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					                                               Childrearing Goals of Mexican and Dominican Mothers from NYC
                                                                          Yana Raufova
                                   Department of Applied Psychology & Center for Research on Culture, Development and Education
                                                                        New York University

  Background Literature & Rationale                                                       Procedure                                                                    Coding                                               Developmental Changes
•Beliefs that parents hold about the desirable qualities of their     • Phone interviews were conducted 1 month after
                                                                                                                                           • Mothers’ responses were transcribed, translated and coded. A
children help to elucidate the meanings that underlie parenting         the birth of the focus child.                                      coding scheme was devised based on the 27 goals that emerged in             •Repeated-measures analyses showed significant
practices and developmental outcomes.                                                                                                      the 1 month data.                                                           changes in the desired goals mothers reported across the
                                                                      •Mothers were visited in their homes 14 months                       • Interrater reliability was established on the final set of 27 goals and   two age periods.
•Culture, education, and economic status are the most consistent       after the birth of their child.                                     reached optimal agreement (90%).
predictors of parents’ developmental goals (e.g., Harwood, 1995).                                                                                                                                                      •Specifically, mothers emphasized achievement (p < .001)
                                                                                                                                           • The 27 goals were collapsed into 7 distinct overarching domains:
•Much is known about the goals of middle-class European               •Mothers were asked to name a desired quality                                                                                                    and individuality (p < .001) as desired goals at 14 months
Americans parents; less is known about other cultural groups.          they wished their children to have by age three, to                  DOMAIN              EXAMPLE                                                significantly more than they did at 1 month
                                                                       define, and provide an example.                                      Achievement         Language and literacy development,
•Latino groups make up 14% of the total US population and are the                                                                                               intelligence, learning/curiosity                       •In addition, mothers’ emphasis on health (p < .001) and
fastest growing immigrant group (U.S. Census Bureau, 2004).                                                                                 Health              Healthy/Nnormal development, happiness
                                                                      • Mothers gave multiple qualities and all were                        Self-control        Calm, touch, aggressive tantrums.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        self-control decreased by 14 months (p < .05)
•Latino parents promote goals related to collectivism and               coded.                                                              Proper              Well Mannered, obedience, respect.
interdependence, such as “familism, respect, and moral education”                                                                           Connectedness Compassionate, sociable, generosity
(Halgunseth, Ispa, & Rudy 2006).                                                                                                            Individuality Instrumental/emotional independence
                                                                                                                                            Safety        Understanding danger
•Few studies have addressed the goals of Latino parents across
the first year of their infant’s lives, a time of major family                                                                                                                                                                             Conclusions
transitions.                                                                                                                                                                                                           • Understanding childrearing goals offers insight into the
                                                                                                     Childrearing Goals at 1-Month                                                                                       beliefs that shape actual parenting practices, leading to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         different developmental outcomes.
                                                                             15.62%                   17.71%                    15.31%                                                    Achievement
        Objectives & Hypotheses                                                                                                                          19.39%                                                        • The goals emphasized by both Mexican and Dominican
                                                                                                                                                                                          Individuality                  mothers at 1-month and 14-month were achievement,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         individuality, proper demeanor, connectedness,
RQ1:What are the childrearing goals that mothers from Mexican                                                                9.18%                                                        Proper Demeanor                safety, self control, and health.
and Dominican cultural backgrounds have at the birth of their         15.62%                                 14.58% 1.02%
babies?                                                                                                                                                        12.24%                     Connectedness                • Much emphasis was placed on achievement (e.g.,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         knowing his ABC’s), proper demeanor (e.g., listens)
                                                                         1.04%                                           11.22%
                                                                                                                                                                                          Safety                         and individuality (e.g., be potty trained), as mothers
RQ2: How do these goals change as their infants enter their
second year?                                                                                                                                                                              Self-Control                   described these traits as the most desired.
                                                                          11.46%                                                                                                                                       • Results are consistent with evidence that parents hold
Hypotheses:                                                                                         23.90%                                                                                Health
                                                                                                                                               31.63%                                                                    different beliefs and expectations for their children’s
Mothers of younger infants are expected to be more concerned                                                                                                                                                             early developmental milestones in the infant years.
about happiness and health-related goals. At 14 months, given the                 Mexican Mothers                                     Dominican Mothers
saliency of language development is expected that mothers will                                                                                                                                                         • Findings also align with prior research that highlights the
focus more on achievement.                                                                                                                                                                                               emphasis of collective communities on values related to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         family, respect and moral education (Halgunseth, Ispa, &
                                                                                                         Childrearing Goals at 14-Months                                                                                 Rudy, 2006).
                                                                                                                                                                 5%                                                    • It is important for further research to investigate how
                      Participants                                       Achievement                            5%     4%                                     7%
                                                                                                                                                             0%                                                          these early beliefs might relate to child outcomes and
  •97 Mexican mothers (100% immigrant) and 114 Dominican                                                    4%                                                                                                           parenting practices.
  (85% immigrant) were recruited from NYC hospitals after the            Individuality                                               34%                                                  35%
  birth of the focus child.                                                                              13%
                                                                                                                                                       13%                                                             • Understanding what parents wish most for their children
  •Mothers had to self identify as either Mexican or Dominican, and      Proper Demeanor                                                                                                                                 is the first step in the development of culturally sensitive
  had be at least 18 years of age.                                                                                                                                                                                       parenting interventions programs.
                     Baseline Statistics                                 Safety                                                                       10%
                          Dominican                  Mexican
Has HS Diploma/GED           28.1%                     35.1%             Self-Control
Has Beyond HS Diploma        40.4%                    10.3%                                                                                                                                                                       Acknowledgements
Average HH Income          $24,225                   $17,144             Health                                              27%                                      30%                                              I would like to thank Dr. Catherine Tamis-LeMonda and Dr. Ronit Kahana
                                                                                                           Mexican Mothers                                          Dominican Mothers                                  Kalman for their invaluable support and guidance.

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