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Job Design and Work

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					                      Job Design and
                     Work Organisation



                                           Presenter Name
© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007
   Job design and Work organisation
     Aims & Objectives
     • Explain Job Design, the advantages and disadvantages;
       and work organisation

     • Focus on:
           •   Job Design Decisions
           •   Trends in Job Design
           •   Work Measurement
           •   Basic Compensation Systems and Financial Incentive Plans

     • Aim is for you to be able to explain the impact of job
       design on an individual, group and an organisation.


© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007
                                          Job design

                  Definition
                       The way in which we structure each
                       individual’s jobs, the workplace or
                       environment in which they work and
                       their interface with the technology or
                       facilities they use.




© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007
                        Elements of Job Design

     Who                What              Where            When             Why             How

                                                                        Organizational
 Mental and                           Geographic
                                                        Time of day;    reason for       Method of
 physical                             locale of the
                    Tasks to be                         time of         the job;         performance
 characteristics                      organization;
                    performed                           occurrence in   objectives and   and
 of the                               location of
                                                        the work flow   motivation of    motivation
 work force                           work areas
                                                                        the worker




                                               Ultimate
                                                  Job
                                               Structure

© Nigel Aquilano & Jacobs, 2001 Robert Johnston, 2007
Chase, Slack, Stuart Chambers &
                 The Objectives of Job Design

                                                                quality

                                                                 speed

                                                             dependability
                            impacts on
         Job
                                                               flexibility
        design

                                                                  cost

                                                           health and safety

                                                         quality of working life




© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007
                   Behavioural Considerations
                         of Job Design




        Degree of                              Ultimate    Job Enrichment
                                                  Job
        Specialization                         Structure   (vs. Enlargement)




© Nigel Aquilano & Jacobs, 2001 Robert Johnston, 2007
Chase, Slack, Stuart Chambers &
                         Sociotechnical Systems



                                            Task Variety
                                            Skill Variety
          Process                             Feedback
                                            Task Identity   Worker/Group
        Technology
                                           Task Autonomy       Needs
           Needs




© Nigel Aquilano & Jacobs, 2001 Robert Johnston, 2007
Chase, Slack, Stuart Chambers &
                     The Behavioural Approach

         Techniques                  Core job                Mental           Performance
         of job design            characteristics            states
        Combining                 Skill variety          Meaningfulness'     Motivation
        tasks                                            of the job

        Forming natural           Task identity          Responsibility      Quality of work
        work units                                       and control over
                                                         the way the job
        Establishing              Task significance      is done             Turnover
        client
        relationships

        Vertical loading          Autonomy               Level of            Absenteeism
                                                         understanding
        Opening                   Feedback               of the results of
        feedback                                         efforts
        channels




© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007
                     The Behavioural Approach

           Techniques of                Core job               Mental          Performance and
             job design              characteristics           states         personal outcomes

        Combining                  Skill variety         Experienced          High internal
        tasks                                            meaningfulness of    work motivation
                                                         the work
        Forming natural            Task identity
        work units                                       Experienced          High quality
                                                         responsibility for   work performance
        Establishing               Task significance
                                                         outcomes of the
        client
        relationships                                    work                 High satisfaction
                                   Autonomy                                   with the work
        Vertical loading                                 Knowledge of
                                                         the actual
        Opening                    Feedback              results of the       Low absenteeism
        feedback                                         work activity        and turnover
        channels




© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007
                     The Behavioural Approach

              More tasks
              which give                Job
              increased             enrichment
              responsibility
              autonomy or
              decision-
              making
                                       Original
                                         job                                 Job
                                        tasks                            enlargement

                                                     More tasks of the
                                                     same type




© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007
             The ergonomics approach in the
                   office environment
                                              Ergonomics
                                               approach



                How the person                           How the person
                interfaces with the                      interfaces with the
                physical aspects of                      environmental
                his or her                               conditions prevalent in
                workplace                                his or her immediate
                                                         working area



© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007
    Division of labour principles (A. Smith)

                                   Promotes faster learning
         Advantages                Makes automation easier
                                   Ensures non-productive work is reduced

                     Leads to monotony
                     Can result in physical injury
       Disadvantages
                     Is not particularly robust
                     Can reduce flexibility



© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007
                                     Work Methods

                                            A Production Process




                                                 Ultimate
                                                Ultimate
          Workers Interacting                   Job Job            Worker at a Fixed
          with Other Workers                                       Workplace
                                                  Design
                                                Design



                                              Worker Interacting
                                              with Equipment


© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007
                         Work Study (Taylorism)

                                                Work study
                          A generic term for those techniques which are used
                          in the examination of human work in all its contexts
                          and which lead systematically to the investigation of
                          all the factors which affect the efficiency and
                          economy of the situations being reviewed in order to
                          effect improvement.




                       Method study                          Work measurement
              Method study is the systematic             The application of techniques
              recording and critical                     designed to establish the time
              examination of existing and                for a qualified worker to carry
              proposed methods of doing                  out a specified job at a defined
              work, as a means of developing             level of performance
              and applying easier and more
              effective methods and reducing
              costs
© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007
                              Work Measurement
         • Work measurement is a process of analysing jobs
           for the purpose of setting time standards.


         • Why use it?
                Schedule work and allocate capacity
                Motivate and measure work performance
                Evaluate performance
                Provide benchmarks




© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007
                                    Work Sampling
        • Use inference to make statements about work
          activity based on a sample of the activity


        • Ratio Delay
          Activity time percentage for workers or equipment


        • Performance Measurement
          Relates work time to output (performance index)


        • Time Standards
          Standard task times


© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007
                  Advantage of Work Sampling
                       over Time Study
     • Several work sampling studies may be conducted
       simultaneously by one observer


     • The observer need not be a trained analyst unless the
       purpose of the study is to determine a time standard


     • No timing devices are required


     • Work of a long cycle time may be studied with fewer
       observer hours

© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007
                  Advantage of Work Sampling
                    over Time Study (cont.)
      • The duration of the study is longer, which minimizes
        effects of short-period variations


      • The study may be temporarily delayed at any time
        with little effect


      • Because work sampling needs only instantaneous
        observations (made over a longer period), the operator
        has less chance to influence the findings by changing
        work method

© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007
                    Standard performance is the rate of
                    output which a qualified worker will
                    achieve without over-exertion, as an
                    average over the working day, provided
                    they are motivated to apply themselves
                    to their work.




© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007
                             Motivation Factors in
                              Job Performance
         External factors
         Demanding, interesting work
         Rewards
         Participation and self-
         direction


                                                         Job performance


                    Internal Factors
                    Personal motivation
                    Personal ability



© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007
                        A qualified worker is one who is
                        accepted as having the necessary
                        physical attributes, intelligence, skill,
                        education and knowledge to perform the
                        task to satisfactory standards of safety,
                        quality, and quantity.




© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007
                   Basic Compensation Systems

                                    • Hourly Pay


                                    • Straight Salary


                                    • Piece Rate


                                    • Commissions



© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007
                        Financial Incentive Plans

        • Individual and Small-Group Plans
              –   Output measures
              –   Quality measures
              –   Pay for knowledge


        • Organization-wide Plans
              –   Profit-sharing
              –   Gain-sharing
                   • Bonus based on controllable costs or units
                     of output
                   • Involve participative management

© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007
                              Pay-for-Performance

                  • Paying employees based on their
                    performance - improvements in
                    productivity and quality

                  • Pay-for-performance will become
                    increasingly common components
                    of performance management
                    strategies and systems.


© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007
                          Emphasis in Job Design
                                                               Emphasis on
                          Emphasis on managerial
                                                             commitment and
                                 control
                                                            engagement of staff
                Staff
             treated as         Division of labour
               a cost
                                             Scientific
                                            management

                                                   Ergonomics

                                                              Behavioural
                                                              approaches

                                                             Empowerment

                                                              Team working

                Staff
             treated as                                  Flexible working
             a resource

© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007
                              Trends in Job Design
                  Quality control as part of the worker's job

                  Cross-training workers to perform
                   multi-skilled jobs

                  Employee involvement and team approaches to
                   designing and organizing work

                  ‘Informating’ ordinary workers through
                   telecommunication networks and computers




© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007
Chase, Aquilano & Jacobs, 2001
                    Trends in Job Design (cont.)

               Extensive use of temporary workers


                 Automation of heavy manual work

                 Organizational commitment to providing
                  meaningful and rewarding jobs for all
                  employees




© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007
Chase, Aquilano & Jacobs, 2001
                 A Flow Model of Interpersonal
                        communication

              Stimulus                                   Decoding
                                    Decoding             Attention
                                    Attention            Perception
               Ideas                Perception           Retention
                                    Retention




                                  Putting                Putting into
                                  into words             words

© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007
                     Summary: The Elements of
                           Job Design
   • Environment in the workplace: Ergonomics, Human
     factors, health and safety (temperature, light, noise)

   • Technology available and usage (Ergonomic workplace
     design): Repetitive strain injury (RSI), Anthropometric
     data (e.g. size of people)

   • The tasks allocated to each person in the operation:
     Division of labour



© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007
                     Summary: The Elements of
                        Job Design (cont.)
      • The best method of performing each job:
        Scientific management, work measurement

      • Time it takes and how many people are needed:
        Qualified worker, level and standard of performance

      • Maintain staff commitment, communication and
        motivation:
        Communication, Job rotation, Job enlargement (more
        tasks to do), Job enrichment (involves decision
        making), empowerment, team-working and flexible
        working.


© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007
                     Job Design and Work
                         Organisation



                                The End
© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007