The Social Context of Negotiation - ximb

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					The Social Context of
    No. of parties in a negotiation
•   Negotiating Dyad
•   Agents and constituencies
•   Additional negotiators
•   Negotiating teams
•   Unrepresented bystanders and audiences
•   Third parties
Negotiating within a relationship
• Negotiating within relationships takes place over time
• Negotiation is often not a way to discuss an issue but to learn
  more about each other and increase interdependence
• Resolution of simple distributive issues has implications for the
• Distributive issues within relationships can be emotionally hot
• Negotiating within relationships may never end
• In many negotiations, the ‘other person’ is the problem
• In some negotiations relationship preservation is the negotiation
    Key dimensions of relationships
•   Attraction
•   Rapport
•   Bonding
•   Breadth
• Affect : liking the other person
• Stimulation: experiencing the other as
  intellectually challenging
• Commonality: sharing things in common
• Romantic interest: being physically
  attracted to the other
• Trust: reliability, interpersonal integrity,
• Disclosure: openness with which the parties
  deal with each other
• Empathy : ability to see it from the other’s
  point of view
• Acceptance: unconditional positive regard for
  the other
• Respect: a view of the other possessing a
  strong value system and being committed to it
• Alliance: a feeling of being ‘on the same
• Exchange: tangible benefits which they
  derive from being associated with each
• Cooperation: degree to which both parties
  are able to work in unison to achieve
  respective goals
       Breadth of relationship
• Scope of the relationship: how large the the
  domain of relationship is
• Time horizon: how long the period of
  association has been
     Key elements in managing
   negotiations within relationships
• Trust – calculus based, knowledge based,
  identification based
• Emotions – positive, negative
• Justice – distributive, procedural, interactive
                    Trust Agreement Matrix

                     Bedfellows            Allies


                     Adversaries           Opponents

              Low                  Trust               High
   When coalitions are formed, they
              could be
• Allies – who are in agreement with a negotiator’s goals
  and vision and whom the negotiator trusts.
• Opponents – people with whom the negotiator has
  conflicting goals and objectives, but who can be trusted
  to be principled and candid in their opposition
• Bedfellows – people with whom a negotiator has high
  agreement on objectives but with low to moderate levels
  of trust
• Fence sitters – parties who will not take a stand, one
  way or the other
• Adversaries – low in agreement, low on trust
     Action strategy for building
      relationships in coalitions
With allies
• Affirm your agreement on the collective
  vision or objective
• Reaffirm the quality of relationship
• Acknowledge the doubt and vulnerability
  that you have with respect to achieving your
  vision and collective goal
• Ask for advice and support
     Action strategy for building
      relationships in coalitions
With opponents
• Reaffirm that your relationship is based on
• State your vision or position
• State in a neutral way what you think their
  position or vision is
• Engage in some kind of problem solving
     Action strategy for building
     relationships with coalitions
With bedfellows
• Reaffirm the agreement
• Acknowledge the caution that exists
• Be clear about what you want from
  bedfellows in terms of their support
• Ask bedfellows what they want from you
• Try to reach an agreement on how to work
     Action strategy for building
      relationships in coalitions
With fence sitters
• Stae your position on the project
• Ask where they stand
• Apply gentle pressures
• Encourage them to think about the issue and
  tell you what it would take to get their
      Action strategy to building
      relationships in coalitions
With adversaries
• State your visions and goals
• State in a neutral way your understanding of
  your adversary’s position
• Identify your own contribution to the poor
  relationship between you and your
• End the meeting by restating your plan but
  making no demands

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