Intelligence

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					Intelligence
Definition of Intelligence
   Hypothetical construct
   Combination of skills
   Engage in goal-directed adaptive behavior
   Think rationally
   Deal effectively with environment
Experts vs Lay People
   Experts   -- individual adaptation
    –   Learn from experience
    –   Adapt to environment
   Lay   People -- social interactions
    –   Social competence
Culturally-Bound Concept
   Skills necessary for success in a given
    culture
   Skills vary from culture to culture
   Skills may vary within a culture
    (subcultures)
   Skills vary over time
Historical Overview
   Sir   Francis Galton (1822 - 1911)
    –   Genetics/eugenics
    –   Physical/sensory measurements
    –   Statistical techniques
   James    McKeen Cattell (1860 - 1944)
    –   Non-usefulness of Galton’s measures
 Alfred Binet (1857 - 1911)
 Identify children who could not profit from
  normal public school instruction
 Mental Age
  –   If majority of children of a given age can
      complete a task, the task requires that mental
      age
 Felix, MA = 8, CA = 8, MA/CA = 8/8 = 1
 Xena, MA = 10, CA = 8, 10/8 = 1.25
 Boris, MA = 6, CA = 8, 6/8 = 0.75
 William   Stern (1871 - 1938)
  –   IQ = MA/CA x 100
 Henry   Goddard (1866 - 1957)
  –   Inadvertently discovered that MA does increase
      after mid-adolescence
  –   Oscar, MA = 16, CA = 16, IQ = 100
  –   MA = 16, CA = 32, IQ = 50
 Lewis   Terman (1877 - 1956)
  –   Stanford Binet
  –   Study of giftedness
 Robert   Yerkes (1876 - 1956)
  –   Group testing, WWI
 David   Wechsler (1896 - 1981)
  –   Deviation IQ
  –   Verbal Scale IQ
  –   Performance Scale IQ
  –   Full Scale IQ
  –   WAIS-R, WISC-III, WPPSI-R
Intelligence Tests
   Aptitude
     –   What a person can accomplish with training
   Achievement
     –   What a person knows
Requirements of Intelligence
Tests
   Reliability
   Validity
   Standardization
   Norms
Wechsler Scales
   Verbal
    –   Information
    –   Comprehension
    –   Arithmetic
    –   Similarities
    –   Vocabulary
    –   Digit Span
 Performance
  –   Picture Completion
  –   Picture Arrangement
  –   Block Design
  –   Object Assembly
  –   Digit Symbol
Distribution of Intelligence
IQ Range        Label           Percent
130 and above   Very Superior   2.5%
120 - 129       Superior        6.5%
110 - 119       High Average    14.9%
90 -109         Average         47.4%
80 - 89         Low Average     14.9%
70 - 79         Borderline      6.5%
69 and below    Mental          2.5%
                Retardation
Theories of Intelligence
   Psychometric Models
   Computational Models
   Biological Models
   Systems Models
Psychometric Models
   Charles   Spearman (1863 - 1945)
    –   Two-Factor Theory
    –   g: general factor
    –   s: specific factor
 Louis   Thurstone (1887 - 1955)
  –   Seven Primary Mental Abilities
 Memory
 Numerical  Ability
 Perceptual Speed
 Reasoning
 Spatial Ability
 Verbal Meaning
 Word Fluency
 Horn-Cattell’s     Two-Factor Theory
  –   Fluid
  –   Crystallized
 Fluid
  –   Memory, speed of processing
  –   Increases during adulthood
  –   Declines during old ages
 Crystallized
  –   Fund of information
  –   Increases throughout lifespan
 Structure  of Intellect
 J. P. Guilford
 Operations
 Products
 Contents
Computational Models
   Lexical-AccessSpeed
   Componential Theory
Biological Models
   Speed  of processing
   Electrical - speed of conduction of neural
    impulses
   Metabolic
Systems Models
           Intelligences
   Multiple
   Howard Gardner
 Linguistic
 Logical-Mathematical
 Spatial
 Musical
 Bodily-Kinesthetic
 Intrapersonal
 Interpersonal
 TriarchicTheory
 Robert Sternberg
 Componential
 Experiential
 Contextual
Determinants of Intelligence
   50%  genetic
   50% environmental
   Genes set limits
   Environment determines actual level
   Reaction range: 30 - 40 points
   Malleable, rather than fixed
Preschool Environment
   Verbal responsivity
   Caregiver’s involvement with child
   Avoidance of restriction
   Organization of schedule
   Access to materials
   Variety
Later Development
   Positive   Effects
    – Further education
    – “Cognitive exercising”
   Negative   Effects
    – Drinking
    – Drug usage

				
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posted:12/27/2012
language:English
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