STATE AGRICULTURE PLAN _SAP_ 1.0021 by keralaguest


									                                     State Agriculture Plan – Tamil Nadu   47


The waste land of Tamil Nadu is furnished below in Fig 3.
                                               State Agriculture Plan – Tamil Nadu   48

Culturable Wastelands

       Land which is capable or has the potential for the development of vegetative
cover and is not being used due to different constraints of varying degrees is termed
as culturable wastelands. Culturable wastelands comprise the following categories.

  i.   Agricultural Land inside notified forest: Lands put under cultivation within
       the restricted forest areas.

 ii.   Degraded forest – Scrub domination: Lands as noticed under the Forest Act
       and those lands with various types of forest cover, in which vegetative cover is
       less than 20% are classified as degraded forest land. Among the vegetative
       types scrubs and thorny bushes are dominated species.

iii.   Degraded land under plantation crops: This includes degraded lands
       containing plantations inside and outside of the notified forest area.

 iv.   Degraded pastures / grazing land: All those grazing land in non-forest areas,
       whether or not they are permanent pastures or meadows, which have become
       degraded due to lack of proper soil conservation and drainage measures fall
       under this category.

 v.    Gullied / ravenous land: The gullies are formed as a result of localised
       surface run off affecting the friable unconsolidated material resulting in the
       formation of perceptible channels resulting in undulating terrain. The gullies
       are the first stage of excessive land dissection followed by their networking
       which leads to the development of ravinous land. The world 'ravine' is usually
       associated not with an isolated gully but a network of gullies formed generally
       in deep alluvium and entering nearby river flowing much lower than the
       surrounding table lands. The ravines then are extensive systems of gullies
       developed along river courses.

 vi.   Land with or without scrub: This is the land which is generally prone to
       degradation and may or may not have scrub over.             Such land occupies
       topographically high locations in the respective systems. This excludes hilly
       and mountainous terrain.
                                                 State Agriculture Plan – Tamil Nadu      49

vii.    Water-logged and marsh: Surface water-logged land is that land where the
        water is near the surface and water stands for most of the year. Marsh is a
        land which permanently or periodically inundated by water and is
        characterised by vegetation which includes grasses and reeds.

viii.   Salt Affected Lands (Saline / Alkaline): The salt affected land is generally
        characterised as the land that has adverse effects on the growth of most of the
        plants due to the action or presence of excess soluble salts or excess
        exchangeable sodium.       The saline soils have more of soluble salts with
        electrical conductivity of more than 4 dSm-1. Alkali land has an exchangeable
        sodium percentage (ESP) of above 15 which is generally considered as the
        limit between normal and alkali soils. The predominant salts are carbonates
        and bicarbonates of sodium.

 ix.    Sands : Sandy areas are those areas which have stabilized accumulation of
        sand, in situ or transported, in tank / river bed, coastal, riverine or inland areas.

  x.    Mining / industrial Waste lands: These are lands where large-scale mining
        operations bring about the degradation of land and resultant mine dumps.

Unculturable Wastelands
        Lands which cannot be developed for vegetative cover are defined as
unculturable wastelands. Unculturable wastelands are divided into:

   i.   Barren rocky / stony wastes / sheet rock area.
  ii.   Steep sloping area - Land with very steep slopes (greater than 35 degrees);
        Prone to erosion and mass wasting (Landslides).
                                                  State Agriculture Plan – Tamil Nadu   50

2.5. Land Use Pattern in Tamil Nadu State

        Land use statistics in general indicate the way in which the land area is put
under various uses. Land as a scarce resource, is to be managed effectively to benefit
the human race that depends on land for its livelihood. Therefore, the details on the
land use pattern in Tamil Nadu State as a whole and for the individual district are
furnished in Table 2.7. The changes in land use pattern in the State over a period of
time are shown in Table 2.8

i) Geographical Area

        It could be seen from Table 2.7, that the total geographical area in the State is
13 million hectares. Among the districts, Erode has the maximum geographical area
of 8.16 lakh hectares and Thiruvarur has the minimum geographical area of 2.10 lakh
hectares, as could be visualized from Table 2.7.

ii) Forest
        Perusal of the Table.2.7 further indicates that the area under forest is around
21 lakh hectares accounting for 16 percent of the geographical area. The district of
Erode has the maximum area of 2.29 lakh hectares and Cuddalore has the minimum
area under forest with 1,415 hectares only. Over years, the area under forest had
increased very marginally by about 1.50 lakh hectares. This is a good sign. However,
it is pointed out that for a natural / environmental balance to receive good rains there
must be 33 percent of the geographical area under forest cover. This indicates that
afforestation must be taken up on war-footing. Since, the scope for bringing more
area under natural forest cover is almost an impossible proposition, the development
efforts must be dovetailed for intensification of green cover in forest area as well as
on hills and hillocks and planting tree crops in shrub-jungles, village wastelands and
farms in almost all the districts in the State.

iii) Barren land
        The barren and uncultivable land is around 5.03 lakh hectares in 2005-06 as
compared to that of 6.10 lakh hectares in 1979-80 as indicated in Table 2.8. Thus, a
reduction of 1.00 lakh hectare over the period of 25 years could be witnessed. This

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