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STATE AGRICULTURE PLAN _SAP_ 1.0015

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STATE AGRICULTURE PLAN _SAP_ 1.0015 Powered By Docstoc
					                                               State Agriculture Plan – Tamil Nadu    23


       As could he seen from Table 2.2 the average normal rainfall of 958.4 mm is
received in the state as a whole. About 48 per cent of the total average rainfall is
received during North-East monsoon, while about 35 per cent is received during
South-West monsoon. The balance of about 17 per cent is obtained during winter as
well as summer months, as could be evidenced from the table. It is also pertinent to
note that the districts of Salem, Namakkal and Dharmapuri received almost equal
quantities of rainfall in both South-West and North-East monsoons. On the other
hand, Krishnagiri and the Nilgiris are benefited more by the South-West monsoon.
All other districts are benefited more by North-East monsoon.


       As regards geographical distribution of rainfall in the state, the maximum
normal rainfall of about 1700 mm is received in the Nilgiris district, while the
minimum of about 694 mm is received in Thoothukudi district. The table also reveals
the fact that almost all the mid and northern coastal districts receive more than 1000
mm of normal rainfall. The mid-inland and southern districts, receive lesser than
1000 mm. Because of high rainfall and high elevation, the sub-tropical and temperate
crops like coffee, tea, hill vegetables, peaches, plums, straw berries etc, are grown in
the Nilgiris district. On the other hand, in the remaining plains of Tamil Nadu
characterized by tropical climate, the field crops like paddy, cholam, cumbu, ground
nut, sugar cane, banana, cotton, etc are cultivated. Even among the districts in the
plains, in mid and northern coastal districts, paddy is predominantly grown in
wetlands in larger areas, while in the mid and northern in-land districts, garden land
crops like cholam, cumbu, ragi, maize, groundnut, cotton etc are cultivated. Southern
districts are characterized more by dryland agriculture due to low rainfall regime and
hence cotton, pulses, cholam, cumbu etc are predominantly grown under rainfed
conditions and in a few pockets where irrigation facilities are available, farmers resort
to invariably for paddy cultivation.      However, the southern most district viz.
Kanyakumari, comes under high rainfall zone and hence the paddy and plantation
crops like rubber are grown.

       The temporal spread of rainfall in the State is furnished in Table 2.3.
                                               State Agriculture Plan – Tamil Nadu     24


           Table 2.3 Temporal Spread of Rainfall in Tamil Nadu State

                                                                                (in mm)
Sl.                                                             Hot
         Year          SWM            NEM           Winter                     Total
No.                                                            weather
1.     1993-94         305.2          709.9          35.5        121.3        1171.9

2.     1994-95         220.3          479.0          27.2        203.3         929.8

3.     1995-96         347.5          248.3          10.5        115.2         721.5

4.     1996-97         454.8          541.1           13         112.3        1121.2

5.     1997-98         286.0          782.3           5.5         78.4        1152.2

6.     1998-99         340.1          602.4          21.5        116.4        1080.4

7.     1999-00         199.9          499.5          119.5        77.9         896.8

8.     2000-01         314.5          335.6          16.8        118.4         785.3

9.     2001-02         260.0          379.4           70          85.8         795.2

10.    2002-03         185.4          407.1           8.7        129.7         730.9
11.    2003-04         336.5          403.1          11.6        283.4        1034.6
12.    2004-05         360.7          472.1          14.3        23.70         870.8

13.    2005-06         380.5          828.8          15.9        150.9        1376.1
Source: Tamil Nadu Economic Appraisal (2005-06), Evaluation and Applied Research
       Department, Government of Tamil Nadu, Chennai (various issues)



       It could be seen from the table above, that the total rainfall received from
South-West monsoon during 2004-05 was 8.80 percent above normal rainfall.
However, during 2005-06 it was 7.3 percent. The rainfall received from South West
monsoon was excess in one district, normal in 23 districts and deficient in six districts
during 2005-06. The precipitation in the North East monsoon was comparatively
improved from 472.1 mm in 2004-05 to 828.8 mm in 2005-06.                The State has
experienced an improvement in the overall rainfall to the tune of 36.10 percent against
the normal rainfall during the review year.
                                              State Agriculture Plan – Tamil Nadu      25


          The month-wise distribution of rainfall for the period from 2002-03 to
2005-06 along with normal rainfall is furnished in Table 2.4.


                  Table 2.4. Month-wise Distribution of Rainfall - Tamil Nadu
                                                                         (in mm)
Sl. No.            Month           Normal    2002-03    2003-04     2004-05     2005-06

  1.       June                      46.3      48.5       44.7         45.9          29.5

  2.       July                      77.6      24.6       82.2         61.2          80.6

  3.       August                    95.3      53.3      141.4         35.7          82.0

  4.       September                113.6      59.0       68.1        217.9         116.4

South West Monsoon                  332.8    185.4       336.5        360.7         308.5

  5.       October                  187.1    225.3       208.4        273.6         292.0

  6.       November                 179.4    146.2       172.7        182.4         370.9

  7.       December                  92.7      35.7       22.0         16.1         165.9

North East Monsoon                  459.2    407.2       403.1        472.1         828.8

  8.       January                   22.1       0.8         8.8         3.1          15.8

  9.       February                  14.4       7.9         2.8        11.3           0.1

Winter Season                        36.8       8.7       11.6         14.4          15.9

  10.      March                     19.9      46.0         4.8        25.8          54.5

  11.      April                     43.4      37.2       34.4        133.6          34.4

  12.      May                       66.3      46.5      244.2         72.3          62.0

Hot weather season                  129.6    129.7       283.4        231.7         150.9

Total                               958.4    731.0      1034.6      1078.8      1304.1
    Source: Tamil Nadu Economic Appraisal (2005-06), Evaluation and Applied
            Research Department, Government of Tamil Nadu, Chennai.
                                                State Agriculture Plan – Tamil Nadu   26


        From the table, it could be seen that comparatively high rainfall was received
in the months of September, October, November and December and low rainfall was
received in the months of January and February in all the years under question.


        The study carried out by the Department of Agricultural Economics, Tamil
Nadu Agricutlural University revealed that due to increasing temperature and
changing rainfall the reduction in rice yield is expected to go down by 10-15 percent
in 2020 and even 80 per cent in 2080.


2.4. Soils of Tamil Nadu
        Major portion in Tamil Nadu is covered by red sandy and red loam soils. Red
sandy soils have developed from acidic parent material like granite, gneiss, quartzite,
sandstone etc.     Sand particles are coated with red coloured hematite or yellow
coloured limonite, which is responsible for the various shades of red and yellow soils,
which usually contain ferruginous gravel containing iron, aluminum and silica. These
sandy, loamy sand and sandy loam soils are heavily leached and therefore poor in
basic elements and plant nutrients. The red colour of soils is due to the coating of
ferric oxides on soil particles. Calcium is the important exchangeable cation. They
are neutral to slightly alkaline in reaction.


        Black soils of Tamil Nadu which are either shallow (3 to 4 ft. deep) or deeper,
are of very heavy texture, with high moisture retention capacity. They are rich in lime
and alkaline in reaction.      They contain low amounts of nitrogen but sufficient
quantities of phosphorus and potash.


        Mixed red and black soils occur in Coimbatore, Madurai, Ramanathapuram
and Tirunelveli districts. Black soils are dominated by beidellite, while red soils are
dominated by kaolinite. The cation exchange capacity of the black soils is much
higher than that of the red soils. However, the cation exchange capacity of red soils is
high at an intermediate depth only.      Black soils contain almost the same amount of
nitrogen.

				
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