            rate on the rich Qur'anic details. It is
                                            located under the throne of God in
al-Jamrah (Arabic: pebble)                  heaven, and is different from the garden
Three locations in the valley of Mına,
                                     ˆ ˆ    out of which God expelled Adam. There
which are visited by pilgrims on the hajj   are different levels of the garden, each
al-jarh wa-t-ta¤dı                                                                 114

with different rewards for specific            jarıˆmah, also jurm (Arabic:
actions. In this, al-jannah parallels the     crime, offense, sin)
levels and specificity of Hell, where the      In many modern Muslim countries, this
punishments are different for different       word has come to be used as the ordinary
transgressions. Different Muslim groups       word for crime. This includes both
have debated whether or not the               secular crimes and those traditionally
Qur'anic verses should be interpreted
      ˆ                                       punishable under Islamic law (sharı ¤ah).
literally or allegorically, and there is no   (See also hadd.)
single, authoritative teaching on this                  ˙
that is common to all Muslims. That
said, belief in reward and punishment          ˆ ˆ
                                              ja su s (Arabic: spy)
for actions is fundamental to being a         The Qur'an (Q 49:12) says that believ-
Muslim.                                       ers should not spy on one another and
                                              should avoid suspicion. Islamic law does
                                              not, however, forbid espionage on an
al-jarh wa-t-ta¤dı (Arabic: the
        ˙                                     enemy.
disparaged and the trustworthy)
A genre of hadıth criticism that ana-
                   ˆ                           ˆ ˆ
                                              ja wı
lyzes the isnads and the biographies of
the transmitters to determine the degree      This is the name for Muslims from
of acceptability of the hadıth. With the
                             ˆ                Southeast Asia, originally derived from
proliferation of traditions and reports       the name for the Javanese peoples. It is
about the Prophet and the early Com-          also the name in Indonesia and Malaysia
panions (saha bah), questions arose
                 ˆ                            for the Arabic script when used to write
about the ˙ ˙
            authenticity of the transmis-     one of the languages of the area.
sion of hadıths. This was particularly so
in the ˙ face of contradictory and            Jerusalem
obviously anachronistic traditions. In        See al-Quds.
addition to the content of the traditions,
commentators began to evaluate the
                                                             ˆ ˆ
                                              Jesus (Arabic ¤Isa)
isnads, or chains of authentication, to
determine whether the transmitters were       A prophet mentioned prominently in the
trustworthy and would have been in a          Qur'a n. Muslims regard Jesus as
position to transmit the hadıth. A large
                               ˆ              human, the son of Maryam, and as
body of biographical dictionaries and         having performed miracles. The Qur'an  ˆ
encyclopedias arose that became the           and Muslim literature strongly deny that
hallmark of Islamic historiography.           Jesus is the son of God. Some extra-
These dictionaries tried to determine         Qur'anic stories also hold that he was
the exact name, dates of birth and death,     without sin. His prophetic book is called
and location of each individual who           the injıl (Gospel) in Arabic, and he will
figured in the chains of transmission.         be one of the party of judgment at the
Additionally, they tried to determine         eschaton. He is called al-Masıh, which
whether the individual was a good                                              ˙
                                              is Arabic for “Messiah” but without the
Muslim, was truthful and reliable, had        Judeo-Christian religious sense, nabı    ˆ
a history of sound transmission of            (prophet), rasul (messenger), and Ibn
traditions, and was of generally good         Maryam, the son of Mary. This last term
character. Contradictory reports arose        for Jesus indicates one of the central
about some individuals, resulting in          views of him in Islam, indicating both
complexities that the genre of al-jarh        his humanity and the importance of his
wa-t-ta¤dıl attempted to solve.         ˙     mother. Before his birth, Jibrı l
          ˆ                                                                          ˆ
115                                                                                         ˆ

appeared to Maryam in the form of a            Jibrı also Jibra 'ı
                                                   ˆl,        ˆ ˆl
perfect man and announced his birth to         The archangel Gabriel. He is the greatest
make her a sign, or ayah, for humans
                        ˆ                      of all the angels in Islamic cosmology.
and a mercy from God. When Jesus was           He brought the Qur'an to Muham-
born, he spoke from the cradle to those        mad, showed Ibrahım and Isma¤ıl˙how
                                                                   ˆ ˆ            ˆ ˆ
who were scandalized by Maryam bear-           to build the Ka¤bah and Nuh how to
ing a child, telling them that he was a        build the ark. He protected˙ Ibrahım     ˆ ˆ
servant of Allah and a prophet (nabı).
                 ˆ                       ˆ     from the fire of Namru d and the
As a youth, he made clay birds and             Children of Israel from the armies of
breathed life into them. During his            Fir¤awn. Throughout Muh ammad’s
mission, he cured a blind man, a leper,                                        ˙
                                               prophetic career, Jibrıl was at his side,
and raised a man from the dead, all with       bringing him revelations from Allah,         ˆ
the permission of and direct intervention      warning him of plots against him, and
from God. He caused a table already            heading a band of thousands of angels at
prepared to descend from heaven for his        the battle of Badr. According to tradi-
disciples. On the basis of Q. 61:6,            tion, he appeared only twice to Muham-
Muslim commentators see Jesus as pre-          mad in the form in which he was created  ˙
dicting the coming of Muhammad after           rather than as a more ordinary person.
him. According to the Qur'an, the real
                                ˆ              Jewish and Christian tales about Jibrıl          ˆ
Jesus was neither killed nor crucified,         found their way into the Isra'ıliyyat
                                                                                 ˆ ˆ          ˆ
only a likeness of him. The tafsır       ˆ     literature, adding details to the Qur'anic ˆ
traditions expand on the Qur'anic state-
                                  ˆ            accounts. He is depicted as huge, with
ments and make Jesus a prominent               his feet astride the horizon, covered with
member of the entourage of the yawm            six hundred pairs of wings. He appeared
ad-dın. He will, according to some of
      ˆ                                        on horseback at the time that Musa split
                                                                                   ˆ ˆ
these traditions, appear in al-Quds            the Red Sea, and it was his footprints
dressed in white with his head anointed        that as-samirı picked up and threw into
                                                         ˆ     ˆ
with oil. He will kill ad-Dajjal, the
                                    ˆ          the gold that helped create the Calf of
“Antichrist,” and then pray the dawn           Gold that the Children of Israel wor-
prayer with the Imam. He will break all        shiped. He and Mıka'ıl are the two
                                                                     ˆ ˆ ˆ
the crosses, kill all the pigs, and slay all   angels that opened the young Muham-
those who do not believe in him and            mad’s breast and washed his heart,˙ and
Islam. There will then be one religion,        he was the one who escorted Muham-
Islam, and peace will prevail. In the          mad to heaven. All believers ˙ will
wake of Muslim–Christian polemic and           encounter him on the yawm ad-dın, as   ˆ
dialogue, Muslim tradition has strength-       part of Allah’s judging entourage.
ened the view that makes Jesus more like
Muhammad. Also, the role of Maryam
is emphasized, particularly in the face of        ˆ
                                               jiha d (Arabic: striving)
Protestant missionaries, whose lack of         This word is often mistranslated as
veneration of Maryam made them, in             “holy war.” For classical commentators,
the eyes of some Muslims, deficient                ˆ                               ˆ
                                               jihad is divided into greater jihad and
Christians. In spite of the miraculous                   ˆ
                                               lesser jihad. The greater striving is the
nature of the life of Jesus, for Muslims       struggle against sin within the individual
he was a man, a prophet, and called            and the quest for a perfect spiritual life.
humans to Islam.                               It is regarded as the harder of the two
                                               and the one with the greater rewards.
                                               The lesser striving includes missionary
                                               activity and active armed conflict with
See al-yahud.
          ˆ                                    evil. In the latter sense, some groups,
al-Jı ˆ nı ¤Abd al-Qadir
    ˆla ˆ,          ˆ                                                             116

such as certain of the Khawarij and
                                 ˆ           salvation and that the Qur'an and ˆ
some modern activists, regard the armed      Muhammad’s mission was to both
struggle as an essential feature of faith,   groups. There is an immense folkloric
with the aim of creating Islamic states      literature about the jinn. They helped
wherever possible. During the period of      Sulayman with his activities, as they
the Crusades, Muslim jurists developed       were able to take various shapes and
detailed codes of Islamic warfare based      carry out heavy work almost instantly.
on earlier thinking, which limited the       The “genie” of the lamp in Western
barbarity and harmful effects on non-        versions of the Thousand and One
combatants. In the modern period, some       Nights is a folkloric version of the jinn.
Muslim thinkers have argued that it is       They are believed to sit on the walls
the duty of every Muslim to wage armed       around heaven, trying to listen in on
struggle against those states that are not   God’s councils with the angels, and
Islamic, and even against those tradi-       shooting stars are caused by the angels
tionally Muslim states that have not         throwing things at them to drive them
fully implemented the Sharı ¤ah. This
                               ˆ             away. Jinn can appear as animals – a
has given rise to a number of jihad     ˆ    black cat, a dog, a fox – or as humans,
organizations that utilize the Islamic       either ordinary or grotesque. They can
concept to promote support for primar-       be helpful or harmful to humans,
ily political, post-colonial liberationist   depending on whether or not they are
and nationalist movements.                   of an evil nature or have been annoyed
                                             by humans. Pious behavior on the part
al-Jı ˆ nı ¤Abd al-Qa dir (470/
    ˆla ˆ,          ˆ                        of humans is the best defense against
1077–561/1166)                               them.
Eponym of the Qadiriyyah tarıqah,
                   ˆ            ˆ
he was a H anbalı ascetic ˙ with a
                     ˆ                                    ˆ
                                             Jinnah (Jina h ), Muh ammad
reputation for great piety. What is                         ˙      ˙
                                             ¤Alı (1293/1876–1367/1948)
known of his life is mostly legendary
                                             British-trained Indian lawyer who
and hagiographic, with wondrous tales
                                             became president of the Muslim Lea-
of his calling an assembly of all the
                                             gue that promoted the foundation of the
saints (walıs), as well as Muhammad.
                             ˙               independent Muslim state of Pakistan.
His tomb in Baghdad is a pilgrimage
                                             He became the first president of the
                                             country’s constituent assembly. He was
                                             born in Karachi and educated there and
jinn (Arabic)                                in Bombay before he was sent to
Intelligent creatures made of fire, often     England for his legal training. He
invisible, they are like humans in their     adopted English customs in dress and
capacity to receive God’s word and be        speech, speaking English rather than
saved, since the Qur'an mentions that it
                       ˆ                     Urdu. He returned to India in 1896
was sent to both humans and jinn (Q.         and worked as a lawyer in Bombay. He
72:1ff.). In the Qur'an, Iblıs is said to
                      ˆ     ˆ                became a member of the Indian
be a jinn, but he is also said to be an      National Congress as the representative
angel. This has caused considerable          of the Muslims of Bombay. While a
trouble to the commentators, and many        member of the Congress, he joined the
theories have developed about the rela-      Muslim League, but resigned from the
tionship between jinn and angels. It is      Congress in 1919 over issues of Muslim
generally held, however, that one of the     repression by the police. He was also
main differences is that jinn, like          disaffected from many of his fellow
humans, are capable of both sin and          Muslims, who were supporters of the
117                                                                       ˆ     ˆ
                                                             al-Junayd, Abu al-Qasim

Khilafat Movement. In 1935, he
       ˆ                                        jizyah (Arabic: tribute)
became active again in the League, and          A capitulation tax or poll tax paid by
began to press for a separate Muslim            non-Muslim members of the Islamic
state. By 1946, it was clear that he had a      state, the ahl al-kitab, who also paid
majority of Muslims on his side, and he         a land tax, the kharaj.
participated in the negotiations for
partition. At midnight on 14–15 August,
1947 Pakistan came into existence, and
he became the first president of the             See Ayyub.
constituent assembly. He died on 11
September 1948, having created a new            John
Muslim state.
                                                See Yahya.
Jirjis                                          Jonah
Saint George the Martyr. The story of           See Dhu-n-Nun.
                                                      ˆ    ˆ
Saint George the Martyr was included in
Islamic stories about holy persons by the       Joseph
end of the first Islamic century as a
person whose piety and forbearance              See Yusuf.
caused Allah to bring him back to life
each time he was killed by Dadan      ˆ ˆ       judge
(Diocletian). He lived in Palestine during      See hakam; qadı.
                                                            ˆ ˆ
a time of persecution of Christians, and            ˙        ˙
was tortured to death three times. His
                                                Juh a ˆ
steadfastness and his resurrection                  ˙
impressed Diocletian’s wife, who con-           A fabulous figure in stories and legends,
verted and was herself killed. After being      he is a jester, a fool, a wise bumpkin, and
brought back to life three times, Jirjıs  ˆ     a prankster. While the majority of these
asked God to let him remain dead, and           stories are told for amusement, some of
his wish was granted. The veneration of         them have a religious didactic character
this saint and martyr is shared in some         and are used by Sufıs to instruct
                                                                            ˆ ˆ
                                                initiates in the complexities of the
communities by both Christians and
Muslims, and its springtime festivities         world.
are symbolic of vernal renewal.
jism (Arabic: body)                             See Jama¤ah; Salat; Yawm al-Jum¤ah.
                                                       ˆ        ˆ
Many Traditionists, in opposition to the
Mu¤tazilah, held that God has a body,                         ˆ     ˆ
                                                al-Junayd, Abu al-Qa sim b.
jism, that is physical and corporeal.           Muh ammad b. al-Junayd al-
                                                    ˙ ˆ         ˆ ˆrı
                                                Khazza z al-Qawa rı ˆ (died 298/
These are grouped under the term
mujassimu n, usually translated as
           ˆ                                    910)
“anthropomorphists.” While the major-           He was a Sufı whose work is accepted
                                                            ˆ ˆ
ity of Muslims came to accept a view                       ˙ ˆ
                                                within Sunnı “orthodoxy.” His written
that God does not have a body in the            works mostly survive as fragments of
same manner as humans, Allah’s pos-ˆ            letters he wrote explaining his mystical
session of hands, eyes, etc. is still part of   experiences and his views about God
most Muslims’ conceptualization of              and mysticism. His careful use of lan-
God.                                            guage and clear explanation of the
jurisprudence                                                               118

mystic experiences in terms that non-               ˆ,    ˆ    ˆˆ
                                        al-Juwaynı Abu al-Ma¤a lı
mystics could understand and accept     ¤Abd al-Malik b. al-Juwaynı
earned him high praise and enabled      (419/1028–478/1085)
him to lay the foundations for later                    ˆ
                                        Known as Imam al-Haramayn because
  ˆ                                     of the reputation he ˙earned teaching in
                                        Mecca and Madınah, he was a famous
jurisprudence                           writer on Shafi¤ı jurisprudence. He was
                                                      ˆ ˆ
                                        an expert on 'usul al-fiqh as well as
See fiqh.                                                  ˙
                                        kalam. While his works never became
                                        widely popular, his exposition of those
jurm (Urdu: crime)                      two subjects was based on principles of
                                        rational logic, partly derived from Aris-
See hadd; jarımah.
             ˆ                          totle, which influenced later writers. He
                                        was the teacher of al-Ghazalı.ˆ ˆ

             ˆ      ˆ      ˆ
Ka¤b al-Ah ba r, Abu Ish a q b.               by Ibrahım and Isma¤ıl, and they are
                                                      ˆ ˆ             ˆ ˆ
Ma ti¤ b. Haysu¤ (died c.˙32/653)
 ˆ                                            the ones who placed the Black Stone, al-
He was a Jew from the Yemen who               hajar al-aswad, in the eastern corner as
                                              the cornerstone. According to popular
converted to Islam. He is the attributed
source for many Isra'ıliyyat traditions
                     ˆ ˆ     ˆ                belief, this stone was brought from
found in Islamic literature. His title, al-   heaven by the angel Jibrıl. The shrine
Ahbar, indicates that he had scholarly        is also the object of the hajj and the
status among the Jews. He came to             ¤ umrah, during which pilgrims try to

Madınah during the caliphate of ¤Umar
       ˆ                                      touch the Black Stone. The shrine was
b. al Khattab and went with him to al-
              ˆ                               rebuilt during Muhammad’s lifetime,
           ˙˙                                                       ˙
                                              and was destroyed and rebuilt between
Quds (Jerusalem), where he advised
¤Umar about the initiation of worship         64/683 and 74/693. Each year, the shrine
at the sakhrah, the rock at the Temple        is covered by the kiswah, and pieces of
Mount. It is likely that he converted at      the old covering are prized possessions of
the time of that journey, and, after his      the hajj. Contrary to Western belief, the
                                              shrine is not worshiped, but is used as
conversion, he was on close terms with
the caliph. After ¤Umar’s death, which        the focal point of the worship of God.
he is said to have predicted, he became       The name, Ka¤bah, was due to its cube-
an advisor and supporter of ¤Uthman.   ˆ      like appearance, and appears to have
He is credited with the reliable transmis-    been applied to a number of pre-Islamic
sion of information about ¤Umar, but it       shrines, most notably in San¤ah in the
                                              Yemen and at-Ta'if. The corners of the
was his profound knowledge of the                               ˆ
                                                            ˙ ˙
                                              shrine are roughly at the compass points,
Bible, of Jewish tradition, and of Yeme-
nite traditions that earned him his           with the Black Stone set in the eastern
reputation. Almost all traditions regard-     corner. The shrine is hollow, with a door
ing the pre-Islamic prophets bear some        in the northeast facade. Inside are three
mark of his erudition.                        columns that support the roof rising
                                              from a marble floor and a ladder leading
                                              to the roof. There are numerous hanging
Ka¤bah (Arabic: cube)                         lamps and building inscriptions, but
The cube-shaped shrine in the center of       nothing remains of the paintings that
the great mosque in Mecca toward              existed during the time of the Prophet.
which all Muslims face in prayer.             Little is known of the history of the
According to Islamic traditions, the          Ka¤bah outside Islamic tradition, but
foundations of the shrine were laid by        there is reason to believe that the shrine
Adam, but the building was constructed        was an active pilgrimage site as early as
kaffarah                                                                            120

the second century c.e. The geographer                      ˆ
                                              hold that a kafir will be condemned to
Ptolemy calls the city “Macoraba,” with       Hell. The Khawarij held that anyone
the significance of miqrab, “temple.”          who had committed a grave sin was a
During Muhammad’s lifetime but before           ˆ
                                              kafir, while the Murji'ah held that the
he received the prophethood, the Mec-         determination of who goes to Hell is left
cans rebuilt the Ka¤bah, enlarging it from    to God’s judgment. The various schools
its height of no taller than a person.        of Islamic law (madhhabs) spell out
Muhammad is said to have effected the                                         ˆ
                                              how a Muslim is to deal with a kafir, but
compromise by having a representative         generally the ahl al-kitab are not
of each clan help replace the Stone.          included in the category of unbelievers,
When Mecca was conquered by the               since they believe in God and are
Muslims, there were over three hundred        recipients of God’s revelation.
and sixty idols in and around the
Ka¤bah, and the Prophet had them all           ˆ
                                              ka hin (Arabic: prognosticator, priest)
removed, the shrine cleansed, and Mus-
                                              A seer or soothsayer among the Arabs in
lim worship instituted. In 64/683, during
                                              the jahiliyyah, who usually spoke saj¤ ,
the attempt of ¤Abd Allah b. az-Zubayr
                                              or rhymed prose. In the pre-Islamic
to gain the caliphate, the Ka¤bah was
                                              period, there was a class of religious
nearly destroyed by the siege and a
                                              figures who claimed the power to tell the
subsequent fire cracked the Black Stone
                                              future, find lost animals, and determine
into three pieces. When the siege was
                                              paternity. They would often go into
lifted the stone was repaired with a band
                                              mantic trances and utter cryptic sayings
of silver, and the Ka¤bah was rebuilt and
                                              that would subsequently be interpreted
enlarged. In 74/693, the 'Umayyads
                                              for their clients. They used techniques of
conquered Mecca, killed az-Zubayr,
                                              dowsing to find water and phrenology to
and re-did many of his alterations,
                                              determine paternity. Their magic is
returning the Ka¤bah to a simpler form,
                                              reported to have been generally of the
much as it is today. In 317/929, the
                                              “white” sort, but they were also
Qaramitah carried off the Black Stone,
          ˙                                   reported to have been able to cause
which was returned after a twenty-year
                                              impotence, various illnesses, and other
absence. In Islamic sacred geography, the
                                              maladies. One of their techniques, men-
Ka¤bah is the center of the world, and it
                                              tioned in Q. 113:4, was to partially tie a
has fulfilled that function for Muslims
                                              knot, utter a curse and spit into the knot
since the time of the Prophet. It is the
                                              and pull it tight. The knot had to be
daily reminder in prayers (salat) of the
                            ˙                 found and untied before the curse could
unity of Muslims, and the hajj has
                                  ˙           be lifted. The last two surahs of the
brought Muslims from all over the world
                                              Qur'an are often thought to be prophy-
to Mecca for study and the dissemina-
                                              lactic against that sort of magic.
tion of ideas as well as for worship. All
                                              Muhammad was accused by his pagan
groups within Islam have accepted the              ˙                    ˆ
                                              detractors of being a kahin because of
centrality of the Ka¤bah.
                                              the saj¤ of the Qur'an and his prophetic
kaffa rah (Arabic: expiation)
An act performed for the expiation of sins.      ˆ
                                              kala m (Arabic: speech)
                                              The word kalam is used in the Qur'an at
ka fir (Arabic: to conceal, be                 least three times to refer to the speech of
ungrateful)                                   Allah, which the commentators under-
One who is “ungrateful” to God, an            stand to be both the Qur'an itself and the
unbeliever, an atheist. Almost all groups     previous revelations to prophets, such as
121                                                                            ˆjah

Musa. Historically, this leads to discus-
   ˆ ˆ                                       of al-Husayn b. ¤Alı and the proximity
sions about the nature of God’s speech,             ˙
                                             to the battleground where he was
whether speech is inherent in God, and       martyred in 61/680 by 'Umayyad
whether or not the Qur'an was the
                              ˆ              troops. By as early as 65/685 there was
created or uncreated speech of God.          active veneration of the tomb, which the
These discussions led to the second          ¤Abbasid caliph al-Mutawakkil tried to
definition of the term kalam, speculative     stop in 236/850. This having failed, the
scholastic theology. The ¤ ilm al-kalam,
                                       ˆ     city continued to prosper, boasting a
the science of theology, became one of the   large madrasah and a good hostel to
Islamic sciences. While it is hard to date   accommodate the pilgrims. The city has
the beginnings of this science, it most      the reputation of assuring Paradise to
probably started with the Mu¤tazilah.        those who are buried there, so many
Kalam is distinguished from falsafah         aging and ill pilgrims go there to die,
(philosophy), even when the subjects of      and bodies are sent there for burial.
discussion and the content appear to be
similar, as kala always remained God-                        ˆ
                                             kasb, also iktisa b (Arabic:
centered and part of the training of         acquire)
religious scholars. In later periods it
                                             A term used to refer to the doctrine of
became as much a method of argument
                                             “acquisition” in the thought of some
as a method in inquiry, and usually
                                             speculative theologians, by which
assumed a real or hypothetical opponent
                                             humans “acquire” actions that are really
against which arguments were made.
                                             created by God. This notion is meant to
                                             provide a separation between God’s
kara mah (Arabic: generosity; pl.            creation and human free will, so that
   ˆ ˆ
karamat)                                     there will not be any action in the
Understood as the favors shown by God        universe that cannot be said to have
to humans; in popular parlance, the          been created by God. (See also kalam.)
miracles performed by a walı (saint). It
is generally felt that Allah bestows
                              ˆ              Kemal, Mustafa
special gifts to humans through holy
                                             See Ataturk.
persons, prophets, and walıs. These gifts
come outside the natural order of things
and fall into the category of “miracles.”    khabar (Arabic: report; pl. akhbar)
Different schools of Islamic thought         This word refers to reports or traditions
have had strongly different reactions to     that have a form similar to hadıths but
the possibility of such miracles. The        carry historical rather than ˙
                                                                          legal impor-
Mu¤tazilah and the Wahhabı have   ˆ ˆ        tance. In the first Islamic century, this
been strongly opposed to the notion of       distinction was not always clearly
miracles. Sufıs and many Shı¤ı, on the
             ˆ ˆ                 ˆˆ          defined, and some commentators and
other hand, regard such divine interven-     traditionists used the terms khabar and
tion as a usual part of the order of the     hadıth interchangeably. A khabar will
universe. Many thinkers distinguish          ˙
                                             have an isnad as well as the text
between the karamat and mu¤ jizat, or
                  ˆ ˆ                 ˆ      (matn), and can be subject to the same
the miracles performed by prophets and       types of scrutiny as a hadıth.
the Imams. (See also miracle.)
       ˆ                                                            ˙

                                             Khadı ˆjah bt. Khuwaylid (died
Karbala '
      ˆ                                      619 c.e.)
City in Iraq holy to the Ithna ¤Ashar-
                             ˆ               First wife of Muhammad. It is said that
iyyah Shı¤ı because of the shrine-tomb
          ˆˆ                                 she was the first˙ to accept Islam. She
al-Khadir                                                                         122

was a wealthy widow, somewhat older        appears in the guise of a beggar or some
than Muhammad, who owned property          other unlikely person and rewards the
           ˙                               person who gives charity and punishes
and engaged in trade. Muhammad’s first
association with her was˙ as a trading     the person who acts selfishly.
agent, which duties he is said to have
performed admirably. At the time they        ˆ               ˆd
                                           Kha lid b. al-Walı b. al-
were married, Muhammad was reported        Mughı ˆrah (died 21/641)
to be twenty-one, twenty-three, or
                                           A contemporary of Muhammad who
twenty-five, and Khadıjah anywhere
                                           opposed the Muslims at ˙ the battle of
from twenty-eight to forty. She bore
                                           Uhud but later (c. 6/627) converted to
him two sons, who died in infancy, ¤Abd      ˙
                                           Islam, and earned the title “Sword of
Allah and al-Qasim, and four daugh-
    ˆ            ˆ
                                           Islam.” After the death of the Prophet,
ters, Fa t imah, Ruqayyah, 'Umm
                                           the caliph Abu Bakr sent him against
       ˆ ˙
Kulthum, and Zaynab. Muhammad
                               ˙           the rebels in the riddah wars, where he
was monogamous until her death two
                                           inadvertently killed some Muslims and
years before the hijrah. Through mar-
                                           married the widow of one of his victims.
riage, she provided Muhammad with
                                           Abu Bakr forgave him, however, and
material and emotional ˙ support that
                                           sent him into Iraq. He is said to have
helped him turn toward the religious
                                           been a great general, and his loyalty to
                                           Muhammd and to Islam after his con-
                                           version is unquestioned.
al-Khad ir, also al-Khid r
            ˙                  ˙
A mysterious, mystical figure in popular        ˆfah (Arabic: successor, caliph)
and Sufı legend, who is said to be the
        ˆ ˆ                                The head of the Islamic community in
unnamed sage in the eighteenth chapter     Sunnı Islam, the office was regarded as
                                                 ˆ ˆ
of the Qur'an who instructs Musa in
               ˆ                   ˆ ˆ     elected, but without a specified process.
esoteric wisdom. When Musa goes on a
                           ˆ ˆ             The office was terminated, in the minds
journey in search of the confluence of      of some, with the capture of Baghdad     ˆ
the “two rivers,” he and his companion     in 656/1258 by the Mongols, but there
find that they have forgotten a fish they    have been subsequent claims to the title,
had for provisions; the fish finds its way   and the Khilafat Movement sought to
into the water, comes back to life, and    revive the office. According to Shı¤ı      ˆˆ
swims away. While searching for the        tradition, before Muhammad died he
fish, they encounter the unnamed figure                               ˙
                                           designated his closest male relative, ¤Alı ˆ
who agrees to instruct Musa in wisdom
                          ˆ ˆ              b. Abıˆ Talib, as his successor. According
if he can refrain from challenging his             ˙
                                           to Sunnı tradition, the Prophet did not
actions. Musa promises, but is ulti-
              ˆ ˆ                          designate a successor, but he had
mately unable to keep from asking          appointed Abu Bakr to lead the com-
about the esoteric actions that seem       munity in prayer (salat) during the
wrong or contradictory in the exoteric                            ˙
                                           period of his last illness. Using that role
world. As a result, Al-Khidr is under-     as precedent, the community chose Abu      ˆ
stood as the master of esoteric wisdom     Bakr as its leader and the political
and is credited as the founder of many     successor to Muhammad. Through the
Sufı orders. Many scholars, particularly
  ˆ ˆ                                      reigns of the first ˙four caliphs, the shape
in the West, have remarked on the          and duties of the office expanded. Abu      ˆ
parallels between the story of al-Khidr    Bakr developed the duties as community
and the Alexander Romance, which ˙is       leader and commander of the armies of
itself derived from the story of Gilga-    defense and conquest. ¤Umar further
mesh. In popular stories, al-Khidr often   developed the military role, calling
123                                                                           khamr

himself the 'Amır al-Mu'minın, the
                  ˆ               ˆ         caliphs were controlled by military
Commander of the Faithful. He also          rulers, who were given the title sultan,
developed the bureaucratic aspects of       and who kept the caliphs as virtual
the position by appointing deputies to      puppets to ratify their rule. (See also
manage the fiscal and military aspects of       ˆ
rule. ¤Uthman added a religious aspect
by making and promulgating an official              ˆl
                                            al-Khalı (Arabic: the friend)
recension of the Qur'an. Throughout
                                            The title borne by Ibrahım as “friend”
                                                                  ˆ ˆ
this earliest period, several different
                                            of God and a name of the town of
conceptions of power and authority
                                            Hebron, regarded as Ibrahım’s town.
                                                                    ˆ ˆ
existed side by side, and some of these
came to a head with the murder of
¤Uthman and the conflict between the
        ˆ                                   khalwah (Arabic: seclusion,
supporters of ¤Alı, the Shı¤ı, and the
                    ˆ         ˆˆ            solitude)
supporters of Mu¤awiyah, the
                           ˆ                Among the Sufı, the practice of seclu-
                                                            ˆ ˆ
'Umayyads. At base were issues of                         ˙
                                            sion and solitude is one means to
hereditary Arab privilege, rule by the      develop the soul on the mystic journey.
principles of the Qur'an, and rule by the
                       ˆ                    The model of Muhammad was often
household of the Prophet’s family. In                            ˙
                                            invoked for the practice, and this meant
addition, there were those who felt that    that it resulted in periodic retreats from
the leadership of the community should      the community rather than a life of
be open to any Muslim. These views and      complete isolation, as was the ideal
variations of them were distributed         expressed in the stories of the Christian
across both Arabs and newly converted       Desert Fathers. Indeed, complete retreat
non-Arabs, so that the civil war that       from community was regarded as un-
resulted in the rise of the 'Umayyads       Islamic. The retreat is usually limited to
further fractured the community.            forty days, but even during this period,
'Umayyad rule was characterized by          deeds of charity are performed, again
hereditary Arab leaders ruling in the       following the sunnah of the Prophet.
name of Islam. With the advent of the
¤Abbasid Caliphate (from 132/750),
      ˆ                                     Khalwatiyyah
the rulers regarded themselves as mem-
                                            A Sufı order (tarıqah), found from
                                                 ˆ ˆ             ˆ
bers of the family of the Prophet,             ˙
                                            Central Asia to North Africa. Its central
rivaling the claim of the Shı¤ı, and felt
                                            tenets include adherence to the sharı ¤ah,
themselves to be ruling as Muslim rulers
                                            the bond between disciple and master,
commanding a theocratic state. At the
                                            and the practice of a periodic retreat
same time, they began ruling an empire
                                            (khalwah), after which the order was
that contained Christians, Jews, Zoroas-
trians and others, and the caliphate took
on the trappings of an ancient Near
Eastern kingship. The caliph became a       khamr (Arabic: fermented beverage,
distant, semi-divine potentate, removed     wine)
from his subjects and heading a giant       The fermented beverage prohibited by
bureaucracy. At the periphery, in places    Muslim jurists; wine. While wine was
such as Spain, local rulers, who had been   produced in Arabia in the pre-Islamic
calling themselves kings, began to call     period, most wine consumed in Arabia
themselves caliphs, and the idea of a       was imported by Jews and Christians
unified caliphate, while remaining an        from Syria and Iraq. The sale of wine
ideal, became impossible to achieve.        was associated with debauched enter-
Toward the end of the caliphate, the        tainments, and public drunkenness
khamsah                                                                            124

seems to have become a mark of status        honorific title in Persian, a Muslim
in Mecca. Passages in the Qur'an       ˆ     surname in Pakistan, and a part of the
concerning wine can be interpreted to        title for spiritual leaders of the Isma¤ılı
                                                                                   ˆ ˆ ˆ
reflect an ambivalence toward wine, but       Shı¤ı.
are generally regarded as holding wine
drinking to be more of a sin than a          Khandaq (Arabic from Persian:
benefit (Q. 2:219). In post-Qur'anic  ˆ       ditch, trench)
interpretation, wine is forbidden by
most jurists, although it is said that it    In 627, Muhammad and the Muslims of
                                             Madınah were besieged by the forces of
will be the drink of the faithful in
Paradise. Some schools of law, taking a      Mecca. Outnumbered, Muhammad on
strict interpretation of the Qur'anicˆ                                    ˆ˙ ˆ
                                             the advice of Salman al-Farisı, dug a
passages, prohibit those fermented bev-      moat or trench across the open area
erages made from substances known to         leading into the town. This prevented
Muhammad, such as grapes and dates,          the Meccans from using their superior
but allow the consumption of fermented       camel cavalry and, when they tried to
beverages made from such things as           maintain a siege of the city, they were
grain, fruits, and other substances          unsuccessful. This victory for the Mus-
unknown in early Arabia. Consumption,        lims was one of the last defeats for the
however, is limited to an amount that        Meccans before their capitulation. Sev-
will not produce drunkenness. For most       eral Prophetic miracles are reported to
schools of law (madhhabs), contact           have happened during the digging of the
with khamr renders one ritually impure       trench, for example, Muhammad was
                                             able to restore the sight of an injured
and a complete ghusl (ablution) is
necessary. Among the sufı, the image
                           ˆ ˆ               person and to feed the entire town on a
of wine consumption ˙ is allegorically       mere handful of dates.
linked to the mystic journey, with
intoxication by the love of Allah as
                                   ˆ           ˆ   ˆ
                                             kha nqa h (Persian: residence)
the substitute for alcoholic drunkenness.    A residential teaching center for Sufı  ˆ ˆ
                                             disciples. Often compared with Chris- ˙
khamsah (Arabic: five)                        tian monasteries, these building com-
The number five has a magical value for       plexes were designed to house Sufıs,  ˆ ˆ
                                             provide places for communal worship,˙
many people of the Middle East, and the
notion has spread with Islam. The five        feed the residents and guests, and are
fingers of the right hand are thought to      sites of the burial and subsequent
be able to ward off evil, particularly the   veneration of the masters. As the institu-
evil eye. Amulets in the shape of hands,     tion spread, it never adopted a distinc-
sometimes known as the “Hand of              tive architectural form, but developed
Fatimah,” are worn to ward off evil,
  ˆ                                          according to local need and custom. (See
and houses in North Africa and Egypt         also ribat; za
                                                      ˆ    ˆwiyah.)
are sometimes decorated with hands
painted in henna. Thursday, the fifth             ˆ
                                             khara j (Arabic: tax)
day of the week, is regarded as a
                                             The land tax. When the Muslims entered
fortuitous day for travel, ceremonies,
                                             into the newly conquered territories,
                                             they imposed a tribute tax on the yield
                                             from the land along the same models as
  ˆ         ˆ
kha n, or Kha n                              previous rulers. This tribute tax was
Title of the leader of Central Asian         parallel to the jizyah tax, or poll tax,
tribal leaders, an administrative and        paid by non-Muslims. When the land-
125                                                                            al-Khidr

owners converted, the tax remained on         and in the conviction that both ¤Alı’s ˆ
the land and continued as a general levy.     claim to the caliphate and that of ¤Uth-
The confusion between the kharaj andˆ         ma n, who was being defended by
the jizyah taxes in later sources reflects a   Mu¤awiyah, were wrong. The defectors
conflation of the two sources of revenue.      split into a number of groups, the most
Eventually the tax as a distinct source of    radical of which held that anyone who
revenue fell into disuse.                     did not believe as they did was an infidel
                                              (kafir), and deserved to be killed.
Kha rijites                                   Several important ideas about the com-
                                              munity’s governance became associated
See Khawarij.
                                              with this movement. One was an egali-
                                              tarian notion that any Muslim could be
Kha tam an-Nabiyyı  ˆn, also                  caliph. They were opposed to the
Kha tam al-Anbiya '
  ˆ             ˆ                             legitimist ideas of the Shı¤ı, and the
The Seal of the Prophets, a title from the    later ¤Abbasids, as well as the ideas of
Qur'an borne by Muhammad.
     ˆ                                        quietism and the deferral of judgment
                      ˙                       espoused by the Murji'ah. They held
                                              that only those members of the commu-
khatm (Arabic: seal)
                                              nity who acted their faith could be
The recitation of the whole of the            regarded as among the faithful, so that
Qur'an from beginning to end.
    ˆ                                         mere profession of faith was insufficient
                                              to make one a Muslim, and one could
Khatmiyyah                                    lose one’s Muslim status by committing
                                              a sin. So strict were some of the groups
A Sufı order introduced to the Sudan in
     ˆ ˆ
   ˙                                          that one even removed surah 12, the
the early nineteenth century devoted to
                                              Yusuf surah, from the canon of scrip-
                                                ˆ      ˆ
the veneration of Muhammad through
                        ˙                     ture, because it was too worldly. In
the practice of the recitation of a poetic
                                              conflicts with the 'Umayyads and then
biography written by the founder,
                                              the ¤Abbasids, the Kharijites lost politi-
                                                         ˆ            ˆ
Muhammad ¤Uthman al-Mırghanı (fl.
                     ˆ        ˆ    ˆ ˆ
early thirteenth/nineteenth century).         cally and were virtually wiped out, but
                                              their ideas were an important catalyst in
                                              the formation of Islamic theology, and
    ˆ             ˆ
Khawa rij, also Kha rijites                   the views of both the Sunnı and the Shı¤ı
                                                                          ˆ          ˆˆ
The name given to a number of groups          were profoundly affected by reaction to
who defected from the support of ¤Alı b.ˆ     them.
Abı Talib in his struggle with Mu¤a-
   ˆ ˆ                                    ˆ
wiyah. They are alternately described as
democratic, allowing a “black slave” to
be caliph (khalıfah), and fanatical,
                    ˆ                         One of the two main Arab tribes of
defining very narrowly who can be a            Madınah. They were rivals of al-'Aws,
Muslim and who is without sin. Many           but the two tribes joined in welcoming
of them became “terrorists,” and were         Muhammad and the Muslims into the
eradicated in conflicts that resulted from     city ˙ the time of the hijrah. After the
their activities. When ¤Alı b. Abı Talib
                           ˆ        ˆ ˆ       hijrah, their identity, along with al-'Aws,
accepted the offer made by Mu¤awiyah  ˙       was merged into the larger group known
at the battle of Siffın in 657, a group
                      ˆ                       as the ansar, the “Helpers.”
          ˆ       ˙
from ¤Alı’s army defected, saying that                  ˙
judgment belonged only to Allah andˆ
                                              al-Khid r
not to a human conference. By succes-                 ˙
sive defections, the group grew in size       See al-Khadir
Khilafat Movement                                                                  126

Khila fat Movement                            mark of the beginning of the mystic
The movement in India between 1919            journey since the third/eighth century. It
and 1924 to advance the claim of the          seems to continue a pre-Islamic Chris-
Ottoman sultan as the caliph of all           tian ascetic practice of wearing coarse
Muslims. Notions of the revival of the        cloth as a sign of penance. In addition to
caliphate had existed in the Islamic          referring to the robe itself, the word
world for some time before World War          khirqah also means the initiation cere-
I, but the defeat of the Ottoman sultan   ˆ   mony itself, which can involve hand-
was a major psychological blow ˙ to           clasps, the passing of a subhah (rosary),
many Muslims in the world. The Otto-          and other ceremonials, depending on the
mans had been successful in claiming              ˆ
that they were the rightful heirs to the
caliphate and the good protectors of the          ˆ
                                              khita n
Islamic holy places in Arabia. For Indian
Muslims, this was threatened not only         See circumcision.
by the success of the British and Allied
powers, but also by the rise of Arab          khit bah (Arabic: demand in
nationalism, which threatened to make            ˙
Arabia into an Arab rather than a
Muslim location. The movement                 This term refers to the betrothal, which
became most active in 1919 and held           involves a promise and an acceptance,
that the preservation of the caliphate        but is not, according to most schools of
and full Muslim control over the holy         Islamic law (madhhab), a contract. The
places was a central part of their            man has the right to see the woman, and
religion. They presented this to the          has right over all other men to have right
viceroy and to the British government         of first refusal for marriage. Either party
directly, without, however, any success.      can dissolve the betrothal unilaterally,
The movement then became associated           but any presents that have been
with Indian nationalism, and they             exchanged have to be disposed of
enlisted the support of the Indian            properly, depending on the condition
National Congress and Ghandi, who             under which they were given, and
became a member of the Central Khilafa  ˆ     damages can be sought by either party
Committee. In 1920, some thirty               for the breaking of the betrothal.
thousand Muslims made a hijrah to
Afghanistan, but returned disillusioned                    ˆ
                                              Kho'i, Abol-Qa sem (1317/1899–
by their reception. This marked a break       1413/1992)
with the Hindus. Another blow came
from Turkey itself, when Kemal Ataturk¨       Popular mujtahid of the Ithna           ˆ
abolished the caliphate in 1924. Some         ¤Ashariyyah Shı¤ı in Iraq, he opposed
followers of the movement tried to                                              ˆ
                                              Khomeinı’s declaration of wilayat al-
redirect the cause to addressing Hindu–       faqıh (government by jurist) declared
Muslim problems, but by 1928 even             that goods brought from Kuwait after
they had ceased activity.                     the Iraqı invasion of the country in 1990
                                              were stolen, and advocated the rights of
                                              and education for women. Through his
khirqah (Arabic: patch)                       establishment of mosques and publish-
A mystic’s patched, woolen robe, which        ing houses and through his students, he
is often a sign of the investiture of a       has had influence throughout the Shı¤ı  ˆˆ
particular disciple by a Sufı Shaykh.
                           ˆ ˆ                world. He was regarded as Marji¤ at-
Assuming the rough khirqah has been a               ˆ
127                                                                             ˆ

khojas (Hindi from Persian                                                  ˆ
                                            cleric. His declaration of wilayat al-
Khwajah: “Sir”)                             faqıh (government by jurist) placed him
The name for the Nizarı Isma¤ılı Shı¤ı
                        ˆ ˆ  ˆ ˆ ˆ   ˆˆ     at the pinnacle of the hierarchy of
Muslims of India and Pakistan. Their        clerics, and he stood, in the minds of
practices, some of which derive from        some, as this generation’s embodiment
Hinduism, have caused some to accuse        of the twelfth Imam.
them, falsely, of being non-Muslims.
                                            khums (Arabic: fifth)
khojkı                                      This was at first the one-fifth of booty
                                            taken as tax for the community. In later
A script especially developed by the
                                            Shı¤ı Islam, it was held that the descen-
khojas for private records and secret
                                            dants of the Prophet, the Imams, were
                                            entitled to the khums.

          ˆ, ˆ      ˆ
Khomeinı Ru h olla h al-                    khut bah (Arabic: sermon)
 ˆ ˆ ˆ          ˙
Mu sa vı (1320/1902–1409/1989)                    ˙
                                            This is preached at the Friday noon
The spiritual and political head of Iran    congregational prayer. The person who
during and after the revolution of 1399/                                  ˆ
                                            delivers the sermon, the khatib, must be
1979. Having been exiled to Turkey,                                        ˙
                                            in a state of ritual purity, and it is usual
Iraq, and France by the shah, Reza
                                 ˆ      ˆ   for him to recite praise of Allah, invoke
Pahlavi, he organized the revolution,       prayers on the Prophet, and recite a
returned at the Shah’s overthrow and
                      ˆ                     portion of the Qur'an. The sermon is
ruled Iran until his death as the supreme   usually delivered from an elevated place
                                            in the mosque. The sermon can be on
                                            any topic, from commentary on the
                                            Qur'an to discussions of the condition
                                            of the community and its problems. In
                                            the history of Islam, sermons have
                                            served as important public declarations
                                            of political and social directions. In
                                            modern times, they have served as
                                            rallying points against oppression and

                                            kiha nah (Arabic: divination)
                                            There is a hadıth that states that there
                                            is no divination after the coming of
                                                          ˆ   ˆ
                                            prophecy (la kihanah ba¤d an-nubuw-
                                            wah), but this hortatory injunction
                                            failed to end the practice of divination
                                            among Muslims. Diviners, or people
                                            who claimed to have such powers, used
                                            dream interpretation, phrenology, palm-
                                            istry, sand-pouring, flights of birds, and
                                            astrology to predict the future. Never
                   ˆ    ˆ      ˆ ˆ ˆ
    A portrait of Ruhollah al-Musavı        sanctioned at an official level, each area
 Khomeinı hangs at ˙the entrance to the
          ˆ                                 of the Islamic world has its own variety
Masjid-i Naw (New Mosque), Shiraz, Iran.    of divinatory practices. (See also jafr.)
       ˆ,  ˆ ˆ         ˆ
al-Kindı Abu Yusuf Ya¤qub                                                         128

           ˆ,    ˆ ˆ
al-Kindı Abu Yu suf Ya¤qu b b.    ˆ         Qur'an is one of the seven canonical
Ish a q (died c. 252/866)                   readings. He was born into a Persian
   ˙                                        family and moved to southern Iraq for
One of the earliest Islamic philosophers,
whose major contribution was the            his education. He had trouble with
development of Arabic philosophical         Arabic, so lived among the bedouin to
terminology. He lived in a time of          improve his knowledge of the language.
considerable intellectual turmoil in the    The wealth of information he collected
areas of philosphy and kalam, and was
                              ˆ             there is reflected in his philological
probably influenced by the thought of        works, but he did not either care much
the Mu¤tazilah. He was of noble birth       for or know much about poetry.
and high standing, and was received in
the courts of the ¤Abbasid caliphs al-
                         ˆ                  al-Kisa 'ı Muh ammad b. ¤Abd
                                                   ˆ ˆ,
Ma'mu n and al-Mu¤tas im, and his
       ˆ                                       ˆ
                                            Alla h       ˙
defense of philosophy was developed         This otherwise unknown author is
with the caliph in mind. He borrowed        known as Sahib Qisas al-' Anbiya' , or
                                                          ˆ                      ˆ
from Aristotle, often without acknowl-      the author of ˙the Qisas al-' Anbiya' , the
                                                        ˙         ˙ ˙           ˆ
edgment, in his arguments that humans                               ˙
                                            famous collection of˙ stories of the pro-
must pursue knowledge no matter the         phets. It is a collection of isra'ıliyyat
                                                                            ˆ ˆ      ˆ
source and that philosophy and religion     and other legendary accounts of the
are not antithetical. In one of his         prophets from Adam to Muhammad.
treatises, he invokes Allah to guide
                             ˆ                                            ˙
him in his philosophical pursuits. He
                                            kiswah (Arabic: clothing)
departed from the Greek philosophers
when they contradicted the Qur'an. He
                                  ˆ         The black cover of the Ka¤bah that is
tried in his works to use terms that can    made of silk and cotton is changed each
be used for both philosphy and religion     year. Pieces of the kiswah are prized
and to define them carefully. He left few    relics from the hajj.
pupils and established no “school,” but
helped integrate philosophy into Islamic    Koran
thought, and so he earned the title of
                                            See Qur'an.
“Philosopher of the Arabs.”

   ˆ       ˆ    ˆn
Kira m al-Ka tibı
                                            See Balkan States.
The “Two Noble Scribes,” a pair of
angels assigned to each individual to
record their good and bad deeds.             ˆ
                                            Ku fah
                                            One of the two “camp cities,” in Iraq,
          ˆ ˆ,   ˆd
al-Kirma nı H amı ad-Dı  ˆn                 the other being Basrah. These two cities
Ah mad b. ¤Abd Alla h (died c.
                                            started as military camps, since the
412/1021)                                   Islamic armies of expansion were not
                                            quartered in existing towns. As they
Major Fatimid Isma¤ılı Shı¤ı mission-
         ˆ           ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆˆ
           ˙                                attracted the families of soldiers and
ary to Iraq and Iran.
                                            other camp followers, they grew in size
                                            and importance into major cities. With
al-Kisa 'ı Abu al-H asan ¤Alı b.
      ˆ ˆ,   ˆ              ˆ               the conflict between ¤Alı b. Abı Talib
                                                                    ˆ       ˆ ˆ
                  ˙ ˆ
H amzah b. ¤Abd Alla h (119/                and Mu¤awiyah, the cities became ˙poli-
737–189/805)                                tical centers as well. Immigrants and
Famous grammarian, philologist, and         converts soon joined the population,
Qur'an reader. His reading of the
    ˆ                                       and both cities developed into major
129                                                                                ˆ

centers of Islamic learning. When Bagh-                             ˆ
                                             started with the kuttab probably dates
dad became the capital, Kufah retained
  ˆ                          ˆ               from the earliest 'Umayyad period,
a provincial conservative character,         although there are claims of its coming
while still attracting Shı¤ı elements,
                             ˆˆ              from the time of the Prophet and the
which influenced Shı¤ı Islam in Iran. In
                      ˆˆ                     Companions (sahabah). The schools
addition to its fame as a center of                          ˙ ˙
                                             were an important instrument in spread-
Shı¤ısm, the city is famous in Islamic
    ˆˆ                                       ing knowledge of Islam and of assim-
intellectual circles for its contributions   ilating non-Arab elements into the
to Arabic grammar.                           society. The schools have been closely
                                             connected with the mosques, and have
kufr (Arabic: unbelief)                      often been supported by waqf funds as
                                             well as by the fees from parents of the
See kafir.
                                             pupils. Education was segregated by
                                             gender but not by age, and boys from
              ˆ,    ˆ
al-Kulaynı Abu Ja¤far                        about four to nine or so would all study
Muh ammad b. Ya¤qu b b.     ˆ                together in the same room, each student
     ˆ         ˆ ˆ
Ish a q ar-Ra zı (died c. 328/940)           progressing at his own rate. Like Jewish
He was a prominent Imamı Shı¤ı tradi-
                         ˆ ˆ     ˆˆ          schools of the same type, the rooms were
                  ˆ       ˆ ˆ
tionist, whose Kitab al-kafı was a guide     noisy, filled with the recitation aloud of
to Imamı doctrine and legal thinking. He
       ˆ ˆ                                   Qur'an and other lessons. The teacher
is also said to have written on the          was a mudarris, so-called because the
interpretation of dreams. He had only        word for study also meant to beat, and
a slight reputation during his lifetime,     the teacher would use a large stick to
                      ˆ       ˆ ˆ
but eventually his Kitab al-kafı became      keep order. Prior to modern times, the
regarded as one of the four canonical             ˆ
                                             kuttab was the closest institution to
collections of traditions among the          general education in the Islamic world.
Ithna ¤Ashariyyah Shı¤ı. His tomb in
      ˆ                 ˆˆ                   While there were differences between
Baghdad is a much-visited shrine.
         ˆ                                   rich and poor neighborhoods and
                                             between the city and the country, the
kutta b (Arabic: writing school)             curriculum was standardized around the
                                             Qur'an and those subjects needed to
Elementary school for the study of the
                                             make a good Muslim. In recent times,
Qur'an. A typical kuttab education
                                             with the secularization of many Islamic
would include the memorizing of the
                                             states, the institution has suffered, but
Qur'an, learning to write, and other
                                             almost all Islamic countries have tried to
practical subjects. One of the earliest
                                             incorporate some of the traditions of the
plans for such elementary education also
                                             kuttab into their systems of primary
included swimming and other physical
activities. The system of education that

labbayka (Arabic: at your service)            according to some sources, imagined as
The talbiyah, the saying of a phrase          the consort of Allah. Her cult was of
meaning “I am here at Your service,” as       great antiquity, with her name being
part of the ritual of the hajj.               found in Akkadian inscriptions. Her
                                              cultic center was at-Ta'if, where there
                                                                   ˙ ˙
                                              was a Ka¤bah, evidently with a white
Lamasar, or Lanbasar
                                              stone. The story of Abraha’s confusion
One of the complex of fortresses of the       of at-Ta'if for Mecca can be explained
Isma¤ılı Shı¤ı around Alamut.
   ˆ ˆ ˆ   ˆˆ                                      ˙ ˙
                                              by the similarity of the names and
                                              typology of the two cities’ chief deities.
laqab (Arabic: nickname)                      Shortly before the rise of Islam, the
                                              Quraysh had transferred her worship
In the Arabic naming pattern, which was
                                              and the worship of her sister deities
adopted in various forms by Muslims
                                              Manat and al-¤Uzza to Mecca and had
                                                    ˆ               ˆ
around the world, the addition of an
                                              installed images of them in the Ka¤bah
honorific or descriptive “nickname” was
                                              as part of their federation of the Arab
common. Sometimes the names were
given ironically or in jest, but more often
it was a name meant to bring about
good fortune or, when given later in life,    law
to indicate status or power. Caliphs          See sharı ¤ah.
assumed such regnal nicknames as Sayf
ad-Dawlah, the “Sword of the State,” or
                                              lawh (Arabic: board, plank)
Salah ad-Dın, the “Savior of Religion.”
             ˆ                                     ˙
In ˙
˙ the period of the great empires, the        The ark built by Nuh (Noah) is called a
                                                 ˆ     ˆ             ˙
                                              dhat alwah, a “thing of planks.” The
honorific nicknames became more ela-
                                              word also  ˙ has the sense of a tablet on
borate and lengthy, so that they were not
usually used in everyday discourse.           which something is written, and thus
Titles like Bey and Efendi, however,          preserved. In the hadıth, the expression
                                              bayn al-lawhayn, “between the two
became part of everyday names, and
                                              boards,” is found, meaning the Qur'an.
were sometimes passed on to children as                                              ˆ
heritable titles.
                                              al-lawh al-mah fu z (Arabic: the
al-La t (Arabic: the goddess)                 preserved˙tablet) ˙   ˙

One of the three most venerated deities       This tablet, mentioned in Q. 85:22, is to
in the pre-Islamic pantheon, she was,         be found in Heaven and contains the
131                                                                                 ˆ

original words of the Qur'an, from
                                 ˆ                 ˆ
                                               litha m (Arabic: half-veil)
which Jibrıl took verses to Muham-
                                               A half-veil that covers the nose and
                                       ˙ ˆ
mad. Also called the 'Umm al-Kitab,            lower part of the face. This was worn by
the tablet has been important for Sufıs,
                                       ˆ ˆ
                                               both sexes among the bedouin to protect
with a glimpse of the tablet as part ˙of the   the face from dust, heat, and cold. It also
mystical quest.                                had the function of masking the identity
                                               of a person and could be used to avoid
laylat al-mi¤ra j (Arabic: night of            blood-vengeance in raids. In some of the
the ascension)                                 descriptions of the angel Israfıl, one of
                                                                             ˆ ˆ
                                               his four wings covers the lower part of
The night of the celebration of Muham-                             ˆ
                                               his face like a litham. Versions of this
mad’s ascension to Heaven (the twenty-         form of the veil are used by women in
seventh of Rajab). (See also mi¤raj.)
                                               some Islamic societies.

laylat al-qadr (Arabic: the night of           Liu Chih (fl. twelfth/eighteenth
power)                                         century)
This is celebrated between the twenty-         Little is known of the personal life of
sixth and twenty-seventh of Ramadan      ˆ     this prolific Chinese-speaking Muslim.
as the night of the first revelation of ˙the    He dedicated his life to translating
Qur'an.                                        Islamic works from Persian and Arabic
                                               into Chinese and attempting to harmo-
Lezgh, also Lezghin                            nize Islam and Confucian thought. He is
                                               credited with several hundred manu-
The name of a Muslim people in the             scripts. His monumental work was a
Caucasus and their language. Lezghin is        biography of Muhammad, An Accurate
a northeast Caucasian language that has                         ˙
                                               Biography of the Arabian Prophet,
been influenced by Azerı Turkish, and
                            ˆ                  published in 1193/1779 and translated
exists in several dialects, of which Kurin
                                      ¨        into a variety of languages, including
is the literary language. Legend says that     French and English. His tomb outside
Islam was brought to the region as early       Nanking was a pilgrimage site for
as the second/eighth century, but com-         Muslims.
plete Islamization did not occur until
some seven centuries later. In the late                    ˆ
nineteenth century, Lezghin became a           Luqma n b. ¤A d
literary language, written in Arabic           A fabulous wise man from the pre-
script, but it did not replace Arabic.         Islamic period, and a giver of good
With the Russian revolution, the script        advice. Some stories represent him as a
changed first to the Latin script and then      monotheist. He features in much early
to the Cyrillic alphabet. Since before the     Arabic poetry and has been compared to
fall of the Soviet empire, some Lezghins       Aesop. The thirty-first chapter of the
have advocated the formation of an             Qur'an is named after him. In addition
independent Lezghistan that would              to his wisdom, he is supposed to have
embrace all the Lezghins in Dagestan           had a very long life. As a reward for his
and Azerbaijan. The majority of the            piety in the face of the wickedness of his
population is Sunnı, although there is a
                     ˆ                         people, he was given a variety of choices
significant Shı¤ı minority. Current esti-
                 ˆˆ                            about how long to live. He chose the
mates indicate that there are between a        lives of seven vultures, which were
half million and a million Muslim              supposed to have long lives, according
Lezghins.                                      to the Arabs. Accordingly, he lived as
Lut                                                                                 132

long as thirty-five hundred years. Post-      sodomy, all are destroyed except Lut     ˆ
Qur'anic commentators took the brief         and his family, including his wife, who    ˙
mention of Luqman in the Qur'an and
                   ˆ              ˆ          lingered in the city. In post-Qur'anicˆ
collected proverbs and wisdom litera-        literature, the sins of Lut’s people are
ture ascribed to him: Wahb b. Munabbih                                     ˙
                                             identified with a lack of hospitality and
is supposed to have read over ten            with homosexuality. The term liwat,     ˆ
thousand chapters of his wisdom, and         sodomy, derives as a denominative from   ˙
homiletic wisdom books were in popu-         this name, because of the many passages
lar circulation. He was not a prophet,       in the Qur'an that associate this sin with
and, when given the choice between           Lut’s people. The city associated with
being a prophet or a wise man, he chose           ˙
                                             him, which was destroyed by God, is
being wise. Stories about him make him       understood to be Sodom. The city was
a slave who bests his master with his        destroyed by sijjıl, stones of baked clay,
wisdom. In one example, Luqman is   ˆ        similar to those that destroyed the
ordered to slaughter a sheep and set the     armies of Abraha. Lut’s wife also per-
best parts before his master. He gives                                 ˙
                                             ished both because she looked back
him the heart and the tongue. When           against God’s command and because
asked to slaughter another sheep and         she betrayed her husband to the evil
give him the worst parts, he gives him       townfolk. The Dead Sea is often called
the heart and the tongue, with the           Bahr Lut, Lut’s Sea, in Arabic.
                                                     ˆ     ˆ
explanation that there is nothing better               ˙     ˙
than a good heart and tongue, and
nothing worse than a bad heart and           lut f (Arabic: kindness, benevolence)
tongue. Among the Sufı, Luqman is
                         ˆ ˆ        ˆ        Among theologians, lutf, used in the
considered a wise, pious ascetic who                                ˙
                                             Qur'an to mean God’s kindness and
moves in and out of adversity and            benevolence to humans, is used to
slavery with ease and equanimity, and        indicate God’s grace or help. The
such tales are used as models for proper     Mu¤tazilah used this concept to
ascetic behavior.                            explain how humans could have free-
                                             dom of choice and action in the face of
Lu t                                         God’s omnipotence and prescience.
    ˙                                        Derivative forms of this root are used
Identified with the biblical Lot, he is one
                                             commonly among Arabic-speaking
of the messengers mentioned in the
                                             Muslims as given names, such as Lutuf
Qur'an who is sent to warn his city of
      ˆ                                                                          ˙
                                             and Latıfah.
destruction. Because of their sins of                ˙

Madanı ¤Abba sı (born 1931)
     ˆ,    ˆ ˆ                                mingled that there were Jews in “Arab”
Algerian Islamist, and founder in 1989        tribes and vice versa, and all tribes had
of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS), after   relations with bedouin tribes surround-
serving with the National Liberation          ing the town. This complexity and the
Front (FLN) to free Algeria from the          lack of resources had produced serious
French. He espouses an Islamic-based          tensions among all the inhabitants and
program meant to counter Western              seems to have been one of the reasons
humanistic and political influences in         that Muhammad was invited to come to
the Islamic world.                            mediate. ˙ When Muhammad made his
                                              hijrah from Mecca in 622, the city
                                              submitted to his rule, but the process of
madhhab (Arabic: movement; pl.                converting all the population was a slow
madhahib)                                     one. The mixed population was ruled by
In Sunnı Islam, the word is primarily
         ˆ                                    the Constitution of Madınah, which
used to refer to one of the four major        established each religious group with
“schools” of Islamic law, the Hanafı,ˆ        rights and obligations, with Muhammad
                                              as the arbiter of disputes. This agree-
                              ˆ ˙
the Hanbalı, the Malikı, and the
              ˆ         ˆ
Shafi¤ı. It also implies one’s doctrine,
   ˆ ˆ                                        ment and its implementation formed the
creed, or philosophy of life.                 basis for later Islamic rules for non-
                                              Muslims. The stresses of the battles of
                                              Badr and Uhud identified the ambiva-
   ˆnah (Arabic: city)
Madı                                          lent converts˙ and those who were in
The city of the prophet in the western        collusion with the Meccan forces, and
part of the Arabian Peninsula. In pre-        they were removed from the city. Some
Islamic times, it was known as Yathrib,       of the major Jewish tribes were expelled,
and was an agricultural town inhabited        but a large Jewish population remained
by Jews and polytheistic Arabs. The two       in the city until well after Muhammad’s
main Arab tribes were al-'Aws and al-         death. From the period of the˙ hijrah to
Khazraj. The Jews who were settled in         the death of the Prophet, the inhabitants
the town probably came after the              of the city participated in many of the
destruction of the Temple in 70 c.e. as       raids, and when the armies of expansion
part of a general migration of Jews from      went north into Syria and Mesopotamia,
Palestine into Arabia. There is evidence,     they were well represented. One of the
however, that a number of Arabs had           results was that captured non-Arabs
converted to Judaism and settled in the       were brought back to the city, and many
town. The population was so inter-            of them converted to Islam and were
madrasah                                                                                134

                        Pilgrims at the Prophet’s Mosque, Madınah.

manumitted. This helped make Madınah     ˆ       dead in the cemetery. They perform
a center for the non-Arab Muslim poli-           menial tasks and rent their houses to
tical sentiment that focused around ¤Alı     ˆ   Shı¤ı pilgrims during the hajj. Madınah
                                                    ˆˆ                                   ˆ
                                                 has the epithets al-munawwarah, “the
b. Abı Talib. When the conflict over the
       ˆ ˆ
caliphate moved to Syria, Madınah                                  ˆ
                                                 radiant” and al-fadilah, “the virtuous.”
became a provincial town out of the                                  ˙
                                                 By custom, it is one of the sites visited by
mainstream of Islamic politics. As it            pilgrims when on the hajj.
dropped from the political scene, it grew                               ˙
as an intellectual center and one of the
                                                 madrasah (Arabic: school)
leading locations for the development of
the Islamic sciences and Islamic law             A place of study, a school or college,
(sharı ¤ah). In modern times, the city
        ˆ                                        usually for religious education and early
has prospered somewhat from pilgrim              associated with mosques. A madrasah
traffic and from an immigration of retired        was both a place of study and a
Muslims who wish to spend their last             residence for students and teachers. It
days in the Prophet’s city. It is now part of    was often subsidized by the charitable
the Wahhabı kingdom of Saudi Arabia,
            ˆ ˆ                                  endowment of a waqf and was the
and it is reported that the Wahhabis,    ˆ       foundation of Islamic learning, teaching
when they first entered the city in the           literacy through the study of Qur'an  ˆ
mid-1920s, destroyed the elaborate               and hadıth. As a part of Islamic
tombs of the Companions, (sahabah)     ˆ                ˙
                                                 education, the mosque started as a
and the Prophet’s family out of˙ puritani-       center for Islamic learning, particularly
cal zeal. Most of the population is Sunnı,  ˆ    those mosques that were not the central,
but there are some Shı¤ı living there,
                           ˆˆ                    congregational mosques. These mosque-
including a servile pariah class, the            schools soon attracted students who
nakhawilah, who are not allowed to live          lived near or in the mosque, and apart-
in the city, stay overnight, or bury their       ments and refectories were added to the
135                                                                                 ˆ

complex. As these became subsidized by        Maghrib (Arabic: the place of the
waqfs, they took on a permanent char-         sunset)
acter of centers of learning with places      The west; North Africa. There is no
of worship attached. The architectural        agreement on the eastern limit of this
development took place at the same time       geographic term, but it generally
as the transformation of the Islamic          excludes Egypt. To the west, it reaches
curriculum. What had been a simple            to the Atlantic Ocean. When Muslims
curriculum of Qur'a n and h adı th
                          ˆ             ˆ     dominated Sicily and Iberia, those
evolved into a set of Islamic sciences        regions were included as well. To the
centered on the rise and study of Islamic     south, the designation goes as far as the
jurisprudence (fiqh). As the different         limits of the Sahara desert and excludes
schools of law (madhhabs) evolved,                                       ˆ
                                              the rest of Africa. The salat al-maghrib
each developed its own schools and            is the sunset prayer.   ˙
curricula. In addition to instruction in
law, these schools trained the bureau-
crats for the state, which meant that                ˆ
                                              Mahdı (Arabic: the one who is rightly
additional subjects were added. In the        guided)
face of Fatimid Shı¤ı missionary activ-
          ˆ            ˆˆ                     The Mahdı is a figure who is promi-
            ˙ ˆ
ity, the Sunnı sultan Salah ad-Dın b.         nently featured in the eschatology of all
                       ˆ      ˆ       ˆ
                     ˙      ˙   ˙
'Ayyub is credited with founding a great      branches of Islam. He will come at the
number of madrasahs as a means of             end of time to restore right religion and
educating his subjects to be loyal to         justice and will rule before the world
Sunnı Islam and to train them for
       ˆ                                      comes to an end. The term does not
government service. While medicine            appear as such in the Qur'an, but the
was normally taught in separate institu-      root h-d-y, meaning “divine guidance,”
tions, over time it, together with other      does occur frequently. Some of the
sciences, was added to the curricula of       earliest uses of the term occur with the
some madrasahs. This was the excep-           Shı¤ı in reference to the Imam al-
                                                 ˆˆ                             ˆ
tion, and most madrasahs remained             Husayn after he was martyred. The
schools of Islamic learning. The institu-     Shı¤ı identify this figure with all the
tion of the madrasah had a profound               ˆ
                                              Imams and the role is said to have been
effect on Western education through its       passed from one to another until the
influence on the University of Naples.                       ˆ
                                              present Imam, who is in occultation,
The emperor Frederick II Hohenstaufen         (ghaybah), to return at the eschaton.
was influenced by the madrasah system          Among the Sunnı, there is no consistent
he knew in Egypt, and recreated it in his     belief that a rightly guided figure will
foundation of the University of Naples        appear at the last days to restore Islam.
in the early thirteenth century as the first   The ¤Abbasids claimed the role, and the
state university in Europe for the train-     second caliph was called al-Mahdı, but
ing of loyal state functionaries. The idea    they had little success in persuading the
soon took hold, and the majority of           majority of Muslims. In the various
universities in Europe two centuries later    speculations about the yawm ad-dın,    ˆ
were on this model. The building of           the Mahdı is given differing roles and
madrasahs has been an important part          importance. In Sufı thought, the Mahdı
                                                                 ˆ ˆ                   ˆ
of the spread of Islam throughout the                          ˙
                                              is expected to come with Jesus as his
world. India, Pakistan, Malaysia, and         wazır to impose true Islamic rule. A
Indonesia, to name a few Islamic coun-        number of political figures throughout
tries, have developed madrasahs as part       history have made the claim to be the
of their education systems. (See also         Mahdı, including Muhammad ¤Ubayd
kuttab; pesantren.)                                                 ˆ ˙
                                              Allah, the first Fatimid Caliph, Ibn
Mahdiyyah                                                                            136

Tumart, the founder of the Almohad
  ˆ                                           purchase money, because the bride in
movement, Shaykh Usuman dan Fodio             Islam is not to be regarded as property.
of Sokoto, who established a jihad-
                                ˆ             By custom, the amount of the mahr is
based Islamic rule in Nigeria, and            negotiated by the agents of the two who
Muhammad Ahmad b. ¤Abdullah of
                           ˆ                  are to be married, and the station of
the Sudan.    ˙                               each is taken into consideration in
                                              calculating the amount.
The movement named after Muham-               majlis (Arabic: a place to sit)
mad Ahmad b. ¤Abdullah al-Mahdı,   ˙          From a pre-Islamic use meaning a meet-
which, ˙ the last two decades of the
        in                                    ing place or tribal council, under Islam it
nineteenth century succeeded in forming       came to mean the public audience
the Republic of Sudan on Islamic prin-        granted by the caliph or the sultan.     ˆ
ciples.                                                                              ˙
                                              Sometimes the majlis would be for
                                              public entertainment, in which the ruler
mah mal (Arabic: bearer)                      would invite guests and musicians, and
     ˙                                        serve food and drink. More regularly,
The ornate palanquin sent by Islamic
                                              the term was understood to be a public
rulers in medieval times on the hajj as a
                                ˙             forum for the conduct of political
sign of their wealth, authority, and
                                              matters and judgment. In legal and
political power.
                                              academic circles, when a professor held
                                              a majlis the session would be for
        ˆ               ˆ
Mah mu d, Mus t afa (born 1921)               teaching and would normally take place
     ˙             ˙˙
Egyptian Islamist writer, philosopher,        in a masjid (mosque) or a madrasah.
and scientist, he was trained as a            Among the Isma¤ılı Shı¤ı, the term
                                                                 ˆ ˆ ˆ     ˆˆ
physician and practiced from 1952 to          means a formal session of religious
1966, when he turned his full attention       instruction. Among Shı¤ı in India, the
to Islamist writings. One of his main         majlis is an assembly for mourning the
causes has been social welfare and            martyrdom of al-Husayn at Karbala'.        ˆ
health care on Islamic terms. He is an                             ˙
                                              In modern Islamic circles, it has been
outspoken critic of recent proposed           applied more widely to mean a parlia-
reforms at al-Azhar and also presents         mentary body with legislative or delib-
a popular television program on Qur’an
                                     ˆ        erative powers, or in revolutionary
and science.                                  circles as the revolutionary council.

mahr (Arabic: dowry)                                    ˆ,          ˆ
                                              al-Majlisı Muh ammad Ba qir
The bride-price given by a bridegroom
to a bride. The mahr belongs to the bride     A late Safavid Shı¤ı writer whose
and is hers to keep in the case of divorce.            ˙
                                              prolific output in both Persian and
She is entitled to half if the marriage       Arabic did much to promote Shı¤ı       ˆˆ
ends before consummation. The amount          thought in Iran and to discourage
varies widely, since an amount is not         Sufism. After receiving a broad educa-
stipulated in sharı ¤ah. It forms a
                       ˆ                      ˙
                                              tion, he decided to specialize in tradi-
necessary part of the marriage contract,      tions about the Prophet, even though
and the marriage is not valid without it.     that was a less lucrative career path. He
There is concern in Islamic law that the      then devoted himself to lecturing and
mahr should not be either too high or         studying Shı¤ı thought and translating
too low. In legal discussions, it is clear    what he learned into Persian for easy
that it should not be regarded as             dissemination among his students. He
137                                                                     Malcolm X

was appointed Shaykh al-Islam or  ˆ         collections. The ¤Abbasid Bayt al-
Mullabashı in 1098/1686, and began
       ˆ ˆ ˆ                                Hikmah was just such an institution,
to repress and eliminate everything he      and the caliph and his wazırs endowed
regarded as heresy (bid¤ah), such as the    both the collection of books, and the
prevalent Sufı practices. Some of his
             ˆ ˆ                            places to house them. Libraries were
more famous pronouncements on Shı¤ı    ˆˆ   catalogued according to subject, and
doctrine include his declaration that the   many were open to the public, providing
Sunnı caliphs Abu Bakr, ¤Umar, and
     ˆ             ˆ                        paper, pens, and ink for the patrons.
¤Uthman were hypocrites, (munafi-
        ˆ                            ˆ      Usually a fee was charged if a book were
qun), and were cursed by God. His
  ˆ                                         taken from the building. Some private
works continue to be studied in Iran        libraries had funds in their endowments
today.                                      to lodge scholars from distant lands.
                                            (See also waqf.)
maju s (Arabic: Zoroastrian)
The majus, a term originally applied to
        ˆ                                   malak
an Iranian caste of ruling priests, was     See angel.
applied by the Arabs more generally to
anyone who was a Zoroastrian. Relying
on interpretations of the Qur'an, the
Zoroastrians were counted among the         The predominantly Muslim country of
ahl al-kitab.                               Malaysia, strategically located between
                                            the Indian Ocean and the South China
Makhzu m                                    Sea, has a mixed population of Chinese,
                                            Indian, and Malay peoples. Before the
An important tribe of the Quraysh.          advent of Islam in the fifteenth century,
They were a source of strong opposition     the country was influenced by Hindu,
to Muhammad, but became reconciled.         Buddhist, and animist religions, some
One of their most famous members,           elements of which remain in the popu-
Khalid b. al-Walıd, became a promi-
   ˆ              ˆ                         lar culture. The Muslim population is
nent Muslim general.                        predominantly Sunnı, following the
                                            Shafi¤ı madhhab but influenced by
                                               ˆ ˆ
Makkah                                      Sufı thought. Since independence from
                                              ˆ ˆ
                                            the British in the 1960s, Malaysians
See Mecca.
                                            have sought to build an Islamic-based,
makru h (Arabic: hateful)                   pluralistic society independent of out-
                                            side influences. The official languages
In Islamic Law, an act that is hateful.     are English and Bahasa Malaya, but
                                            Arabic is widely taught in Muslim
maktab (Arabic: a place for writing)        schools.
This term is sometimes used for a
primary school. (See also kuttab.)
                              ˆ             Malcolm X (1925–65)
                                            Born Malcolm Little in Omaha,
maktabah (Arabic: library)                  Nebraska, he converted to Islam after
The development of the institution of       enduring a life of racism and imprison-
the library is closely linked to the        ment for larceny. In 1948, he joined
development of the madrasah. Often,         Elijah Muh ammad’s Nation of
libraries were associated with those                      ˙
                                            Islam and was appointed head of the
institutions of higher learning, and        Harlem Temple in New York. By 1964,
rulers prided themselves on their library   he had risen to such political and
Mali                                                                             138

                 The New Federal Mosque, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

religious prominence that he was forced      nial occupation, Wahhabı influence
                                                                       ˆ ˆ
to withdraw from his position of leader-     increased and has come in conflict with
ship. His advocacy of changes in the         the older Sufı-influenced practices, with
                                                         ˆ ˆ
direction of the Nation of Islam, to bring   the result˙ that a number of Islamist
it more in line with Sunnı Islam, ˆ          movements have successfully resisted the
promote the teaching of Arabic, and          socialist and secular governments that
increase the association of members of       have ruled the country since its indepen-
the Nation of Islam with other Muslims       dence in 1960.
in the world caused his expulsion from
the organization. That event and his          ˆ
                                             Ma lik
experience of the hajj transformed him,
                                             The angel who is the guardian of Hell.
and he took the ˙ name El-Hajj Malik
El-Shabazz. He was assassinated on
21 February 1965 by members of the           Ma lik b. 'Anas, Abu ¤Abd
                                               ˆ                   ˆ
Nation of Islam, with the reputed               ˆ
                                             Alla h (94/716–179/795)
complicity of some American govern-          The eponym of the Malikı madhhab of
                                                                   ˆ   ˆ
ment authorities. His Autobiography is       Islamic law. He was the author of the
a staple in anti-racist curricula in Amer-   first major treatise on fiqh, al-
ican schools.                                Muwatta' . He spent most of his career
                                                   ˙˙ ˆ
                                             in Madınah, teaching disciples, who
                                             developed his ideas into a madhhab in
                                             his name. A legend, arising from a
The Republic of Mali has been an             misinterpretation of a saying attributed
Islamic region for over nine hundred         to him, says that he spent three years in
years, during which time it has been a       his mother’s womb. Another tradition
center of trade, with Timbuktu as its        says that he wanted to become a singer,
most famous city. During French colo-        but was advised by his mother to
139                                                                               ˆ

become a traditionist, because he was        17. It was founded by Turkic and
too ugly. He studied with a great            Circassian slave-soldiers, and Mamluk    ˆ
number of traditionists. He achieved a       armies defeated the Mongols in 658/
good reputation and, while he tried to       1260 at the battle of ¤Ayn Jalut in  ˆ
remain aloof from politics, was ill-         Palestine, and ushered in a golden age
treated during some of the changes of        of Egyptian high culture. Baybars, an
governance of Madınah. In his monu-
                     ˆ                       uncle of the ¤Abbasid caliph in Bagh-
mental work, which is the earliest           da d who had been killed by the
surviving work on Islamic law, he set        Mongols, was installed in Cairo as
out to write a survey of all law, justice,   sulta n in 1260, with the aim of
ritual practice, and religious conduct in         ˙
                                             restoring the caliphate in Egypt. The
Madınah according to the sunnah of
     ˆ                                       dynasty was defeated by the Ottomans
the city. His work was not, however,         in 922/1516–17, but the dynasts con-
finished in a definitive edition, but comes    tinued as local rulers and princes under
to us in some fifteen different versions.     the Ottomans until Napoleon Bonapar-
Nevertheless, the mere fact of codifying     te’s invasion of Egypt in 1798. The
the law had a profound effect on Islamic     institution of slave dynasties has been a
legal development, since it provided a       hallmark of pre-modern Islamic socie-
basis for the further elaboration of the     ties. From an early date, many free
principles of law ('usul al-fiqh.)
                        ˆ                    Muslims regarded association with the
                      ˙                      government as corrupting and distaste-
 ˆ    ˆ
Ma likı                                      ful. The rulers found themselves in need
                                             of standing armies that would be loyal
The madhhab named after Malik b. ˆ
                                             to them and protect their power. A ready
'Anas. It is based on the legal practices
                                             source of such military might was to be
developed in the city of Madınah. This
                                             found among the Turks who were being
Sunnı school of law is regarded as
                                             conquered along the expanding fron-
somewhat conservative and dependent
                                             tiers. These Turks, already trained as
on tradition. The Malikı madhhab is
                       ˆ ˆ
                                             soldiers, found the duty and privileges
similar to the other schools of law in
                                             attractive and became the palace guards
Islam, but differs on some specific
                                             for many rulers. Since they had no
points. It remains neutral about the
                                             natural support base in the larger society
legitimacy of the succession of ¤Alı b.
                                             in which they were slaves, their loyalties
Abı Ta lib. It also adds the ijma ¤
    ˆ ˆ                                ˆ
       ˙                                     were toward their masters, the rulers.
(consensus) of Madınah to that of
                                             They were brought by Muslim mer-
Muslims in general. The school is
                                             chants and placed in special barracks
particularly harsh on schismatics, Sufıs
                                     ˆ ˆ
                                             for their training. This training consisted
and Shı¤ı. This made it a popular˙ and
                                             of military education and education in
useful school for the ¤Abbasids. The
                                             the basics of Islam. Once they graduated
school was quite active in sending out
                                             from this training, they were manu-
missionaries, and it is found among
                                             mitted and made simple soldiers, with,
Muslims around the world, particularly
                                             however, the possibility of rising to the
in North Africa.
                                             rank of officer because of their superior
                                             training. Even when freed, the mamluk    ˆ
       ˆ                ˆ
Mamlu k, or mamlu k (Arabic:                 retained ties to his owner/patron and
owned, possessed as a slave)                 was dependent on the influence of that
This became the name of the dynasty          individual for his advancement. The
that ruled in Egypt, Syria into southeast    children of the mamluks could not
Asia Minor, and the northeast quadrant       themselves be in the same military order,
of Arabia from 648/1250 to 922/1516–         and many of the more powerful
Manaf                                                                           140

Mamluks established waqfs for their
       ˆ                                    Madınah, and she was worshiped by
children to provide a livelihood for        the two Arab tribes of that city, al-'Aws
them. They were separated from the rest     and al-Khazraj. She was linked with
of society by their customs and their       al-Lat and al-¤Uzza, probably as part of
                                                 ˆ             ˆ
language, which was, for the most part,     the process of the federation of the cult
Turkish. They provided a formidable         by the Meccans, but Ugaritic evidence
army for the states in which they ruled,    has three linked female deities as the
and the Mamluk army of Egypt was the
               ˆ                            daughters of Ba¤al, so this linkage may
force that stopped the Mongol invasion      represent a similar phenomenon.
of the Middle East. Religiously, they
were quite staunchly Sunnı, and sought
                           ˆ                    ˆ
                                            mansu kh
to maintain their religious views where
they reigned. The Mamluk sultanate          See nasikh wa-mansukh.
                                                 ˆ            ˆ
ruled over Egypt from 648/1250 to
922/1517, and over Syria from 658/              ˆ
                                            maqa m (Arabic: site, place pl.
1260 to 922/1516.                              ˆ ˆ
                                            A sacred place or the tomb of a saint.
Mana f                                      Among the Sufı, it refers to a stage of
                                                           ˆ ˆ
                                            spiritual development.
Pre-Islamic god worshipped among the
Quraysh and other tribes of northwest
Arabia. We know little about this deity     marabout (from Arabic murabit)    ˆ
except the lists that are preserved by      A term used primarily in North Africa
Muslim scholars. From the name, it          for an ascetic sequestered and trained in
would appear that he was an astral          a garrison called a ribat and who
deity. His idols were located in the                                      ˙
                                            attained spiritual and military prowess.
Ka¤bah and menstruating women kept          The term can refer to a “saint,” either
away from them.                             male or female, who can perform
                                            miracles, and it can be passed as an
al-Mana r (Arabic: the light)               epithet to the descendants. The term is
                                            also applied to garrisoned soldiers,
An Islamic journal published by Rashıd
                                            particularly along a frontier.
Rida, it was a source for ideas about
resistance to colonialism and the
restoration of Islam. It appeared in              ˆ ˆ,          ˆ
                                            al-Mara ghı Mus t afa (1881–
                                            1945)         ˙˙
Cairo from 1898 to 1940.
                                            A protege of Muhammad ¤Abduh, he
                                                    ´ ´
                                            served as rector of al-Azhar in 1928
Mana t
                                            and from 1935 to 1945. He promoted
Important female deity of the pre-          the introduction of modern science in
Islamic period, she is usually associated   the curriculum and advocated modernist
with al-Lat and al-¤Uzza as the so-
           ˆ                ˆ
                                            reforms of Islam in Egypt, while still
called “daughters” of Allah. Evidence
                                            keeping Islam and the role of the
from the ancient Near East shows that       ¤ulama' central.
this goddess was very ancient. Her name
appears in early Akkadian, and is one of
the names associated with Ishtar. In         ˆ
                                            Ma riyah the Copt
Palmyra she is shown as a seated deity,     The Christian slave given to Muham-
holding a scepter, and is represented as    mad by an Egyptian notable. ˙ She
the goddess of fate. In Arabia, her         became his concubine, and he was very
worship location was close to Yathrib/      devoted to her. She became the mother
141                                                                         Maryam

of his son, Ibrahım b. Muhammad,
                  ˆ ˆ
who died in infancy. According to
tradition a solar eclipse occurred that
day, which, if true, meant that he died
on 27 January 632, shortly before
Muhammad’s death. She was honored
    ˙ ˆ
by Abu Bakr and given a pension that
lasted until her death in 637.

Marji¤ at-Taqlı   ˆd (Arabic: the
source of imitation)
An epithet of the ayatolahs in Shı¤ı
                     ˆ      ˆ          ˆˆ
Islam of the highest rank, who have the
                       ˆ      ˆ
privilege of ijtihad. Ayatollah Ruhollah
                  ˆ              ˆ     ˆ
Khomeinı was regarded by his fol-
           ˆ                       ˙
lowers in this category, as was the Iraqıˆ
Abol-Qasem Kho'i. The title implies
that lay people can and should follow
their views.

The Qur'an provides the basis for
            ˆ                                   A Pakistani Muslim couple on their
Islamic law on marriage, but, as with                      wedding day.
other laws of personal status, either
attenuates existing practice or is com-      munity practice, when women had more
plemented by provisions in sharı ¤ah.
                                    ˆ        status, political freedom, and autonomy,
These provisions vary by region, legal       as a means of reforming modern Islamic
school, or division of Islam. Fundamen-      marriage laws and other laws of perso-
tally, marriage is a contract between a      nal status. In Ithna ¤Ashariyyah Shı¤ı
                                                                   ˆ               ˆˆ
man and a woman over the age of              Islam, a temporary marriage, called
majority and/or her walı, or guardian,
                           ˆ                 mut¤ah, is permitted, the term of which
subject to the terms of the negotiated       ends at a preset time, rather than by
contract. While it is supervised under       divorce.
Islamic law, it is not regarded as a
religious sacrament, as in Christianity.     mar tyr
Polygamy is permitted by the Qur'an,  ˆ
                                             See shahıd.
but restricted by rules of fairness and
equity. This has led some to declare that
only monogamy may be practiced by            Mar yam (Arabic)
ordinary Muslims, a position that has                                       ˆ ˆ
                                             The name of the mother of ¤Isa (Jesus)
been incorporated into Tunisian law.         in the Qur'an. She is the only woman
Just as past regional practice was both      called by her proper name in the Qur'an,
tolerated and sometimes incorporated         and her life and position are expanded
into sharı¤ ah, modern law codes in
          ˆ                                  and exalted in the tafsır literature. The
Muslim countries have incorporated           Qur'an honors Maryam greatly, saying
both regional customs and Western            in Q. 23:50: “We made the son of
practices. In a number of Muslim             Maryam and his mother a sign.” The
countries, scholars are harking back to      angel Jibrıl comes to her in the form of
the time of the Qur'an and early com-
                       ˆ                     a perfect man and announces the birth
masa'il wa-ajwibah
   ˆ                                                                                142

     ˆ ˆ
of ¤Isa. The “virgin” birth is mentioned      ma sha ' Alla h (Arabic: what God
                                                ˆ     ˆ   ˆ
in Q. 66:12, where God says that He           willed)
breathed His Spirit into her. When ¤Isa ˆ ˆ
                                              This phrase occurs in several places in the
was born, he spoke from the cradle to         Qur'an, and has passed into general use
those who were scandalized by Mar-            in the Islamic world. Its primary use
yam’s bearing a child, telling them that      indicates acceptance of what has hap-
he was a servant of Allah and a ˆ
                                              pened as having come from the will of
prophet (nabı). Maryam is highly ven-
                                              Allah. It is also used to express wonder
erated in Muslim popular religion. In         or surprise. In some Islamic countries, the
places where Muslims and Christians           phrase is thought to have a prophylactic
live together, such as Egypt, Muslim          effect when worn written on amulets or
women have taken Maryam and Fati-     ˆ
                                              on the sides of taxicabs and trucks. It can
mah as models for behavior and sources   ˙
                                              also be used as a personal name.
of solace in times of trouble. In al-Quds
(Jerusalem), for example, Jews, Chris-
tians, and Muslims visit the hammam     ˆ     mas h af (Arabic: book, volume)
sittı Maryam, the bath of ˙
    ˆ                             Maryam,     A complete copy of the text of the
where it is believed that Maryam              Qur'an. The word was applied to the
bathed. It is thought to be a cure for        earliest collections of the text, but there
childlessness. In the nineteenth century,     is some debate about whether that
when Protestant missionaries came to          meant a collection of the complete text
the Near East, some Muslims chided            between boards or pages of the text,
them for not being good Christians,           suhuf. By the second Islamic century, the
because they did not hold Maryam in             ˙
                                              word was applied to a physical copy of
sufficient reverence. Maryam is also the       the full text of the Qur'an, bound and in
name of the nineteenth chapter of the         proper order.
                                              Mashhad (Arabic)
masa 'il wa-ajwibah (Arabic:
                                              An important city in the northeastern
question and answer)
                                              area of Iran. The town, close to the pre-
One of the techniques that developed in       Islamic town of Tus, is the site of the
Muslim higher education was the                                       ˙
                                              tomb of the ¤Abbasid caliph Harun ar-
                                                                      ˆ         ˆ ˆ
instruction of students by means of a         Rashıd and the tomb of the eighth Shı¤ı
                                                    ˆ                                  ˆˆ
set of questions and answers. The             Imam, ¤Alı ar-Rida. The name Mashhad
                                                  ˆ       ˆ          ˆ
student was to memorize both the                                   ˙
                                              means “a place where a hero or saint has
questions and answers, and, when              died,” as well as “a funeral cortege.”
examined, be ready to take either part.       For the Ithna ¤Ashariyyah Shı¤ı the
                                                               ˆ                  ˆˆ
This technique started with Qur'anicˆ         term refers to the tombs of the Imams, ˆ
instruction and then moved into the           all of whom died as martyrs, and it is
legal curriculum. From there, it became       from the Shı¤ı use and the veneration of
part of the medical and scientific curri-                                 ˆ
                                              the tomb of the Imam that the city gets
culum. At its most advanced form, it          its name. It seems to have grown from a
was part of the training for missionary       little village to a major city on the
activity (da¤wah). There is some evi-         strength of pilgrim traffic, which was
dence that this technique influenced the       operative as early as the eighth/four-
medieval European quaestiones et              teenth century, according to the famous
responsiones pedagogic techniques             traveler Ibn Battutah. It is currently an
through the translations of Islamic                              ˙˙ ˙
                                              industrial and agricultural center as well
scientific works into Latin.                   as a place of pilgrimage.
143                                                                             masjid

al-Ması (Arabic: the anointed)                converted churches, and sometimes they
            ˙                                 have been built to look like churches,
An epithet usually associated with
Jesus, it is related to the Hebrew word       depending on the local architectural
for Messiah. The Qur'anic usage, how-
                         ˆ                    idiom and aesthetic. Mosques in Amer-
ever, differs from the Jewish and Chris-      ica have usually been built with strong
tian meaning, since Jesus in Islam does       Near Eastern architectural characteris-
not have the same function as a messiah.      tics to set them apart from other houses
It seems, rather, to be used as a title or    of worship and mark the distinctiveness
epithet indicating Jesus’ exalted role as a   of the community. In some communities,
prophet. In the h adı ths, we are
                           ˆ                  however, there are store-front mosques,
informed that those ˙  who say, “We have      and mosques in apartments. In this, they
worshiped al-Masıh b. Maryam” will
                    ˆ                         follow the patterns of both churches and
have earned a place in Hell. In personal      synagogues. Many American mosques
names in Arabic, al-Masıhı indicates a
                             ˆ ˆ              have added functions as Islamic com-
Christian.                    ˙               munity centers, with kitchens and ban-
                                              quet facilities for life-cycle events. Some
                                              mosques house the bodies of deceased
masjid (Arabic: a place of                    saints and serve as shrines for veneration
prostration)                                  as well as places for prayer. An active
A mosque. In Qur'anic and early Islamic
                    ˆ                         mosque will have a place for ablutions,
usage it merely meant a place of prayer,      ghusl and wudu', and will have carpets
and so could be any ritually acceptable       on the floor. It ˙will contain lamps, both
place. One of the fundamental notions         for reading and as a symbol of God as
in Islam is that one can pray anywhere,       Light, (Nur). There will be some indica-
since God is everywhere. This meant           tion of the direction of Mecca, the
that the institution of the sajjadah or
                                 ˆ            qiblah, particularly if the original orien-
prayer carpet as a portable holy spot for     tation of the building is not toward the
worship could be taken around the             Ka¤bah. There will also be a minbar, for
world, or, even, into space. The com-         the delivery of the sermon. Most mos-
munal need for fixed places of worship         ques are financed by the community, but
with facilities to become ritually pure       some are endowed with waqfs. There is
for prayer developed quickly as the           no official priesthood in Islam, but from
community grew in Madınah after the
                            ˆ                 early times caretakers have been
hijrah. As Muslim religious architec-         appointed to look after the property.
ture developed masjid came to refer to        The earliest of these mosque employees
a place of congregational worship that                                           ˆ
                                              were the popular preachers (qass) who
had facilities for ablutions, a minaret       also served as educators. In˙ ˙ larger
for the call to prayer, a minbar or pulpit    mosques, the prayer leader or (imam),   ˆ
for a sermon, and a mihrab or niche to
                             ˆ                is assisted by a financial manager and a
indicate the qiblah, the direction of         staff. In many Muslim countries the
prayer. It was used as a center for           organization and maintenance of the
worship, but also the center of commu-        mosques is seen as a state duty and
nity life. So important was the model         handled through the state bureaucracy,
that Muhammad had established by              including the appointment of the imam.    ˆ
building the masjid in Madınah, that          Another important member of the mos-
Muslims established mosques wherever          que staff is the mu'adhdhin, the person
they went spreading Islam. Architectural      who calls to prayer. While this function
styles of mosques vary, often reflecting       is being taken over by automated
the style of the region and the time          recordings in some modern commu-
period. Sometimes mosques have been           nities, the heirs of Bilal have served
al-Masjid al-Aqsaˆ                                                                 144

an important function in calling the          maskh (Arabic: metamorphosis)
faithful to the five daily prayers.            In several places in the Qur'an, we are
                                              told that God transformed sinners into
al-Masjid al-Aqs a (Arabic: the               animals. Q. 2:65 says that Sabbath-
most remote place of ˙worship)                breakers were turned into apes, and Q.
By community consensus since the              5:60 that sinners were turned into
second Islamic century, this has meant        monkeys and pigs. Commentators con-
al-Quds (Jerusalem). In some of the           fronted with the reality of the Qur'anic
earliest commentaries on the Qur'an,   ˆ      statements and with the pre-Islamic
however, it was understood to be a            legend of Isa and Na'ilah, who were
location on the edge of the sacred            turned to stone in the Ka¤bah, discussed
precinct around Mecca. The site, wher-        both the theology and the physics of such
ever it is, is connected with Muham-          transformations. Some, noting that no
mad’s night journey and his ascent to         transformations had occurred after the
heaven (mi¤raj), which is also connected
              ˆ                               rise of Islam, concluded that this was not
to Jerusalem. It now refers to the            a punishment used by God in this era.
mosque that is located on the south side
of the platform that is al-haram ash-         mas lah ah (Arabic: public welfare)
sharıf, that is, south of the Dome of the
      ˆ                                            ˙ ˙
Rock (qubbat as-sakhrah). The pre-            The principle in the sharı ¤ah of public
sent structure has ˙been built over an
                   ˙                          interest or public welfare by which new
earlier structure, access to which is still   circumstances and the requirements of
possible, and the lower level is used for     the law can be accommodated to meet
worship. (See also isra'.)
                        ˆ                     the needs of Muslims in any age.

al-masjid al-h ara mˆ                         matn (Arabic: prose text)
The Great Mosque in Mecca. (See also          The prose body of the text of a hadıth,
Ka¤bah.)                                                                      ˙
                                              usually short, containing the message of

                    Al-Masjid al-Aqsa Mosque, al-Quds (Jerusalem).
145                                                     ˆ ˆ,         ˆ       ˆ
                                                    Mawdudı Sayyid Abu al-A¤la

the tradition, as opposed to the authen-             ˆ ˆ,          ˆ   ˆ
                                             Mawdu dı Sayyid Abu al-A¤la
ticating chain of transmitters, the isnad.
                                       ˆ     (1321/1903–1398/1979)
The word was used in the pre-Islamic
                                             Muslim writer, thinker, and political
period meaning prose text, and was
                                             activist. His prolific output has influ-
associated with the ayyam al-Arab
                                             enced the course of many Muslim move-
(battle days of the Arabs) traditions.
                                             ments in the twentieth century. Born in
                                             South Asia under British colonial rule,
      ˆ    ˆ,  ˆ      ˆ
al-Ma turidı Abu Mans u r
                    ˙                        he came from a family that produced a
Muh ammad b. Muh ammad b.                    number of spiritual leaders. He received
    ˙ ˆ           ˙     ˆ
Mah mu d as-Samarqandı (died
    ˙                                        a sheltered Muslim education at home,
333/934)                                     and, when his father died, went to work
The titular founder of Maturıdism, one
                            ˆ ˆ              as a journalist. He became involved in
of the two orthodox Sunnı schools of
                              ˆ              the Khilafat Movement, and, through
theology, the other being the school         this, got to know many ¤ulama', who
founded by al-Ash¤arı. Almost nothing
                         ˆ                   helped him learn Arabic. He also learned
is known about his personal life except      English at this point. After a period of
that he led an ascetic life and that there   study of the history and nature of Islam,
                    ˆ ˆ
were miracles (karamat) ascribed to him      he began preaching to his fellow Mus-
after his death. He was a member of the      lims that they were a separate people
Hanafı madhhab, unlike the other
         ˆ                                   within India and that Islam has a
schools of kalam in Sunnı Islam. He          universal message for all peoples. Maw-
                 ˆ            ˆ
was a rationalist in his views and a         dudı developed a strong anti-colonial
                                               ˆ ˆ
strong polemicist against other religions.   and, later, a strong anti-nationalist atti-
He held, among other things, that            tude that helped shape his pan-Islamic
humans have the capacity and the             program of Islamic revival. In his view,
obligation to learn about, thank, and        the dialectic struggle between Islam and
worship God through the powers of            non-Islam should energize religious piety
reason given us by God. Prophetic            toward social activism to bring about an
revelation is a gift from God. The           Islamic state that would effect sweeping
anthropomorphic expressions about            social reforms. He was not, however, an
God in the Qur'a n are, for him,
                      ˆ                      advocate for violent, mass-movement
metaphors, but he ultimately held that       revolution and held that education was
Prophetic revelation should be accepted      essential for social change. The forma-
without question. He believed, against       tion of Pakistan gave him a forum for
the views of the Mu¤tazilah, that the        his ideas, and he was instrumental in
beatific vision was possible, but not in      shaping the new country’s constitution.
the usual, corporeal sense. He also held     Mawdu dı was a prolific writer on
                                                     ˆ ˆ
that God’s speech, kalam, was an eternal     almost all Islamic and social topics. His
attribute of God, but that it could not be   Tafhım al-Qur' an is the most widely
                                                   ˆ           ˆ
heard by human ears. He took an              read translation and commentary in
intermediary position on the question        Urdu. His ultimate aim was to create
of free will, holding that humanity has      a system of Islamic thought that would
real and not just illusionary free choice,   counter the modern world on Islamic
so that God’s rewards and punishments        and not reactionary terms. He drew
are just. The school of kalam to which       heavily on the past for his ideal, but
he gave his name remained in the Hanafı  ˆ   did not neglect the problems of the
madhhab and was less influenced by   ˙        present. His thought continues to have
philosophy and science than were the         wide influence throughout the Islamic
       ˆ                                     world. (See also Jama¤at-i Islamı.)
                                                                    ˆ        ˆ ˆ
mawla                                                                               146

mawla (Arabic)                                 The main feature of the celebration of
Derived from the Arabic verb waliya,           the mawlid is the recitation of a poetic
“to be close or near,” the term can mean       panegyric that begins with praise of
“master,” “slave,” “client,” or, with the      God, lists Muhammad’s ancestry, tells
definite article, al-mawla, “the Master,”       of the annunciation to Aminah of the
i.e. God. In early Islamic circles, it often   Prophet’s birth, and then tells of his
referred to a non-Arab Muslim who had          birth. These panegyrics, also called
become a client of an Arab tribe or had        mawlids, are usually recited in Arabic,
been a slave and was manumitted. In            but are also found in the variety of
this case, although the word implies a         Islamic languages throughout the world.
degree of equality, the mawla is the           Popular poems are printed and distrib-
social inferior of the Arab master. It is      uted widely. When the mawlids are
sometimes used in this sense as synon-         sponsored by states and rulers, the
ymous with ¤ ajam, non-Arab or Persian.        processions and poetry recitations are
Because many non-Arabs became pro-             very elaborate. Celebratory meals also
minent in governmental and clerical            accompany the mawlids, often including
positions, the term came to be com-            the eating of sweets with honey, the
monly used as a title of respect for           Prophet’s favorite treat. In some parts of
government and religious authorities, as       the Islamic world, the mawlid does not
in its Persian form, mulla or mullah, a        need to follow the Islamic calendar and
person who has attained the lowest rank        can be celebrated on the occasion of
of the Shı¤ı ¤ulama' and is authorized to
          ˆˆ        ˆ                          other births or at the rite of passage of
teach, preach, and officiate at religious       boys into adulthood. The term mawlid
rituals. In the form mawlay, meaning           also refers to the birth or death anniver-
“my lord,” it is applied to Sufı saints
                                  ˆ ˆ          sary celebrations of holy persons, or
and high government officials.   ˙              walıs, who are thought to be bringers of
                                               barakat (blessings). Such celebrations
                                               usually focus around the tomb of the
Mawlawiyyah                                    holy person and feature a ziyarah, or
See Mevlevı.
          ˆ                                    circumambulation of the shrine and the
                                               offering of food and/or incense. In some
                                               communities, this is the occasion for the
mawlid, or mı ˆ d (Arabic:
                  ˆla                          circumcision of young boys. Many
birthday, anniversary)                         mawlid celebrations include non-Mus-
The mawlid an-nabı is the birthday
                      ˆ                        lims as well as Muslims in the venera-
celebration of the Prophet, celebrated         tion of the holy person and the
on the twelfth of Rabi¤ al-'Awwal in the                                ˆ
                                               ceremony of the ziyarah. Often the
Islamic lunar calendar. Except in Saudi        celebration has a fair-like atmosphere
Arabia, where Wahhabı prohibitions
                         ˆ ˆ                   with entertainments and markets. Wah-
forbid, it is marked throughout the            habı prohibition of the mawlid celebra-
                                                 ˆ ˆ
Muslim world with happy festivities.           tion is an extension of their general
The celebration of the Prophet’s birth-        opposition to the veneration of saints,
day became a regular part of Islamic           and the fact that women are active
festivities only fairly late. The first         participants in these celebrations in
recorded public celebration is from the        many parts of the Islamic world.
sixth/twelfth century, although pious
pilgrims had been visiting his birthplace,
                                               mawlidiyyah (Arabic)
which had been enlarged into a shrine by
the mother of the ¤Abbasid caliph              A panegyric poem composed and recited
Harun ar-Rashıd (145/756–169/785).
   ˆ ˆ          ˆ                              in honor of the Prophet for the mawlid.
147                                                                            Mecca

Many of these poems are in Arabic and       Exceptions are locusts and fish, which
follow classical Arabic ode patterns, but   do not have to be ritually slaughtered to
poems exist in almost all Islamic lan-      be eaten. Some jurists permit the skin of
guages, each reflecting the poetic idiom     a maytah to be tanned and used for
of the language. Thus, for example, we      leather, but others forbid its use. (See
find poems in Tamil written in the style     also halal; haram.)
                                                     ˆ       ˆ
of poems in praise of the baby Krishna,
while the Urdu poems follow the verse-             ˆ
                                            maz lu m (Arabic: ill-treated)
idiom of South Asian songs.                      ˙
                                            This is a term applied to the Imams and
                                            others who show forbearance in the face
        ˆ          ˆ
Maymu nah bt. al-H a rith (died             of oppression. In Shı¤ı thought, the
61/681)          ˙
                                            imams are thought to be, as a class, the
The last of Muhammad’s wives, she was       victims of oppression and tyranny, and
the sister of his uncle al-¤Abbas and       to have personified the virtues of mod-
survived the Prophet.                       esty and forbearance under that oppres-
                                            sion. They characterize the willingness
                                            of the imams to accept martyrdom, to
maysir (Arabic: easy; left-handed)
                                            become a shahıd. The model of this
The Qur'an forbids a game of chance
           ˆ                                                ˆ
                                            behavior is Imam al-Husayn, whose
that was popular in pre-Islamic Arabia,                              ˙
                                            example shows the way to live and die in
in which animals were slaughtered and       this world in order to achieve salvation
divided into ten parts. Specially marked    in the next.
arrows were then drawn for the parts,
with the winner taking an assigned          Mecca
portion of the slaughtered animal. Evi-
dently large numbers of animals were        Known to the ancient geographers as
slaughtered to play the game, resulting     Macoraba and to the Arabs as Makkah,
in great losses for some. The game seems    or sometimes Bakkah, it is the holiest
also to have had some connection with       city in Islam. Located in Northwest
pre-Islamic religious practice, and the     Arabia, it is the site of the Ka¤bah and
casting of arrows was used to predict the   the holy well of Zamzam, both objects
future. This game became the symbol for     of veneration in the hajj. The Prophet
                                            Muhammad was born there around
all forms of gambling and gaming in              ˙
Islam. By extension, all forms of games     570 c.e. and received his first revelation
of chance were forbidden, including         in 610. He left the city for Madınah in
financial speculations, like the stock       622, but returned at the end of his life to
market, lending and borrowing money         cleanse the city of polytheistic worship
at interest, etc. In modern Islamic         and demonstrate the hajj. The city has a
                                            long history well back into pre-Islamic
financial circles, ways around such
prohibitions have been found. See also      times. The ancient name Macoraba
banks and banking; riba.)  ˆ                means “temple” in various Semitic
                                            languages. This probably referred to
                                            the Ka¤bah, which was an ancient place
maytah (Arabic: something dead)             of sacrifice for the Arabs. According to
Anything killed without ritual slaughter-   Islamic legend, the city was founded by
ing. Most schools of Islamic law (madh-     Adam. It was the location to which
habs) prohibit the eating of animals that   Hajar and Isma¤ıl came after they were
                                               ˆ             ˆ ˆ
have not been properly slaughtered          sent into the desert by Ibrahım, and it
                                                                         ˆ ˆ
according to Islamic requirements even      was where Ibrahım and Isma¤ıl built the
                                                            ˆ ˆ           ˆˆ
when they are otherwise permissible.        Ka¤bah. Arab tradition holds that the
Mecelle                                                                            148

original Arabs were supplanted by the          which time she is enjoined from touch-
Quraysh, probably some time in the             ing the Qur'an or engaging in salat,
                                                              ˆ                      ˆ
fourth or fifth century, when they moved                                          ˙
                                               but, according to a hadıth, she may
                                               perform the rites of the hajj. When the
their trade from the Red Sea inland and
onto camel caravans. By the time of            cycle is complete, ghusl (ritual wash-
Muhammad, the city had become a                ing) removes the impurity. Three men-
major commercial center and had                strual cycles or three periods of purity
formed federations with the major tribes       constitute the ¤iddah, or waiting period
in the region. The Quraysh also feder-         before a divorce becomes final.
ated Arabian worship and, after the
manner of the Romans, had transferred          Mernissi, Fatima (born 1940)
the worship of all the local deities to the
                                               Moroccan sociologist, writer, and Isla-
central shrine in Mecca, the Ka¤bah.
                                               mic feminist, she received her Ph.D. in
Worship, then, was conducted by visit-
                                               sociology from Brandeis University. Her
ing the city for religious and trade fairs.
                                               writings have been both descriptive and
The attack by the Ethiopian general
                                               activist. In her first book, Beyond the
Abraha was partly caused by Meccan
                                               Veil: Male–Female Dynamics in Modern
commercial success, and is said to have
                                               Muslim Society (1975), she sought to
happened in 570 c.e., the year of
                                               release Islamic discourse from patriar-
Muhammad’s birth. The city lost its
    ˙                                          chal control. In her most recent book,
political importance after the death of
                                               Islam and Democracy: Fear of the
Muhammad but retained its holy impor-
    ˙                                          Modern World (1992), she advocates a
tance. It was the site of pilgrimage (hajj),
                                      ˙        reformist approach free of fearful reac-
but there are reports that it also became
                                               tions to the West.
a center for singing girls and debauch-
ery. It was unable to rival its sister city,
Madınah, for intellectual activity, but its
      ˆ                                        messenger
schools became places of study for             See rasul.
students from all over the world. With
the advent of the Wahhabis, many of
                             ˆ                 messianism
the shrines and coffee houses were razed
                                               Muslims do not believe in a Messiah in
out of puritanical zeal. In modern times
                                               the same sense as Jews or Christians, but
and as a result of oil revenues, the city
                                               the belief in an end-time figure, such as
has been rebuilt, its shrines refurbished,
                                               the Mahdı, who will come to deliver
and is better able to receive the annual
                                               believers from tyranny and repression,
throngs that visit it.
                                               has been a part of Muslim belief from
                                               the beginning. Sunnı and Shı¤ı views
                                                                      ˆ        ˆˆ
Mecelle (Turkish from Arabic                   differ in their identification of the end-
majallah: law code)                            time figure, the Ithna ¤Ashariyyah
The Ottoman Hanafı law code dating
                 ˆ                             Shı¤ı holding that the twelfth Imam is
                                                  ˆˆ                               ˆ
from 1285/1869.                                the awaited Mahdı.  ˆ

Medina                                                   ˆ,
                                               Mevlevı or Mevleviyya
See al-Madınah.
                                               Known in the West as the whirling
                                               dervishes because of their use of dance
menstruation                                   for their dhikr or sama¤, this important
Blood during the period of menstruation        Sufı order was inspired and named after
                                                 ˆ ˆ
renders a woman ritually impure, during        ˙
                                               the Persian mystical poet Jalal ad-Dın
                                                                               ˆ     ˆ
149                                                                              millet

Rumı, who held the epithet mawlana.
  ˆ ˆ                               ˆ ˆ        correct, non-corrupted form of Islam
The order had great influence on Otto-          was being taught, since they feared that
man art and music. It was banned by            Islam might deviate from the correct
Ataturk in 1925 but their sama¤ con-
      ¨                          ˆ             path in the way that they believed
tinues to be performed at various places       Judaism and Christianity had done. They
around the world.                              were also interested in preserving cen-
                                               tralized power over religious ideology
Michael                                        against the developing power of the
                                               popular traditionists. The failure of the
See Mıka'ıl.
     ˆ ˆ ˆ
                                               caliphs to impose the mihnah ended their
                                               ability to assert freely ˙ that they were
mı a 'ah, or mı a'ah (Arabic:
 ˆd ˆ          ˆd                                           ˆ
                                               khalıfat Allah, caliphs of God. They no
washing place)  ˙                              longer had the ability to dictate the
The fountain associated with a mosque          course of Islam. This triumph of tradi-
for the wudu', or ablutions before
              ˆ                                tionalism over caliphal authority made
prayer.     ˙                                  room for the development of Sunnı       ˆ
                                               Islam. (See also muhaddith.)
mi'dha nah, or ma'dhanah
(Arabic)                                       mih rab (Arabic: niche)
See minaret.                                   The niche in a mosque indicating the
                                               qiblah or direction of prayer, it is
                                               usually highly decorated with tiles and
                                               mosaics. (See also masjid.)
See hijrah.
                                               Mı ˆ 'ı
                                                ˆka ˆl
mih nah (Arabic: test, trial)
     ˙                                         An archangel mentioned in the Qur'an  ˆ
The inquisition imposed by the ¤Abbasidˆ       along with Jibrıl, he is the guardian of
caliph al-Ma'mun (170/786–218/833) to
                  ˆ                            places of worship. He and Jibrıl, were
test his subjects’ adherence to the notions    the two angels who opened Muham-
of the Mu¤tazilah, including the belief        mad’s breast, washed his heart, ˙ and
that the Qur'an was created and not
                 ˆ                             weighed him against all humankind.
eternal. The inquisition continued until
the reign of al-Mutawakkil (206/822–
                                               mı ˆ d
247/851). Several theological and poli-
tical issues converged in this inquisition,    See mawlid.
which is remembered vividly in Sunnı       ˆ
hagiography. Many traditionalists (ahl         millah
al-hadıth) were tested and forced to
        ˆ                                      See millet.
renounce their belief that the Qur'an    ˆ
was God’s speech and was, therefore,
eternal with God, for they could not           millet (Turkish, from Arabic millah)
imagine that God could have ever been          In Qur'anic and early Islamic use, millah
silent. Those who did not were impri-          means “religion” and “religious com-
soned and beaten. The most notable             munity,” as in the “religion of Ibrahım,”
                                                                                  ˆ ˆ
among those who refused was Ahmad b.           (Q. 3:95). When the word is used with
Hanbal, who became the symbol of   ˙           the definite article, al-Millah, it means
resistance. From the perspective of the        the religious community, the 'ummah of
caliphs, their imposition of Mu¤tazilite       Islam. Otherwise, it came to mean
doctrine was an effort to assure that a        religious communities other than Islam,
Mina                                                                               150

and usually People of the Book, ahl al-      mı ˆ t (Arabic: times)
kitab. In heresiographic literature, it
    ˆ                                        This term is used in fiqh literature to
was paired with nihal (sects), and meant     refer to the fixed times for properly
religious groups other than Muslims. In      performing religious duties, such as the
this latter sense, it was adopted as an      times for prayer (salat), the times for
Ottoman legal and administrative term                              ˙
                                             beginning and ending fasting, and the
to designate the religious groups in its     times for putting on or taking off
empire. These groups were administered       the ihram. Exact time-keeping became
separately, each with its own code of law          ˙
                                             one of the major religious and intellectual
for governing internal affairs, and its      activities of Muslims, which led to
own set of rulers. Eventually, Muslims       advancements in many scientific fields.
came to be regarded as one of a group of     Astronomy, mathematics, engineering,
religious claimants for recognition and      and navigation are all areas that benefited
court patronage. With the collapse of        from the quest for more accurate ways to
the empire and the identification of          measure the passage of time. Modern
religious groups as national entities, the   time-pieces, which are the heirs to these
word has taken on the sense of “nation”      earlier efforts, are capable of determining
in modern Turkish.                           the exact time for each of the five prayers,
                                             the direction for prayer (qiblah), and
Mina                                         announcing the call to prayer (Adhan).ˆ
A small town about three miles from
Mecca that is central to the rites of the    miracle
hajj. In the valley near Mina, there are
                             ˆ               Miracles associated with God’s prophets
small stone pillars where pilgrims per-      are generally termed in Arabic mu¤ jizah.
form the lapidation, or stoning, of the      These are generally understood as God’s
devil. On the tenth of the month of dhu-
                                       ˆ     direct intervention in the natural order
l-hijjah, an animal is sacrificed as part     of things to demonstrate His power in
of ˙ the hajj. The hajj ceremonies were      order to promote belief and confound
         ˙         ˙
practiced in pre-Islamic times, including    and make weak those who disbelieve.
the stone-throwing. (See also rajm.)         For Muhammad, the miracle was the
                                                    ˆ ˙
                                             Qur'an itself, although popular legend
minaret                                      has him multiplying food and healing
Derived from the Arabic word manarah,ˆ       the wounded. Among Muslim literary
“a light tower,” the minaret is one of the   critics, the miraculous nature of the
most distinctive architectural symbols of    Qur'an was translated into the notion
Islam. Usually called a mi' dhanah or
                                 ˆ           of the inimitability of the sacred text,
ma' dhanah, it is the place from which                                          ˆ ˆ
                                             i¤jaz. For saints, the term is karamat,
the adhan or call to prayer is given,
          ˆ                                  understood as special favors granted by
either in person by the mu'adhdhin or,       God through the saint to believers. This
in some modern settings, by recording.       terminology is particularly associated
The minaret has assumed many different       with the practice of visiting the tombs
forms around the world and is consid-        of saints (walıs), or, for the Shı¤ı, the
                                                             ˆ                ˆˆ
ered a major component of a mosque,          tombs of the Imams, called mashhads.
although not all mosques have them.          Throughout the history of Islam, there
(See also masjid.)                           have been groups that have argued
                                             against any miracles. One such group
                                             is the Wahha bı, who are strongly
                                                              ˆ ˆ
minorities                                   opposed to the notion of miracles of
See ahl al-kitab; dhimmi.
              ˆ                              any sort. (See also karamah.)
151                                                                               Moors

mi¤ra j (Arabic: ladder)                        Ramadan. There, the foul breath of the
The term has come to mean the ascen-            fasting˙ believers is said to be sweet-
sion of Muhammad to heaven after his            smelling to God.
isra', or night journey, from Mecca to
the Masjid al-Aqsa, usually interpreted
                         ˆ                      modesty (Arabic tawadu¤ )  ˆ
                      ˙                                                      ˙
as al-Quds (Jerusalem). The brief refer-        Freedom from arrogance and vanity is
ences in the Qur'an, in Surat an-najm
                       ˆ         ˆ              enjoined in the Qur'an for all Muslims
and Surat al-isra' , are greatly elaborated
          ˆ         ˆ                           in both mental attitude and demeanor.
in tafsır literature and legend. In brief,
            ˆ                                   The sin of Iblıs is regarded as related to
the archangel Jibrıl took Muhammad
                        ˆ                       vanity and arrogance, and stories are
through the seven heavens, where he met         told that his form as a serpent was the
with Musa and others and received the
              ˆ ˆ                               punishment that reduced him from the
commandment for the five daily prayers           most beautiful animal to the most
(salat), reduced by negotiation from as
       ˆ                                        repulsive. Some interpreters have used
many as five hundred. While there, he is         the Qur'anic injunctions to dictate dress
supposed to have met with all the past          for women, while others have argued
prophets, including Musa, Ibrahım, and
                           ˆ ˆ     ˆ ˆ          that the commandments for modesty
             ˆ ˆ
Jesus (¤Isa). The ladder motif is used in       apply equally to men and women (Q.
the sırah to equate Muhammad with
         ˆ                                      24:30–31, 60; 33:59; 7:31–33). (See also
the ladder vision of the biblical Jacob.        dress.)
Sufı interpreters have used the journey
   ˆ ˆ
as a model for the mystical experience,
and some commentators regard salat as   ˆ
the mi¤ raj of the ordinary believers,
               ˆ                      ˙         See Mughals.
taking them to heaven. In this view, the
souls of those who pray are transported         Mongols
up to heaven and are near to God. There
                                                One of the Turkic-speaking peoples
has been considerable debate about
                                                from Central Asia who entered the
whether the journey was physical or
                                                Islamic world. They created a massive
spiritual. Translations of some of the
                                                empire in the seventh/thirteenth century,
Islamic stories about the Ascension may
                                                sacking Baghdad in 656/1258, ending
have influenced Dante’s Divine Comedy.
                                                the ¤Abbasid caliphate. They were
                                                stopped by the Mamluks at ¤Ayn Jalut
                                                                       ˆ             ˆ ˆ
miswa k (Arabic: toothstick or                  in 658/1260. Many converted to Islam,
toothbrush)                                     and the South Asian empire of the
Another word for this device is a siwak. ˆ      Mughals derives from them.
Following the model of Muhammad,
the use of a toothstick as part of regular      monotheism
ablutions is recommended. There are             The belief that there is only one deity is
preferred woods for making the tooth-           central to Islamic belief. (See also
stick, but it should be a wood of medium            ˆ
                                                Allah; tawhıd.)ˆ
hardness that can be formed into a                           ˙
brush-like appearance at the end, either
by incising it or by chewing it, as             Moors
¤A'ishah did for the Prophet during his         The term applied in most European
final illness. While it is not obligatory, its   languages until the twentieth century to
use falls into the class of highly recom-       the Muslims of Spain and North Africa.
mended, except, according to some,              Of uncertain origin, it was first used by
during the daylight hours of the fast of        the Greek writer Polybius. Through the
Moriscos                                                                            152

influence of Spanish and the polemical        popular Sufism. Since independence
literature of the Reconquista, the term                ˙
                                             from France in 1956, public discussion
has taken on a negative connotation in       about the directions of Islam have been
most Western languages, reflecting the        influenced by the growth of Salafiyyah
political, religious, and ethnic conflict     movements.
between the Islamic world and Europe.
The term is seldom used today except in      Moses
archaizing polemic.
                                             See Musa.
                                                  ˆ ˆ

The term refers to those Muslims who
                                             See masjid.
remained in Spain after 1492 and were
converted, at least on the surface, to
Christianity. They retained many ele-        Mozarab (Spanish mozarabe)
ments of the Muslim identity, however,       A word derived from the Arabic mus-
including a strong literary tradition in a   ta¤ rib, to become like an Arab, the term
mix of Spanish and Arabic, known as          is applied to Christians of the Iberian
Aljamiado. They were known as Nuevos         peninsula who adopted Muslim customs
Christianos or Convertudos de moros,         and modes of life without converting to
“new Christians,” or “Moorish con-           Islam. Another explanation of the origin
verts.” By a fatwa of 910/1510, they
                     ˆ                       of the term comes from Latin texts that
were allowed to practice taqiyyah,           called the Christians living among the
religious dissimulation, to be crypto-       Muslims as mixti arabes, those whose
Muslims in an increasingly hostile envir-    blood was mixed with that of Arabs.
onment. The expulsion of this popula-        Both possible etymologies reflect the
tion in 1609 recognized their genuine        interconnected culture of Islamic Iberia,
Islamic identity, and many refugees went     where Muslims, Christians, and Jews
to Tunisia, where they resumed the open      lived in close cultural and economic
practice of Islam, but continued their       cooperation. As the Reconquista became
literary tradition in Aljamiado. (See also   more successful, many of the autono-
Aljamia.)                                    mous Mozarab Christians moved to
                                             Christian territory, bringing with them
Morocco                                      Islamic artistic tastes, customs of dress,
                                             and features of Arabic that were incor-
Islam came to Morocco with an Arab
                                             porated into the developing Spanish
invasion in 682, marking the end of
                                             language. Mozarab artistic and architec-
Byzantine rule of the coastal areas. The
                                             tural production was a vehicle for
indigeneous Berber, who had ruled the
                                             Islamic influence on the development of
interior, converted to Islam and joined in
                                             Spanish culture.
the Islamic conquest of Iberia. A series
of Arab-Berber dynasties ruled through
the beginning of the seventeenth century,    mu'adhdhin (Arabic: one who
when Muslims and Jews, expelled from                      ˆ
                                             makes the adhan, or call to prayer.)
Spain, came to Morocco and helped            The first mu' adhdhin was Bilal b.  ˆ
usher in a golden age. This was also the     Rabah, a person with a stentorian voice,
beginning of European domination of          whom˙ Muhammad appointed to call
Morocco under Portuguese, Spanish,           the faithful ˙to worship. With the devel-
and French colonial rule. Islam in           opment of Islamic architecture, the
Morocco has been marked by tensions          mu' adhdhin issued the call from a
between scripture-based ¤ulama' andˆ         minaret, a practice that has become
153                                                                            ˆ ˆ

custom. In some modern areas, the             besting their superiors in this capacity.
mu' adhdhin is being replaced by sound              ˆ
                                              Fatwas may be given to anyone, and
recordings of the adhan.
                      ˆ                       magistrates are recommended to seek
                                              opinions from those who might be of
     ˆ          ˆ     ˆ
Mu¤a wiyah b. Abı Sufya n                     assistance. As the institutions of religion
(died 60/680)                                 and government developed, some rulers
                                              appointed muftıs, who were paid out of
Founder of the Syrian-based 'Umayyad          the state treasury. Often, these people
dynasty. While he had opposed Islam at        were also the close advisors to the ruler,
first, he converted before the conquest of     ruler and muftı deriving mutual benefit
Mecca. After the death of Muhammad,           from the arrangement. Modern Islamic
he was a leader in the battles against the    states do not have the need for muftıs,  ˆ
Byzantines. When the third caliph,            but the use of muftıs by private indivi-
¤Uthman, to whom he had been related,
        ˆ                                     duals continues, particularly where there
was assassinated, Mu¤awiyah assumed
                         ˆ                    is disaffection from the state.
the role of family head of the 'Ummayad
clan and sought to bring the killers to
justice. This put him in direct opposition    Mughals
to forces supporting the caliphate of         The name Mughal means Mongol and
¤Alı b. Abı Talib. Mu¤awiyah was
    ˆ         ˆ ˆ            ˆ                shows the relationship of the empire
formally recognized as caliph by his          created by Babur (888/1483–937/1530)
Syrian supporters in 40/660. When ¤Alı    ˆ   in the Indian subcontinent to the great
died the next year, he was generally          Mongol empire of Chingis Khan. Under
recognized as caliph. His reign was           the Mughals, all but the extreme south
marked more by his use of tribal and          of India was brought under Islamic rule.
clan alliances to enforce his authority       The empire ended with the beginnings of
than by any appeals to a divine right to      British colonialism in 1858. Some of the
rule.                                         greatest monuments in the subcontinent
                                              were built by the Mughals, including the
muezzin                                       famous Taj Mahal.
See mu'adhdhin.
                                              muh addith (Arabic: one who
                                              transmits a hadıth; pl. muhaddithun)
                                                              ˆ                ˆ
muftı (Arabic: one who gives a fatwa)
                                   ˆ                      ˙             ˙
                                              Often translated “traditionist,” this
Someone empowered to give a fatwa or  ˆ       term refers to a person who transmits a
religiously based judgment on issues of       h adı th, or an individual who is
daily Islamic life. The muftı has not
                                ˆ              ˙
                                              involved in the dissemination of tradi-
historically necessarily been a qadı. The
                                  ˆ ˆ         tions.
role of the muftı in the development of
Islamic law has been significant. The
judgments of the muftıs were collected
                         ˆ                       ˆ ˆ
                                              muha jiru n (Arabic: emigrants)
into manuals that would guide the             Those who made the hijrah with
community in its legal practices and          Muhammad. In the initial period of
help determine the ijma¤ of the commu-
                         ˆ                    the community in Madınah, the Emi-
nity. A muftı can be a woman, a slave, or
             ˆ                                grants who came with the Prophet were
blind or dumb, but must be a person of        charity wards of the city’s Arab inhabi-
good standing, have legal knowledge,          tants. As raids were successful, however,
and the capacity to use reasoning to          the Emigrants began to prosper and
solve problems. In popular tales, one         acquire land from Jews and hypocrites,
hears of the lowest members of society        (munafiqun), who were expelled or
                                                    ˆ    ˆ
Muhammad ¤Abduh                                                                    154

forced to give up their holdings. These
Emigrants formed a strong part of the
city during the lifetime of the Prophet
and shortly after, but became assimilated
into the larger Muslim community by
the end of the first Islamic century. The
term is also applied to those who made
the little migration to Abyssinia. In the
early period of the Ottoman Empire,
the term applied to those Muslims who
fled Christian reconquest of Ottoman
territories and fled to the interior.
Among some Sufı groups, the term is
                  ˆ ˆ
used in a spiritual sense for those who
make a spiritual journey from sin to

Muh ammad ¤Abduh
See ¤Abduh, Muhammad.

Muh ammad b. ¤Abdulla h
(570–10/632)                                                                       ˆ
                                                 The cave of the Prophet, Mount Hira’
                                                            outside Mecca.      ˙
The Prophet Muhammad and founder
of Islam was born˙ in Mecca in the year
570 c.e. into the Hashimite clan of the
                       ˆ                       an intermediary, the archangel Jibrıl for
tribe of Quraysh, the dominant group           the rest of his life. As Muhammad began
in the city. Little is known of his earliest   to preach his message ˙of Islam, the
life aside from what little is known from      Meccan oligarchy resisted his reforms,
the Qur'an and found in the sırah. His
           ˆ                     ˆ             since it would have diminished their
father died before he was born, and his        social and economic stranglehold on the
mother, aminah, shortly afterwards.
            ˆ                                  Hijaz. He, with a small band of his
Under the care of his uncle, Abu Talib,
                                   ˆ ˆ          ˙
                                               followers, was forced to make the
he learned the town’s business of trade        famous hijrah to the city of Madınah,
but also experienced what it was like to       where he was able to establish Islam
be an orphan and poor in a materialistic       politically as well as socially, but not
society. When he was twenty-five years          without warfare with the Meccans and
old, he married a rich widow, Khadı-       ˆ   their bedouin allies. In three significant
jah, and attained a new measure of             battles, Badr, Uhud, and Khandaq, he
social status and wealth. His response         led the Muslim forces to victory over the
was to contemplate the source of his           Meccan coalition, established religious
good fortune, which he did in a series of      dominance in the area, and, in 10/632,
annual retreats outside Mecca in a cave        led the paradigm Farewell Pilgrimage
in Mount Hira'. In 610 c.e., when he
                 ˆ                             that set the model for the hajj. He died
was forty years old, he received his first                                   ˙
                                               after a short illness in 10/632 in Madı-ˆ
revelation of the Qur'an on one of these
                         ˆ                     nah in the arms of his favorite wife,
retreats, during the month of Ramadan.   ˆ       ˆ
                                               ¤A'ishah. He died without male heirs
Starting with the first five verses of˙ the      and Fatimah was the only daughter to
ninety-sixth Surah of the Qur'an, he
                 ˆ                   ˆ         survive ˙him. Little of Muhammad’s life
received revelations from God through                                      ˙
                                               can be learned directly from the Qur'an,
155                                                          Muhammad al-Qa'im

but some material can be found in the                     ˆ
                                            Muh ammad al-Ba qir (57/676–
sırah and hadıths, sources which only
 ˆ              ˆ                                ˙
                                            c. 126/743)
hint at the depth and greatness of his      The fifth Imam in the Shı¤ı tradition, he
                                                         ˆ           ˆˆ
character. Later Islamic biographies are,   was the grandson of the second Imam,ˆ
naturally, hagiographic, and are gener-     al-Hasan b. ¤Alı. Shı¤ı tradition holds
                                                             ˆ    ˆˆ
ally based on the Arabic primary            that˙ he was martyred and was buried in
sources. In some communities in South             ˆ
Asia, poetic biographies, which show
some Hindu influence, are recited at the
mawlid celebrations. Until recently,        Muh ammad b. Isma ¤ı      ˆ ˆl
                                            (c. second/eighth century)
Western biographies of Muhammad
have generally been negative and polem-     The eighth Imam for the Isma¤ılı Shı¤ı.
                                                             ˆ              ˆ ˆ ˆ    ˆˆ
ical, with exceptions, such as Thomas       Before the death of Ja¤far as-Sadiq,   ˆ
Carlyle’s On Heroes, Hero Worship,                                             ˙ ˙
                                            some of his followers recognized his son
and the Heroic in History. Recent           Isma¤ıl b. Ja¤far as the rightful succes-
                                                 ˆ ˆ
scholarship on the biography of             sor. He died before Ja¤far, so they passed
Muh ammad in the West has been              their allegiance to Isma¤ıl’s son, Muham-
influenced by a search for the “histor-      mad b. Isma¤ıl. Those who follow˙ this
ical” Muhammad patterned on the             line of succession are called “Seveners,”
search for ˙ the “historical” Jesus. The    or Isma ¤ı lı , and those who follow
                                                     ˆ ˆˆ
trend among Western academic Islami-        Isma¤ıl’s brother, Musa al-Kazim, are
                                                 ˆˆ                ˆ ˆ       ˆ
cists has been to attempt to expunge the    the ones who became the “Twelvers,”˙
earlier negative views of the Prophet and   the Ithna ¤Ashariyyah.
present him in a more positive and
comparative light.
                                            A reform movement in Indonesia
Muh ammad Ah mad b.
    ˙           ˙                           founded in 1912 by a santri, Moham-
¤Abdulla h (c. 1258/1834–1302/
                                            mad Darwisj, who changed his name to
                                            Kiyai Hadji Ahmad Dahlan after a
The self-proclaimed Mahdı of the
                               ˆ            sojourn in Mecca. His message com-
Sudan, he was an initiate in the Samma-ˆ    bines Islamic traditionalism and social
niyyah Sufı tarıqah. Claiming to have
           ˆ ˆ   ˆ                          concerns that seek to provide stability in
        ˙      ˙
been visited by the Prophet, Jibrıl, and
                                  ˆ         the period of rapid change after Dutch
al-Khadir, who appointed him as             colonialism.
Mahdı to cleanse the world of corrup-
tion and rule over lands held by the
                                            Muh ammad al-Qa 'im (c. 255/
Ottomans and the British, he led mili-
                                            868 ˙ his ghaybah in 260/874)
tary expeditions against the British in
Khartoum, where he killed the British       The twelfth shı¤ı imam, he was the son
                                                           ˆˆ    ˆ
garrison, including General Gordon. He                             ˆ
                                            of the eleventh Ima m, H asan al-
died shortly after, probably of typhus.     ¤Askarı. He is said to have made a
Among his religious innovations was the     single appearance at this father’s funeral
addition of his name to the shahadah,
                                    ˆ       and then entered ghaybah. He is the
replacing hajj with jihad, and making
                        ˆ                   “awaited one,” hence his epithet al-
the recitation of extra prayers obliga-     Muntazar, and the “rightly guided,” al-
tory. The Mahdist rule of the Sudan                 ˙ˆ
                                            Mahdı, who will return to signal the
ended in 1898 when the British retook       advent of the yawm ad-dın. (See also
Khartoum.                                   Ithna ¤Ashariyyah Shı¤ı.)
                                                  ˆ                  ˆˆ
            ˆ        ˆ
Muhammad Jawad at-Taqı                                                           156

                  ˆ    ˆ
Muh ammad Jawa d at-Taqı                     ques of kalam to argue against them,
(195/810–220/835)                            and was one of the first to renounce
The ninth Imam of the Ithna ¤Ashar-
              ˆ              ˆ               them. He is also one of the first Sunnı
iyyah Shı¤ı, he attained the imamate
          ˆˆ                      ˆ          mystics to have had a thoroughgoing
when he was seven years of age, lived in     theological education. His main work,
Baghdad, married a daughter of the
       ˆ                                     Ri¤ ayah li-huquq Allah, influenced the
                                                 ˆ           ˆ    ˆ
Sunnı caliph al-Ma'mun, and was mar-
     ˆ               ˆ                       theologian al-Ghazalı.
                                                                 ˆ ˆ
tyred at her hands.
                                             muh kama t (Arabic: clear verses)
Muh ammad ¤Ubayd Alla h
                    ˆ                        The precise, clear verses of the Qur'an,
(died 323/934)                               as opposed to the mutashabihat. The
                                                                           ˆ   ˆ
                                             Qur'an divides itself into two categories
First Fatimid caliph, who came to
          ˙                                  of verses, those that are clear and
power through the use of both Shı¤ı
                                             unambiguous and those that are
and Mahdist ideologies. (See also
                                             obscure. The muh kama t are often
      ˆ                                                          ˙
                                             regarded as the “essence” of the Qur'an.
                                             (See also tafsır.)
Muh arram (Arabic)
The first month of the Islamic lunar             ˆ
                                             muja hid (Arabic)
calendar, it is known as the Month of
                                             One who engages in jihad.
Mourning, particularly among the Shı¤ı,
because it was in this month that al-
Husayn b. ¤Alı was martyred at Kar-
                 ˆ                              ˆ    ˆn
                                             Muja hidı
 ˙ ˆ
bala'. In many places in the Islamic         In Afghanistan the general name for the
world, the tenth of this month, called       jihad fighters against Soviet occupa-
¤Ashura', is not only a time for fasting
  ˆ ˆ ˆ                                      tion.They were a Sunnı movement,
but also for the performance of plays of     influenced by the writings of the Ikhwan
lamentation and the recitation of poetry     al-Muslimu n. There were at least
commemorating the tragic event.              seven different groups, which united to
                                             expel the Soviets and replace the Com-
muh a sabah (Arabic: accounting)             munist government. Their rule has been
     ˙                                       replaced by that of the Taliban.
                                                                       ˆ   ˆ
In religious terms, this is the accounting                           ˙
that one does of the soul and the
accounting that will be done at the yawm        ˆ    ˆn-i Khalq (Persian)
                                             Muja hidı
ad-dın by God and the band of those
      ˆ                                                                          ˆ ˆ
                                             The Saziman-i Mujahidın-i Khalq-i Iran
                                                    ˆ   ˆ       ˆ ˆ
judging humans. According to tradition,      (The Holy Warrior Organization of the
those who will be saved will receive their   Iranian People) was formed in Iran in
account books in their right hands, and      the 1960s as a revolutionary, religious,
those who will be damned will receive        socialist armed movement against the
them in their left hands. The use of this    Pahlavi government and contributed to
term fits the extensive commercial meta-      the fall of the shah in 1979. Their
phors found in the Qur'an. ˆ                 subsequent conflict with the leadership
                                             of the Islamic republic forced their
al-Muh a sibı Abu ¤Abdulla h
          ˆ   ˆ,   ˆ        ˆ                leadership into exile and diminished
H a rith˙ b. Asad al-¤Anazı (165/
  ˆ                       ˆ                  their popular base within Iran.
Shafi¤ı theologian and one-time member
   ˆ ˆ                                       mu¤jizah
of the Mu¤tazilah, he used the techni-       See miracle.
157                                                                           ˆr
                                                                 Munkar wa-Nakı

mujtahid (Arabic)                            In his system, mysticism, theology,
One who practices ijtihad.
                       ˆ                     philosophy, Qur'an studies and hadıth
                                                               ˆ               ˆ
                                             studies are all compatible.
mukha t arah (Arabic: risk)
           ˙                                 mu'min (Arabic: believer, one who
A legal device or stratagem to evade a
                                             preserves safety)
rule of Islamic law (sharı ¤ah). The term
was usually applied to the system of the     Mu' min has come to mean “believer,”
double sale to avoid usury (riba), where
                                 ˆ           but it is related to other formations from
the difference in the prices between the     this root which mean safety and surety.
first sale and the second constitutes the     Allah is called al-Mu' min in Q. 59:23,
unearned profit. The Arabic word was          apparently with this meaning. These
borrowed into Latin as mohatra, with         senses of the word relate closely to the
the same meaning. (See also banks and        sense of safety and surety in the word
banking; maysir.)                            Islam itself, and the concept of belief
                                             and acceptance seems to imply the
    ˆ         ˆ                              surety of being in God’s protection.
mulla , or mula
See mawla.
                                                ˆ   ˆ
                                             muna fiqu n (Arabic: dissemblers)
    ˆ ˆ ˆ
mulla ba shı (Persian)                       These are the hypocrites, mentioned in
                                             the Qur'an as those who feign belief in
A term used in the eighteenth and
                                             Islam. They are condemned to the lowest
nineteenth century as a title for the head
                                             part of Hell. While Arab lexicographers
of the Iranian mullahs.
                                             know of the meaning of the root, “to pay
                                             money,” they prefer to see the term as
mullah                                       related to a word indicating the back
See mawla.
        ˆ                                    door of a gerbil’s den, where the animal
                                             enters one hole and escapes through
      ˆ    ˆ             ˆn
Mulla S adra , S adr ad-Dı                   another. Historically, they have identified
        ˙      ˙
Muh ammad b. Ibra hıˆ ˆm                     the hypocrites with those Muslims in
    ˙ ˆ ˆ
Qawa mı Shı ˆ zı (979/1571–
           ˆra ˆ                             Madınah who seemingly supported the
1050/1640)                                   Muslims but proved faithless when the
                                             city was attacked by the Meccan forces.
Persian mystic, philosopher, and theolo-     In Sufı discussions, the concern is more
                                                   ˆ ˆ
gian of the Safavid period, who pro-             ˙
                                             spiritual, and they contrast the word
pounded the notion of different levels of        ˆ                       ˆq
                                             nifaq (hypocrisy) with wifa (harmony),
being or existence. He studied in his                           ˆ ˆ
                                             and see the munafiqun as bringers of
native town of Shıraz and in Isfahan,
                     ˆ ˆ               ˆ     disharmony to the community.
and was forced to retire from public life
because some of his early writings on
mysticism were condemned. Called from                     ˆr
                                             Munkar wa-Nakı
retirement to a teaching post in Shıraz,
                                     ˆ ˆ     The two angels, not mentioned in the
he began to write the foundation of a        Qur'an, who guard the grave and are
new school of Shı¤ısm that combined
                    ˆˆ                       involved in an individual’s punishment.
elements of a number of existing             According to popular belief, the dead
schools. He is credited with moving          will be asked about Muhammad. The
Shı¤ı theology away from its reliance
   ˆˆ                                        righteous will answer that he is the
on Aristotelian philosophical concepts       apostle of Allah, and they will be left
and creating a new terminology that          alone until the yawm ad-dın. The rest
expresses reality in terms of God’s light.   will be tortured in the grave every day
      ˆ ˆ
al-murabitun                                                                        158

except Friday until the Day of Judgment.      Khawarij and formed the foundation for
The Mu¤tazilah rejected the notion of         the development of Sunnı Islam. In the
an actual punishment in the grave, and        early controversies between the Shı¤ı and
in the controversies between them and         the Khawarij, a central issue was the
the traditionists, Sunnı doctrine crystal-
                        ˆ                     status of those who had committed a
ized around the actuality of punishment.      grave sin. Both sides regarded the other
By the third/ninth century, various           as having committed apostasy by their
creeds developed that expressed the           actions, the Shı¤ı for supporting ¤Alı b.
                                                                 ˆˆ                   ˆ
“reality” of punishment in the grave.         Abı Ta lib’s decision to enter into
                                                   ˆ ˆ
                                              negotiations with Mu¤a    ˆwiyah, and the
       ˆ    ˆ
al-mura bit u n (Arabic: dwellers in          Khawarij for leaving the community and
forts)    ˙                                   declaring all who did not believe as they
                                              did to be apostates and sinners. The
Known in Western literature as the
                                              middle way between those two was
Almoravids, this dynasty in North
                                              labeled irja' , deferral or postponement
Africa and Spain started in the fifth/
                                              of judgment. They held that judgment
eleventh century through the reform
                                              was up to God, who would decide when
efforts of a Sanhajah Berber chieftain,
               ˙ ˙                            He willed. They held that both Abu Bakr
who had become inspired on a hajj. He
                                 ˙            and ¤Umar were above reproach, and
built a fort (ribat), from which his
                      ˙                       they deferred judgment on both ¤Uth-
political and religious movement spread.
                                              man and ¤Alı. They held that the nature
                                                 ˆ           ˆ
The ribat gave the name to the move-
          ˙                                   of faith (iman) was defined by belief
ment that ruled until their defeat by al-
                                              independent of acts. Politically, they
Muwahhidun in 540/1146.
        ˙˙                                    represented the center majority against
                                              what were perceived as radical groups.
   ˆd (Arabic: seeker)
murı                                          They translated this into political theory
An initiate of a Sufı tarıqah. Entrance
                    ˆ ˆ   ˆ                   by supporting a more open view of the
                  ˙     ˙
into this state is usually marked by a        caliphate than the Shı¤ı, but more restric-
public ceremony in which the murshid,         tive than the Khawarij. Their middle
the guide, gives the initiate an object,      doctrine became marginalized as tradi-
such as a subhah (rosary), a khirqah          tionalist Sunnı Islam developed, and
                ˙                             Ahmad b. Hanbal was vehemently
(woolen cloak) or other mark of the new
status. The length of time a person              ˙             ˙
                                              opposed to the Murji'ites, declaring them
remains in this role and the obligations      to be excluded from the community,
vary from one tarıqah to another.
                     ˆ                        ('Ummah). Not all schools held such a
                ˙                             strong view, and many Murji'ite views
Murı                                          became mainstream Sunnı doctrine.
A prominent Sufı tarıqah in Senegal,
               ˆ ˆ   ˆ
             ˙     ˙
founded by Amadu Bamba M’Backe                murshid (Arabic: guide)
(c. 1850–1927).                               One who gives right guidance along the
                                              mystic way. Often used as the term for
Murji'ah (Arabic)                             someone who guides an initiate, or
                                              murıd, into a Sufı tarıqah. (See also
                                                  ˆ           ˆ ˆ    ˆ
The Murji'ites, an early group within                       ˙     ˙
Islam that held the punishment of sinners
would be “postponed,” and, in contrast
to the Khawarij, that Muslims who
               ˆ                              mur tadd (Arabic: one who turns
sinned did not cease to be Muslims            back)
because of their sin. They held a political   An apostate is one who either returns to
position between that of the Shı¤ı and the
                                ˆˆ            a former religion, in the case of a
159                                                                       Musaylimah

convert, or one who denies Islam in           (Aaron), encountered Pharaoh in a series
either speech or action. A person, born a     of tests and led the Israelites from Egypt,
Muslim, who treats the Qur'an with
                                 ˆ            during which God killed Pharaoh and
disrespect would be accused of being a        his army in the Red Sea. When they
murtadd even when there was not a             reached Sinai, God gave him the tawrat  ˆ
“return” per se. Such individuals are         (Torah). He then guided the Israelites
described in the Qur'an as having earned
                      ˆ                       toward the Holy Land, but God sent
punishment in the next life. In the           angels to take him before he reached
hadıth, there are numerous statements
     ˆ                                        that destination. In the post-Qur'anic
attributed to the Prophet that call for the   stories, Musa burns his mouth on coals
                                                             ˆ ˆ
killing of the one who changes religion       when Pharaoh offers him gold, and he
away from Islam. The different schools        becomes a stammerer. His meeting with
(madhhab) of Islamic law vary about           al-Khadir is a story particularly popu-
the possibility of repentance, but almost                ˆ˙ ˆ
                                              lar in Sufı commentaries, and is meant
all make a distinction between male and                ˙
                                              to demonstrate that there are other
female apostates and whether or not the       truths beside just the exoteric ones. An
apostasy was under compulsion, in             interesting development in the tafsır    ˆ
which case it is forgiven. (See also          literature is the creation of a Musa as-
                                                                                  ˆ ˆ
riddah.)                                      samirı, Moses the Samaritan, who was
                                                ˆ     ˆ
                                              responsible for the creation of the
                                              golden calf idol that the Israelites
 ˆ ˆ
Mu sa (Arabic)
                                              worshiped. The purpose of this narrative
The prophet Moses, mentioned in the           creation seems to be to explain away
Qur'an. The Qur'anic picture of Musa
       ˆ             ˆ                 ˆ ˆ    Harun’s role in the affair.
                                                  ˆ ˆ
is similar to the biblical and Jewish
Haggadic story of Moses, and is one of
                                                 ˆ ˆ                    ˆ
                                              Mu sa b. Ja¤far as -S a diq al-
the longer and more developed narra-                                ˙ ˙
                                              Ka z im (c. 128/745–183/799)
tives in the Qur'an. Musa is presented as
                  ˆ      ˆ ˆ                      ˙
a precursor to Muhammad and similar           The seventh Ima m for the Ithna
                                                                 ˆ                  ˆ
                     ˙                        ¤Ashariyyah Shı¤ı, he was a son of
to him both in mission and in the                              ˆˆ
reception of his people. What is not          Ja¤far as -Sa diq. After his father’s
found explicitly in the Qur'an wasˆ                       ˙
                                              death, his˙ claim to the Imamate was
supplied by early commentators, so we         supported by those who became known
know that Fir¤awn (Pharaoh) decreed           as the “Twelvers,” the Ithna ¤Asharı.
                                                                         ˆ       ˆ
that all Israelite first-born boys were to
be slain. His mother placed him in a
chest and cast him in the Nile, where he
was found by Pharaoh’s wife, who took         A younger contemporary of Muham-
him into the palace to raise him. When        mad and a pretender to prophecy, ˙who
he would not nurse, burning the breasts       led his tribe, the Banu Hanıfah, in revolt
                                                                    ˆ     ˆ
of all who tried, his own mother was                                  ˙
                                              in the riddah wars. According to
hired as a wet-nurse. When he reached         Islamic stories, he wrote to Muhammad
his majority, God gave him understand-                                         ˙
                                              offering to share the role of prophet,
ing and he recognized the social injus-       which earned him the nickname al-
tices against his people. His speaking out             ˆ
                                              Kadhdhab and the declaration that he
caused the elders to plot against him, so     was a liar. He died in a bloody battle in
he fled to Midian, married, and received       the year after Muhammad died. Little is
his prophetic mission from God through        known about the˙ content of his sup-
a burning bush. He then returned to           posed prophetic message, except for
Egypt, and, with his brother, Harun  ˆ ˆ      some statements ascribed to him.
mushrikun                                                                        160

mushriku n (Arabic: associators)           Bukharı, is called sahıh, “sound.”
                                                 ˆ ˆ                  ˆ
                                                                     ˙ ˙
                                           His collection is ranked just below that
Those who engage in shirk (polytheism)
or the association of other deities with   of al-Bukharı among the top six collec-
                                                      ˆ ˆ
God.                                       tions. He was born in Nıshapur and
                                                                        ˆ ˆ ˆ
                                           traveled extensively from an early age in
                                           pursuit of traditions. The strength of
Muslim (Arabic: one who submits)           Muslim’s collection is in the organiza-
The name, derived from the Arabic root     tion of each chapter, which deals with
s-l-m, meaning “peace,” indicates that     only one subject, unlike others, which
the person who submits to God is           may contain numerous subjects in one
granted the peace and surety of certain    chapter, and allows for a careful scrutiny
reward for good actions and certain        of both the content of the matn and the
punishment for evil, unlike the uncer-     extent of the proliferation of the isnad.
tainty of trying to appease multiple
deities in polytheism. (See also Iman;
                                 ˆ ˆ       Muslim–Jewish dialogue
                                           The model for Muslim–Jewish dialogue
                                           is Jewish–Christian dialogue, but it has
Muslim Brotherhood                         been less successful because of mutual
See al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun.
           ˆ           ˆ                   suspicions on both sides and the inter-
                                           jection of the politics of the Palestinian–
                                           Israeli conflict into the discussion, in
Muslim–Christian dialogue
                                           which nationalism and religious identity
The movement to promote understand-        are strongly intertwined in both groups.
ing between Muslims and Christians         In spite of the problems, there have been
started by the World Council of            successful dialogue groups operating
Churches in the middle of the twentieth    since the mid-1970s in both the United
century, but expanded to include a         States and in Israel.
number of religious groups interested
in interfaith communications. The goals    Muslim League
are to promote mutual understanding
without attempts at conversion in a non-   A political group founded in     1906 in
judgmental environment, and are mod-       India, the aim of which was to   establish
eled on Jewish–Christian dialogue.         an independent Muslim state.     It was a
Many Muslims are reluctant to partici-     major factor in the formation    of Paki-
pate because of the long history of        stan.
hostile interfaith communication, the
memory of colonialism and the identifi-            ˆ
cation of Christianity with the oppres-    The branch of the Isma¤ılı Shı¤ı who
                                                                   ˆ ˆ ˆ    ˆˆ
sion of Muslims. In spite of the           recognized the Fatimid caliph al-Musta¤lı
                                                           ˆ                       ˆ
difficulties, however, there has been                         ˙
                                           (487/1094–495/1101) as Imam. ˆ
considerable success at local levels in
promoting mutual understanding and         mut¤ah (Arabic: enjoyment)
respect where Muslim and Christian
groups participate.                        Temporary marriage, contracted for a
                                           negotiated bride-price, or mahr, and
                                           terminated at a fixed time rather than
Muslim b. al-H ajja j, Abu al-ˆ            by divorce. This legal arrangement is
H usayn (c. 202/817–261/875)
˙                                          sanctioned only by the laws of the Ithna
A famous collector of hadıths. His
                            ˆ              ¤Ashariyyah Shı¤ı. Those who sanction
collection, along with ˙ that of al-       this marriage arrangement see Q. 4:24
161                                                                          ˆ
                                               Mysterious Letters of the Qur'an

as a source, but the Sunnı commenta-
                            ˆ               ality of eternals. This doctrine was used
tors argued from an early date that the     in the mihnah of the early ¤Abbasidsˆ
passage only discussed lawful marriages     and earned the Mu¤tazilah a bad reputa-
and the equity rights of women. In the      tion. Their speculative theology influ-
hadıths, there is some evidence that it
     ˆ                                      enced all later theological movements in
was a pre-Islamic practice. There are       Islam and is being revived in some
also contradictory traditions, with some    circles today as a counter to anti-
saying that the Prophet permitted the       intellectual fundamentalism. (See also
custom and those who said that he                ˆ
forbade it.
                                            al-muwah h idu n (Arabic:
      ˆ    ˆ
mutasha biha t (Arabic: unclear)            unitarians) ˙ ˙
The term applied to the ambiguous or        This is the name given to the members of
unclear verses of the Qur'an. (See also
                          ˆ                 a reformist movement also known as the
muhkamat; Mysterious Letters of             Almohads, that ruled in North Africa
   ˙               ˆ
the Qur’an; tafsır.)                        and Spain in the sixth/twelfth and
                                            seventh/thirteenth centuries. The foun-
mut awwif (Arabic: guide to                 der of the movement, Ibn Tumart, ˆ
circumambulation)                           brought reformist ideas from his study
                                            in the east and had instilled ideas of
The guide for the hajj who assists
                      ˙                     reform and conquest among the Mas-
pilgrims through the rituals of the                                               ˙
                                            mudah Berber tribes, who were protest-
pilgrimage to assure that all is done
                                            ing against the rigid rule of the al-
correctly. These guides also make
                                            murabitun. Their capital was Marra-
                                                 ˆ     ˆ                          ˆ
arrangements for food and water, lod-                ˙
                                            kesh, and at the height of their rule
ging, tent arrangements, and other
                                            governed Spain and North Africa.
necessaries. Current arrangements have
many of these guides formed into guilds,
each in charge of a specific group of        Muzdalifah
pilgrims from a particular geographic       A place near Mecca where pilgrims on
area.                                       the hajj spend the night after running
                                            between there and Mina.
A theological movement that created         Mysterious Letters of the
speculative dogmatic theology in Islam.         ˆ
                                            Qur'a n
It began in the same religious and          The name in Western literature for the
political climate as the Shı ¤ı , the
                                 ˆ ˆ        letters found at the beginning of twenty-
Khawarij, the Murji'ah and other
        ˆ                                   nine of the surahs of the Qur'an. Over
                                                          ˆ                  ˆ
sectarian groups. They adopted an           the years, both Muslim and Western
“intermediate” stance between those         commentators have tried to decipher the
who felt that the commission of sin         meaning of the letters. To date, each
caused immediate apostasy and those         theory has failed to adequately satisfy
who felt that sin had no impact on          every critic, and one is left to conclude
belief. They called themselves the “peo-    that they are among the most obscure of
ple of justice and unity” (Arabic ahl al-   the mutashabihat, whose meaning is
                                                          ˆ    ˆ
¤ adl wa-t-tawhıd), holding that God was
                 ˆ                          with God alone. Some of the letters have
absolutely just and unitary. Their most     found their way into popular use in
famous doctrine held that the Qur'an  ˆ     amulets and as given names of indivi-
was created, argued to prevent a plur-      duals.

nabı (Arabic: prophet)                       which means “breath” or “wind.” Dif-
This is the usual word for prophet in the    ferent theologians have speculated about
Qur'an and in Arabic literature. It
      ˆ                                      whether the body will be resurrected
implies that the recipient has been          after death or only the soul, but Muslims
chosen for prophethood by God and            generally hold that the soul is immortal.
has received wahy (revelation) and
scripture from God. Muhammad is the          nahd ah (Arabic: to rise)
last in the line of prophets in Islam,             ˙
                                             This term has come to mean an awaken-
which starts with Adam. In popular           ing or a renaissance. It has been used to
tradition, God is said to have revealed      refer both to the Arab renaissance from
His scripture to seventy prophets in the     the middle of the nineteenth century to
seventy languages of humankind.              the end of World War I and to the rise of
                                             Arab and Islamic movements in the
nabı                                         modern period in general.
A slightly alcoholic beverage fermented
from barley, dates, raisins, and/or honey.   Nahdatul Ulama
This drink was permitted in moderation
                                             An important Islamic social organiza-
by some Hanafı jurists and by others as
          ˙                                  tion founded in 1926 in Indonesia, the
a medicinal compound, but in recent
                                             purpose of which is to foster relation-
times the word has come to mean any
                                             ships among the four Sunnı schools of
alcoholic beverage and, therefore, for-
                                             law, promote proper Islamic education,
                                             attend to the needs of the poor, and
                                             promote a lawful Islamic economy.
Nafıˆsah, as-Sayyidah (died                  Under the leadership of Abdurrahman
209/824)                                     Wahid, the movement has tried to
The great-granddaughter of al-Hasan          become a proponent of a democratic
b. ¤Alı, she gained a reputation˙ as a
       ˆ                                     and harmoniously Islamic Indonesia.
              ˆ ˆ
worker of karamat. Her tomb in Cairo is
an object of pilgrimage and veneration.                    ˆ
                                             Nahj al-bala ghah (Arabic: the
(See also karamah.)
             ˆ                               way of eloquence)
                                             A collection of sayings, letters, and
nafs (Arabic: self, spirit, soul)            sermons attributed to ¤Alı b. Abı Talib.
                                                                      ˆ      ˆ ˆ
This word for soul seems to have a sense                                       ˙
                                             In spite of some doubt as to whether all
of personal identity, as opposed to ruh,
                                     ˆ       of it may be accurately attributable to
163                                                                               ˆ

¤Alı, the work has enjoyed considerable
   ˆ                                          names and naming
popularity and generated numerous             Names under Islam have a special
commentaries and translations into            significance. A tradition reportedly from
other languages.                              Muhammad enjoins Muslims to give
                                              pleasant and beautiful names to their
an-Nahrawa n                                  children. There is also the Qur'anic   ˆ
The location east of the Tigris river         principle to call children after their true
where ¤Alı b. Abı Talib fought with the
           ˆ      ˆ ˆ                         fathers. This has led to a patronymic
      ˆ             ˙
Khawarij in 38/658. The battle saw the        system among Muslims, even outside the
death of many of the Khawarij, and ¤Alı
                             ˆ        ˆ       sphere where Arabic is used. Addition-
was roundly condemned by his contem-          ally, in many places the laqab or
poraries for the slaughter. A member of       “nickname” is used as well as the nasab
the Khawarij assassinated him, and the
           ˆ                                  or location/tribal name. Titles, such as
movement continued to exist under the         Hajjı for someone who has completed
                                              the hajj, or Sharıf, claiming descent
reign of the 'Umayyads.                                            ˆ
                                              from ˙the Prophet, are also added. In the
                                              modern period and in response to
                                              Western influence and the necessities of
A city near Kufah that contains the
               ˆ                              having surnames as index names, the
tomb of ¤Alı b. Abı Talib. The site and
           ˆ       ˆ ˆ                        strict patronymic system is changing.
the surrounding locations are regarded        Children may be named after prophets
as holy among the Shı¤ı and receive
                          ˆˆ                  in the Qur'an, including Muhammad
much pilgrim traffic. It is also referred to          ˆ ˆ                        ˙
                                              and ¤Isa; the latter custom may have
as a mashhad, which means a tomb of           influenced the Spanish to be the only
an Imam.
      ˆ                                       Christians to name their children after
                                              Jesus. Converts to Islam regularly adopt
Nakı                                          Islamic names.
See Munkar wa-Nakır.
                                              Namru d
nama z (Persian: obligatory prayer)           He is only alluded to in the Qur'an, but
See salat.
       ˆ                                      is identified with the biblical Nimrod as
    ˙                                         the one who cast Ibrahım into the
                                                                        ˆ ˆ
                                              blazing furnace. Extra-Qur'anic stories
   ˆ   ˆ
nama zga h (Persian: place of prayer)         add many details to the short version in
In India, this is the name for a place of     the Qur'an. He is thought to be one of
prayer, built on the side of town closest     the three or four kings who ruled the
to Mecca (the west), with only a wall,        world. He, like Fir¤awn (Pharaoh), is
the mihrab (the indicator of the direc-       told that a child will destroy his king-
tion of˙ prayer), and the minbar (the         dom, so sets out to kill all the male
pulpit). The resulting partial enclosure is   children. Ibrahım, the prophet of his
                                                            ˆ ˆ
often large enough to accommodate the         age, is born in secret and matures so
entire male population of the town. It is     rapidly in both mind and body that he
used for the celebration of the ¤Id al-
                                    ˆ         cannot be taken for one of those slated
Fitr and the ¤Id al-Adha, and usually
                ˆ           ˆ                 for death. When Ibrahım begins preach-
                                                                   ˆ ˆ
   ˙                      ˙
has no special place ˙ for ablutions.         ing to him, Namrud claims to have
These enclosures are not regarded with        power over life and death, but the
the same sanctity as a mosque and can         prophet is able to restore birds to life.
be destroyed and rebuilt without special      Namrud is credited with building the
concerns. (See also masjid.)                  tower of Babel to assault heaven, as well
 ˆ ˆ
Namus                                                                             164

as to fly to Heaven to attack God by           for the place of punishment for the
using an eagle-powered flying chest. In        wicked in the afterlife.
frustration, he throws Ibrahım into a
                             ˆ ˆ
fire, but angels cool him with their           an-Nasa 'ı Abu ¤Abd ar-
                                                         ˆ ˆ,   ˆ
wings. After ruling for four hundred                   ˆ
                                              Rah ma n Ah mad b. Shu¤ayb
years, he is tortured for four hundred by         ˙          ˙
                                              (died c. 303/915)
a gnat that enters his brain through his
nose and torments him to death.               The author of one of the six major
                                              compilations of hadıth. Little is known
                                              of his life or death.
 ˆ ˆ
Na mu s (Arabic)
This word, thought to be a name, which              ˆ ˆ
                                              nas a ra (Arabic)
occurs in the sırah, is identified as the
                ˆ                                 ˙
archangel Jibrı l who brought the
                   ˆ                          Christians, particularly those living
Qur'an to Muhammad. Waraqah b.
      ˆ                                       under Islam. It is used fifteen times in
Nawfal, the cousin of Khadıjah, said
                               ˆ              the Qur'an to refer to Christians, and is
that this is the same Namus who came
                        ˆ ˆ                   thought by most commentators to come
to Musa. Other traditions and compar-
      ˆ ˆ                                     from the place-name an-Nasirah, Nazar-
                                                                       ˆ ˆ˙
                                              eth, the hometown of ¤Isa (Jesus). It
isons with Syriac and Greek texts show
that this word means “law,” in the sense      may also reflect a use of the word
of scripture, and the tradition under-        Nazarene, an early term for Christians.
stands that Musa and Muhammad both
               ˆ ˆ
                          ˙ ˆ                    ˆ                    ˆ
                                              Na s if, Malak H ifnı (1886–1918)
received scripture from Allah.
                                                   ˙              ˙
                                              Egyptian feminist and Islamic reformer,
Naqshbandiyyah                                                              ˆ
                                              who wrote under the name Bahithat al-
                                                ˆ                             ˙
A major Sufı order found in Turkey,
             ˆ ˆ                              Badiyah, “Searcher in the Desert.”
Central Asia, and the Indo-Pakistani          Among other reforms, she advocated
subcontinent, it is rarely found among        equality for women under Egypt’s Mus-
the Arabs and has had only a slight           lim Personal Status Code and for women
influence in Iran, in spite of the fact that   to be able to participate fully in con-
many of its major works were first             gregational worship.
composed in Persian. The order
adheres to a spiritual and interior dhikr       ˆ                  ˆ
                                              na sikh wa-mansu kh (Arabic:
and has only occasionally been a major        abrogating and abrogated)
political force in modern times, parti-       The doctrine in Qur'an interpretation
cularly in late Ottoman Damascus              that holds that verses revealed later may
(Dimashq).                                    abrogate some of those revealed earlier.
                                              This doctrine allows the removal of
na r (Arabic: fire)                            apparent contradictions within the
This is the word used in the Qur'an for       Qur'an. The abrogated verse (mansukh)
                                                   ˆ                                ˆ
hell-fire, occurring 111 times with this       remains, however, in the Qur'an. (See
meaning. It also means “fire” in the           also abrogation.)
more normal sense, and is used to name
the fire into which Ibrahım was cast by
                       ˆ ˆ                    Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (born
Namrud, and the fire that burned in the
       ˆ                                      1933)
bush when God spoke to Musa. ˆ ˆ
                                              Iranian-born, Harvard-educated histor-
                                              ian of science, philosopher, and advocate
an-na r (Arabic: Hell or the fire)             of traditional Islamic mysticism. His
This is one of the most common terms          writings advocate a balance between
165                                                                            Nigeria

the sacred and profane world, casting       tion of the movement, repudiating the
Western individualism as the opposite of    racist doctrines and moving his fol-
the true freedom of the Sufı knowledge
                          ˆ ˆ               lowers into the mainstream of Sunnı      ˆ
of the relationship of the individual to    Islam, ultimately abandoning a distinc-
God.                                        tive name for the movement. This led to
                                            a splintering off of some members under
                                            the leadership of Louis Farrakhan, who
Nation of Islam
                                            claimed the leadership and the name of
The movement among black Americans          the movement, retaining many of its
started by Wallace D. Fard in Detroit,      racist and separatist notions that puts it
Michigan, in the 1930s. He used both        outside the mainstream of Islam.
the Bible and the Qur'an in his preach-
ing, promoted black separatism from the         ˆ
                                            Nawru z (Persian: new day)
United States, self-help for the members
of his Temple of Islam, and established     Originally an Iranian vernal festival and
his own style of worship. When he           Zoroastrian new year, it has become
disappeared mysteriously in 1934, Eli-      Iran’s foremost national festival, marked
jah Muhammad assumed leadership             with celebrations and exchanges of gifts.
and put his own stamp on the move-          In Shı¤ı tradition, it was on this day that
ment. He taught that Allah was a black
                           ˆ                Muhammad designated ¤Alı b. Abı  ˆ          ˆ
man, and that he knew him personally           ˆ ˙
                                            Talib as his heir, that the ark of Nuh   ˆ
                                            came to rest, the idols were cleansed      ˙
and was his anointed messenger. He
promoted black self-help, self-improve-     from the Ka¤bah and the day that
ment, and a conservative lifestyle. His     Muhammad al-Qa'im will appear to
                                            defeat ad-Dajjal and signal the end of
movement recruited actively in the
poorest neighborhoods and in the pris-      time.
ons, enjoying great success. It estab-
lished a network of small businesses        Niger, Republic of
nationwide, selling healthful and useful    This republic is predominantly Muslim,
products to the black community. Cen-       having first been missionized by traders
tral to his doctrine was the notion that    crossing the Saharan trade routes. The
white persons were products of an evil      Sufıs have historically had strong influ-
                                              ˆ ˆ
scientist named Yacub, who made the         ˙
                                            ence in the region, and there are several
white race temporarily dominant in a        tarıqahs represented. The republic
rebellion against Allah. At the end-time,
                      ˆ                     ˙
                                            maintains close ties to the rest of the
through the battle of Armageddon, the       Islamic world, and shows influence from
black race would again dominate the         the various movements current in other
earth under Allah. In the period from
                 ˆ                          Islamic countries.
1952 to 1964 the movement was also
led by Malcolm X, but a difference in
ideology caused Malcolm X to leave the      Nigeria
movement; he converted to Sunnı Islam
                                  ˆ         Approximately half of the population is
just a year before he was assassinated by   Muslim, with the next largest group
members of the movement. The leader-        Christians, generally located in the south-
ship was then assumed by Louis Abdul        east of the country. In the twentieth
Farrakhan. When Elijah Muhammad             century, Sufı brotherhoods were a major
                                                      ˆ ˆ
died in 1975, one of his six sons, Imam
                                      ˆ     way for ˙Muslims to organize and relate
Warith Deen Mohammed, was named             to each other, but in the 1970s a reformer
supreme minister of the Nation of Islam.    named Abubakar Gumi started a reform
He set about dismantling the organiza-      movement in which he challenged the
nikah                                                                              166

brotherhoods, translated the Qur'an   ˆ       or orthopraxy. The word does not occur
into Hausa, and advocated interpreting        in the Qur'an, but it is found in the
the Qur'an to accommodate modern
          ˆ                                       ˆ
needs. Because Nigeria is multiethnic
and traditional ties to the brotherhoods         ˆ                 ˆ ˆ
                                              Niza riyyah, also Niza rı
have been hard to dissolve, the Islamic       Isma ¤ı ˆ Shı ˆ
                                                 ˆ ˆlı    ˆ¤ı
communities, while reformist, have not
                                              These are members of the group of
developed a unified religious or national
                                              Isma¤ılı Shı¤ı who supported the acces-
                                                    ˆ ˆ ˆ  ˆˆ
                                              sion of Nizar, the eldest son of the
                                              Fatimid caliph al-Mustansir. One of the
nika h (Arabic: marriage, marriage                ˙                     ˙
                                              leading figures in the development of
contract)                                     this branch of Islam was Hasan-i
                                              Sabbah, who not only led the movement
See marriage.                                         ˆ
                                              ˙         ˙
                                              politically but also helped develop the
Ni¤matulla hiyyah                             role of the Imam as the central inter-
                                              pretive figure in this branch of Shı¤ısm.
An Iranian Shı¤ı Sufı tarıqah, started
                ˆˆ ˆ ˆ      ˆ                 This branch of Islam is found through-
                   ˙     ˙
in the eighth/fourteenth century as           out the world, with their current head-
Sunnı and changing in the ninth/fif-
      ˆ                                       quarters in London, and Aiglemont,
teenth. It is currently found both inside     France. (See also Aga Khan.)
                                                                   ˆ    ˆ
and outside Iran. Its current leader is Dr.
Javad Nurbakhsh, a retired psychiatrist
    ˆ     ˆ
who lives in London. He advocated the
practice of constant, silent dhikr and        See Nuh.
the importance of love over intellect.
The movement has attracted a number           nubuwwah (Arabic: prophethood)
of converts to Islam as well as expatriate    See nabı; rasul.
                                                     ˆ     ˆ
                                              Nu h
Nimrod                                               ˙
                                              This is the prophet Noah, who was
See Namrud.
        ˆ                                     instructed by God to build a ship to
                                              rescue the righteous members of his
ninety-nine names of God                      family from a devastating flood that
See al-'asma' al-husna.
           ˆ         ˆ                        covered the earth. While the Bible does
                 ˙                            not regard Nuh as a prophet, he is the
                                              first of the so-called prophets of destruc-
niyyah (Arabic: intent)                       tion in Islamic tradition. When God
Most actions in Islam are judged by both      sends him to his people, who are known
the action itself and the intention. salat
                                        ˆ     only as the People of Nuh, he warns
is not regarded as valid unless the person                                 ˙
                                              them that they will be destroyed if they
who prays declares the intent to pray         do not repent. When they scorn him,
that prayer. Niyyah is required before        God commands him to build an ark and
washing, prayer, giving charity, making       be ready to sail with two of every
the hajj, observing a fast (sawm), or any     creature when the “oven” boils, an
     ˙                      ˙
other religious act. It must immediately      indication that the primordial waters
precede the act, and the intention must       are coming up from under the ground.
be maintained in the mind until the act is    Nuh’s family comes aboard except for a
completed. In this regard, Islam strikes a         ˙
                                              son, named Yam, who refuses to take his
balance between extremes of orthodoxy         father’s or God’s instruction and is
167                                                                    Nusayriyyah

drowned. This feature, which is not           bakh sh (79 5/1393 –869/1465), a
found in the Bible, makes the account         peripatetic teacher who claimed to have
given in the Qur'an very personal.
                      ˆ                       mastered all knowledge and was called
Tafsır literature has many stories,
     ˆ                                        both Mahdı and caliph (khalıfah) by
                                                           ˆ                 ˆ
including that of a giant named ¤Uj,          some of his followers. The group claims
who clings to the ark and is saved. There     spiritual connection with the philoso-
are also etiological stories, such as the     pher-mystic Shihab ad-Dın as-Suhra-
                                                                 ˆ       ˆ
story of the origin of the pig, created by    wardı, and has been mainly found in
having the elephant sneeze in order to        South and Central Asia.
have an animal that would eat the offal
on board the ark. Also in the tafsır, we
learn the names of Nuh’s sons who
survive with him on the Ark, Sam,             A Turkish religious movement named
Ham, and Yafith. In similar vein to
   ˆ           ˆ                              after Bediuzzaman Said Nursı (1876–
                                                         ¨                   ˆ
traditions found in Jewish commentary         1960), who proposed uniting all Turkish
on this story, Nuh’s wife is described as a
                 ˆ                            Muslims under the twin ideals of Islam
sinner, who described her husband as          and modernism. Although accused of
crazy and undermined his mission.             establishing a new Sufı order (Nursı had
                                                                   ˆ ˆ           ˆ
                                              been educated by the Naqshban-
nu r (Arabic: light)                          diyyah), he and his followers claimed
                                              a wider purpose. The movement has
This is identified with coming from God,
                                              found appeal among educated intellec-
as God’s wisdom and teaching, and with
                                              tuals as well as in the rural, poorer
the Prophet Muhammad. The most
                    ˙                         areas.
famous expression of the concept of
God being light is found in the “light
verse,” Q. 24:35. Islamic philosophers          ˆ                   ˆ
                                              nu r Muh ammadı (Arabic: the light
discussed this nature of God extensively,               ˙
                                              of Muhammad)
relating it to concepts found in Aristotle           ˙
                                              This means the pre-existence of the soul
and in the Neoplatonists. For the Sufı,
                                      ˆ ˆ
                                              of the Prophet, created by God as one of
the concept of light represented˙ the
                                              the first acts of creation. Among the
divine spark and featured prominently
                                              Shı¤ı, this light is transmitted from
in mystic speculations.
                                              Muhammad to the Imams.  ˆ
Nu rbakhshiyyah
                                              Nus ayriyyah
A Sufı tarıqah named after Muham-
    ˆ ˆ   ˆ                                       ˙
mad b. Muhammad b. ¤Abdullah ˙ ˆ r-
  ˙     ˙
                           ˆ Nu               See ¤Alawiyyah.

Or ganization of the Islamic                techniques of manufacturing, helped
Jiha d                                      finance a rapid expansion of the empire
The Munazzamat al-Jihad al-Islamı was
                         ˆ      ˆ ˆ         in the early sixteenth century. Ottoman
formed out ˙of the Hizbullah party in
                              ˆ             society was divided into two main
Lebanon in 1982 ˙as the covert and          classes: the osmanlılar or ruling class,
militant wing of Hizbullah. It was the
                           ˆ                and the re¤ aya, or “protected flock”
                                                          ˆ ˆ
instrument for the bombing of the           class. The religion of the ruling class
United States embassy in Lebanon in         was Sunnı Islam of the Hanafı madh-
                                                       ˆ                     ˆ
                                            hab mixed with elements from Sufı        ˆ ˆ
1983 and for a series of kidnappings
from 1982 through 1991. The group has       practice, pre-Islamic Turkish beliefs, ˙and
adopted an extreme rejectionist stand in    elements brought in by Christian con-
respect to a negotiated settlement of the   verts to Islam. The religions of the
Arab–Israeli conflict.                       subject class were governed by their
                                            own religious rules, since each religious
                                            group was divided into millets, or
Ottoman Empire                              separate religious communities. The
The dynasty was named after its foun-       Muslims of the subject class were
der, Osman I (656/1258–727/1326), a         strongly influenced by Sufı orders and
                                                                        ˆ ˆ
member of a branch of the Oguz Turks,                                ˙
                                            popular charismatic leaders, which ulti-
although the name itself was derived        mately meant that there was a discon-
from Arabic (¤Uthman). The dynasty
                      ˆ                     nection between the two classes
expanded from a remote outpost in           religiously. During the period of decline
Anatolia to encompass the Middle East       in the nineteenth century and leading up
to the borders of Iran, Anatolia, Europe    to the dissolution of the empire after
to the northern borders of Hungary, and     World War I, numerous reforms were
the coast of North Africa almost to the     attempted to correct the social and
Atlantic Ocean. Building on their ghazı
                                      ˆ ˆ   religious problems of the empire, but
heritage, which embraced cavalry war-       these generally resulted in bringing in
fare, a jihad ideology, and a Sunnı
             ˆ                          ˆ   greater Western influence in the areas of
notion of a religious state, they offered   technology and education. Unable to
non-Muslims dhimmı status, which
                        ˆ                   sustain itself economically or militarily,
meant that they could incorporate them      the empire was dissolved after World
into the state without forcing the popu-    War I by the victors, the British, the
lation to convert. The influx of Jewish      French, the Italians, and the Russians.
refugees from Iberia after 1492, who        Many of the borders of modern Middle
brought international trade and new         Eastern states were drawn to reflect
169                                                                Ottoman Empire

colonial interests rather than the needs      tury. With the fall of the empire, many
and history of the indigenous popula-         saw the last hope for the restoration of
tions, resulting in political and religious   the caliphate disappear. (See also Ata-
conflicts throughout the twentieth cen-          ¨         ˆ
                                              turk; Khilafat Movement.)

 ˆ     ˆ
pa disha h (Persian)                          painting
The term, combining the two Persian           Painting in an Islamic religious context is
        ˆ                 ˆ
words, pad, “lord,” and shah, “king,”         iconoclastic, and avoids the use of figures
became a regular term for Muslim              and images, so mosques are traditionally
emperors.                                     decorated with abstract designs, calli-
                                              graphy, and mosaic patterns. In religious
                                              manuscripts, the tradition is different.
Pahlavi, Muh ammad Reza                       Under the influence of miniature painting
  ˆ          ˙
Sha h (1919–1980)                             from South and East Asia, Islamic
                                              religious manuscripts can be filled with
The second and last ruling monarch of
                                              paintings of birds, animals, flowers,
the Pahlavi dynasty in Iran, he was
                                              people, and, in the case of depictions of
installed by combined British and
Russian influence after they ousted his
father, Reza Shah. His reign was marked
by a feeling that his rule was illegitimate
and under the influence of the West.
That feeling increased when he was
restored to his throne in 1953 by a
combined American and British coup
after having lost it when the popular
vote challenged the role of the monarchy
and Mohammad Mossadegh was elected
as prime minister. As part of the shah’sˆ
effort to maintain control, in 1963 he
exiled a number of activist clerics,
                       ˆ     ˆ
among whom was Ayatollah Ruhollah   ˆ     ˆ
Khomeinı. After systematically ˙redu-
cing the power of the groups that
opposed him, he was left to face the
mullah class, who participated in a
secular, Marxist revolution in 1979 that
ousted him. The clerics subsequently
installed an Islamic republic led by
Ayatollah Khomeinı.
        ˆ            ˆ
                                                  Miniature depicting musicians.
171                                                                         pan-Islam

the mir¤aj, images of the Prophet, though
         ˆ                                   country has been marked by tensions
usually veiled so as not to show his face.   among secular modernists, those who
In the court traditions of the Ottomans      desired a religiously based Islamic
and the Safavids, there was a fine            republic based on the Qur'an and
tradition ˙of portraiture, increasingly      sharı ¤ah, liberal reformist Muslims,
influenced by Western models. In many         and those influenced by Sufı traditions.
                                                                        ˆ ˆ
places in the contemporary Islamic                                    ˙
                                             These debates have been carried out
world, Muslim painters are producing         against the background of external
works of art, some of which are pictorial    threats from India, internal threats of
and some of which are abstract, reflecting    civil war, and military dictatorship.
the trends in modern painting in the West    Islamic modernism is the least strong
while incorporating traditional themes       element in the current debate, particu-
and motifs.                                  larly after the departure of the move-
                                             ment’s leader, Fazlur Rahman.
Pakistan (Urdu: pure land)
Pakistan came into being as an Islamic             ˆ        ˆ      ˆ
                                             Pandiya t-i jawa nmardı
republic in 1947 with the partition of       A collection of religious and devotional
British India. It is the only country that   writings attributed to the Niza rı   ˆ ˆ
was created in the name of Islam, and is     Isma¤ılı Shı¤ı Imam al-Mustansır, and
                                                  ˆ ˆ ˆ  ˆˆ     ˆ               ˆ
primarily Sunnı, of the Hanafı madh-
                 ˆ               ˆ                                            ˙
                                             accepted by them as a sacred text. These
hab, but there are Shı¤ı˙ as well from
                          ˆˆ                 are mostly poetic works that contain
both the Ithna ¤Ashariyyah and
                   ˆ                         religious and moral messages.
Isma¤ılı groups. Its national language
    ˆ ˆ ˆ
is Urdu, but there is no single language
that is common to all Pakistanis. Less       pan-Islam
than four percent of the population is       The notion of the unity of all Muslims is
non-Muslim. The religious history of the     as old as the religion itself, although like

                    Tomb of Shah Rukn-i-‘Alam, Multan, Pakistan.
Paradise                                                                             172

the ideal of the unity of all Christians or    cating “Peace be upon him,” meant as
all Jews, it has remained only an ideal.       the equivalent of the Arabic “¤ alayhi-s-
In the modern sense, the pan-Islamic              ˆ
ideology is a product of nationalism, like
pan-Arabism or pan-Turanism. As an
                                               People of the Book
active idea, it was most vital during the
declining years of the Ottoman Empire          See ahl al-kitab; dhimmı.
                                                             ˆ        ˆ
and the period of the Khilafat Move-
ment. In the last half of the twentieth
century it was used for its emotional
appeal rather than as a serious program        An acronym for Pertubuhan Kebajikan
for the unification of all Muslims.             Islam SeMalaysia, the All Malaysia
                                               Muslim Welfare Association, the aim
Paradise                                       of which is to promote a multi-ethnic
                                               Muslim community in Malaysia in
See al-Jannah.
                                               which non-Malays can feel welcome.

Par tai Islam Se-Malaysia
Known by its initials, PAS, this nationalist
and fundamentalist Islamist political          One of the major Islamic languages,
party in Malaysia, founded in 1371/            Persian is a member of the Indo-Eur-
1951, seeks to establish an Islamic state.     opean family of languages. In its modern
At present, they rule the state of Kelantan,   Islamic form, it is known as Farsı and is
where they have established the rule of        written in the arabic script and has a
syariat (Bahasa from Arabic, sharı¤ah).
                                      ˆ        great number of Arabic lexical items. It
                                               is the official language of Iran. It was the
Par tai Persatuan                              court language of the Mughal and
Pembangunan                                    Ottoman empires as well as empires in
                                               Persia. Old Persian was written in cunei-
The Development Unity Party in Indo-
                                               form and has been attested as late as the
nesia, known by the initials PPP, is a
                                               third century b.c.e. Middle Persian,
moderate Islamist party that succeeded
                                               often called Pahlavi, was written in the
in the 1970s and the 1980s in effecting a
                                               Aramaic script and was the official
greater inclusion of Islamic ideals in
                                               language of the pre-Islamic Sassanian
Indonesian politics.
                                               kings. Zoroastrian and Manichaean reli-
                                               gious documents were written in Pahlavi.
pashah                                         Dialects of Persian are spoken by peoples
An abbreviated form of padishah.
                        ˆ    ˆ                 in Afghanistan, Central Asia, and East-
                                               ern Anatolia.
Patani United Liberation
Or ganization                                  pesantren (Javanese: place of study)
A liberation movement in the four
                                               Second-level schools in Indonesia that
southern provinces of Thailand that
                                               teach Islamic subjects, including arabic
seeks to form a mostly ethnic Malay
                                               grammar, Qur'an recitation, tafsır,
                                                                ˆ                    ˆ
state based on Islamic principles.
                                               kalam, fiqh, ethics, logic, history, and
                                               mysticism. Under modern pressures,
pbuh                                           these schools have added more subjects,
Used by English-speaking Muslims after         but appear to be losing ground to other
writing the name of the Prophet, indi-         more modern forms of education.
173                                                                             prayer

Pharaoh                                       or modified this list, with jihad as the
See Fir¤awn.                                  most common addition.

                                              pious foundations
                                              See waqf.
Muslims comprise only about nine
percent of the population of the Philli-
pines, and live in the island of Mind-         ˆr
                                              pı (Persian: elder)
anao. Conversion took place as a result       A term used to designate a Sufı teacher
                                                                               ˆ ˆ
of Islamic traders arriving as early as the                                 ˙
                                              who initiates a murıd into the tarıqah.
                                                                    ˆ                ˆ
thirteenth century, being well estab-         Critics of Sufism contend that ˙ pır is
                                                            ˆ                     the ˆ
lished when the Spanish conquered the                     ˙
                                              an uneducated person whose only claim
area in the sixteenth century. The            to authority is his ability to confer
Spanish called the Muslims the Moros,                ˆ
                                              barakat (blessings), and who often acts
after the Moors of Spain, and failed to       contrary to the Qur'an and the shar-
convert them to Catholicism as they did       ı ¤ah. This tension is a theme that is part
the rest of the inhabitants. The last half    of the story tradition within Sufism. (See
of the twentieth century saw a Moro           also barakah.)                  ˙
liberation movement to establish an
independent Islamic state in Mindanao,         ˆr               ˆn
                                              Pı S adr ad-Dı Muh ammad
with the resultant conflict unresolved.                                   ˙
                                              (died˙c. beginning of the ninth/fifteenth
philosophy                                    Credited with the founding of the
See falsafah.                                 khojas (Nizarı Isma¤ılı Shı¤ı) in India,
                                                           ˆ ˆ     ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆˆ
                                              by converting Hindus and giving them
pilgrimage                                    the title khoja, meaning “sir.” Biogra-
                                              phical information about him is derived
See hajj.                                     from ginans, making them more hagio-
                                              graphic than historical.
Pillars of Islam (Arabic arkan al-
islam)                                         ˆr
                                              Pı Shams (fl. eighth/fourteenth
There are five actions that Muslims            century)
agree are foundational for being a            A Nizarı Isma¤ılı Shı¤ı leader who is
                                                     ˆ ˆ     ˆ ˆ ˆ    ˆˆ
Muslim: shahadah, the declaration of
                 ˆ                            credited with beginning the satpanth, or
faith, salat, the five daily prayers,
             ˆ                                “True Path,” in the area of Sind. Little
zakat, ˙ the giving of charity, sawm,
     ˆ                                        certain is known of his biography except
                                  ˙ ˆ
fasting during the month of Ramadan,
                                    ˙         through the ginans attributed to him.
and hajj, making the pilgrimage. While        (See also Satpanthı.)ˆ
these  ˙ are not in the Qur'an, they are
found in traditions from the Prophet,
and the elements were agreed on early
by most Muslims. Each of these five            See marriage.
actions require an internal spiritual
commitment and an external sign of            Potiphar
intent (niyyah) as well as the faithful
                                              See Qitfır.
completion of the action, showing                   ˙
Islam’s medial position between the
extremes of orthodoxy and orthopraxy.         prayer
Over time, some groups have added to          See salat.
prophethood                                                                     174

prophethood                                 purification
See nabı.
       ˆ                                    Purity is one of the central notions in
                                            Islam and necessary for a Muslim to
puber ty rites                              conduct a daily religious life. Food must
There are no obligatory puberty rites of    be halal, which includes notions of
                                            purity as to both type and preparation,
passage dictated in the Qur'an or in the
sharı ¤ah. Nevertheless, regional custom
     ˆ                                      and the individual must be free from
includes male circumcision (khitan),  ˆ     contaminants, such as blood, feces, etc.
between the ages of three and fifteen,       before performing prayer (sala t).    ˆ
                                            Removal of contaminants through   ˙
and is said to be a practice of the pre-
Islamic prophets, particularly Ibrahım.
                                    ˆ ˆ     ablution, changing clothes, and other
Ceremonies surrounding male circumci-       external acts is prescribed in detail in
sion are elaborate and often mark the       sharı ¤ah. Spiritual purity is equally
entry of the male into full participation   important and requires repenting of sins
of the rites of Islam. The clitoridect-     as well as acts of atonement. Muslims in
omy, so-called “female circumcision,” is    some communities will go to great
a pre-Islamic practice that has little      lengths to lead lives that avoid major
authority or foundation in Islam.           contaminants, such as pork, dogs, and
                                            touching non-Muslims or wearing
                                            clothes worn by them. Modern science
purdah (Persian/Urdu pardah: veil,
                                            and traditional notions of purity have
                                            sometimes combined both to find a
The custom of separating and secluding      scientific basis for religious purity and
women from the public sphere. This          to provide a religious foundation for
notion has come under scrutiny as           public health issues. (See also ghusl;
scholars in many Islamic countries have     taharah; wudu'.)
                                                 ˆ            ˆ
tried to align modern Islamic practice      ˙               ˙
with the practices of greater freedom for
women at the time of Muhammad.

 ˆ ˆl     ˆ ˆl
Qa bı wa-Ha bı (Arabic)                      Qadariyyah (Arabic)
Cain and Abel, sons of Adam, not             The name for a number of theological
mentioned in the Qur'an, but promi-
                          ˆ                  movements in early Islam that held that
nently featured in tafsır. Qabıl is the
                         ˆ    ˆ ˆ            humans have free will and are not
first murderer in human history, killing      limited in their actions by qadar, or
his brother and burying him after            predestination.
watching the crow scratch in the earth.
According to isra'ıliyyat traditions,
                    ˆ ˆ     ˆ
                                             qadhf (Arabic: defamation)
one of the causes of the enmity between
the two brothers was that each of them       A false accusation of unchastity (zina'),
had a twin sister. Each brother was          which is severely punished under Islamic
supposed to mate with his brother’s          law. The revelation of the requirements
twin, but Qabıl preferred to marry his
             ˆ ˆ                             for four eye-witnesses for fornication
own sister, since they had been born in      comes from the experience of ¤A'ishah
Paradise (al-Jannah.) (See also              bt. Abı Bakr, wife of Muhammad, who
    ˆ                                        became separated from a˙ raiding party
                                             when she was accompanying the Pro-
                                             phet. She was found and returned the
qadar (Arabic: divine decree, fate,
                                             next day by a young Muslim, but
                                             rumors were spread that she had had
The term has the sense of fixed limit and     improper relations with him. After a
was probably originally related to con-      period in which she was sent back to her
cepts in Greek and Northwest Semitic         father’s house, the revelation came that
cultures that humans had a fixed portion      made the requirement for four eye-
of fate allotted to them. Because of the     witnesses. The punishment of eighty
extensive use of this term in the Qur'an,
                                      ˆ      lashes is also thought to relate to this
coupled with the related notions that        incident by most commentators. In
God decides salvation or damnation for       Islamic law (sharı ¤ah), this extends to
whom He wills, many have felt that           calling someone a bastard, because this
human free agency was limited. Even          is tantamount to accusing the mother.
among the most “fatalistic,” however,
humans are seen as having the freedom
                                               ˆ ı
                                             qa dˆ (Arabic: judge)
to choose between good and evil. Of all          ˙
of God’s sentient creatures, only the        A person empowered by the ruler of an
lower angels are deprived of that faculty.   Islamic country to judge cases under
(See also kalam.)
               ˆ                             sharı¤ah law. The powers of a qadı
                                                   ˆ                            ˆ ˆ
Qadiriyyah                                                                         176

have historically been broad, but in          ments. In addition, the city is filled with
some Muslim countries in the pre-             small neighborhood mosques and other
modern period, criminal and political         places of local Islamic interest.
cases came under the jurisdiction of a
shurtah or police court, thus avoiding        qahwah (Arabic: coffee)
the protections of sharı¤ ah. The earliest
  ˆ ˆ
qadıs were appointed from the ranks of        Originally, this term meant wine, but by
popular preachers. In many modern             the eighth/fourteenth century, it had
Islamic states, the religious connection      come into common use to mean coffee.
         ˆ ˆ
of the qadı has been modified by the           Because this beverage was not part of
creation of secular judicial systems and      the store of things known to the Prophet
             ˆ ˆ
laws. The qadı may or may not also            in his lifetime, a number of groups have
function as a muftı.ˆ                         sought to have it banned on religious
                                              grounds as an innovation (bid¤ah). So
                                              far, these moves have proved unsuccess-
Qa diriyyah                                   ful.
A prominent early S u fı t arı qah
                          ˆ ˆ       ˆ
                                ˙ˆ ˆ ˆ
founded by ¤Abd al-Qadir al-Jılanı in         al-Qa 'im
Baghdad. While he left no complete
                                              See Muhammad al-Qa'im.
guide, his sons organized the rites of the          ˙
order. It is found today throughout the
Islamic world.                                 ˆ ˆ
                                              Qa ja rs
                                              The Iranian dynasty that succeeded the
Qa f                                          S afavid dynasty, ruling from the
                                              twelfth/eighteenth century to 1342/
The mountain range in Irano-Islamic
                                              1924, when they were succeeded by
cosmology that is said to surround the
                                              Reza Shah Pahlavi. They were Ithna
                                                  ˆ   ˆ                            ˆ
earth. The mountain is either made of or
                                              ¤Ashariyyah Shı¤ı. During their reign,
rests on a giant emerald, and is said to
                                              Western influence in Iran increased.
be the foundation that supports the
earth to keep it stable. All the world’s
mountains are linked to this mountain,         ˆ ˆ
                                              qa nu n (Arabic from Greek: law)
and through it God can cause earth-           This means especially codified legislated
quakes. No one can get to it or go            law, as opposed to the religious law, of
beyond it, and the realm of the eternal       the sharı ¤ah.
life is said to be beyond this range.
                                                   ˆ              ˆ ı
                                              Qara mit ah, or Qarma tˆ
al-Qa hirah (Arabic: the victor; the          (Arabic) ˙            ˙
planet Mars)                                  The Carmathians (also spelled Kar-
Cairo, the capital of Egypt, is one of the    mathians). An offshoot of the early
Islamic world’s most important cities. It     Isma¤ılı Shı¤ı, they were a revolutionary
                                                    ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆˆ
was founded in 359/970 by the Fatimidˆ        group founded by Hamdan Qarmatˆ
caliph al-Mu¤izz near the old camp city˙                              ˙
                                              (disappeared c. 286/899). Their doc-    ˙
of al-Fustat, the site of the military camp
          ˆ                                   trines show a mixture of extreme Shı¤ı ˆˆ
        ˙ ˙
built by˙ the Muslim conquerors of            thought, Gnosticism, and other philoso-
Egypt. The city is rich with mosques          phical systems. They are infamous for
and monuments. Of Islamic importance          their capture of the Black Stone from the
today is the University of al-Azhar.          Ka¤bah in 317/929, which they kept for
Surveys of Islamic monuments list over        over twenty years. With the rise of the
seven hundred major Islamic monu-             Fatimids, the main thrust of the move-
177                                                                          al-Quds

ment was absorbed into the mainstream        Qit fıˆr
of Isma¤ılı Shı¤ıs.
      ˆ ˆˆ ˆˆ                                    ˙
                                             The name of Potiphar, the Egyptian who
                                             purchased Yusuf, is not mentioned in
al-Qa sim                                    the Qur'an, but is identified in the
The son of the Prophet Muhammad and          tafsır literature as a tyrant and a sexual
Khadıjah. Because of him,˙ Muhammad
      ˆ                                      deviant, whose actions forced his wife to
was known as Abu al-Qasim. He died at        falsely accuse Yusuf of misconduct.
                  ˆ     ˆ
the age of two.
                                             qiya s (Arabic: analogical reasoning)
Qaynuqa ¤
      ˆ                                      This term is used in fiqh to refer to the
One of the major Jewish tribes of            strict deductive reasoning that allows
Madınah. They were expelled from
      ˆ                                      one legal case to be linked to another by
the city, and migrated to Syria.             analogy.

Qayrawa n                                    Qom
                                             A small Iranian town south of Tehran, it
Kairouan, an Islamic city in Tunisia, it
                                             is the site of a major Shı¤ı shrine, the
was one of the major cities of Islam,
                                             tomb of Hazrat-i Ma¤sumah, the sister
founded in the seventh century by                        ˙          ˙
                                             of the eighth Imam and the location of
¤Uqbah b. Nafi¤, the conqueror of North
                                             the leading theological seminaries for
Africa. Like other early Muslim cities, it
                                             the Ithna ¤Ashariyyah Shı¤ı.
                                                       ˆ                 ˆˆ
started as a military camp, since the
early Muslim armies of conquest were
not quartered among the conquered            qubbah (Arabic: dome)
populations.                                 The tombs of saints and other holy
                                             places are locations of spiritual power
qiblah (Arabic)                              and significance in Islam. As such, they
                                             are the destinations of pilgrimages and
The direction of prayer toward the
                                             the locations of supplication and wor-
Ka¤bah in Mecca. The determination
                                             ship. While worship practice varies by
of the qiblah is a prerequisite for
                                             location, the rites often involve perform-
observing the rite of salat (prayer). In
                       ˙                     ing prayers (salat), circumambulation
a mosque, this is marked by the mihrab.
                                   ˙         (tawaf), and ˙ sacrifices or offerings of
As Muslims traveled throughout the            ˙
                                             food. In many locations where there are
world, they developed sophisticated
                                             mixed religious groups, the shrines are
techniques to determine the direction
                                             shared by all the worshipers. (See also
of prayer, and those techniques
enhanced their ability to navigate accu-
rately. Modern advances in these tech-
niques have yielded watches that tell the    qubbat as -s akhrah (Arabic: the
times for prayer, recite the adhan, and
                                 ˆ           dome of the ˙ ˙
indicate the qiblah.                         See al-Quds.

qis a s (Arabic: retaliation)                al-Quds (Arabic: the holy)
   ˙ ˙
Islamic law allows retaliation within the    This is the Arabic name for Jerusalem.
bounds of justice for individuals who are    Jerusalem is considered Islam’s third
wronged. This system replaces the pre-       holiest city after Mecca and Madınah.
Islamic notion of revenge that saw no        It first figured in Islamic religious con-
bounds and led to blood feuds.               sciousness as the location of the Masjid
Qur'an                                                                           178

                                           capital of British Mandate Palestine. It is
                                           now included in the state of Israel, and
                                           ownership of the city, particularly the
                                           sites holy to Jews, Christians, and
                                           Muslims, is one of the most sensitive
                                           and contentious issues in the Middle East.

                                           Qur'a n (Arabic: recitation,
                                           This is the scripture for Muslims
                                           brought to the Prophet Muhammad
                                           from God through the mediation of the
                                           archangel Jibrıl.
                                              There are 114 surahs, or chapters,
                                           each divided into 'ayat, or “verses,”
                                           but, more properly, “signs.” Each surah
                                           except for the ninth is preceeded by the
                                           basmalah formula, “In the name of
                                           God, the Merciful, the Compassionate.”
The Dome of the Rock, al-Quds              Each surah has a name derived either
        (Jerusalem).                       from a prominent term or from the
                                           major theme of the chapter. Muslims
al-Aqsa from which Muh ammad
           ˆ                               refer to the surahs by name, while
         ˙                     ˙
ascended to Heaven on the night of his     Western scholarship refers to them by
isra' and mi¤raj. Muslim commentators
    ˆ          ˆ                           number. During Muhammad’s prophetic
after Muhammad’s death also made           career, we are told ˙that Jibrıl reviewed
much of the correlation between Mecca      the revelations annually for accuracy
and Jerusalem as centers of the earth.     and twice before the Prophet’s death.
When the city was captured in the early    Muhammad’s secretary, Zayd b. Tha-      ˆ
years of the conquest, those holy sites,   bit, ˙ headed a commission some two
which were in the same location as the     decades after his death to make an
ruins of the Jewish Second Temple, were    official recension under the sponsorship
marked with the building of mosques        of the caliph ¤Uthman, and by the
and the qubbat as-sakhrah, the Dome of     fourth/tenth century, a system of ortho-
the Rock. Over ˙time, the location was     graphy was fixed that reduced the
further enhanced to become a major         number of variant readings to approxi-
shrine center. During the period of the    mately seven.
Crusades, a body of literature developed      The Qur'an is the culmination of
that was designed to enhance the pres-     God’s revelations, which started with
tige and importance of the city in the     the prophet Adam. It is a revelation
minds of Muslims to encourage them to      both to humans and to jinns, who are
recapture it from the Crusaders. This      regarded as created, with souls, and as
fad a' il al-Quds literature collected
     ˆ                                     capable of salvation and damnation. It is
   ˙ ˆ
hadıths about the city and combined        viewed as the completion of all previous
them with stories adapted from Jewish      scripture and a correction of errors that
and Christian lore, with the result that   have entered the preserved versions of
al-Quds became an object of veneration     those scriptures. For Muslims, previous
and pilgrimage. The city was part of the   scripture is valid only as it agrees with
Ottoman Empire until it became the         the Qur'an. Each part of God’s word can
179                                                                                 ˆ

                                              tion, not bound by specific historical
                                              circumstances or cultural locations.
                                              When the Qur'an refers to stories and
                                              events mentioned in Jewish and Chris-
                                              tian scripture, it does so as a reminder,
                                              and leaves off mentioning all of the
                                              details. It rather sets out the meaning of
                                              the stories for their moral purpose and
                                              as a guide to right behavior. It sets forth
                                              a clear notion of a “contract” between
                                              God and His creatures that good actions
                                              will be rewarded and evil actions pun-
                                              ished at the end of time. In this sense, it
                                              is regarded as the foundation for Islamic
                                              law (sharı ¤ah).
                                                   Muslims are said to live under the
                                              Qur'an, meaning that it is a protection
                                              in every part of their daily lives. It
                                              provides the basis of ethical behavior
                                              and a guide for conducting all life’s
                                              activities. Muslims recite the opening
                                              chapter as well as other portions during
Decorative frontispiece from the Qur’an,
                                              each of the five salat and one-thirtieth
       opening page of Surah 1.
                           ˆ                                     ˙
                                              each night during the month of Rama-
                                              dan. Portions are recited at public
be found in heaven in a “well-guarded          ˙
                                              events and in connection with important
tablet,” the ' umm al-kitab, and is held to
                          ˆ                   life-cycle events. The aesthetic dimen-
be God’s immutable speech. As such, it        sion of recitation, tajwıd, is important
is comparable to the notion of Logos in       in Muslim life, and Qur'an reciters often
Christianity, but, unlike Judaism and         enjoy celebrity status in Islamic coun-
Christianity, Muslims regard the words        tries. Calligraphic designs made from
of the Qur'an divine in and of them-
               ˆ                              Qur'anic passages are used for decora-
selves and as signs and proofs of God.        tion throughout the Islamic world, and,
For this reason, Muslims approach the         in their most abstracted forms, have
text in a state of ritual purity. The ideal   given way to arabesques in Western art.
is to internalize God’s word by memor-             Modern trends in Qur'an interpreta-
izing the Qur'an. Regardless of the
                   ˆ                          tion are generally characterized by two
native language of the individual Mus-        competing strands. Under the general
lim, the Qur'an remains in Arabic, any
                 ˆ                            rubric of “fundamentalism,” some are
translation being a commentary, tafsır. ˆ     proposing a narrow, “literalist” reading
    By its own account, the Qur'an was
                                    ˆ         of the scripture as a means of anchoring
sent by God as a guide and a warning.         their political and social views in the
Both of these functions are presented in      Qur'an. Others are turning to the same
various forms: as direct command, as          text to counter those interpretations and
direct prohibition, as story, and as          to overturn blind adherence to authority
parable. Sometimes the Qur'an has clear
                               ˆ              (taqlıd). These modern trends also
passages, muhkamat, and sometimes
                      ˆ                       characterize the polar tensions in Qur'anˆ
ambiguous or ˙obscure passages, muta-         interpretation throughout the history of
shabihat. In all cases, the style of the
    ˆ    ˆ                                    Islam, during which the Qur'an has ˆ
passages facilitates timeless interpreta-     served as a firm anchor and guide to
Qur'anic recitation                                                                 180

individual Muslims and to the 'ummah          hope that an 'Umayyad defeat would
in general.                                   result in their regaining their privileges.
                                              They formed some of the constituent
Qur'a nic recitation                          elements of the Khawarij and proved to
                                              be some of the most fanatical in those
See tajwıd.

Quraysh (Arabic)                              Qur t ubah
The tribe of Muh ammad and the                      ˙
                                              Cordova was one of the major cities of
dominant tribe in ˙   Mecca during his        Islamic Spain, al-Andalus. The town
lifetime. The name is associated with an      was conquered by Muslims in 92/711
aquatic mammal, possibly a dugong,            and became the capital of al-Andalus in
indigenous to the Red Sea and Indian          99/717. Its major period of prosperity
Ocean, suggesting the origin of the tribe     was during the 'Umayyad period, start-
as a sea-trading group that moved             ing in 138/756. From 422/1031, it was
inland for trade advantage. Descendants       ruled by various dynasties, including the
of the tribe, because of their relationship   Almoravids (al-murabitun) and the
                                                                      ˆ   ˆ
to Muhammad, were eligible to assume                                     ˙ ˆ
                                              Almohads (al-muwahhidun). It was
the office of caliph (khalıfah) in Sunnı
                           ˆ              ˆ                           ˙˙
                                              taken in the Reconquista by Ferdinand
Islam.                                        III of Castile in 1633/1236. Of the major
                                              Islamic monuments, the most striking is
Qurayz ah                                     the Great Mosque, known in Spanish as
         ˙                                    La Mezquita. Numerous Islamic scho-
One of the major Jewish tribes of
Madınah. They were accused of treach-
      ˆ                                       lars were born in the city, including Ibn
ery during the battle of Khandaq and          Hazm and Ibn Rushd.
punished by having their men killed and
their women and children enslaved.            al-Qur t ubı Abu ¤Abd Alla h
                                                         ˆ,  ˆ           ˆ
                                              Muh ammad b. Ah mad b. Abı    ˆ
                                                  ˙            ˙   ˆ ˆ
                                              Bakr b. Faraj al-Ans a rı al-
qurba n (Arabic: sacrifice)                                        ˙ˆ
                                              Khazrajı al-Andalusı (died 671/
See ¤I
     ˆd al-Adha.
               ˆ                              1272)
                                              A writer of Malikı fiqh and tafsır. His
                                                            ˆ    ˆ                ˆ
qurra ' (Arabic: villagers; sg. qari' )
    ˆ                            ˆ                                   ˆ           ˆ
                                              monumental tafsır, Jami¤ li-ahkam al-
The political group(s) in early Islam                                        ˙
                                              Qur' an, is a complete treatise on the
grouped together under the name qurra' ,ˆ     subject of scriptural exegesis. It makes
often but incorrectly translated as           extensive use of hadıths and assists the
“Qur'an reciters.” They were Iraqis,
       ˆ                                      reader in understanding the relationship
who were represented in the armies of         between the Qur'anic verses and law.
both ¤Alı and Mu¤awiyah in their
           ˆ            ˆ
conflict, but ended by blaming ¤Alı more
                                     ˆ        Qus ayy
for the failure of their cause. Their            ˙
                                              Ancestor of Muhammad and father of
political ambitions were not based solely
                                              ¤Abd Manaf and ˙¤Abd al-¤Uzza.
                                                        ˆ                 ˆ
on religious grounds. They were, for the
most part, from southern Iraq, and
under the expansion of Islam, were                         ˆ,    ˆ   ˆ
                                              al-Qushayrı Abu al-Qa sim
losing their positions of privilege, parti-   ¤Abd al-Karı           ˆ
                                                            ˆm b. Hawa zin
cularly under the policies of the caliph      (376/986–465/1074)
¤Uthman. Their support for ¤Alı seems
         ˆ                         ˆ          Writer on kalam and defender of al-
to have been based, in part, on their         ¤Ash¤arı’s thought as well as a Sufı. In
                                                     ˆ                          ˆ ˆ
181                                                                   Qutb, Sayyid

his treatises on metaphysics, he both       Qut b, Sayyid (1324/1906–1386/
defended al-¤Ash¤arı from accusations of
                   ˆ                           ˙
heresy and attempted to harmonize           Influential Islamist thinker associated
mysticism with metaphysics. He also         with al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (the
                                                            ˆ                ˆ
wrote a mystical tafsır on the Qur'an.
                       ˆ             ˆ      Muslim Brotherhood). His writings
                                            include opposition both to the West
qut b (Arabic)                              and toward leaders in Islamic countries
   ˙                                        he saw as violating the precepts of Islam.
As a technical term in Sufism, it means
                           ˆ                His participation in Brotherhood activ-
the “axis” or “pole,” i.e. the center of    ities led to his execution in Egypt in
the hierarchy of saints. (See also walı.)
                                      ˆ     1966. His writings have inspired numer-
                                            ous Islamist revolutionaries.

ar-Rabb (Arabic: the Lord)                    term into a label of praise, claiming that
This is applied exclusively to God. The       they were the ones who turned from or
word occurs as a common noun in               rejected evil. They claim that this was a
Arabic meaning “master,” or “owner,”          term applied to Harun, reinforcing the
                                                                   ˆ ˆ
but a hadıth forbids slaves to refer to
           ˆ                                  notion that ¤Alı’s position with respect to
their masters as rabb.                        Muhammad was like Harun’s to Musa.
                                                                          ˆ ˆ       ˆ ˆ
                                              The city of Qom became the intellectual
                                              center for the Ithna ¤Asharı Shı¤ı move-
                                                                   ˆ         ˆ ˆˆ
Ra bi¤ah al-¤Adawiyyah (c. 95/                ment. They were strongly anti-Sunnı,      ˆ
713–185/801)                                  but were, at first, politically quietist.
A famous female Sufı, she was born in
                       ˆ ˆ                    They held that ¤Alı had been designated
Basrah, stolen into slavery, and freed        by Muhammad as his Imam and khalı-
                                                                           ˆ            ˆ
   ˙                                                  ˙
                                              fah. They allow the practice of
because of her piety. She spent the rest of
her life in mystic seclusion, preaching       taqiyyah, or religious dissimulation, to
the doctrine that the mystic love of God      protect themselves and their community.
and the seeking of His companionship is       Ideas of the early Rafidiyyah influenced
                                                                        ˙ˆ ˆ
                                              the development of Shı¤ısm in general
the object of every true believer. She also
likened the beatific vision to the lifting     and the Ithna ¤Asharıs in particular.
                                                            ˆ         ˆ
of the veil of the bride, the Sufı, by the
                                ˆ ˆ
bridegroom, Allah. She is ˙
                   ˆ           depicted as         ˆ
                                              rahba niyyah (Arabic:
carrying fire in one hand and water in         monasticism)
the other. When asked where she was           This term occurs once in the Qur'an (Q.
going, she replied that she was going to      57:27) in a passage that has given rise to
throw fire into Heaven and water onto          numerous interpretations. Several
Hell, so that both would disappear and        hadıths attribute to Muhammad the
leave humans to contemplate Allah        ˆ     ˙                           ˙
                                              statement that there is no monasticism in
alone, without either the temptation of       Islam. According to a tradition quoted by
reward or the fear of punishment.             Ahmad b. Hanbal, Islam has replaced
                                              monasticism˙with jihad: “Every prophet
ar-ra fid ah (Arabic: rejectors)                                          ˆ
                                              has some kind of rahbaniyyah; the
          ˙                                         ˆ                               ˆ
                                              rahbaniyyah of this community is jihad.”
A term of abuse used by Sunnı against
the Shı¤ı, who rejected the legitimacy of
the first three caliphs in favor of the          ˆ ı
                                              Ra hˆl
caliphate of ¤Alı b. Abı Talib. The
                  ˆ        ˆ ˆ                The biblical Rachel, wife of Ya¤qub    ˆ
Ithna ¤Ashariyyah Shı¤ı ˙
     ˆ                    ˆ ˆ turned the      (Jacob). She is not named in the Qur'an,
183                                                                        ˆ    ˆ

but in Q. 4:23, marrying two sisters is    rajm (Arabic: stoning)
prohibited except when that has hap-       The lapidation or stoning of the devil
pened in the past. Some commentators       during the rites of the hajj. The word
see this as a reference to Ya¤qub’sˆ                                ˙
                                           can also mean “cursed,” and is used in
marriage to both Liya and Rahıl.
                    ˆ      ˆ ˆ             the form rajım as an epithet of the Devil.
                                           (See also Mina.)
ar-Rahˆm (Arabic: the
                                           rak¤ah (Arabic: bowing)
One of the ninety-nine al-'asma' al-
                                           This term has come to mean a unit of
husna, or beautiful names of God and
˙                                          worship in the salat. The number of
part of the basmalah.
                                           units varies with˙ each prayer, with the
                                           first having three, the second, fourth,
ar-Rah ma n (Arabic: the Merciful)         and fifth having four, and the third
One of the ninety-nine al-'asma' al-
                              ˆ            having two, making a total of seventeen
husna or beautiful names of God and
      ˆ                                    units that are obligatory each day. (See
part of the basmalah.                      also fard.)
Rahman, Fazlur (1919–88)                   Ramad a n ˆ
Born in what would become Pakistan,        The ninth month of the Muslim lunar
he became the twentieth century’s fore-    calendar and the month of fasting in
most voice of liberal Islamic reform.      Islam. It is the month in which the
Educated at Punjab University and          Qur'a n is said to have been first
Oxford, he taught for a time in Pakistan   revealed. (See also ¤Bairam; Id al-Fitr;
until he was forced to leave after                                              ˙
criticism of his reformist views. He       ˙
moved to North America, where he
                                                ˆd       ˆ
                                           Rashı Rid a , Muh ammad
became a professor of Islamic studies                      ˙
                                           (1865–1935) ˙
at the University of Chicago. He
believed that fundamentalist approaches    Modernist Islamic revivalist and advo-
to Islam were misguided attempts to        cate of reform, he was born and
maintain a secular status quo, and that    educated in Syria and moved to Egypt
the problems of the Islamic world were a   to join Muhammad ¤Abduh, where he
                                           became one of his close associates.
result of poor religious education. He
regarded himself as a mujtahid, and        Through his influential publication al-
earned a reputation as the “destroyer of   Manar, he advocated a return to the
hadıth” from his view that every
     ˆ                                     foundational sources of Islam, the
tradition should be reviewed in light of   Qur'an, the sunnah, and ijma¤ as a
                                                 ˆ                         ˆ
the overall Qur'anic message. His writ-
                 ˆ                         source for reform, believing that Islam
ings have greatly influenced Islam in       was fundamentally compatible with the
North America and Islamic reformers        modern world. His writings have had
around the world.                          great influence in the modern Islamic
Rajab (Arabic)
The seventh month of the Islamic lunar       ˆ     ˆ
                                           Ra shidu n (Arabic: the rightly
calendar, it was a “holy” month in pre-    guided)
Islamic times. It is the month in which    A term generally applied by the Sunnı  ˆ
the isra' and mi¤raj of the Prophet are
        ˆ           ˆ                      to the first four caliphs after the death
said to have taken place.                  of Muhammad: Abu Bakr, ¤Umar,
rasul                                                                             184

¤Uthman, and ¤Alı. This was a polem-
        ˆ           ˆ                               ˆ
                                              Rayh a nah bt. Zayd (died 10/632)
ical title designed to counter Shı¤ı    ˆˆ        ˙
                                              Concubine of the Prophet Muhammad.
rejectionist claims that only ¤Alı should
                                 ˆ                                       ˙
have been caliph. (See also ar-rafi-   ˆ
                                                 ˆ ˆ
                                              re¤a ya
 ˙                                            See ¤askarı.

rasu l (Arabic: messenger)
                                              Red Crescent
Muhammad is termed a rasul because
     ˙                                        The Islamic equivalent of the Red Cross.
of his message of warning and hope. (See
                                              (See also hilal.)
also nabı.)

                                              Regional Islamic Da¤wah
 ˆ ˆ
ra wı (Arabic: transmitter)                   Council of Southeast Asia and
A transmitter of hadıth, stories, and
                        ˆ                     the Pacific
                    ˙                ˆ ˆ
poetry. In pre-Islamic times, the rawı        Known as RISEAP, the organization was
was an important figure in the chain of        founded in 1980 to coordinate the
preservation of the poetry of the ayyam       region’s missionary efforts.
al-¤ Arab (the battle days of the Arabs).
They were often apprentice poets or           relics
poets in their own right, who would
memorize lines of poetry and preserve         The veneration of relics of holy persons
them. When a poet needed to recover a         and souvenirs of holy places is often
section of poetry, he would go to his         condemned in Islam but has been part of
 ˆ ˆ
rawı and have the lines recited. He           Islamic practice from an early period.
might then amend them and have them           Pieces of the kiswah, the covering of the
committed again to memory. When this          Ka¤bah, are treasured by persons return-
custom was brought into the Islamic           ing from the hajj as possessing the
                                                               ˙         ˆ
                                              power to bestow barakat (blessings).
period, it became one of the patterns for
the preservation and transmission of the      The same is true of the possessions and
Qur'an and hadıths, even after the
       ˆ            ˆ                         remains of saints (walıs). Some of the
introduction of writing.                      ¤ulama' have declared that the practice
                                              is un-Islamic, but other groups have
                                              defended the practice on the basis of
          ˆ ˆ
Rawzah khva nı (Persian)                      Qur'an and hadıth.
                                                    ˆ            ˆ
The narrative lamentations of the mar-
tyrdom of Ima m H usayn b. ¤Alı .
                 ˆ                       ˆ    repentance
                   ˆ ˙
Among the Ithna ¤Ashariyyah Shı¤ı       ˆˆ    See tawbah.
of Iran, these are performed by both
men and women, sometimes at great
length, with professional performers
paid on the basis of their rhetorical skill   See wahy.
and ability to evoke sad emotions from
their hearers.                                revival, renewal
                                              See tajdıd.
ra'y (Arabic: opinion, idea)
In Islamic law, the term has the sense of        ˆ
                                              riba (Arabic: usury)
individual legal opinion or judgment.         Unearned profit, usury, this financial
(See also fiqh; qiyas; sharı ¤ah.)
                     ˆ       ˆ                practice is condemned in the Qur'an
185                                                                                      ˆ

(Q. 2:275ff.). See also banks and bank-        Rightly Guided Caliphs
ing; maysir.)                                  See Rashidun.
                                                    ˆ    ˆ

riba t (Arabic)
       ˙                                       rih lah (Arabic: journey)
Fortified Islamic monastery in North              ˙
                                               A journey taken to obtain religious
Africa. It also refers to the military and
                                               knowledge. The early collectors of
mystical institution that developed
                                          ˆt   hadıths traveled widely to obtain their
around it. The development of the riba         ˙
                                           ˙   collections, and the institution of the
system is linked to the development of
                                               hajj has promoted travel for religious
jihad practices in North Africa. The
    ˆ                                          ˙
                                               purposes. In Persian, the word also
fortifications themselves offered refuge
                                               means to travel to the next life, to die.
and protection to the troops and to the
surrounding countryside in case of attack.
As with such fortifications elsewhere,           ˆ
                                               ru h (Arabic: spirit, soul, breath)
they became the centers of urbanization           ˙
                                               See nafs.
when other conditions were favorable.
Within the jiha organization, the troops
regarded themselves as dedicated to God         ˆ ˆ,     ˆ      ˆn (604/1207–
                                               Ru mı Jala l ad-Dı
and members of a brotherhood, often in         672/1273)
the manner of Islamic mystics (Sufı).  ˆ ˆ     Influential Persian mystic and poet,
Some of these fortifications became the         whose poem the Mathnawı , has   ˆ
tombs of saints (walıs), and were the
                        ˆ                      achieved almost cultic status among
objects of pilgrim veneration. (See also       Persian speakers and many New Age
   ˆ     ˆ
khanqah; marabout; za      ˆwiyah.)            mystics in North America. He was
                                                                     ˆ ˆ
                                               called by many Mawlana, “Our Mas-
riddah (Arabic: apostasy)                      ter,” which has given rise to the Mev-
                                                   ˆ ˆ ˆ    ˆ
                                               levı Sufı tarıqah.
Under sharı ¤ah, apostasy is judged to
             ˆ                                       ˙   ˙
be a most severe transgression. At
various times, some Muslim groups have         Ruqayyah bt. Muh ammad
held that grave sin will constitute            (died 2/624)   ˙
apostasy. This was the view held by the        A daughter of Muhammad and Khadı-     ˆ
Khawarij and recently by those who
       ˆ                                                          ˙
                                               jah, she was married to ¤Uthman b. ˆ
condemned Salman Rushdie, in spite of          ¤Affan. She died during the battle of
his protests that he had not left Islam.       Badr of an illness, so that her husband,
(See also ilhad; sabb.)
               ˆ                               who was nursing her, was not present at
                                               the battle.
Rid wa n (Arabic)
The angel in charge of Paradise, who               ˆ
                                               ru'ya (Arabic: vision)
will be in charge of taking care of the
                                               As a technical term in Islamic mysticism,
blessed at the yawm ad-dın.
                                               it refers to the Beatific Vision of God.
                                               This concept has caused considerable
Rifa ¤iyyah
   ˆ                                           controversy in Islamic theological cir-
A major Sufı tarıqah named after
           ˆ ˆ      ˆ                          cles, with many claiming that it is
          ˙ ˆ ˙
Ahmad b. ¤Alı ar-Rifa¤ı (499/1106–578/
                     ˆˆ                        impossible for humans to see God. The
1182) in southern Iraq. His group was          Mu¤tazilah, in particular, denied the
known for using fire and snakes in their        possibility of the Vision, and this
devotions. In modified forms, it has            became one of the test questions in the
spread widely in the Islamic world.            mihnah.

as-sa ¤ah (Arabic: the hour)
    ˆ                                        sabb (Arabic: insult)
This is one of the terms in the Qur'an       Blasphemy, in the sense of insulting
for the eschaton and the time of the end     God, the Prophet, or any important
of all things. While it is often synon-      aspect of Islam.
ymous with such terms as yawm ad-dın, ˆ
the Day of Judgment, and yawm al-            sacrifice
qiyamah, the Day of Resurrection,
some commentators use it to refer to a       Sacrifice in Islam is interpreted as blood
specific point in time among all the          sacrifice, that is, the ritual slaughter of
events of the end-time.                      animals, and personal sacrifice, such as
                                             charitable donation. Martyrdom is
                                             viewed as the supreme personal sacrifice,
                                             and combines the two categories. The
Sabaeans, or Sabeans                         details of the exact manner for perform-
A group of people mentioned in the           ing a sacrifice are the subject of much
Qur'a n regarded as ahl al-kita b
       ˆ                                ˆ    discussion in hadıth collections and
(people of scripture), entitled to special   books on fiqh.˙Blood sacrifice is part of
privileges under Islamic rule. Scholars      the obligatory rites of the hajj, during
have identified the group with either the     the ¤Id al-'Adha, and is optional on
                                                  ˆ              ˆ
residents of the kingdom of Saba¤, or
                                             that day for ˙ Muslims not on hajj.
Sheba, in South Arabia, or a group of        Tradition holds that this sacrifice ˙ inis
star worshipers in northern Syria in the     commemoration of Ibrahım’s intended
                                                                        ˆ ˆ
area of Harran. This latter group is said
             ˆ                               sacrifice of his son. Some Muslims also
to have asserted its claim to religious      sacrifice animals at the birth of a child,
protection after Syria had been con-         two for a boy and one for a girl, in a
quered by the Muslim armies. The South       customary rite called ¤aqıqah. In all the
Arabian group is identified with the          cases of blood sacrifice, a portion of the
people of Bilqıs, the Queen of Sheba,
                ˆ                            meat is distributed as alms, and the
who visited Sulayman. Post-Qur'anic
                       ˆ              ˆ      believer is enjoined to regard the sacri-
tradition has made much of that visit,       fice as thanks to God. In the cases of
the involvement of jinn, and the strate-     charity, either zakat or sadaqah, the
gems used by Sulayman to determine
                          ˆ                                                ˙
                                             sacrifice is to be given freely, with thanks
whether or not Bilqıs was of half-
                         ˆ                   to God, and not in an amount that
demonic parentage.                           would impoverish the giver.
187                                                                          Safiyyah

s adaqah (Arabic: alms)                      educational and social institutions as
˙                                            well as his spiritual and political leader-
Voluntary charitable giving, it is usually
distinguished from the more organized                                     ˆ
                                             ship earned him the title Imam Musa. In
                                                                                  ˆ ˆ
almsgiving of zakat. As with all charity
                  ˆ                          the Lebanese civil war, the politics of the
in Islam, the amount is supposed to          Lebanese Shı¤ı community became reli-
come from the surplus of what one has        giously charged, resulting in the defeat
after one has set aside enough to keep       of the PLO at the hands of the Israelis in
oneself and family, and in any case must     1982. Some sources claim that this event
not be an amount that would impover-         was supported and applauded by Leba-
ish the giver.                               nese Shı¤ı in the name of as-Sadr,
                                             although others deny that. He ˙ disap- ˙
                                             peared in 1978 while on a visit to Libya
s adr (Arabic: breast)
˙                                            and is regarded by his followers to be in
A title used chiefly in Iran and Central      ghaybah.
Asia to refer to someone of high rank
among the ¤ulama' of both the Sunnı
                  ˆ                    ˆ
and the Shı¤ı. When the office of sadr
            ˆˆ                                   ˆ
                                             S afa
                                   ˙         ˙
became institutionalized and hereditary,     A small hill in Mecca that, along with a
the term also became used as a “last”        companion hill, Marwah, are the termi-
name.                                        nus points of the running in the ritual of
                                             sa¤y in the hajj and the ¤ umrah. The
as -S adr, Muh ammad Ba qir                  two hills are now enclosed within the
  ˙ ˙
(1935–80)    ˙                               Great Mosque.
Influential Shı¤ı thinker and political
figure from Iraq, he wrote on tafsır,  ˆ      S afavids
falsafah, 'usul al-fiqh, and other
                 ˆ                           ˙
               ˙                             The dynasty that ruled Iran from 907/
Islamic topics, but his work on inter-
                                             1501 to about 1134/1722, it took its
est-free banking was his most widely
                                             name from Safı ad-Dın Ishaq (died 735/
                                                            ˆ      ˆ     ˆ
known work. In it, he advocated a
                                             1334), the founder of the ˙
                                                         ˙              mystical order
simple means of avoiding riba through
                                             of the Safawiyyah. Situated between
a single contract system in which the                 ˙
                                             Mughal India and the Ottoman
bank served as a mediator between the
                                             Empire, the dynasty formed an alliance
borrower and the capital holder. As a
                                             with the Qizilbash tribe, whose beliefs
political figure, he opposed the Ba¤athist
                                             were partially Shı¤ı. This led eventually
regime in Iraq, and he was taken from
                                             to the Safavids adopting the Shı¤ism of
his home town of Najaf and executed                 ˙ ˆ
                                             the Ithna ¤Ashariyyah (Twelvers) as
along with his sister.
                                             their state religion and promoting a
                                             Persian-based literary and intellectual
               ˆ ˆ
as -S adr, Mu sa (1928–1978?)                renaissance under state sponsorship.
  ˙ ˙
Founder of Amal, the popular Shı¤ı    ˆˆ     The religious culture they developed
movement in Lebanon, Musa as-Sadr
                            ˆ ˆ              survived their political collapse and
was born into a prominent clerical˙ ˙        helped form the basis for modern Iran.
family and educated in Iran and in
Najaf, Iraq, under some of the leading
                                             S afiyyah bt. H uyayy
teachers of Shı¤ı fiqh. When he visited
              ˆˆ                             ˙                 ˙
Lebanon in 1957, he impressed the Shı¤ı
                                      ˆˆ     One of the wives of the Prophet, she was
population so that they invited him to       a Jewish captive, taken at the battle of
become the senior religious authority in     Khaybar, and manumitted after her
Tyre. His practical work in establishing     conversion to Islam.
sahabah                                                                            188
˙ ˙

                   Safavid mural, Chihil Sutun Palace, Isfahan, Iran.

s ah a bah (Arabic: companion; sg.             origin. The term is also used as a title
 ˙ˆ ˙
sahib)                                         for two hadıth collections, one by al-
˙ ˙
Companions of the Prophet Muham-               Bukharı˙ and the other by Muslim b.
                                                      ˆ ˆ
mad. The term refers to the close   ˙          al-Hajjaj. The two are often referred
                                               together as the “two sahıhs,” or as-
associates of the Prophet who converted                                    ˆ
before the fall of Mecca. Other scholars       sahıhayn and are regarded ˙ as the two
                                                   ˆ                   ˙              ˙
                                                 ˙ ˙
                                              ˙most reliable Sunnı collections of tradi-
count all those Muslims alive in his
generation who had contact with him,           tion.
however fleeting. They were the first
generation of transmitters of hadıth  ˆ