A Survey of Mobile Augmented Reality Applications
Mobile devices are getting popular as a platform for Augmented Reality (AR) application such as a Smartphone. Mobile AR is mainly available whenever people require an informational support for a focused task. Although the mobile AR application is getting popular, only a limited number of researches are available. This paper in turn presents an overview of potential or current uses of mobile AR application from the first development of mobile AR application in 1997 until now. The objective is to observe the trend and the importance of mobile augmented reality by focusing on sports, games and entertainment, cultural heritage, medical, education and training and marketing/advertising area depended on where it can be applied. Our results then indicate that mobile AR is a potential tool to assist a user in many tasks.
2012 1st International Conference on Future Trends in Computing and Communication Technologies A Survey of Mobile Augmented Reality Applications Nur Intan Adhani Dayang Rohaya Awang Rambli Department of Computer Information Sciences Department of Computer Information Sciences Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia Abstract— Mobile devices are getting popular as a also acknowledged the increased registration requirements in platform for Augmented Reality (AR) application such as order to align real and virtual objects. Their project at that time a Smartphone. Mobile AR is mainly available whenever focused on digital display headset used as a guide in aircraft people require an informational support for a focused assembly. task. Although the mobile AR application is getting The focus of this study is to survey on the trend of mobile popular, only a limited number of researches are available. AR application from the first invention in 1997 until today. It This paper in turn presents an overview of potential or is found that Mobile AR is a potential tool to assist a user with current uses of mobile AR application from the first many tasks such as car driving (for training purposes), development of mobile AR application in 1997 until now. education, marketing purposes and others. This paper is The objective is to observe the trend and the importance of organized into several sections. In Section 2, the background of mobile augmented reality by focusing on sports, games study will be briefly discussed and in Section 3, literature and entertainment, cultural heritage, medical, education survey will be presented and discussed in details. Lastly, and training and marketing/advertising area depended on Section 4, the preliminary study will be presented and where it can be applied. Our results then indicate that discussed. mobile AR is a potential tool to assist a user in many tasks. II. MOBILE AUGMENTED REALITY Index Terms—Mobile devices, augmented reality, mobile Mobile Augmented Reality is one of the fastest growing application. research clusters in Augmented Reality (AR). Papagiannakis et I. INTRODUCTION al. define the mobile AR system as a combination of real and virtual world as well as interactivity in real time by aligning Recently, mobile devices have become an ideal platform actual and virtual objects to one another and the virtual for Augmented Reality (AR). Technology of AR creates an intensification relatively based on dynamic 3D objects . opening to explore new ways for the interaction between the Specht et al., meanwhile, specify AR as a system that enhances actual and virtual world, which is a very important area for a person’s major senses (vision, audio, and tactile) in enabling future research . By introducing AR, it can even provide a the virtually or naturally invisible information to be visible by new direction for the real world that we are living in that is by digital means . Therefore, mobile AR is enabled by mobile placing virtual objects into the scene. In AR system, users are media devices combining camera, screen, GPS location, conscious with their surroundings while interacting with AR accelerometer and compass, image recognition capability and application and the virtual content added to it . internet access which become mediums of interaction between A mobile device in addition has integrated with camera, user and system . Thus, the concept of AR can be applied in power processor and even full color display and 3D graphics. the mobile setting. Moreover, it has equipped with accelerometer and compass. In addition to this concept, mobile AR is of the potential to The rising in mobility and portability throughout our daily life manipulate the way of information and data to be presented have encouraged user to use mobile devices not only to using a system directly integrated with the real world connect with friends and family through calls, messages, social environment . By using Mobile AR, people not only can networks (e.g. Facebook and twitter) and emails but also have interact with it to display the related information to pose and become user’s personal assistants, media center, office desk, resolve uncertainty but also can collaborate with other people. navigator, game console, tour guide and others. For this, there This then makes the world becomes user interface (UI). To is a need to explore and conduct a research on the application make Mobile AR experience possible, several technologies areas where Mobile AR systems are used considering that only need to be combined such as global tracking technologies, a limited number of researches on use in real settings are wireless communication, display technology and interaction available, even though the popularity of Mobile AR application technology. Hollerer , in response, classifies 6 important is rising . The history of AR began when the concept components of mobile AR as shown in Table 1. appeared in 1960’s and when a man named Ivan Sutherland According to Juniper Research, AR technology will created a first augmented reality system using an optical see- generate $2 million in 2012, and will soar to $714 million through head-mounted display. However, the term of AR is annually by 2014. “Smart” devices such as Smartphone and coined by Caudell and Mizell in 1992 to refer to overlaying a tablet will be more widely adopted by customers along all computer-presented material on top of the real world . They 89 2012 1st International Conference on Future Trends in Computing and Communication Technologies sectors and more new technologies will come into sight among edutainment, cultural heritage, medicine, navigation and path Android and Apple Smartphones and tablets that will allow findings, maintenance and inspection and others. people to use them as a platform of AR . We are already beginning to see this development as digital compasses, gyro function and accelerometers have been spreading through the market. In 1997, Steve Feiner developed the first mobile AR application, a touring machine intended to explore the urban environment . At that time the mobile AR systems were based on bulky hardware, carried in a backpack  . However, smaller laptop computers, UMPCs (Ultra-Mobile Fig. 1. Example of mobile AR using markers. Personal Computer), and PDAs (Personal Digital Assistant) followed after serving as an AR hardware platform  . However, this study is more focused on 5 different areas: Today, art phones have been of sufficient processing powers, 1) sports, games and edutainment, 2) cultural heritage, 3) rapidly become more popular as a mobile AR platform for the medicine 4) education and training, and 5) improvement of its functions    and become closer marketing/advertising. These 5 areas give some major to a widespread adoption. This is due to the mobility and supports in terms of learning experience and promoting social lightweight promoted to the users in which they just need to interactivity and collaboration among mobile AR user. In the look through the screen and interact with the virtual object next subsection, the importance of these major areas will be added to it. The users, in addition, will not need to carry or presented. wear any other apparatus to experience mobile. III. THE IMPORTANCE OF MOBILE AR APPLICATION AREAS TABLE I. COMPONENTS OF MOBILE AR A. Sports, games and edutainment Components Descriptions Hollerer and Feiner stated that mobile AR has a potential in Computational Able to generate and manage the virtual objects games and edutainment purposes. In its application, the platform in the physical setting traditional 2D games based on the famous ‘Pac-Man’ for Showing the virtual object in the context of the physical world instance have evolved   . Through the Display Type Often used to convey contained information implementation of mobile AR in games and edutainment area, either matching or completely alternate for connectivity, social interactivity and fun learning come to be visual elements . possible then. In some of the edutainment applications such as Registration and Aligning the physical objects with the virtual AR Book, Dynamic 3-D objects and etc, leisure and high Tracking elements to annotate. entertainment experience or value could be gained. Interaction Enabling people to select, access and visualize Technologies relevant materials B. Cultural heritage Important in engaging with others while on the Wireless Networking go The term heritage refers to the study of anything that is Data Storage and To provide the information about the current inherited and recovery to remain through the archeology, art, Access Technology environment/scenario to the user. tradition and culture . As an important asset to the society, cultural heritage needs to be protected and preserved in order Mobile AR technologies can be divided into 2 categories: to make the next generation to be able to learn from it. In one that uses an image analysis to overlay content and another protecting and preserving the cultural heritage, it is sometimes one that uses various types of sensors to determine what hard to maintain and recover the real artifact..At this point, content to overlay and where to display it . The one using mobile AR usefully plays a role in visualizing the invisible or the image analysis has 2 types of approaches called “markers” transparent (i.e. reconstruction of historical objects and and “markerless”. Related to this, Rekimoto has archeological sites). In a word, the establishment of New introduced 2D matrix markers, a square-shaped barcodes, technology such as mobile AR can be used as a tool and which is one of the first marker systems to allow camera solution to overcome challenging issues in cultural heritage. tracking with six 6DOF  as shown in Figure 1. Mobile AR will detect the marker in the processed image C. Medical and perform pattern matching the extracted marker. A virtual In medical area, AR technology plays a role as a medium object will subsequently be projected to the screen. On the for the medical students in applying their knowledge or other hand, by using sensors, the position data are obtained practice in the form of AR simulation. The medical students from GPS and orientation from accelerometers and before applying AR technology learned from books and geomagnetic sensors. Based on the definition of mobile AR, training videos. AR technology is often used in radiology and the development of mobile AR application thus comes to be surgery to provide additional information such as test results, feasible in multidisciplinary areas such as games and scans, surgical training. This technology not only can help doctors and physicians in improving their works but also can make their practice prosperous. Treating phobia is one of 90 2012 1st International Conference on Future Trends in Computing and Communication Technologies several potential applications of mobile AR in the medical cultural heritage; medical; education and training; and field. Furthermore, AR technology in case of emergency can marketing/advertising. enable the medical personnel to be able to assess a situation quickly. During athletic training or competition, mobile AR A. Sports, games and edutainment technologies are also potential to be applied in medical use . Magerkurth et al.  previously has ever presented an Mostly, AR has been used for the purpose of learning practices overview of pervasive gaming containing a section on AR especially in surgery (inside the human body) and can provide games. Then, through the advancement of technology, AR the most intuitive way in understanding the patient’s anatomy games have evolved and can be played through mobile devices. within the region of interest  . Meanwhile, Squire& Klopfer developed a game called Environmental Detectives . It has then been developed by D. Education and training researchers in MIT’s Games-to-Teach project in conjunction Instead of using books, video or manual, mobile AR can with faculty in the Environmental Science Department. By be an alternative that can be used in education and training. In using this game application, students are able to play the role of this case, mobile AR will not only reduce the cost of training environmental scientists exploring the source of a hypothetical but also simplify the training manual - especially in military, toxic spill. In this case, the students engage in the complex, jet engine inspection and others. It can be used by soldier to collaborative problem solving typical of real environmental provide information on the targeted object, to avoid dangerous engineers. Given a mobile media device equipped with GPS, zones and to provide an overview of the battlefield. Much each pair of students can see their location on a map and more than that, this technology can be used to distinguish conduct several virtual interviews with people in designated between friend and foe and for strategic planners to move locations in the physical space. Some of the experts they units to avoid casualties. interview here can provide documents, and students can take virtual samples of the water and the soil. E. Marketing/Advertising Morrison et al., on the other hand, developed MapLens Through AR technology, the face of marketing can be which uses the phone’s viewﬁnder screen to augment the changed. Nowadays consumers are able to enjoy their phone’s live video with digital information registered in 3D shopping in much fun and interactively. In this case, the and in real-time . This application is a team-location-based technology of AR can help the consumer to pick the right games designed to increase the awareness of the surrounding choices. Some of the company has implemented AR as their environment and to promote awareness of local environmental marketing purposes such as IKEA. Even, advertising through issues. mobile has also been becoming more popular. Gartner predicts Henrysson et al. developed mobile AR game using that 1 billion Smart phones will be sold by 2014 that will kinesthetic AR interfaces in an AR tennis game . This promote mobile AR . According to Juniper, mobile AR mobile AR game is for supporting collaborative AR marketing revenue will largely be driven by subscription- applications. based services; advertising and AR-based app downloads. B. Cultural heritage Even though mobile AR is seen as a potential tool that is Previously, mobile AR uses a head-mounted display able to assist user in many tasks, some issues in implementing (HMD) as a mobile guide in the cultural heritage sector. At this this technology remain still. As mentioned by Zeichick, point, to visualize the non-existing temple, mobile AR guides “mobile devices will not always be connected, and when for instance has been implemented in the site of ancient connected, there is no way to guarantee or even predict Olympia, Greece . This system can provide a personalized bandwidth and reliability, or even jitter and delays in electronic guide to outdoor archaeological sites, help users to communication” . Another important issue is to determine navigate and make the most of their visit, and enable the the accurate position and orientation for overlay image or collection, exploitation, and updating of archaeological data in content , which is the crucial task to be performed by the any given sites. mobile device besides visualization of the virtual objects. Papagiannakis et al. developed a system in ancient Furthermore, hand–shake (mobile devices) can cause the Pompeii, Italy to visualize some ancient Roman characters in overlay image to be deformed or flickered and as reported in reenacting stories based on site painting . Meanwhile, Juniper, consumer awareness has become an issue especially in Liestol developed a mobile AR system for the reconstruction of mobile AR .The next section provides a few examples of the Parthenon Temple (431 BC) . This system was related work and summarizes areas of application that have subsequently tested by students of the Norwegian Institute in been tested. Athens. The buildings were reconstructed to imitate the white marble displayed in a scene of bright daylight. Based on the IV. MOBILE AR APPLICATIONS feedback of the Parthenon mobile AR system, it can give As briefly discussed in the previous section, the focus of benefit on the educational context and the environment should this paper is in the area of mobile AR application. In this be richer in overall content. section, this paper will present the related work of mobile AR Damala et al.  developed a museum guide based on AR application based on five areas: sport, games and edutainment; technology at the Museum of Fine Arts in Rennes, France. 91 2012 1st International Conference on Future Trends in Computing and Communication Technologies From their findings, mobile AR has the potential to provide an E. Marketing/Advertising interesting alternative of finding direction and interaction. It IBM Corporation has started to experiment their mobile AR also can provide more spontaneous and distinct way in the application in helping the consumer in everyday shopping. interaction with the displayed object. According to IBM, market opportunity in this segment reaches 92% as 58% of consumer wants to get product information in- C. Medical store . Maher-Hein et al. developed a mobile AR for on-patient Starbucks also has introduced their mobile AR application visualization of medical images . The interaction involved called the Starbucks Augmented Cup. They use AR to make a was by moving the mobile device along the body of the patient number of images on decorating cups come to life. The through visualization in which the physician could get the applications can be downloaded and are available on both sense of being able to directly investigate the human body and Android and Apple mobile platform. This application allows present the information of the image. The proposed concept consumers to view five different kinds of animated design on can also be used for planning, anatomy teaching and various different cups . other applications that require intuitive visualization of 3D Volkswagen, on the other side, utilized AR technology to data. target a consumer segment that valued high-performance Navab et al. , meanwhile, have developed integrated capabilities. They have developed an application called 2012 AR solutions in the perspective of a minimally invasive VW Beetle .This application allows consumers to view virtual surgery in order to improve the image or visualization during Beetles performing high-flying stunts high above the busy therapy via augmented reality (AR) by applying head-mounted streets. The stunts are similar of X Games performances, and displays (HMD) in their system. The information presentation the open locations give the ads a sense of excitement . such as text will be displayed through HMD and medical The next section will conclude all the analyses and findings professionals are able to interact with it based on the from this study. information presented. Sugimoto et al. proposed intra-operative projector systems V. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION by applying a new concept of “image overlay surgery” . This section focuses on the findings based on literature This concept comprised the integration of VR and AR survey on the mobile AR trends especially in medicine, games technology in which a number of dynamic 3D images were and edutainment and cultural heritage area. For this study, we superimposed on the patient’s actual body surface and have used several databases as references like Google and evaluated as a reference for surgical navigation. Google Scholar. The developer such as Mac has developed an application for iPhone called Hallux Angles which is a radiographic A. Literature Survey measurement aid to assist in the pre-op radiographs planning Many researchers, based on the literature survey that has process. By using mobile AR in iPhone camera, the radiograph been done, have focused on the five areas of application as can be measured by visualization. On-screen guides help to mentioned earlier in this paper. Table II shows some of the align the device with the forefoot bones. previous studies that have been done. In the next subsection, this paper will investigate on the common task performed by a D. Education and training user and type of devices used based on the literature survey. Dunleavy et al. developed a game called Alien Contact! . This application is designed to teach math, language arts TABLE II. EXAMPLE OF MOBILE AR APPLICATIONS and science literacy skills to middle school students. It can be Type Tasks performed by the user Hardware adapted to any outdoor environment, and superimposes a map of a virtual world on that space based on GPS coordinates. 1) Sports, Games and Edutainment Students can interact by interviewing virtual characters, collect Treasure hunt game. digital items, and solve science, math and language problems Paper map navigation: Navigating the location using Handheld MapLens (2011)  mobile devices and to answer the question. Moreover, the students are able to see a manipulating objects. number of different pieces of evidence displayed on the mobile Navigating the AR screen depending on the role they play which requires team A game called environment and conducting work to solve. Environmental Detectives virtual interviews with people Handheld (2007)  in designated locations in the Haritos and Macchiarella  have developed a mobile AR physical space. system for training and maintenance purposes. From this Used kinesthetic AR interfaces system, it is found that AR technology is able to reduce the AR tennis game (2005) to play games in collaborative Handheld cost of training and retraining of their members. An equal  ways. application has been developed by De Crescenzio and Fantini  as well. 2) Cultural Heritage Reconstruction of ancient Object manipulation and Handheld building (2011)  visualization. 92 2012 1st International Conference on Future Trends in Computing and Communication Technologies Mobile AR guides at the Visualizing ancient Roman over past 5 years. Kinesthetic task shows a slow increment Handheld ancient site (2008)  characters. over 5 years with only 3 %. Mobile AR museum Navigation and object Handheld guide (2008)  manipulation. 2) Devices used in performing the specific tasks Mobile AR guides at the Visualizing the non-existing As seen in Figure 3, most of the area of studies shows that HMD ancient site (2002)  temple and navigation. handheld is widely used as it offers portability and ease of use 3) Medical at 65% compared to HMD and projector. Furthermore, by Medical images (2011) using handheld devices such as smart-phone the user is able to Visualization. Handheld  get the latest information anywhere and anytime as long as On-screen guides for there is internet connectivity. Radiographic Visualization. Handheld measurement aid (2011)  65% Image overlay surgery Navigation and visualization. Projector (2010)  Minimal invasive surgery Navigation and object HMD (2007)  manipulation. 25% 15% 4) Education & Training Navigating the AR To teach math, language environment and solving the arts and scientific literacy Handheld puzzle and collecting digital Handheld Projector HMD skills (2009)  items. Maintenance (aerospace) Fig. 3. Devices used by the user. Visualization. Handheld  Visualization, navigation and VI. CONCLUSION Training (aircraft) HMD object manipulation In this paper, several projects related to mobile AR 5) Marketing/Advertising application by previous researches dated from 1997 until IBM grocery Visualization Handheld recently have been discussed. In sports, games and The Starbucks edutainment area, it is shown that mobile AR is able to Visualization Handheld promote social interactivity and fun learning among users. Augmented Cup * Handheld- Smartphone, tablet, PDA Using mobile AR a user is able to feel the realness of the object though it is only visible on screen devices that can 1) Task performed by the user manipulate the virtual object. In the area of cultural heritage, Based on the literature survey, several tasks have been mobile AR not only improves the learning experience of the performed by user including, object manipulation, navigation, user but also is able to reconstruct the ancient object and kinesthetic and visualization as shown in Figure 2. building. This will definitely be able to preserve and create educational resources in case of disaster. While in the area medicine, procedures that might have been potentially life- threatening can now be reduced. In this case, the medical professionals now have the ability to use mobile AR to view a patient’s skeletal structure and internal organs through images superimposed over the body's exterior. Hence, it can be concluded that mobile AR has the potential to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of healthcare in terms of training and health procedure. The interaction of the user with the mobile AR device is mainly to navigate and visualize the content in AR environment and to manipulate the object inside it. In addition, using mobile AR, it is used to improve the quality 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% and quantity of relevant contextual information available at a certain place and time  proven from the analysis that has been done by researchers. Based on this study, there is a great Fig. 2. A task performed by the user. potential of mobile AR in many application areas. Even though mobile AR is not limited only to the five areas About 20% of researchers select navigation as a main task in mentioned above, there is still a need of improvement where conducting their studies. 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