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Tugas Aplikasi Komputer bab 8 dan 9 Fida Muthia firstname.lastname@example.org KOMUNITAS BLOGGER UNIVERSITAS SRIWIJAYA BAB 8 1. What is the significance of telecommunication deregulation for managers and organizations? The significance of telecommunication deregulation are there are thousands of organizations have sprung up to provide telecommunication products and services including local and long-distance telephone services, cellular phone, and wireless communication services, data network, cable TV, communication satellites and internet. And as for the managers, they are continually faced with decisions on how to incorporate these services and technologies into their information systems and business processes. 2. What is a telecommunications system? What are the principal functions of all telecommunications systems? A telecommunications system is a collection of compatible hardware and software arranged to communicate information from one location to another. The principal functions are transmits information, establishes the interface between the sender and the receiver, routes messages along the right efficient paths, performs elementary processing of the information, performs editorial tasks on the data, covert messages from one speed into the speed of a communications line, and controls the flow of information. 3. Name and briefly describe each of the components of telecommunications systems. - Computers, to process information - Terminals or any input. Output devices that send or receive data - Communication channels, the links by which data or voice are transmitted between sending and receiving devices in a network. Communications channels use various communications media, such as telephone lines, fiber-optic cables, coaxial cables. - Communication processors, such as modems, multiplexers, controllers, which provide support functions for data transmission and reception. - Communication software, which controls input and output activities and manages communications of the communications network. 4. Distinguish between an analog and a digital signal. Analog signal is a continuous waveform that passes through a communications medium used primarily for voice communications. While a digital signal is a discrete waveform that transmits data coded into two discrete states as I-bits and 0-bits, which are represented as on-off electrical pulses; used for data communications. 5. Name the different types of telecommunications transmission media and compare them in terms of speed and cost. Medium Speed Cost Twisted wire 300 BPS- 100MBPS Low Microwave 256 KBPS- 100MBPS Satellite 256KBPS- 100 MBPS Coaxial cable 56 KBPS- 200 MBPS Fiber-optic cable 500 KBPS- up to 6+ TBPS High 6. Name and describe the technologies used for wireless transmission. - Microwave, a high-volume, long-distance, point-to-point transmission in which high-frequency radio signals are transmitted through the atmosphere from one terrestrial transmission station to another. - Satellite, the transmission of data using orbiting satellites to serve as relay stations for transmitting microwave signals over very long distance. 7. What are optical networks? Why are they becoming important? Optical networks are networking technologies for transmitting data in the form of light pulses. It’s becoming important because it can transmit information appliances without degradation in quality or delays that can be very useful in this generation. 8. What is the relationship between bandwidth and a channel’s transmissions capacity? The bandwidth is the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies that can be accommodated on a single channel. The greater the range of frequencies, the greater the bandwidth and the greater channel’s transmission capacity. 9. Name and briefly describe the different kinds of communication processors. - Front-end processor, a special purpose computer dedicated to managing communications for the host computer in a network. - Concentrator, telecommunications computer that collects and temporarily stores messages from terminals for batch transmission to the host computer. - Controller, a specialized computer that supervises communications traffic between the CPU and the peripheral devices in a telecommunications system. - Multiplexer, a device that enables a single communications channel to carry data transmissions from multiple sources simultaneously. 10. Name and briefly describe the three principals of topologies. - Star network, a network topology in which all computers and other devices are connected to a central host computer. All communications between network devices must pass through the host computer. - Bus network, network topology linking a number of computers by a single circuit with all messages broadcast to a entire network. - Ring network, a network topology in which all computers are linked by a closed loop in a manner that passes data in one direction from one computer to another. 11. Distinguish between a PBX and a LAN A PBX (Private Branch Exchange) is a central switching system that handles a firm’s voice and digital communications. While a LAN (Local Area Network) is a telecommunication network that requires its own dedicated channels and that encompasses a limited distance, usually one building or several buildings in close proximity. 12. What are the components of a typical LAN? What are the functions of each component? - Gateway, a communication processor that connects dissimilar networks by providing the translation from one set of protocols to another. - Router, a device that routes packets of data from one network to another. 13. List and describe the various network services. - X.25, packet-switching standard that parcels data into packets of 128 bytes. - Frame relay, packages date into frames for high-speed transmissions over reliable lines but does not use error- correction routines. - ATM (asynchronous transfer mode), parcels data into uniform cells to allow high-capacity transmission of voices, data, images, and video between different types of computers. - ISDN (integrated services digital network), digital dial-up network access standard that can integrate voice, data and video service. - DSL (digital subscriber line), series of technologies for high-capacity transmission over copper wires. - T1, dedicated telephone connection with 24 channels for high-capacity transmission. - Cable modem, service for high-speed transmission of data over cable TV lines that are shared by many users. 14. Distinguish between a WAN and a VAN. A WAN (Wide Area Network) is a telecommunication network that spans a large geographical distance. May consist of a variety of wired, satellite, and microwave technologies. While a VAN (Value-added Network) is a private, multipath, data-only, third-party-managed network that multiple organizations use on a subscription basis. 15. Define the following: modem, baud, protocol, converged network and a broadband - Modem, a device for translating digital signals into analog signals and vice versa. - Baud, a change in signal from positive to negative or vice versa that is used as a measure of transmission speed. - Protocol, a set of rules and procedures that govern transmission between the components in a network. - Converged network is a network with technology to enable voice and data to run over a single network. - Broadband, is high speed transmission technology. Also designates a communications medium that can transmit multiple channels of data simultaneously. 16. Name and describe the telecommunications applications that can support electronic commerce and electronic business. - Email and voice mail, a system for digitizing a written or spoken message and transmitting it over a network. - Facsimile (fax), a machine that digitizes and transmits documents with both text and graphics over telephone lines. - Teleconferencing, the ability to confer with a group of people simultaneously using the telephone or electronic-mail group communication software. - Data conferencing, teleconferencing in which two or more users is able to edit and modify data files simultaneously. - Video conferencing, teleconferencing in which participants see each other over video screens. - Distance learning, education or training delivered over a distance to individuals in one or more location. - Electronic data interchange (EDI), the direct computer- to- computer exchange between two organizations of standard business transaction documents. BAB 9 v TUGAS APLIKASI KOMPOTER BAB 9 1. What are the features of the new information technology (IT) infrastructure? The new information technology (IT) infrastructure: The new IT infrastructure link desktop workstations, network computers, LAN and server computers in an enterprise network so that information can flow freely between different parts of the organization. The enterprise network may also be linked to kiosks point-of- sale (POS) terminals., PDAs and information appliances, digital cellular telephones and PCS, and mobile computing devices as well as to the internet using public infrastructures. Customers, suppliers, and business partners may also be linked to the organization through this new IT infrastructure. 2. Why is connectivity so important for the digital firm? List and describe the major connectivity standards for networking and the internet. Today’s firms can use the information technologies we have described in previous chapters to create an information technology (IT) infrastructure capable of coordinating the activities of entire firms and even entire industries. By enabling companies to radically reduce their agency and transaction cost, this new IT infrastructure provides a broad platform for electronic commerce, electronic business, and the emerging digital firm. This new IT infrastructure is based on powerful network and internet technology. 3. What is the internet? List and describe alternative ways of accessing the internet. An internet provider (ISP) is a commercial organization with a permanent connection to the internet that sells temporary connections to subscribers. Individuals also can access the internet through such popular on-line services as prodigy and American Online and through networks established by such giants as Microsoft and AT & T. 4. List and describe the principal Internet capabilities. - E-mail, Person-to-person messaging, document sharing. - Usenet newsgroups, Discussion groups on electronic bulletin boards. - LISTSERVs , Discussion groups and messaging using E-mail mailing list server - Chatting, interactive conversations - telnet, long on to one computer system and do work on another - FTP, transfer files from computer to computer - Gophers , locate information using a hierarchy of menus - World wide web , retrieve, format, and display information (including text, audio, graphics and video) using hypertext links. 5. What is the internet2? How does it differ from the first-generation internet? What benefits does it provide? Internet2 is a research network with new protocols and transmission speeds that are much higher that the current internet. The internet2 infrastructure is based on a series of interconnected gigapops, which are regional high-speed points-of-presence that serve as aggregation points for traffic form participating institutions. 6. Why is the Word Wide Web so useful for individuals and businesses? The World Wide Web (the Web) is as the heart of the explosion in the business use of the Net. The web is a system with universally accepted standards for storing, retrieving, formatting, and displaying information using client/server architecture. The web combines text, hypermedia, graphics, and sound. It can handle all types of digital communication making it easy to link resources that are half-a-world apart. The web uses graphical user interfaces for easy viewing. It is based o a standard hypertext language called hypertext markup language (THML). This formats documents and incorporates dynamic link to other documents stored in the same or remote computer. 7. List and describe alternative ways of locating information on the web. Locating information the web critical function, with the more that one billion web pages in existence expected to double eight months. No comprehensive catalog of web sites exists. The principal methods of locating information on the web are web site directories, search engines, and broadcast or “push” technology. 8. What are intranets and extranets? How do they differ form the web? Organization can use internet networking standards and web technology to create private network called intranet. We introduced intranet in Chapter 1, explaining intranet is an internal organizational network that can provide access to data across the enterprise. 9. Wireless web applications enable mobile users to access digital information from the internet and be connected anywhere, any time, any place. Specialized portals steer users of Web-enable wireless devices to the information they are most likely to need. Wireless Web =web based applications enabling users to access digital information from the internet using wireless mobile computing devices. 10. m-commerce, the use of the internet for purchasing goods and services as well as sending and receiving message using handheld wireless devices. With cell phones, PDAs, and other wireless computing devices becoming internet-enabled, many believe m-commerce represent the next wave of internet computing. M-commerce will become a significant subset of e-commerce. Businesses will increasingly incorporate wireless internet access into their information technology infrastructures so that employees can access information wherever they are, and make decisions instantly without being tethered to desk or computer. 11. I-mode is a rival standard developed by Japan’s NTT DoCoMo mobile phone network. It is widely used in Japan and is being introduced to Europe. I-mode uses compact HTML to deliver content, making it easier for businesses to convert their HTML Web sites to mobile service. 12. Abilities can be used to create interactive applications, and provide services and products. By using internet technology, organizations can reduce communication and transaction costs. Internet Benefits to Connectivity and global reach Reduced communication costs Lower agency cost Interactivity flexibility and customization Accelerated distribution of knowledge 13. Businesses seriously pursuing electronic commerce and electronic business need special tools for maintaining their web sites. These tools include web server and electronic commerce survey software, customer tracking and personalization tools, Web content management tools, and site performance monitoring tools. Web server as the software necessary to run web sites, internets, and extranets. The core capabilities of web server software revolve around locating and managing stored web pages. Customer Tracking and Personalization Tools -Collecting and storing data on the behavior of on line customers and combining that data with data already stored in the company’s back-office systems. -Analyzing the data in order better to understand the behavior of on line customers. - Identifying developing customer trends. 14. Companies that lack the financial or technical resources to operate their own web sites or electronic commerce services can use web hosting services. A web hosting service maintains a large web server computer or a series of server and provides fee-paying subscribers with space to maintain their web sites. The subscribing companies may create their own web pages or have the hosting service or a web design film create them. 15. The challenge of man managing the new information technology infrastructure -Loss of management control Managing information system technology and corporate data are proving much more difficult in a distributed environment because of the lack of a single, central point where needed management can occur. -Connectivity and application integration We have already described the connectivity problems created by incompatible networks and standard, including connectivity problems for wireless networks. -Organizational change requirements Enterprise-wide computing provides an opportunity to reengineer the organization into a more effective unit, but it will only create problems or chaos if the underlying organizational issues are not fully addressed (Duchessi and Chengalur-smith, 1998) -Hidden coast of enterprise computing Many companies have found that the saving they expected from distributed client/server computing did not materialize because of unexpected costs. -Scalability, Reliability, and security Companies seeking to digitally enable their business require robust IT infrastructures providing plentiful bandwidth and storage capacity for transmitting and maintaining all of the data generated by electronic commerce and electronic business transactions. 16. Some solutions Organizations can meet the challenges posed by the new IT infrastructure by planning for and managing the business and organizational changes; increasing end-user training; asserting data administration disciplines; and considering connectivity, application integration bandwidth, and cost controls in their technology planning.
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