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a. BHOOMI-Management of Land Records in Karnataka

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					                 School of Good Governance And
lq'kklu
                         Policy Analysis

                National Workshop on
          Disseminating Information on Good
          Practices in Public Service Delivery
                       June 5, 2009
          BHOOMI-Management of Land Records
                    in Karnataka
                                          -Shri Rajiv Chawla,
                               Secretary (Survey Settlement),
                                    Government of Karnataka



                                          Bhoomi
Bhoomi
                                                                                  Award
The genesis   The concept    Achievements   Benefits   Learnings     Road Ahead
                                                                                  Criteria


                            The project happened in Karnataka
                                                 Project coverage

                                                  7 million farmers: 35
                                                   million beneficiaries

                                                  20 million land records
                                                   (0.6 hectare average size
                                                   of holding)
                                                  202 project locations
                                                   serving farmers from
 Bangalore          0.2 mn sq kms                  27000 villages




                                                                   Bhoomi
                                                                                  Award
  The genesis   The concept   Achievement   Benefits   Learnings     Road ahead
                                                                                  Criteria


         Its all about agricultural land record reforms
 Data in land records
   • Demographic data, Economic data, Legal rights
   • 47 information ‘fields’ – owners, tenants, crops, yield,
     irrigation sources, mortgage details, soil, bank loans etc

 Critical to farmers
   • Basis for ownership & loan

 Instrument of social justice
   • Poor records lead to litigation & social unrest
   • Ensure government gets its due returns

 Critical for economic growth


                                                                   Bhoomi
                                                                                Award
The genesis   The concept   Achievement   Benefits   Learnings     Road ahead
                                                                                Criteria


                                                The essence of Bhoomi




      Bhoomi is a farmer friendly mechanism
        to access and update land records
           using state of art technology




                                                                 Bhoomi
Farmers availing services




          Bhoomi
Farmers availing services




          Bhoomi
                                                                                   Award
The genesis   The concept   Achievement    Benefits   Learnings       Road ahead
                                                                                   Criteria


                                          Land records : Then & Now



      Manual records                                        Computerised


        Low visibility                                      Transparency


        Cumbersome                                            Easy access


       Dated records                                              Up to date


         Harassment                                        Citizen friendly

      Tamper Prone                                                 Secured




                                                                   Bhoomi
                                                                                  Award
  The genesis   The concept   Achievement   Benefits   Learnings     Road ahead
                                                                                  Criteria


                      The path traversed-amazing numbers
 Data entry
  • 10000 plus officials underwent training on data preparation
    and validation process
  • 20,000 man-months legacy data entry involving 1200
    operators
  • Validated 20 mn records through 6.7 mn farmers and 9000
    Village officials
 Bhoomi software & Training
  • Fully developed in-house by NIC,Bangalore
  • Requirement specification through 16 workshops-
    participatory development
  • 1000 man-months development effort
  • Development in local language
  • 1000 + village officials trained


                                                                   Bhoomi
                                                                                Award
The genesis   The concept   Achievement   Benefits   Learnings     Road ahead
                                                                                Criteria


                               The transition in documentation




                                                                 Bhoomi
                                                                                     Award
  The genesis      The concept   Achievement   Benefits   Learnings     Road ahead
                                                                                     Criteria


                             Transparency ensures social equity
 Gone are the days when Village Accountants would
  be able to dole favors on extraneous considerations




                    First in first out mutations in Bhoomi
                No more discretion to favor influential people


                                                                      Bhoomi
                                                                                   Award
  The genesis   The concept    Achievement   Benefits   Learnings     Road ahead
                                                                                   Criteria


                              Bhoomi has touched farmers’ lives
 7 Crore copies have been provided from the
  Bhoomi kiosks
  • 2 crores copies provided to citizens every year


 Mutation incidence has increased 3 fold

 Land based litigation down by around 50% as per
  revenue department officials




                                                                    Bhoomi
                                                                                        Award
       The genesis   The concept   Achievement    Benefits   Learnings     Road ahead
                                                                                        Criteria


                                                 What has Bhoomi achieved
 Handwritten records fully substituted by computerised records-
  a legal framework in place

 Imposition of user charges with better delivery of services make
  scheme viable and sustainable- Collection of Rs 1.5 Crore per
  month as against annual total expenditure of Rs 18 Crore on
  project
   •     Till date Rs 105 Crore user charges collected

 Land records in public domain
   • No application, no identity requirements
   • Land records and mutation status on web

 Biometrics authentication- Non repudiation feature

 Crop data updated three times a year
   • Rabi Khariff and Summer


                                                                         Bhoomi
                                                                                  Award
  The genesis   The concept   Achievement   Benefits   Learnings     Road ahead
                                                                                  Criteria


                               Recent developments in Bhoomi
 Using Hand held devices like Simputer and mobile
  phones for online data capture
   • Avoid drudgery of current manual crop collection and batch
     updation


 Offloading distribution of records to privates sector
   • 800 rural telecentres under NEMADDI project in place
   • Bhoomi makes Nemmadi sustainable- killer application
 Providing value added services to farmers from 800
  rural telecentres
   • 42 other services like social pensions, income and catse
     certificates etc,



                                                                   Bhoomi
                                                                                  Award
  The genesis   The concept   Achievement   Benefits   Learnings     Road ahead
                                                                                  Criteria


                               Recent developments in Bhoomi

 Pilot on electronic linking of lending agencies with
  bhoomi
   • Electronically request Bhoomi for mortagage entries
 Pilot on electronic linking of land acquisition officers
  to Bhoomi
   • Electronically informing Bhoomi of 4(1) and 6(1) on lands




                                                                   Bhoomi
                                                                                  Award
  The genesis   The concept   Achievement   Benefits   Learnings     Road ahead
                                                                                  Criteria


                                      What did Bhoomi demonstate
 Such huge projects are also doable with existing
  bureaucracy
 Citizens do not mind paying for better services
  • Broke the myth of FREE services




                                                                   Bhoomi
                                                                                  Award
  The genesis   The concept   Achievement   Benefits   Learnings     Road ahead
                                                                                  Criteria


                                                               Success factors
 Political and administrative support for the project
 Demonstrating early successes to silence cynical
  staff and critics
 Importance of pilots
 Stakeholders engagement and involvement
 Abolition of alternatives
   • No competition to new system
 Institutionalization and legal changes
 Committed NIC staff
   • Continued support




                                                                   Bhoomi
                                                                                  Award
  The genesis   The concept   Achievement   Benefits   Learnings     Road ahead
                                                                                  Criteria


                                                               Success factors
 Capacity building among government servants
   • Catch them young- compassionate appointed village
     accountants
 Involvement of vendors and contract management
   • Training of data entry vendors
   • Facility management
 Evolution of self funding model
   • No dependence on government
 Appropriate Technology choices
 Institutional administrative structure for
  implementation
   • Bhoomi monitoring cell
 Continuity of project champion

                                                                   Bhoomi
                                                                                  Award
  The genesis   The concept   Achievement   Benefits   Learnings     Road ahead
                                                                                  Criteria


                                                            Challenges faced
 Cynicism among government officials
 Indifferent senior bureaucracy
 Lack of IT knowledge among senior officers like
  DMs
 Impatient political leadership




                                                                   Bhoomi
                                                                                   Award
   The genesis   The concept   Achievement   Benefits   Learnings     Road ahead
                                                                                   Criteria


                                                  Learnings from Bhoomi

 Devil lies in details
 Capture low hanging fruits
   • RTCs were not corrected or updated before taking data entry
 But need to capture difficult fruits also
   • Improving quality of land records
 Gradual introduction of reforms to manage change helps
   •    Provisioning of copies from kiosks instead of 10000 VAs
   •    FIFO in mutation
   •    Merger of survey department with Revenue department
   •    Integrated mutation
   •    No registration till seller is the owner
   •    Presumptive mutation



                                                                    Bhoomi
                                                                                  Award
  The genesis   The concept   Achievement   Benefits   Learnings     Road ahead
                                                                                  Criteria


                                                 Learnings from Bhoomi

 For projects to be successful
   • One requires many committed officials
          Who may not be necessarily senior officers
 Slow and steady wins the race
   • Huge projects require LARGE time to execute
 Challenge your belief and thinking
   • And innovate and innovate
 Respect new ideas
   • Create environment for innovation




                                                                   Bhoomi
                                                                                  Award
  The genesis   The concept   Achievement   Benefits   Learnings     Road ahead
                                                                                  Criteria


                                                                       Road ahead

 Find the errors in Bhoomi data and correct the same
 Ensure that spatial data and non spatial data remains in
  sync
 Evolution and implementation of integrated mutation
  process
 Integrate registration system with Bhoomi tightly
 Migrate towards titling system




                                                                   Bhoomi
                                                                                   Award
   The genesis   The concept   Achievement   Benefits   Learnings     Road ahead
                                                                                   Criteria


        Efforts towards Replication and recognitions

 Bhoomi is now declared to be the national model for replication by MIT
  GOI
 Detailed study of Bhoomi by World Bank made available on its website
  for facilitating replication. (www.worldbank.org/publicsector/egov)

 World Bank and Ford foundation have got done an independent
  evaluation of the BHOOMI project

 Apart from winning silver in CAPAM, Bhoomi was one of the finalist in
  Stockholm challenge award 2002
 Winner of national e-Governance award
 Winner of United Nations Public service award 2005-06
 PM award for the year 2006-07

                                                                    Bhoomi
           Thank You

            Rajeev Chawla
 Commissioner Survey settlement and
  land records and Special Secretary
               (Bhoomi)
         Revenue Department
          Govt of Karnataka
             E-mail:
rajeevchawlaias@karnataka.gov.in
 Website: www.bhoomi.kar.nic.in

                              Bhoomi

				
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