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					   SCODE
GENDER AND ENERGY SITUATION ANALYSIS: A
       BASELINE SURVEY REPORT.




 SCOPE: CENTRAL AND RIFT VALLEY PROVINCES
      (SCODE’S CHEDED PROJECT AREA)
LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

ENERGIA: INTERNATIONAL NETWORK ON GENDER AND SUSTAINABLE
ENERGY
GTZ: GERMAN AGENCY FOR TECHNIICAL COOPERATION
IAP: INDOOR AIR POLLUTION
ICS: IMPROVED COOK STOVES
KCJ: KENYA CERAMIC JIKO
KDA: KENYA DAIRY ASSOCIATION
KPLC: KENYA POWER AND LIGHTING COMPANY
Ksh: KENYA SHILLINGS
MoA: MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE
SCODE: SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT SERVICES
SMEs: SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTRPRISES




                                                       2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acronyms and abbreviations………………………………………………………….2
1.0. BACKGROUND…………………………………………………………………4
2.0. Methodology and presentation
    2.1. Study area and Sample size……………………………………………………5
    2.2. Sampling procedures and Sampling units…………………………………….5
    2.3. Subject areas…………………………………………………………………...5
    2.4. Data processing and analysis…………………………………………………..5
3.0. Demographic characteristics of respondents
    3.1. Distribution……………………………………………………………………5-6.
    3.2. Age sets………………………………………………………………………...6
    3.3. Education………………………………………………………………………6
    3.4.Ethno linguistic groupings………………………………………………………6
    3.5. Household sizes………………………………………………………………...6
4.0. Socio-cultural characteristics
    4.1.Identity…………………………………………………………………………..6
    4.2.Local power structure……………………………………………………………6
    4.5. Control over resources and resource use management………………………….6
5.0. Economic activities and source of income
    5.1.Gender divisions of labor………………………………………………………..6.
    5.2. Distribution/ sharing of benefits………………………………………………..6
6.0. FINDINGS
    6.1. Gender and Energy situation………………………………………………….7-11
    6.2.Gender and ICS……………………………………………………………...12-17.

7.0. OBSERVATIONS FROM THE FIELD BY THE AFRICA REGIONAL GiP
PARTICIPANTS
    7.1.Production group……………………………………………………………17-18.
    7.2. Installation………………………………………………………………..........18
    7.3. Households group………………………………………………………………18
8.0. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS……………………………………………………..19
9.0. CONCLUSION……………………………………………………………………19
APPENDICES………………………………………………………………………
Appendix1……………………………………………………………………………20-21
Appendix2……………………………………………………………………………22-23
Appendix3………………………………………………………………………………24
.




                                                                      3
BACKGROUND
With access to electric power in Kenya at only 9%, (Republic of Kenya, 2004) the
country’s energy sector comprises majorly of wood fuel (68%), Petroleum (22%), and
other energy sources (1%). Rural power access is even lower compared to that in the
urban areas where accessibility is concentrated. Wood fuel/ charcoal are therefore the
main sources of energy for cooking and heating in the rural Kenya, exploited by over
85% of the total rural population.
The realization of the negative impacts associated with the use of the traditional 3 stone
open fire places and un insulated jikos, both to human health and the natural
environment as a result of indoor air pollution from the smoke released, the drudgery
involved in the collection of firewood, extensive exploitation of fuel wood to meet the
high consumption rates, among other impacts, improvement of the technology to avert
the situation is clearly an immediate need that has attracted interventions from NGOs and
government line ministries in Kenya.
SCODE, with an overall goal of improving livelihoods of rural families in Central and
Rift valley regions in Kenya by popularizing the use of efficient cook stoves is
implementing an Improved Cook Stoves Dissemination and Enterprise Development
project that aims at delivering 22500 stoves to households, training users and installers on
effective use of the ICS to save energy and reduce IAP, and building the capacity of
organized groups to continue acquiring and using ICS beyond the project period.
However, the gender neutral approach taken by SCODE in the design, planning and
implementation of the project has not sufficiently addressed specific needs of men and
women, and women’s concerns in the production, marketing and use of ICS have not
been adequately addressed, creating gaps in the implementation and the anticipated
success of the project.
The need therefore, to fill the existing gender gaps in the project has made it necessary
for SCODE, with support from ENERGIA to embark on a process of reviewing the ICS
dissemination and Enterprise Development project for gender inclusiveness by
identifying opportunities for gender mainstreaming and potential barriers to the project’s
efforts to address specific needs of men and women and achieve equal participation of
men and women in the project, a basis that is expected to lead to a rise in income levels
of both men and women, improved women’s welfare, increased women’s productivity,
improved project efficiency and enhanced sustainability, among other benefits.
To establish a starting point for the project “Mainstreaming Gender in Improved Cook
Stoves Dissemination and Enterprise Development project” therefore, a baseline survey
on gender and energy situation was done within the project area to identify entry points
for gender and energy interventions and establish a basis for the design and
implementation of an effective gender action plan in the ICS Dissemination and
Enterprise Development project.
The survey looked at, not only the gender and ICS situation but general energy supply
and demand situation within the area to give a picture of men and women energy needs,
available options, benefits, costs, available interventions and challenges in order to
effectively inform the planning and implementation of the gender mainstreaming project.




                                                                                          4
METHODOLOGY
The project area has a population of approximately 10 million people with 85% of
households depending on wood fuel for cooking and heating. A total of 17 households
and 6 community groups were sampled for the survey. Selection of locations was based
on SCODE’s CHEDED project sites. Data collection was done by use of focus group
discussions with community members, women and mixed groups involved in the ICS
project with questionnaires distributed to sampled households selected randomly and then
purposively to those involved in ICS as SMEs, installers, producers and users. The survey
covered the following locations within the project area:
          I. Gilgil( St. Marys and Mbaruk locations)
         II. Mugotio( Kapongong location)
        III. Olkalau (Olkalau municipality)
        IV. Kahuro ( Kagumo location)
         V. Dundori( Mirangine location)
        VI. Mukuruweini( Mutonga location)

Questionnaires and focus group discussion guides were used as the main data collection
tools during the survey and were designed to collect data from two different target
groups: households and community groups.

Subject areas
Data was collected on the following subject areas with emphasis on ICS:
    Household and community energy needs of men and women.
    Household technological options and their use.
    Household decision making between man and woman on different technological
      options.
    How the adoption of the technologies has benefited men and women in the
      households.
    Challenges in meeting household energy needs.
    Energy interventions taking place in the area (at the community level), agency
      involved and role of the agency.
    Involvement of women and men in the deciding, planning and implementation of
      the energy technology interventions being implemented in the area.
    How the energy interventions have met the needs of men and women in
      community.
    Challenges in involving and meeting energy needs of men and women in the area.

Data Processing, Analysis and presentation
Means and percentages were used to simplify data that was presented in charts and tables
using Ms Excel and Ms Word applications.

Demographic characteristics of respondents
The project area has a population of approximately 10 million people with a households’
distribution range of between 200m2 and Ikm2 from one household to the other. The
distribution of households reflect the respondents’ distribution as households were the


                                                                                       5
primary sampling units with community groups within the sampled locations also
providing data on energy and gender situation. Respondents who participated in the
survey fall in the age bracket of between 25 and 65 years, although a majority, (70 %)
were aged between 35 and 45 years with the rest making up the other 30%.
Levels of education were fairly low among the respondents, with 68% of respondents
having attained the primary level of education and only 32% had post primary level of
education.
Ethno linguistic groupings within the project area were found to comprise mainly of the
Kalenjin, a tribe forming the largest percentage of the total inhabitants within the Rift
valley region and the Kikuyu who mainly inhabit the central region of Kenya, although
there were some other tribes found in the two regions in small numbers. The average size
of each household was found to be of six people.

Socio-cultural characteristics
Each of the communities (the Kikuyu and the Kalenjin) has its own socio-cultural
practices that not only shape their code of conduct but also provide their identity and
guidelines on the control and use of resources. Men are the heads of households and
therefore top decision makers in resource use and management with inheritance of
resources, especially land mainly handed over to the male members of the communities.
Clay and sand, major components in the production of the Improved Cook Stoves are
also owned and controlled by men. They have taboos and beliefs that form part of their
practices with sacred areas of worship in forests and highlands and belief in totems still
being valued among the two communities. Each community has a council of elders that
helps in resolving conflicts amongst community members and participates in the
preparation of traditional ceremonies like rites of passage, marriages and funerals as key
decision makers. Each community is not only identified by the geographical boundary
but also with a common language, common resources, common food and also traces its
roots from a common origin.
However, government administration is also recognized in the communities which are
represented through local administrative units with Sub- locations and villages being the
lowest administrative units headed by assistant chiefs and area village leaders
respectively, who conduct affairs of the central government at the local level.

Economic activities and sources of income
Farming was found to be the major income generating activity amongst respondents who
engage in small and large scale mixed farming practices that involve crop production,
mainly of grains, sweet and Irish potatoes, fruits and vegetables, coffee, sugarcane,
wheat, among other produce, and poultry, bee and livestock keeping. Gender divisions of
labor are determined by sex; specific roles in labor provision are played by men, women,
girls and boys depending on the type of work, hours of work and the workload involved.
The introduction of the ICS project has however provided an alternative source of income
that has helped producers, retailers and installers of the ICS meet their daily income
needs from the business. Different roles played by men and women in the various
sections of the production chain are outlined in the “Gender and ICS” part of this report.




                                                                                        6
FINDINGS

The results of the survey were analyzed at two levels: household and community.
a) Household level
Energy needs of men and women were sought differently and according to the survey,
energy needs of men included:
1. Lighting
2. Watching TV
3. Charging phone.
4. Listening to Radio.
5. Warming.
6. Ironing.
7. Cooking.
8. Pumping water.
9. Milling animal feed.
10. Firing liners.

The above energy needs varied from one person to another and have therefore been
presented on a chart below to illustrate the number of men who valued each energy need.




                                      Energy needs of men

                    120
                    100
   Percentage men




                    80
                                                                        Energy need
                    60
                                                                        Percentage men
                    40
                    20
                     0
                          1   2   3   4    5   6   7    8   9   10 11
                                          Energy need

When listed in their order of priority, the list appeared as:
  1. Listening to the Radio.
  2. Lighting.
  3. Charging phone.
  4. Warming.
  5. Watching TV.
  6. Pumping water for irrigation and for livestock.
  7. Milling animal feed.


                                                                                         7
    8. Firing liners.
    9. Ironing.
    10. Cooking.

Women’s energy needs were almost similar and in their order of priority:
   1. Cooking.
   2. Lighting, especially in the kitchen.
   3. Ironing.
   4. Drawing water.
   5. Warming.
   6. charging phone
   7. Listening to Radio.
The chart below illustrates each energy need and the number of women who value it:


                                        Energy needs of women

                      120
   Percentage women




                      100
                      80
                                                                     Energy Need
                      60
                                                                     Percentage Women
                      40
                      20
                       0
                               1    2     3    4     5     6   7
                                          Energy need



Households’ energy technological options were also looked at as important factors during
the survey and from the findings, households had the following energy technological
options:

                            Technological           Percentage            Use
                            option                  households (%)
              1.            Solar                   35.2                  Lighting,      charging
                                                                          phone, running TV.
              2.            Generator               12.0                  Pumping water, milling
                                                                          animal feeds, running
                                                                          TV(colored)
              3.            Improved jiko           38.5                  Cooking.
              4.            Kerosene                78.5                  Lighting, cooking.
              5.            Motor vehicle battery   29.4                  Running TV/Radio.
              6.            Traditional jiko        64.7                  Cooking, warming.
              7.            Dry cells               47.0                  In Radio and torch.


                                                                                                    8
      8.   Electricity             11.0                      Lighting,      Running
                                                             TV/Radio,      Charging
                                                             Phone.
      9. Biogas                    11.0                      Cooking.
      10. kiln                     5.8                       Firing liners.
      11. LPG                      5.8                       Cooking.

Linking the technological options with decision making among men and women in every
household is essential in determining how gender roles are played in choice and use of
energy technologies within households. Each energy technology was therefore analyzed
in terms choice and use as follows:


      Technological option           Choice and Use
                                     Man (%)           Woman (%)          Man       and
                                                                          Woman (%)
1.    Solar                          70                5                  25
2.    Generator                      100               -                  -
3.    Improved jiko                  -                 65                 35
4.    Kerosene                       -                 -                  100
5.    Motor vehicle battery          100               -                  -
6.    Traditional jiko               -                 95                 5
7.    Dry cells                      75                -                  25
8.    Electricity                    89                -                  11
9.    Biogas                         -                 -                  100
10.   kiln                           100               -                  -
11.   LPG                            -                 -                  100

BENEFITS
Adoption of different energy technologies among households had varied benefits between
men and women. Women, for example mentioned the use of improved cook stoves as
having benefited them in terms of saving time and energy spent on looking for firewood,
faster cooking, reduced smoke, reduced children fire accidents, cleanliness in the kitchen
and heat saving while men mainly highlighted a reduced cost on fuel wood.
On solar, women prioritized lighting, especially in the kitchen and children’s study rooms
as their major benefits while men mentioned access to information, charging phones and
lighting as their benefits in their order of priority.
Other technologies, for example the use of biogas, generator, motor vehicle battery, dry
cells, LPG and traditional cook stoves (3 stone fire) had biases in terms of gender; either
men or women had realized their benefits. Most men had not realized the benefits of
using LPG, for example while women realized little or no benefits on the use of dry cells.
Kerosene however had benefited both men and women, especially in its use for lighting.




                                                                                         9
CHALLENGES
Most households sampled mentioned financial constraints as a major challenge in
meeting their energy needs. High energy costs, especially on kerosene were mentioned as
a major challenge to most households. Drought had also hindered access to energy
sources in most households and had particularly made it difficult for households to install
and use biogas. Other challenges were attributed to lack of information on alternative and
better energy sources, and lack of technological know-how on the installation and use of
such energy technologies for those who were aware of them. One of the households
which had adopted the use of biogas mentioned the work involved, for example the
transfer of the slurry to the garden as a challenge, especially because it is difficult to get
help from other people, who consider it dirty. This has increased workload to men and
women members of households, especially those without employees. Decision making
also played a role in the challenges households faced in meeting their energy needs. In
cases of elderly couples, for example, as it was discovered during the survey, their
children, who stay away from them make decisions on energy technologies and finance
them for their elderly parents. One such couple expressed its interest in adopting the use
of solar but said their children purchased dry cells in bulk for them and could do nothing
about it due to their lack of capacity to decide as they fully depend on the children.

b) Community level.
The energy needs of men and women at the community level were similar to those at the
household level, even in their order of priority. On energy interventions taking place in
the area, communities mentioned the following:

      Community           Energy                     Agency          Role of the Agency.
                          intervention
1.    Gilgil              Maendeleo jiko             SCODE/MoA       Awareness creation and training
                                                                     on installation.
                          Solar                      SCODE           Installation.
2.    Kahuro              Improved Jiko              SCODE/GTZ       Awareness creation and training
                                                                     on installation.
3.    Dundori             Rural electrification      KPLC/rural      Installation
                                                     development
                          Generator                  Town council    Provide water.
4.    Mukuruweini         Maendeleo liner            SCODE           Awareness creation and training
                                                                     on installation.
                          Biogas carmateic model     SCODE           Awareness        creation     and
                                                                     installation.
                          Biogas tubular             KDA             Gave as award-yet to install.
                          Rural electrification      KPLC            Installation.

Participation in decision making, planning and implementation of energy technologies in
the area among men and women was also sought and the results indicated as follows:

     Technology              Selection and planning                 Implementation
                           Men                    women             Men                  women
1.   Improved/Maendeleo    Finance                Make choice       -                    Install, use
     jiko.                                                                               and
                                                                                         maintain.



                                                                                                  10
2.   Solar                  Make choice and       -                    Install         and   -
                            finance.                                   maintain.
3.   Kerosene               Pay for costs         Make choice and go   Use for lighting.     Use       for
                                                  to buy.                                    lighting and
                                                                                             cooking.
4.   LPG                    Pay for re- filling   Make choice and      -                     Use it for
                                                  take cylinders for                         cooking.
                                                  re-filling.
5.   Generator              Make choice and       -                    Use and maintain      -
                            buy.
6.   Electricity            Make choice and       Some make choice     Pay bills             Use
                            finance
7.   Biogas                 Make choice           Make choice          Pay             for   Use
                                                                       installation   and
                                                                       maintain
8.   Traditional   jiko/3   -                     Make choice          -                     Use      and
     stone fire.                                                                             maintain

How the energy interventions had met the energy needs of men and women varied as
women attached benefits to welfare needs like cleanliness, faster cooking times, reduced
fire accidents, Ironing and lighting, especially in kitchens, children study rooms, main
houses and even outside. Men however highlighted access to information, reduced costs
on fuel wood / charcoal, charging phones and lighting as their major benefits.

Challenges involved in meeting their energy needs.
Drought was mentioned as a major challenge in meeting energy needs of both men and
women, especially in areas where residents depend on rain- fed agriculture as a source of
income, a factor that had led to a reduction in their disposable income, making it difficult
to meet their energy costs. Meeting energy needs as a group, especially for women
groups was also a challenge because of poor leadership and conflicts within the groups,
contributing to the collapse of women groups and the intended energy projects altogether.
Increasing costs of fuel wood, lack of awareness on renewable energy technologies and
dependency on donor/ external funding were mentioned as factors contributing to
inadequacies in meeting energy needs.
Community members involved in energy technologies as a business faced marketing
challenges due to lack of a consistent market for their products, lowering their
production, a situation which impacts directly on energy users who cannot therefore
access the products. Old age has left many residents with limited choices on energy
technologies, a factor attributable to low income levels, dependency on their children for
decision making, and in some cases their unwillingness to embrace new technologies.


GENDER AND ICS SITUATION
Through awareness creation, training, and installation, market linkages and production,
SCODE implements its ICS dissemination and enterprise development project with
producers and entrepreneurs as the main targets. A range of Improved Cook Stoves has
been introduced to the communities, which are positively adapting to the use of the new
technology.
These ICS include:


                                                                                                      11
a) Maendeleo liner
This is a pottery cylinder (ceramic liner) which is built into a mud or concrete surround in
the kitchen.




b) Maendeleo Portable
This is a maendeleo liner assembled in a metal casing. The stove is portable and is
popular among users who have no permanent cooking point in the kitchen and those who
cook from outside a times.




c) Kuni mbili stove
This is a firewood-burning stove which is also adaptable to using charcoal. It combines
the characteristics of charcoal- burning stove (Kenya ceramic Jiko) and maendeleo stove.
It is easy to light, cooks faster, and uses less fuel.




                                                                                         12
d) Kenya Ceramic Jiko
KCJ stoves are charcoal-burning stoves specially designed to reduce charcoal
consumption and last longer. They are made from high quality materials which enhance
their efficiency and durability.




e) Rocket stove

   This is a firewood burning stove. There are three types: Mud, mud-brick and cement -
   brick rocket stoves. It cooks faster, fairly affordable and environmentally friendly.




                                                                                     13
Residents of the central province, who have the pottery clay are trained as producers and
installers of the improved stoves liners and do that as a business while their counterparts
in Rift Valley are involved in the project mainly as users, retailers and installers of the
improved stoves, which they buy from central province.
During the survey, an analysis of the entire ICS project was done in order to identify
gender gaps and formulate problems that gender mainstreaming will help address. It was
therefore necessary to look at the entire production value chain, involvement of men and
women, realization of benefits and challenges faced by both men and women who are
involved in the business.

The production process
The process of production starts with mining of clay which is done by 100% men.
Women are excluded from mining because it is considered a difficult job that can best be
handled by men. However, only women are involved in the breaking down of the mined
clay into smaller particles and the transportation of the wet clay to the drying areas (by
the road sides). This is considered a lighter duty by men and therefore performed
exclusively by women.
Clay mines in central province are resources that have been transferred from one
generation to the other through inheritance which is mainly by the male members of the
community. Therefore through inheritance, men are entitled to land ownership, and
therefore the clay mines. Women are involved in the activities as family businesses but
cannot claim ownership of the resource.
Owners of clay mines, mainly men earn between Ksh 7000 and Ksh 8000 from the sale
of 8tons of clay, an amount that is mined every week.
Clay mining is done as an informal business and laborers are paid per job done. Women,
who work for six hours are paid Ksh 150 while men get Ksh 300 because they can extend
their hours of work to between 4 and 6 o’clock. Women can only work for six hours
(between 8am and 2 pm) and go back home to attend to household chores.
Sustainability of the clay mines is ensured by giving the resource time for replenishment.
Once a mine runs out of clay or shows signs of collapse, it is closed down for a period of
three years to allow for replenishment / formation of new clay before it is again opened
up for mining. This has led to natural renewal and sustainability of the resource that has
been handed over through generations in the region. However, there has been a noted
drop in the quality of the clay over the years.

Challenges Involved in mining
   Seasonal changes affect the mining process; during rain seasons, mines get
      flooded and the activity comes to a halt, affecting the income earnings of men and
      women who work at the clay mines and owners of the mines who depend on the
      business as a source of income.
   Transportation of clay from the mines to the drying places (by the road sides) is a
      tiring exercise for women, considering that they transport wet clay on their backs
      several meters (between 200 and 400 uphill) to the drying places.
   The increasing dependency on mining for subsistence as a result of continued land
      subdivisions with increase in population and hence reduced productivity has left
      many people, young and old with limited options and thus have to engage in the


                                                                                        14
       heavy mining activities to meet their basic needs, a situation that has also
       increased their vulnerability to problems associated with less income in cases of
       heavy rainfall that affects the mining activity.
Other activities involved in the production processes, players, benefits and challenges
found out during the survey are outlined in the table below.



ACTIVITY           RESPONSIBLE               Benefits          Challenges
                   Men (%) Women (%)
Sifting     and               100            Earn Ksh 130      Lack of tools, for example gloves.
mixing                                       per day
Molding            94         6              Earn Ksh 5 per    Heavy work involved in the use of the
                                             each mold         potter’s wheel has led to many women
                                                               dropping out of the activity.
Smoothening                   100            Paid per day. (   Working hours ( 8am to 4pm)
of the molds,                                three women       sometimes deny them the opportunity
putting      pot                             can work on       to attend to household chores and are
rests and doors                              an average of     forced to work late to cover up for
                                             25 stoves in a    time spent “out”
                                             day)              Lack of efficient tools
Drying of the      Involve both men and                        Seasonal change effects; during the
stoves             women in the production                     wet season, drying is delayed.
                   (takes 4 weeks)
Loading     and    97           3            Laborers who      Size of Kilns (most Kilns can only fire
firing                                       help in firing    between 120 and 200 liners at ago, a
                                             are paid Ksh      number considered small by the
                                                               producers.
                                                               Affordability of Kilns by producers is
                                                               still an issue as Majority hire other
                                                               people’s kilns and pay Ksh 1000 per
                                                               every firing.
                                                               High costs of fuel wood ( 1 ton costs
                                                               Ksh 1500 and can only serve two
                                                               rounds of firing)




There is need therefore, for research on appropriate technologies that will help minimize
the challenges faced, especially by women in the various sectors of the production chain,
for example, invention of a lighter potters’ wheel to lessen the molding work and
machines (for example, pulleys that will be aid in the transfer of clay from the mines to
the drying points)


Marketing of the end products
Past experience has shown that working in groups has not been very successful due to
poor leadership and conflicts within the groups and therefore most producers interviewed
preferred to market their products individually. However, some groups still exist,
especially women groups, which produce and market their products collectively.


                                                                                                    15
End products are sold at between Ksh120 and 150 depending on the mode of selling.
Where production and marketing are done as family businesses, which are the majority,
men are the ones who receive cash after the sale.
Challenges involved in marketing.
Both men and women experience similar problems in marketing their products and these
include:
     Competition in the market, especially for those who market as individuals.
     High costs of transport when there is need to transport their products to the
        market.
     Price instability.
     Inability to effectively promote their products.
These challenges affect their income earnings and hence affect their meeting of daily
needs.
Retailers and installers of the improved cook stoves are both men and women, who
engage in the activity to generate income. The challenges they face in their day to day
operations are almost similar to those highlighted in marketing, except for the delays in
cashing in, in cases where they sell on credit.
SMEs interviewed during the survey highlighted the benefits of their involvement in the
ICS project as increased levels of income, employment creation in the area and women
specifically highlighted the activities as having helped to keep them busy, earn some
income and away from “mischief”.
Consumers of the Improved Cook Stoves (users)
Results of the survey indicate that women are the main users of the stoves, especially in
cooking because in communities within the ICS project area, men rarely cook and
therefore use the stoves mainly for warming themselves during the cold weather (mostly
KCJ). However, 35% of households that had adopted the use of the improved cook stoves
had men participating in the choice, purchase, installation and maintenance of the
improved cook stoves and offered financial support after their participation in awareness
sessions. The remaining 65% of households had women decide, purchase (mostly with
savings from balance cash from groceries and other household goods), install and
maintain the improved cook stoves without the involvement of men.
Women play the biggest role in ensuring availability of sufficient firewood/ charcoal for
use in the households although in 40 % of the households, men played a role by paying
for the cost of fuel wood/ charcoal.

Benefits of the improved cook stoves
Compared to the 3 stone open fire places, traditional chepkube stoves among the Kalenjin
and un insulated jikos, households that had adopted the use of ICS by the time of the
survey had realized the following benefits:
     Reduced cost of fuel wood /charcoal
    Reduced consumption of fuel wood and charcoal with the use of the ICS had resulted
    in a reduction in the cost of fuel -wood/ charcoal significantly. Expenditure on fuel
    wood/charcoal before the adoption of ICS was estimated at between Ksh.1200 and
    Ksh 4350 per household per month, an amount that had reduced to between Ksh200
    and Ksh700 a month per household depending on the size of the household and use of
    the stoves.


                                                                                      16
   Households that use KCJ and the 3 stone open fire places spend an average of Ksh
   1100 per month on fuel wood and charcoal.
   On average, the rocket stove was found to be the most saving in terms fuel wood
   consumption, estimated at 75% followed by the maendeleo liner at 50%.
   Compared to other benefits, a reduction in the cost of fuel wood/ charcoal was the
   most highlighted by men. Other benefits included:
    Reduced smoke
    Little time is spent on looking for firewood and cooking because the improved
      stoves consume less firewood and cook faster due to their ability to save heat.
    Cleanliness in the kitchen.

Challenges involved.
   The use of the ICS, although efficient in cooking and heating does not provide
      heat for warming people in cold weather as they cook and therefore are forced to
      light an open fire besides the cook stoves to supplement their energy needs.
   The design of the ICS calls for the use of smaller pieces of firewood compared to
      those used in the 3 stone open fire places and therefore has to be chopped into
      smaller pieces before use.
   Meeting the cost of purchase and installation of the ICS is still a challenge to
      some households.

OBSERVATIONS FROM THE FIELD BY THE AFRICA REGIONAL GiP
PARTICIPANTS
Participants of the Gip workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya from 12th to 16th October,
visited Murang’a district in the central province, one of SCODE’s project sites where
they were taken through the entire production process before splitting into three groups
that had them interact with producers, installers and users of the Improved Cook Stoves
though focus group discussions.
A summary of observations from the field by the participants in each group were as
follows:
The Production group
The group assessed the entire production process (Murang’a Production and Energy
saving center); gender composition, working hours of men and women, women’s
contribution to family finances from the business, preferred processes by women,
educational levels and SCODE’s involvement. Findings from the group indicated that
men and women were allowed to work in all components of production, job assignment
looked at the load factor, and that work time was favorable to women, among other
gender friendly issues in production.
Challenges faced by producers as outlined by the group included price instability, high
transport costs, no benefits for women, e.g. maternity leaves, lack of efficient tools and
mushrooming of many other workshops within the area. The owner of the workshop
expressed an interest in mechanizing the processes, presently dominated by women, a
situation that would result in loss of jobs as was foreseen by the participants.
The group suggested formalization of the business, improved management and marketing
strategies that will open doors for more women, increased range of products, enhanced



                                                                                       17
skills that will add value to the products and an introduced system of payment based on
workload and skill as opposed to time, as the way forward.

The installation group
Participants in this group met Keria Muntuta producers’ group in Murang’a and looked at
the composition, activities of the group and SCODE’s involvement. Capacity of the
group as far as production is concerned, stoves price, cost of production, the running and
administration of the group, types of stoves they install and the steps involved were also
examined. This group was noted to have been able to access affordable loans for their
business and was able to meet big orders on installation, after which it earned in lump
sum. Benefits highlighted included income generation, employment creation and well
spending of time because the activities keep them busy and away from mischief.
Women involved in the business said their husbands were supportive but sometimes
questioned their involvement, especially during the times when business is not good.
Challenges faced by this group as highlighted by the participants included not well
designed kilns (lacked a drying shed), affordability of the kilns, marketing problems,
costs of firewood, lack of funds to expand their business, high transport costs, lack of
efficient tools, lack of water and delays in cashing in.
The group suggested introduction of machines that would make the processes easier,
faster and more productive, a marketer for the stoves, re- designing of the kilns, easy
access to loans and easy modes of repayment as the way forward.
The households group
This group visited households with and without the ICS and held discussions with
members of those households. Findings of the group indicated that there was general
appreciation of the improved jikos due to improved fuel wood efficiency and faster
cooking times. Smoke was still significant and kitchen cleanliness was not visible to
participants though mentioned by users of the ICS. Also noted was the fact that fuel was
wasted when cooking short-time meals and that older people, though they knew of the
technology had reservations.
Users of the jikos recommended the need for adjoining chamber in the double jiko to
save on fuel wood and a chimney to direct smoke out of the houses.
The group suggested increased awareness creation, addressing the smoke problem
through design of the jikos, regular genuine user feedback from independent evaluators
and participation of vulnerable groups as the way forward.
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

      Women have little or no access to information because their energy needs were
       mainly cooking, lighting and Ironing, as opposed to those of men which were
       mainly access to information, charging of phones and lighting.
      Women are the main players in the use of energy technologies, especially those
       that are mainly for cooking, for example the improved cook stoves, LPG and
       Biogas (for cooking) because most of the men involved in the survey had not
       realized the benefits of those technologies as they do not use them.
      Men are the main financiers of energy technologies both at household and
       community levels and therefore play a significant role in deciding, planning and
       implementing the adoption of different energy technologies as women are mostly


                                                                                       18
       sent to purchase, for example kerosene, re-fill gas cylinders or pay electricity
       bills.
      Choice and use of energy technologies within households and communities
       depend on income levels, access to information, age, among other factors
      There is general appreciation of the improved cook stoves among the target
       communities which have realized their benefits.
      There is need to improve on the stoves technology to address issues of smoke,
       improve on fuel wood saving and efficiency.
      Introduction of machines that can make the activities in the production process
       lighter and easier is likely to attract more women to the project.
      Marketing is a major challenge in the entire production chain and this need to be
       developed further to safeguard the incomes and further disseminate the ICS.
      Equal participation of men and women in the production and sharing of benefits
       from the project is lacking and will be tackled through the development and
       implementation of the gender in ICS action plan.


CONCLUSION
Energy needs of men and women vary both at household and community levels and
therefore all energy interventions need to address specific needs of each individual group,
with consideration to age, levels of income and location / area of intervention.
There exists a gender gap in the on going ICS dissemination and enterprise development
project that needs to be filled by identifying all the opportunities for gender
mainstreaming which will lead to a more participatory, productive, efficient and
sustainable ICS project.
There however exist strong points that will significantly contribute towards the success of
the project such as a good working relationship between SCODE, stakeholders and
groups which are already aware of the ICS project, willingness among project staff,
partners and groups to acquire gender knowledge and apply it in their day to day
operations, among other strengths. Furthermore, members of staff who participated in the
survey and the initial gender sensitization meeting have the capacity to identify gender
gaps in the current situation and with support from other staff develop action plans that
will transform it to the desired situation. Improvement of strategy, for example by
incorporating seasonal changes in the planning of community gatherings so as to reach as
many people with the ICS message as possible will be among the key considerations.
Development of an outreach strategy will also be done to take care of all the gender
aspects in the project area.




                                                                                        19
Appendix1. Household questionnaire

 District…………….
 Location……………
 Date………………..

 Respondent
 Name…………….
 Age……………….
 Level of Education……..
 Household size…………
 Economic activity/ source of income……..


 1. What are the energy needs in the household?
               i.   Women
          a…………………
          b………………….
          c………………….
          d…………………

                ii.  Men
            a…………………
            b…………………
            c………………….
            d…………………
 2. List the technological options and their use in the household
Technological option                          use
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

 3. Who makes decisions in the household on the technological option and how it will
    be used. ( Discuss )

    ………………………………………………………………………………………..
    ………………………………………………………………………………………..
    ……………………………………………………………………………………….
    ………………………………………………………………………………………..
    ………………………………………………………………………………………..
    ………………………………………………………………………………………..
 4. How has the adoption of the different technological options being used in the
    household benefited the household?



                                                                                   20
                              Benefits
Women                                     Men




5. What have been the challenges in meeting the household energy needs?
   …………………………………………………………………………..
   ………………………………………………………………………….
   …………………………………………………………………………..
   …………………………………………………………………………..
   …………………………………………………………………………...




                                                                          21
    Appendix 2. Community level interview schedule
    Area………………….
    District……………….
    Age groups……………
               ……………
               ……………
               …………….
    Ethno linguistic groupings……………….
               ……………………………….
               ………………………………..
               ………………………………..
    Economic activities/ sources of income
               ………………………………..
               ………………………………..
               ……………………………….
               ………………………………
    Date…………………..
    Interview conducted by………………….

    1. What are the energy needs of both men and women? ( in order of priority)
           a. List all energy needs of women
                    i.    ……………………..
                   ii.    ……………………..
                  iii. ……………………..
                  iv.     ……………………..
                   v.     ……………………..
                  vi.     ……………………..
           b. List all the energy needs of men
                       i.  ……………………
                      ii.  ……………………
                     iii. …………………….
                     iv.   …………………….
                       v.  ……………………..
    2. What energy interventions are taking place in the area? List the energy
       interventions, the lead agency and role of the agency.

Energy Intervention          Agency                        Role




    3. How has been the involvement of different categories of people in deciding,
       planning and implementation of the energy technology category being
       implemented in the area?


                                                                                     22
Technology        Participation    Women             Men               How
option
1.                Selection and
                  planning
                  Implementation
2.                Selection and
                  planning
                  Implementation
3.                Selection and
                  planning
                  Implementation

     4. How have the energy interventions met the energy needs of different categories
        of people? List the benefits below.
        a. Women………………………………………………………….
        ……………………………………………………………..............
        …………………………………………………………………….
        ……………………………………………………………………..
        ……………………………………………………………………..
        ……………………………………………………………………..
        b. Men……………………………………………………………...
        ……………………………………………………………………...
        ……………………………………………………………………...
        ……………………………………………………………………...
        ………………………………………………………………………
     5. Has there been any challenge in involving and meeting the needs of women and
        men in energy?
        …………………………………………………………………………………..
        …………………………………………………………………………………..
        …………………………………………………………………………………..
        …………………………………………………………………………………..
        ………………………………………………………………………………….




                                                                                    23
Appendix 3. Baseline survey schedule

Place              Dates                  Contacts     Contact person
Mbaruk             10th September, 2009   0727414722   Jane Wairimu
St. Mary           10th September, 2009   0722923884   Winfred
                                                       Wairimu
Bahati             20th August,2009       0724150854   Margaret
                                                       Muthoni Njoroge
Lanet              9th September,2009     0725166844   Mary Makori
Lower Subukia      20th August,2009       0711455463   Nancy Waithera
Subukia            20th August,2009       0725155185   Margaret W.
                                                       Muraya
Ol’kalau           25th September,2009    0723155608   John Mwangi
Merangine          1st September, 2009    0716259719   James Maina
(Ndundori)
Mugotio            27th August, 2009      0721814302   Rebecca Tele
Mugoiri            15th September,2009    0724711887   Joan Wairimu
Mukurwe-ini        14th September         0722437683   Nancy Njeri




                                                                      24

				
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