HYDROGEN ENERGY Hydrogen turbogenerator steam power plants VTPU 2010 G. Arakelian, Arakelyan A., Arakelyan Gr.G "Hydrogen turbogenerator steam power plants VTPU-2010" This monograph is published for the first time about the sources that led and lead to a sharp deterioration of the ecological stability of the entire space of the globe including land, water, air and space. The widespread use of hydrocarbon fuels and lubricants in all sectors of the economy as the only free alternative fuel in internal combustion engines, gas turbine power plants teploenergiticheskih including turbojet engines in which the hydrocarbon fuel and lubricants are burning in low-temperature conditions. Not a complete combustion of hydrocarbon fuels and lubricants produce a huge amount of refractory or combustible items as ballast, together with carbon dioxide in the exhaust unit enters the atmosphere and thus pollute the environment. If you convert from a single source to a billionth of sources around the world, the global ecological catastrophe is inevitable. The authors of the first in the world practice on the basis of theoretical and practical reliable experimental tests urge the entire community to understand the situation and to send huge amounts of money in the creation of high-temperature (1300 ° C), turbo systems, which convert raw vodouglevodorodnoe in hydrogen gas and equip them as a source of motor fuel and other means including the powerful heat and power facilities. For the first time in world practice the invention provides a method for hydrogen-gas turbine generator plant, where the main component of up to 70% of H2O, and only up to 30% of hydrocarbons SnH2n two high-temperature mode, providing 100% complete combustion of all refractory and trudonosgoraemyh elements included in the hydrocarbon catalyst SnH2n two of their localization in the special filter devices and thus provide pollution rate environment, habitat humanity. The global industry for the development of their economies are closely linked to energy resources. States with raw toplevno-energy natural resources take precedence competitiveness in comparison with other developed countries, where the entire industry and energy based on energy exports. Low cost per unit of GDP (gross domestic product) of the developed welfare states destiny industry and a high level of profitability of the population. Note is the fact that the more developed countries, the higher the level of cultural and social needs. All the above conditions porazhdayut progress and development of the housing and utilities sector, where energy consumption is more than 60% of total costs. Modern Housing Complex, closed on the big energy covering a huge energy system designed to generate electricity, heat energy and convert it into other forms of energy. Necessary to establish the fact that all over the world, in any developed country, electricity produced by thermal power plants (TPP), which is generally 85%, at which electrical energy is converted from the combustion of solid, liquid and gaseous fossil fuels on a massive scale. Although. that the energy of thermal stations and heating plants (TPPs and CHPs) except electricity produced fluids in the form of hot water and steam, which actively consume nearby communities and industries, essentially coefficient of performance (COP) of all these heat objects remains disastrously low although efficiency boiler steam plant itself is 80-91%. They work on solid, liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels, which provide incomplete combustion in the low mode and emit a huge amount (50%) of unburned hydrocarbon fuel in the form of a combination of carbon dioxide and sulfuric gases RO2 = CO2 + SO2. This leads to disruption of the ecological balance of the environment around the large and small cities and towns. Together, the negative impact on the ecological balance of the environment has irreversible effects incombustible impurities included in the liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels produced from combustion engines and energy power plant thermal power plants at low temperature combustion mode to 350 ° C. For the most part has a negative impact on the environment burning solid resins, hydrocarbon fuels are widely used in large-scale thermal power centers, which, after burning in low temperature to 350 ° C produce ten times more refractory elements, non-combustible components in the form of ballast, and their emissions provide environmental incompatibility habitat of mankind and the environment. Amount of exhaust gas is directly proportional to the content of unburned dry gases highly detrimental from an ecological point of view. In addition, unburned dry gases absorb huge amounts of heat in the combustion chamber, thus reducing the efficiency of the internal combustion engine. However, we must point out the fact that the high combustion in the combustion chamber can provide a potent brand new product which, unlike fossil fuels for maximum combustion temperature of up to 1300- 2000oS. Authors, the world's first proposed and scientifically prove the existence of such a product is hydrogen gas, which is released into the turbine generator mobile plant, where the main components are: water -70-90% or more and a hydrocarbon environment - 30-10% or less, as an element of catalyst to convert water into hydrogen-containing gas. From the point of view of reducing the hydrocarbon component in the hydrogen gas by 3-4 times, thus providing a dramatic reduction in the number of harmful components released into the atmosphere through the exhaust system. Advanced theory and industrial trials confirm the sharp reduction of emissions of harmful gases into the atmosphere and complete combustion of refractory chemical elements in the combustion chamber at high temperature 1300-2000oS and more. A new approach to the theory of burning hydrogen gas in the high temperature in the combustion chamber leads to a revision timetable burning RO2. Based on a patented invention "Method of hydrogen gas turbine generator set" ZAO PSF "Grantstroy" designed and manufactured various modifications turbine generator installation in which the major components for the production of hydrogen is water H2O (70-90%), and a catalyst which is a hydrocarbon medium CnH2n + 2 (30-10%), which provides the conversion of thermal energy into high temperature 1300oC in the second stage, and 2000oS and more in the third-stage turbine generator unit. Turbogenerator unit provides stable operation for converting water-hydrocarbon mixture to hydrogen H2 and a minimal amount of carbon dioxide CO2, according to the patented claims: H2O + CnH2n +2 = H2 + CO2 Practical experiments have shown high efficiency and economic feasibility of using hydrogen turbine generator units, combined with steam power plants to convert water into steam for industrial use, with mobile steam plants, particularly for concrete products in steaming steamed camera at the JBI-1 ZAO PSF " Grantstroy. " High-turbogenerator unit provides instantaneous evaporation to steam power plants, by bringing the pair in the first stage to a low temperature of 120-130oC and superheated steam up to 225oS in the second stage, offering a cost effective cost of energy, in particular eliminating 100% of the demand for natural gas, which is the main fuel for the boiler plant, where there are three powerful boilers DKVR-4. It should be particularly noted is developed by PSF "Grantstroy" on the basis of the hydrogen turbine generator set, mobile water-steam power plants instant action, which provides instant hot water up to 100 ° C for hot water supply of entire neighborhoods, in extreme emergencies, major accidents in heating plants. Mobile water-steam power plants operate in standalone mode without consuming additional energy, including electricity, which is very important to improve the technical and economic performance of most turbine generator system, particularly in the field and emergency zones where the presence of gas and electricity are virtually eliminated. The authors have reached the limit in the degree of progress in the creation of high-turbine generator units and method of producing hydrogen gas for use as fuel in internal combustion engines and turbojet propulsion systems, including thermal power propulsion, offer immediately in the next decade to create a world-wide scientific and technical advice to participation of academic organizations and laboratories, as well as scholars in the creation of new generations of high- temperature combustion engines achieving combustion chamber temperature to 1300-2000 ° C using a turbo-generator units, generating water H2O containing gas, with the expansion of the use, everywhere, especially for those installations in aviation, shipping and heat and power facilities. Distinctive features in terms of the ecological stability of burning hydrogen gas in the third-stage turbine generator installation in high temperature to provide 98% 2000oS th combustibility all refractory elements involved in the chemical composition of the hydrocarbon catalyst in the form of ballast. Practical experiments have proved the author's argument about the existence of a hydrocarbon liquid, gaseous and solid fuels tarred huge amount of combustible refractory elements. The presence of contaminants, clearly demonstrated after the launch of turbo-generator set to produce hydrogen gas, the main fuel used where water-H2O (70%) and hydrocarbon medium SnN2n +2 (30%) as a catalyst. The authors adopted a choice of a number of catalytic hydrocarbon media on the physical and chemical composition of the approximate to the crude oil. Viscosity match the hours worked motor oil from internal combustion engines, in the form of secondary waste. The conversion process vodouglerodnoy containing gas mixture in place in high temperature (1000-1300 ° C) in the second stage and the third stage 2000oS turbine generator unit. As a result of the combustion of hydrogen-containing gas in the high temperature were observed after a few minutes, the surface of the experimental reference sheet metal traces of refractory waste and other elements, in the form of metallization with precipitation and accumulation to a significant thickness of 0.5-1.2 mm. According to our estimates the total emissions reduction of refractory elements and contaminants in the atmosphere was 80-90%. It should be noted that the use of cleaning doghouses harmful substances in the exhaust gas can be reduced to an extremely high level of 90-98%, while ensuring ecological balance and environmental stability in the operation of all types of vehicles and heat and power facilities. Scientifically based, fundamentally new comparative approach to the theory of combustion of hydrocarbon fuels in the low mode to 350 ° C in internal combustion engines and heat and power centers, and generalization of practical measurement and experimental data in the operation of the hydrogen steam power plants, which burn hydrogen gas provides high-temperature regime up to 1300 2000oS chamber combustion, give every reason to inventors to conclude that the transition from low- temperature combustion modes of hydrocarbon fuel for high-temperature regime, using hydrogen gas option undeniably unique in XXI century, from an environmental and economic point of view. Technological transition from low-temperature combustion mode at high temperature is real and possible with refractory materials, such as metal-ceramic parts of the combustion chamber, which provide hydrogen gas combustion in high temperature mode until 2000oS that allows complete combustion of refractory elements and the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere . Exclusion of all these sources will avoid the inevitable global environmental catastrophe and ensure environmental sustainability for humanity as highly civilized society. A method of producing hydrogen gas in a constant stand-alone mode without the use of additional energy sources and heat transfer aspect of the invention attached to turbo-generator-set-priority compared to conventional thermal units and steam power plants, where energy consumption has a special place, which leads to a sharp increase in the cost of producing hydrogen or other types of coolants. All the distinguishing features for high efficiency and at the same time give the hydrogen turbine generator steam power plants VTPU-2010 100%-ing the autonomy that the end result makes it possible to use them to learn and develop new areas, where there are practically no critical infrastructure such as power lines, heat and other energy facilities, and a global transport scheme for the delivery of energy. These areas include Antarctica, the North Pole, the territory of the Far North and other sparsely populated areas where there is water and oil in large stock, which are basic components for hydrogen- containing gas turbine generator set. Particular note must be the fact that the oil-water-saturated natural vysokoparafinirovannoe, containing a high percentage of sulfur feedstock suitable for hydrogen- containing gas turbine generator set. Geographic, demographic and climatic conditions, such as the unequal distribution of natural resources, especially the possession of hydrocarbon resources on a global scale, in the form of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels, generate global instability, the war in order to seize oil fields with the use of prohibited weapon systems, including nuclear. An example is the war in Iraq. All non-standard approaches to redistribute raw natural resources between the states in which they are absent, and the desire to prevail over the existing laws of the peaceful world of the nation, led to world wars and environmental disasters. To create conditions for the equitable distribution of hydrocarbon resources in the world, our author team believes that this is possible if the reduction of the consumption of hydrocarbons and 80% in all sectors of the economy, especially in the advanced industrial complexes, heat and power facilities, and in all forms of transport, especially in cars. This scientific study and practical approaches have every reason to say that the transition from the hydrocarbon resource base for hydrogen-fuel where the main component is water H2O (90%) and a catalyst (10%) is the most complex hydrocarbons, from the point view the contents of harmful impurities, factions, such as sulfur S and paraffin, which dramatically reduces the cost effectiveness and technologically impractical for processing at the refinery. Thus, in the near future, up to 2020., With the transition to hydrogen energy, the world will be virtually removed the question about the lack of consumption of a huge number of billionths of extraction and processing of hydrocarbon fuels of all types, including solid (coal) as well as solid fuel- carbon powder, is also an undisputed catalyst for turbine generator unit. The hydrocarbon feedstock will be a product of a secondary use, as it will become illiquid and will be claimed only for the chemical industry in the production of polymeric materials. The transition to a fundamentally new alternative fuel-containing gas, in the end lead to the stability of the global economy, the world will end the war and dramatically improve the welfare of the population and most importantly, to ensure ecological balance by avoiding emissions of carbon dioxide CO2, SO2 sulfuric gases and refractory elements in the atmosphere .
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