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Micro-Hydro Turbine

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Micro-Hydro Turbine Powered By Docstoc
					       Scott Craig
     Cody Maher
        Jesse Ross
Brian Vanstratum
 Problem Statement
 How much power is in water flow?
 How do we generate power from water?
 How much power do we need?
 The Site
 Data From the Site
 Available Power vs. Needed Power
   Feasibility study
   Can we make enough
    power, using this water
    source, to provide
    enough energy for one
    or more homes?
   Located in Reynolds, GA
   Is a large pond with a
    dam on one side
   Minor Mill Pond is a
    watershed for Panther
    Creek and a collection
    of artesian springs
   Maximum power from
    water flow depends on the
    flow rate and the pressure
   The pressure is essentially
    the height the water falls,
    also called “head”
   Thus the equation for max
    power is:
    P = mdotρgh,
    where mdot = mass flow rate
    and ρgh = water pressure
   Turbines are used to
    generate power from
    water flow and water
    pressure
   There are 3 main
    variations on hydro-
    turbine design
   Fully immersed in water
   Convert water flow to
    energy
   Work like a propeller
   Typically used in high
    flow/low head
    situations
   Operate in air
   Convert water pressure
    to energy
   Driven by high velocity
    jets of water
   Typically used in low
    flow/high head
    situations
   Cross-flow turbine
   Not entirely immersed
    in water
   Generally operates like
    an Impulse Turbine, but
    also converts water
    flow to energy
   Typically used for low
    head/high flow
Typical residential power requirements:

   Blender: 300W
   Coffee Maker: 800W
   Washing Machine:
    500W
   Dryer: 5000W
   Central A/C: 2000 –
    5000W
   Wall A/C: 1000W
Aerial view of the pond   View of dam and mill house
 Natural Spillway


                                   Dam
                                         Runoff
 Spillway Two




Minor Mill Pond

                    Spillway One
Pond side   Opposite side
Pond side   Opposite Side
   The Minor Mill Pond runs to the
    Patsiliga Creek which then dumps
    into the Flint River
   The USGS has two gage stations
    monitoring flow rate one north of
    our site and one south of our site
   By utilizing this data we can
    roughly estimate the flow from
    the surrounding tributaries
   Gage Station Data from the year
    2004
   The two stations show the average
    stream flow (Cubic Feet per second)
    for each month in 2004.
   By taking the difference of flow rates
    we can determine the tributary
    contribution.
   The flow from the Minors Mill Pond
    will be a fraction of that contribution.
   We can then generate a fraction that
    represents the flow contribution
    from our site based on the flow rate
    data we collected on September 30th
    2006.
         1.6 
             
         1.9 
         1.4 
         1.7 
             
         1.3 
         1.45
             
         1.45
         1.6 
         1.5 
             
dt 1   1.76 s   x  12 in
         1.71
         1.3 
             
         1.7 
         1.9 
             
         1.45
         1.45
         1.6 
             
         1.4 
         1.4 
         1.4 
             
    Average velocity at the surface of the flow

Neglecting the friction due to air, the velocity at the surface of the flow is the
maximum value of the velocity distribution of the centerline of the flow.


    To calculate the flow rate we need the average velocity of the
     flow
A look at some hydraulics texts reveals some useful equations…
                2         1
         1      3         2
va   v   gRh       S0                               M         n
                                                          a n n i g   f o r m     a
                                                                                u l
         n

                              1
vs   u         
         r vaf va     gc      e        gh S0                       o
                                                      V a n o n i v e l c i y
                                                                          t       s
                                                                                d i
                      kv      o   n    K a   r    m   fe o r
                                                         n    o p e n   c h a n n e




 We never measured the grade, SO but by virtue of two equations we
 can find it.
              0       .       4
 0    .           3       7       9




              0       .       3

                                                                                                                                     h
                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                u ( y) dy
 y            0       .       2                                                                                              .1         m                             m
                                                                                                                                                              0.133
                                                                                                                                     ( h  .1 m)                       s

              0       .       1



      3
11       0       0
                      0               0   .      0     5                  0    .    1                    0   .   1   5       0       .       2
                      0
                                              v a v
                                                                1                   
                                                                         g h S 0  1 2 l.
                                                                                                  y
                                                                                                   
                                                                                                   o
                                                                                                   3     g
                                                                                                                         0       .       1       9   7
                                                                                    r            h
                                                            g
                                                       kv       o   n     K    a          m          e   n
Applying same methods from before:




                  m
 v2 avg  0.376
                  s
          g a l
V d  8t 01 4
    o
         m    i n
                           In order to minimize environmental effects
           g a l
V d  1t 82 7 5
    o                      we only want to use half the flow from
          m     i n        spillway two
                 g a l
V d t o ot 2 6 7 8 . 7
             t a l
                 m   i n




                                           1
                            V d u o s t a b l e V d o t
                                             V d o t 2
                                           2
                                              g a l
                            V d u o s t 1 b7 l 4 e 1
                                        a
                                              m       i             n
                  kg
 water  1000               h  8.33ft
                      3
                  m
Pmax  Vdottotal   water  g  h
                          3
Pmax  4.209  10 W
  50%

Pusable  Vdotusable   water  g  h  
                         3
Pusable  1.368  10 W

Pmonthly  Pusable  31day
                          3
Pmonthly  1.018  10 kW  hr
 Determine what we can power with a middle
  Georgia micro hydro site
 Very small neighborhood (7500 kW*hr/month)
 Just one house (1500 kW*hr/month)
 Preliminary useable power = 1018
  kW*hr/month
Decision Matrix



     Options                 Cost             Reliability   Power Generated   Environmental Impact   Totals

*Max Power (Two Feet
  of Additional Head)           2                  8              10                   2               22


 *Max Power (Current
       Head)                    3                  9               9                   2               23



Spillway 2 Preservation
    with Renovation             3                  9               6                   8               26


  Preserving Existing
        Dams                    7                  4               2                   10              23

   75% Reduction in
    Spillway 2 Flow
     (Renovation)               3                  9               8                   6               26




*Max Power = Closing of Spillway 2 for max flow

				
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posted:12/31/2012
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