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					          Introduction
          ITHACA
ITHACA (Information Technology for
Humanitarian Assistance, Cooperation
and     Action)    is  a        -profit
                            non-profit
association, founded in November
2006 by the Politecnico di Torino and
SiTI (Higher Institute on Innovation
Territorial Systems).

With a view to cooperate with the UN
WFP, the Association proposes itself
as a center of applied research for the
distribuition of products and services
related    to   IT   in   support    of
humanitarian activities.
        Introduction
        Ithaca main activities

Ithaca is devoted to scientific
research, delivering methodolo-
gies, analytical services and
technical tools to improve the
capacity of the WFP and the
broader International communi-
ty in early warning, early impact
assessment and other related
areas.
      Introduzione
      ITHACA main activities
Early Warning: to anticipate the location of
disasters and their effects on populations

Early Impact: to rapidly determine the impact
of disasters in the first hours after an event
occurs (24 - 48h) and to produce georeferen-
ced information
       Early Impact
       Application fields
Application fields:
• floods
• cyclones/hurricanes
• earthquakes
• drougth (slow onset)
      ONGOING PROJECTS

• UN-WFP SPATIAL DATA INFRASTRUCTURE
• WEB GIS APPLICATIONS
• EARLY IMPACT ANALYSIS
• EARLY WARNING TOOLS: FLOOD & DROUGHT
• DATA ACQUISITION: UAV & LCMMS
• TRAINING
     WFP-SDI
        and
Web GIS applications
                SDI Definition
An SDI must be considered as “a base collection of technologies, datasets,
human resources, policies, institutional arrangements, and partnerships that
facilitate the availability, exchange of, access to and use of geographically-
related information using standard practices, protocols, and specifications”
(UNGIWG “Strategy for developing and implementing a United Nations Spatial Data Infrastructure in
support of Humanitarian Response Economic Development Environmental Protection Peace and Safety”,
February 2007)

                                              •Since its inception in 2000 the United
                                              Nations Geographic Information Working
                                              Group (UNGIWG) has promoted a UNSDI

                                              •In 2006 UNGIWG recognized the UNSDI
                                              as a priority and issued a "Vision,
                                              Implementation Strategy and Reference
                                              Architecture” paper and the "UNSDI
                                              Strategy Implementation Paper".
         Without an SDI…

Common criticalities of unstructured Geographic
  Information environments:
• inconsistent data in terms of content and format;
• existence of “invisible” data, not computerized or hidden in local
  computers;
• confidentiality and sensitivity of certain data and information;
• difficulties in implementing data/systems integration;
• poor application of standards;
• lack of extensive and reliable metadata catalogues;
• lack of streamlining of spatial analysis in decision making;
• unproductive competitive practices.
       SDI Basic Principles

•   Share as much data as possible;
•   Access to authoritative source;
•   Acces to current data;
•   Make data widely accessible;
•   Ensure data is machine readable;
•   Use open formats.
            SDI Components
SDI component categories
include:
• The actual data bases and file systems
that hold the data;
•Catalogues and registries aiding
discovery;
• Applications interfacing to the internet
and providing the user experience to web
clients;
• Means for identifying and accounting for
users, and where necessary
authenticating and authorizing their use
of services;
• Means for actually accessing and
extracting required data;
• Generating portrayals of data, such as
maps;
• Perform geographic processing on data.
The Catalogue
How to find what I’m looking for?
Data access services
How to access and transfer data in a reliable way?
                  High-availability – Master Nodes
                     ITHACA                               WFP REGIONAL
                                                          FOCAL POINT             WFP ARCHITECTURE
                  ARCHITECTURE


           ESRI SUITE                                                                            ESRI SUITE
          APPLICATION                                                                           APPLICATION

                                                           NETWOR
                                                              K
                                                            TCP/IP,
                                                             HTTP

                         100 Mbps Ethernet




                                ORACLE 10G               GEODATABASE SYNCHRONISATION              ORACLE 10G
                                                                                                  MASTER
       DOMAIN
     CONTROLLER
                    WEB         MASTER AND                  VPN/SSL TUNNEL                        NODE
                   SERVER      STAND BY NODE                        ArcSDE Admin
                                  LINUX OS                            Command
                                                                   Batch Processes                MICROSOFT OS
                                                                    ArcCatalog/Arc
                    FIBER CHANNEL SWITCH
                                                                       ToolBox
STORAGE                                                            Replication Data
  AREA
NETWORK                                                                                   GEODATABASE
                                             MIRRORING   BACKUP
                                                HD
                                                         TAPE

                                                                                               TBD
           GEODATABASE   PROJECT PUBLICATION
                           FILES    DATA

                             TBC
                               High-availability
                               Federated architecture
                                                                   Web Browser
                                                                   Data Visualisation,
                                                                   D t Vi      li ti
                                                                   Analysis and basic
                  Remote Desktop Session
                                                                   editing via web
                  Full desktop-based editing,
                                                                   applications
                  visualisation and analysis                                             Mobile Devices
                  against local geodatabase                                              MobileADF-based
                                                                                         applications for field
                                                                                         editing or data
                                                                                         visualisation
                 Two-way
                 synchronisation via
                 ArcGIS Server
WWW              Geodata Services
                                                             External
                                                             Firewall



                                                                   Reverse
                                                                   oxy Server




DMZ

                                                             Internal
                                                             Firewall
                                                                                           Web Browser
                                                                                           Data Visualisation
                                  ArcGIS Server                                            and Analysis
                                  Map Services
                                  WMS
                                  WFS
                                  Geodata Services                                          ArcGIS Desktop
                                  Geoprocessing                                             Data Visualisation
                                  Services                                                  and Analysis
                                  Globe Services            ArcGIS
                                                            Server




                                                                                            ArcGIS Desktop
                                                                                            Geodatabase Admin
                                                                                            Data Editing



                                                     Geodatabase
                                                       Server

Secure Network
High levels of Interoperability
Portrayal services
How to efficiently produce maps with obtained data?




                                               •Select a country from a
                                               list;
                                               •Adapt scales, graticules,
                                               scalebar, and reference
                                               system description;
                                               •Switch on/off the draft
                                               mode
                                               •Switch on/off the
                                               default layer list;
                                               •Reset position and size
                                               of all graphic elements;
                                               •Update the production
                                               date.
         Web GIS Applications

Requirements

• Publishing ITHACA/WFP Spatial Data Infrastructure
• A user friendly interface
•   Different data sources into one application
•   Template customization
•   Low cost application
•   Different data formats support
•   International standards (interoperability)
•   UNGIWG compliant
Open Source Architecture

          HTML/CSS                  HTML/CSS
          Ext.js                    Ext.js
          GeoExt.js                 GeoExt.js
          OpenLayers                OpenLayers




                       Django                    Django
           GeoServer                 GeoServer
           GeoWebCache               GeoWebCache
      Linux                     Linux
      Web Server                Web Server
      Production                Stage




Storage
Area         PostgreSQL                PostgreSQL
Network      PostGIS                   PostGIS
Drought Monitoring
              Snow Coverage Monitoring
 Authomatic updating daily workflow



Satellitary image download       Web         Web publishing


         Processing
                                       OpenLayers/GeoExt.js update
  Snowcover SHP extraction


PostgreSQL/PostGIS data import         snow covered road extraction
Snow Coverage Monitoring
Early Impact
  analysis
           Early Impact
           INPUT DATA

Input data:

• Medium/Low resolution
  multi spectral data (2.5m-
  250m)

• Very high resolution
  multi spectral data
  (<2.5m)

• Radar data (all weather
  conditions)
       Early Impact
       GOALS AND PROCEDURES
Identification of:

• Affected areas
• Affected population




Procedures for
floods and cyclones
shared with WFP
     Early Impact – Floods/Cyclones
     FLOODED AREAS DETECTION
MULTI TEMPORAL Data  Change Detection
      Early Impact – Floods/Cyclones
      MYANMAR ACTIVATION
Tropical cyclone Nargis hit souther part of
MYANMAR on May 2008, 3rd and 4th.




On May, 5 th ITHACA produced a first map of the
flooded/wet areas and estimate the number of
people living in those areas.

Processed data: Modis (Terra & Aqua satellite
platforms) acquired before and after the cyclone
Early Impact – Alluvioni/Cicloni
ESEMPIO OPERATIVO - MYANMAR




                  Modis False Colour Pre- 250 m
Early Impact – Alluvioni/Cicloni
ESEMPIO OPERATIVO - MYANMAR




                  Modis False Colour Post- 250 m
    Early Impact – Floods/Cyclones
    MYANMAR ACTIVATION




            Multi temporal analysis
Flooded/Wet areas or vegetation loss (Red areas)
Early Impact – Alluvioni/Cicloni
ESEMPIO OPERATIVO - MYANMAR
Early Impact – Alluvioni/Cicloni
ESEMPIO OPERATIVO - MYANMAR
                     Early Impact – Floods/Cyclones
                     AFFECTED POPULATION ESTIMATION
                   Global population database: LANDSCAN




The LandScan 2006 Global Population Database (developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the United States Department of Defense )
Early Impact – Floods/Cyclones
MYANMAR ACTIVATION
Early Impact – Alluvioni/Cicloni
ESEMPIO OPERATIVO - MYANMAR
         Haiti earthquake

Available datasets
   • GeoEye Satellite imagery by Google Crisis
      Response Team
      (Jan, 13th)
   • DigitalGlobe (World-View 1 and 2, Quickbird)
      by DigitalGlobe Crisis Event Services (Jan, 13th -
      17th)
   • High Res radar imagery (Cosmo Skymed and
      TerraSar-X)
         Haiti earthquake
First damage assessesments based on high-res satellite
imagery (GeoEye Satellite imagery)

Available a couple of day after the event (one day after
data availability)

Focus on:
• Collapsed/damaged building
• Spontaneous camps/temporary shelters
• Road accessibility (restricted, closed, collapsed bridges)
Early Warning System
      for floods
           Objective

Early warning model for flood events, at worldwide extent.

Alert in case of heavy rainfalls around the world.

This completely automated system runs at river basin scale and uses 3B42 and
3B42RT satellite rainfall data products from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission
(TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA).




              TRMM data                      Stream line and drainage basin layers used for the entire
                                             analysis. Rainfalls conditions are monitored at basin scale.
      Input data
                         Rainfall
               RESOLUTION            COVERAGE
    TEMPORAL   3 hours               From 1998 to today (3B42)
                                     From 2002 to today (3B42RT)
    SPATIAL    0.25 x 0.25 degrees   50 °N – 50 °S lat




Hydrographical basins
(HYDRO1K from USGS)
Workflow
             Hydrological analysis
Rainfall data from 1998 to 2007 have been used to calculate the depth-duration-
frequency (DDF) curves that allows the characterization of rainfalls for each drainage
unit.                                       EMPIRICAL CURVE:
                                              1) Calculation of the maximum rainfall value:
                                                     •For each year (from 1998 to 2007)
                                                     •For each duration
                                              2) Calculation of the average of these values




                                             The empirical curve is interpolated
                                             by an ANALYTIC CURVE:
                                             h= a*dn



In addition, a specific application calculates critical
events over this set of data comparing cumulated
rainfalls with DDF curves.

 The final output of this procedure is the creation of a
 complete historical database of heavy rainfalls with
 global coverage and single basin resolution.
               Early warning system in near
               real - time
Outcomes

                                             Maps of alert situation
              TRMM Satellite


            NASA ftp server

   DOWNLOADING of 3B42RT data
      (time lag 6 - 10 hours)

                                               WARNING
      DATA PRE-ELABORATION
                                                ALERT

        LOADING in ORACLE



            DATA ANALYSIS
 Detection of critical events in near-real
                   time)
Grid architecture
Grid architecture
Maps of alert situations
Maps of alert situations
Early Warning of Floods




                          67
Early Warning of Floods
Drought monitoring
     system
                Introduction
          DROUGHT
Unusual and temporary lack of enough water for living systems
and human needs
                                   One of the major hazards

                                   Complex phenomenon,
                                   usually drought is divided in:

                                    • meteorological
                                    • hydrological
                                    • agricultural
                                    • socio-economic
                              DROUGHT 1970-2009 in Africa
                              Number of total affected by country
      Zimbabwe
          Zambia
 Congo Dem Rep
          Uganda
          Tunisia
             Togo
Tanzania Uni Rep
       Swaziland
           Sudan
    South Africa
         Somalia
         Senegal
       Sao Tome
         Rwanda
          Nigeria
            Niger
        Namibia
    Mozambique
        Morocco
      Mauritania
              Mali
          Malawi
     Madagascar
         Lesotho
           Kenya
   Guinea Bissau
           Ghana
     Gambia The
        Ethiopia
           Eritrea
        Djibouti
             Chad
   Cape Verde Is
      Cameroon
         Burundi
    Burkina Faso
       Botswana
            Benin                                                                SOURCE: CRED EM-DAT
          Angola

                     0   5   10   15   20   25   30   35   40   45   50     55
                                                                     Millions
                       Aim of the project

              WFP is the main UN Agency involved in
                   emergency management

                                   Emergency management cycle
   Monitoring                                      Response

   and                              Preparedness                Recovery
   early warning systems
                                                   Mitigation


Focus on
agricultural drought
                                    Need of a global drought
                                    monitoring system
Water available to crops
and food production
    Planned monitoring system
Main characteristics:


Early drought detection

      Global coverage

             Satellite data

                    Web-GIS outputs

                          Authomatized procedures
             Planned monitoring system
               Focus on:


Vegetation                                NDVI
Condition Analysis                        DATA

 The NDVI shows consistent correlation with
 vegetation biomass and vegetation dynamics,
 and is suitable for plant water stress detection



Meteorological                   PRECIPITATION
drought analysis                 DATA
 Precipitation is the main source of water for soil
 and a key parameter for drought monitoring
                                                       SPI Value      Class
                                                       0 -0.99    Minor drought Africa SPI as of
                                                       1 -1.49 Moderate drought February 1984
                                                      -1.5 -1.99 Severe drought (source: GPCP)
                                                          < -2   Extreme drought
                  DATA ANALYSIS: flow chart


                  Preprocessing                 Data Analisys
Inputs
Historical                                      Statistical
  Precipitation
                                                Correlation
                    Data quality
  NDVI data         check and
                    correction
                    +                                    Data
Near real time      Temporal                             Dissemination
                                     Database
                    Composition                               WEB-GIS
  Precipitation

  NDVI                                   Data Synthesys

                   Mask definition       Monitoring
  Static                                 Products - Maps
  parameters       and weighting
                   factors
               VEGETATION CONDITIONS ANALYSIS
               NDVI statistical analysis
                                      TIME-SERIES
                                      COMPONENTS ANALYSIS

Historical NDVI data analysis                                              Estimate of cyclical
using robust techniques (LMS                                               components
regression estimator) for a             real time NDVI data correction
preliminary outliers detection,         through correlation analysis
coupled with ordinary LS techniques     with corrected NDVI datasets




                                       Identification and mapping of         Phenological
                                       NDVI deviations and anomalies         measures
                                                                             identification




   Vegetation degradation             Historical vegetation         Near-real time drought
   processes identification           stress events                 events detection and
   and mapping                        identification and            mapping
                                      mapping
              VEGETATION CONDITIONS ANALYSIS
                Overall trends in vegetation
                greeness for the period 1982 - 2006




June NDVI - spatial             Land degradation           December NDVI - spatial
distribution of slopes of the   processes identification   distribution of slopes of the
regressions                                                regressions
                                and mapping
            VEGETATION CONDITIONS ANALYSIS
            Identification and mapping of NDVI
            deviations and anomalies




January 2006 - Vegetation                               July 2002 - Vegetation
Conditions Map: spatial
                                Vegetation stress key   Conditions Map: spatial
distribution of the detected    events identification   distribution of the detected
NDVI anomalies and deviations   and mapping             NDVI anomalies and deviations
LOW COST UAV
for post-disaster
  assessment
       ITHACA UAV

The goal of the UAV project is to develop aerial
platforms mainly devoted to acquire images and videos
for mapping purposes and disaster management.

                                 “ITHACA-01”:
                                 a low-cost
                                 UAV prototype
                                 developed for
                                 ITHACA in late
                                 2006
           AERIAL PLATFORM
The UAV platform is patented by DIASP – Aerospace Dept. of
Politecnico di Torino (Prof. Quagliotti and Prof. Guglieri) and
produced by MAVTECH, a Politecnico di Torino spin-off company
                                     Specifications          ITHACA 01
                                     Wing span               2000 mm
                                     Wing surface            2.1 m2
                                     Length (fuselage)       1750 mm
                                     Width (fuselage)        150 mm
                                     Payload weight          6,7 kg/m2
                                     Weight (body)           10 kg
                                     Max take-off weight     14 kg
                                     Payload                 2,0 kg (25%)
                                     Lithium-ion batteries   1,0 kg (10%)
                                     Motor                   0,5 kg (5%)
                                     Motor model             Hacker C50-21 XL
                                     Output power            2 hp @ 6600 rpm
                                     Propeller               APC 16”x 8”
                                     Min speed               8 m/s (29 km/h)
                                     Max speed               20 m/s (72 km/h)
                                     Optimum range limits    20 Km
                                     Optimum endurance       40’
        AERIAL PLATFORM




CARBON FIBER

Lithium polymer sealed battery
DISASSEMBLABLE
 fuselage
 wings
AERIAL PLATFORM
ICE VERSION
        AERIAL PLATFORM   Automatic
                          Parachute




                            Autopilot




GPS antenna
AERIAL PLATFORM



                         Radio-Modem
                         antenna




  POD
                  Ground station
   NAVIGATION SYSTEM
                                  MP2128g Autopilot
                                 PHISICAL FEATURES
                    Dimension (mm)               100x40x15
                    Weight (g)                   28
                    GPS
                    GPS update rate              1Hz

                                               (optional 4 Hz)
                    DGPS suitability           yes
                                         SENSORS
 MICROPILOT         3 axis accelerometer         yes
                    3 axis gyroscope             yes
MP2128g Autopilot   Pressure airspeed            Yes
                    sensor
                                                 (Qmax= 500 Km/h)
                    Pressure altimeter           Yes

                                           (Qmax=12000 m)
                                  OTHER FEAURES
                    Servos                       8/16/24
                    Telemetry update rate        5 Hz
        NAVIGATION SOFTARE
MP2128g GCS Horizon
                        • Flight plan up to 1000 waypoints
                        • MP2028 simulator for operator
                        training
                        • In-flight adjustable gains
                        • Change waypoints in-flight
                        • Payload servos controlled from
                        ground station
                        • Point and click waypoint editor
                        • Datalog
PAYLOAD-1
  RADIO-MODEM ANTENNA          PANORAMIC
   FOR VIDEO DOWNLINK           CAMERA




             DIGITAL SENSORS
            TEST FLIGHTS

Test flights are
performed in
Villareggia flight
center (Turin)


Test flight are
aimed to test the
autonomous flight
performances and
to verify the proper
working of the
payload
            TEST FLIGHTS

Test flights are
performed in
Villareggia flight
center (Turin)


Test flight are
aimed to test the
autonomous flight
performances and
to verify the proper
working of the
payload
            TEST FLIGHTS

Test flights are
performed in
Villareggia flight
center (Turin)


Test flight are
aimed to test the
autonomous flight
performances and
the verify the
payload
              Photogrammetric tests
              1) Flight centre

  Flight plan


                                          Control Point   Check Point
                                             RMSE            RMSE
                        Ground X (m)            0.07            0.10
                        Ground Y (m)            0.07            0.13
                        Ground Z (m)            0.08            0.30
                        Image x (pixel)         0.90            2.61
                        Image y (pixel)         0.79            0.72


Flight altitude: 150m
Time interval: 3.5s
GSD: 56mm               Acquired
                         images
              Photogrammetric tests
              2) Archaeological site

  Flight plan                          Acquired   Ortho-image
                                        images




Flight altitude: 100m
Time interval: 2.5s
GSD: 38mm
              Photogrammetric tests
              2) Archaeological site

  Flight plan                                 Stereo-plotting test




Flight altitude: 60m
                            Acquired images
Time interval: 1.5s
GPS: 22mm
  LOW COST
MOBILE MAPPING
   SYSTEM
   - LCMMS -
Low Cost
Mobile Mapping System
        Low Cost
        Mobile Mapping System


GPS Antenna (u-blox)

Adjustment screw

4 webcams (Logitech Q905)

Magnetic support
          Low Cost
          Mobile Mapping System
3-9 fps for each webcam (depending on PC performances)

GPS positioning is always available (at 98%)

Accuracy up to 30-50 cm by means of post processing
(kinematic trajectory)

Possibility to insert tags and POI live (defining hotkeys)

Each webcam can have different settings (e.g. zoom, fps,
brightness)

Sync between GPS time and PC clock
Ground test in Haiti
       Data Capture STATS
960 x 720 pixels
4 webcams               • 20h 13’ net acquisition
3 images/sec
                        • Avg speed: 15 km/h
1 position/sec
300 km roads acquired   • Total data: 38 GB
   in 5 days
                        • 500.000 images

                        • Data capture rate: 1.9 GB/h
                                Rue St. Martin

Rue Dr. Aubry




                Rue Tiremasse
        Training
WFP SDI trainings:
 -Bangkok, 22-26 June 2009
 -Dakar, 17-19 November 2009
 -Cairo, 23-25 November 2009
 -Kampala, 24-27 May 2010
 -Johannesburg, September 2010
 -Panama, December 2010

Geomatic specializing courses for both academia and
private companies.
       AUTEC and Disaster
       response and preparadness
Taking into account that AUTEC represents a very good
skilled and autonomous community, its role in the DM
phase could be:
1. Collaborate in the early impact stage
2. Create a community based approach for the updating
     and maps quality control
3. Collaborate in the implementation and on-the-ground
     data acquisition
AUTEC and early impact
AUTEC and maps updating
and quality control
                AUTEC and maps updating
                and quality control
Roadmap Items
As more items get added we will work to group these better.
Upload non-georeferenced maps – Users should be able to upload non-georeferenced scanned images and
     rubbersheet them (place control points to correlate the data) so they are real data layers.
Derive metadata from usage – GeoNode should be able to derive information about a dataset from the way that it is
     used, without requiring users to directly input information.
Web-based data upload – Users should be able to upload data through a web form, selecting files on their computer
     and putting them on the GeoNode. Can start with just shapefiles or geotiffs, just using web forms.
Batch upload – Web-based upload is frustrating to use if someone has a lot of data. Should have a desktop or flash-
     based tool to select lots of files and get them on a GeoNode all at once.
Group features – GeoNode should have a flexible ‘group’ functionality, to let people join together on the site. This
     should handle permissions, and the ability for a group to ‘endorse’ a dataset or map as something they stand
     behind.
Data editing – A user should be able to edit layers she has ‘write’ permissions on, completely through the web or
     with desktop tools using the WFS-T protocol.
Map Annotation - A light weight alternative to full data editing, users should be able to add a small number of
     geometries to their ‘map’.
Upload CSV or Excel file – Non GIS users should be able to take an Excel or CSV file and upload it to GeoNode,
     joining a non-spatial field like Zip Code, Country or Address to a geometry and make a data layer to be shared.
Automatic Tile Caching – Use GeoWebCache to drastically improve the performance of large layers and slow remote
     services.
    AUTEC and on-the-ground
    data acquisition

Mobile Mapping Facility (MMF) Project
       AUTEC and on-the-ground
       data acquisition

Mobile Mapping Facility (MMF) Project

 Plotter A0 format
 Printing management desktop
 Mapping server desktop
 GPS permanent station
 Satellitare bridge
 Mobile data acquisition devices (GPS receivers, GPS
 digital and video cameras, Low Cost Mobile Mapping
 System + portable laser scanner)

				
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