Sleep and Dreams by proth522

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									SLEEP AND DREAMS…

Chapter 5 Huffman/Ch 6 Nairne States of Consciousness

• Consciousness: an organism’s subjective awareness of internal and external events in its environment • Attention: internal processes that set priorities for mental functioning

• Levels of awareness:
–HIGH: Controlled processes that require attention (and interfere with other functions) –MIDDLE: Automatic processes requiring minimal attention (such as riding your bike) –LOWEST: Minimal or no awareness of the environment

• Levels of awareness:
–HIGH: Controlled processes that require attention (and interfere with other functions) –MIDDLE: Automatic processes requiring minimal attention (such as riding your bike)
• Automaticity – fast and effortless processing that requires little or no focused attention

• Levels of awareness:
–HIGH: Controlled processes that require attention (and interfere with other functions) –MIDDLE: Automatic processes requiring minimal attention (such as riding your bike) –LOWEST: Minimal or no awareness of the environment

• Sleep is a behavior AND an altered state of consciousness • We spend about a third of our lives in sleep.

Sleep

• Summated brain wave activity (EEG)
– Wakefulness: beta activity (13-30 Hz) – Eyes closed: alpha activity (8-12 Hz)

EEG Changes During Sleep

EEG Changes During Sleep
Stage 1: Light Sleep – Alpha Waves Stage 2: Eye movements & brain waves slow; sleep spindles

EEG Changes During Sleep
• Stage 3: very slow waves delta waves appear • Stage 4: almost all delta waves
– Very hard to wake during this stage

EEG Changes During Sleep
• REM stage: rapid, irregular and shallow breathing, eyes jerk rapidly, both wake and sleep waves (sawtooth pattern)

Theories of Sleep
• Repair/Restoration
–Sleep allows for recuperation from physical, emotional, and intellectual fatigue

• Survival Value
–Sleep evolved to conserve energy and protect our ancestors from predators

Wish Fulfillment –

Freud’s DreamTheory…
A.K.A.

“Sometimes,a cigar is just a cigar.”
- Freud, on the meaning of dreams

Psychoanalytic theory: Dreams represent disguised symbols of repressed desires and anxieties Manifest Content: symbols used to disguise true meaning of dream Latent Content: true unconscious meaning of a dream

WHY DO WE DREAM!?
• Activation-synthesis hypothesis:
–Dreams represent random activation of brain cells during REM sleep

• Problem Solving
–Dreams focus on the problems we have in an attempt to find a solution

• Threat simulation
–Dreams evolved to help us practice skills we need to avoid threats.

Dyssomnias

• Insomnia - difficulty in getting to sleep or remaining asleep
–Situational: related to anxiety or excitement –Drug-induced: sleeping pills (tolerance)

Dyssomnias
Sleep apnea: person stops breathing and is awakened when blood levels of carbon dioxide stimulate breathing • Narcolepsy: Sleep appears at odd times
•

–Sleep attack: urge to sleep during the day –Cataplexy: REM paralysis occurs, person is still conscious

Myths of Sleep
• Everyone needs 8 hrs of sleep per night to maintain good health • Learning of complicated subjects such as calculus can be done during sleep • Some people never dream • Dreams last only a few seconds • Genital arousal during sleep reflects dream content
• It is unrelated to sexual content • May be a useful index of physical versus psychological causes of impotence in males


								
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