Main_Approaches_and_Methods_in___Language_Teaching

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					    Main Approaches and Methods in
          Language Teaching
•   The Grammar-Translation Method
•   The Direct Method
•   The Audiolingual Method
•   Communicative Language Teaching
•   Total Physical Response
•   Suggestopedia &The Silent Way
•   The Natural Approach
•   Community Language Learning
     The Grammar-Translation Method
1. The Grammar-Translation Method dominated
     European and foreign language teaching from the
     1840s to the 1940s, and in modified form it
     continues to be widely used in some parts of the
     world today.
2.   Prator and Celce-Murcia (1979:3) list the major
     characteristics of Grammar Translation:
•    Classes are taught in the mother tongue, with little
     active use of the target language.
•    Much vocabulary is taught in the form of lists of
     isolated words.
•    Long elaborate explanations of the intricacies of
     grammar are given.
• Grammar provides the rules for putting words
    together, and instruction often focuses on the
    form and inflection of words.
•   Reading of difficult classical texts is begun early.
•   Little attention is paid to the content of texts,
    which are treated as exercises in grammatical
    analysis.
•   Often the only drills are exercises in translating
    disconnected sentences from the target
    language into the mother tongue.
•   Little or no attention is given to pronunciation.
• The Grammar-Translation Method does virtually
 nothing to enhance a student’s communicative
 ability in the language.
            The Direct Method
1. The basic premise of the Direct Method was
   that second language learning should be more
   like first language learning: lots of active oral
   interaction, spontaneous use of the language,
   no translation between first and second
   languages, and little or no analysis of
   grammatical rules.
2. Richards and Rodgers(1986:9-10)summarizes
   the principles of the Direct Method:
• Classroom instruction was conducted
    exclusively in the target language.
•   Only everyday vocabulary and sentences were
    taught.
•   Oral communication skills were built up in a
    carefully graded progression organized around
    question-and-answer exchanges between
    teachers and students in small, intensive
    classes.
•   Grammar was taught inductively.
•   New teaching points were introduced orally.
• Concrete vocabulary was taught through
  demonstration, objects, and pictures; abstract
  vocabulary was taught by association of ideas.
• Both speech and listening comprehension were
  taught.
• Correct pronunciation and grammar were
  emphasized.
 The Audiolingual Method (听说法)
• It is a method of foreign or second language
 teaching which (a) emphasizes the teaching of
 speaking and listening before reading and
 writing (b) uses dialogues and drills. (c)
 discourages use of the mother tongue in the
 classroom (d) often makes use of contrastive
 analysis. The audiolingual method was
 prominent in the 1950s and 1960s, especially in
 the United States, and has been widely used in
 many other parts of the world.
• The characteristics of the ALM may be summed
  up in the following list (adapted from Prator and
  Celce-Muria 1979):
 1. New material is presented in dialog form.
 2. There is dependence on mimicry (imitation),
  memorization of set phrases, and over-learning.
 3. Structures are sequenced by means of
  contrastive analysis and taught one at a time.
 4. Structural patterns are taught using repetitive
  drills.
 5. There is little or no grammatical explanation:
  Grammar is taught by inductive analogy rather
  than deductive explanation.
6. Vocabulary is strictly limited and learned in
  context.
7. There is much use of tapes, language labs,
  and visual aids.
8. Great importance is attached to pronunciation.
9. Very little use of the mother tongue by
  teachers is permitted.
10. Successful responses are immediately
  reinforced.
11. There is a great effort to get students to
  produce error-free utterances.
12. There is a tendency to manipulate language
  and disregard content.
• Types of Learning and Teaching Activities
   The use of drills and pattern practice is a
 distinctive feature of the ALM. Various kinds of
 drills are used. Brooks (1964:156-61) includes
 the following:
 1. Repetition.
    EXAMPLES
    This is the seventh month.--- This is the
 seventh month.
    I used to know him years ago.---I used to
 know him years ago when we were in school…
2. Inflection. One word in an utterance appears in
  another form when repeated.
  EXAMPLES
  I bought the ticket.---I bought the tickets.
  He bought the candy.---She bought the candy.
3. Replacement. One word in an utterance is
  replaced by another.
  EXAMPLES
  He bought this house cheap.---He bought it
  cheap.
  Helen left early.---She left early .
4. Restatement. The student rephrases an
  utterance and addresses it to someone else,
  according to instructions.
  EXAMPLES
  Tell him to wait for you.---Wait for me.
  Ask John when he began.--- John, when did
  you begin?...
5. Completion. The students hears an utterance
  that is complete except for one word, then
  repeats the utterance in completed form.
  EXAMPLE
  I’ll go my way and you go…--- I’ll go my way
  and you go yours.
6. Transposition. A change in word order is
  necessary when a word is added.
  EXAMPLES
  I’m hungry. (so)---So am I.
  I will never do it again. (neither)---Neither will
  I…
7. Expansion. When a word is added it takes a
  certain place in the sequence.
  EXAMPLES
  I know him. (hardly)---I hardly know him.
  I know him. (well)---I know him well…
8. Contraction. A single word stands for a phrase or
    clause.
  EXAMPLES
  Put your hands on the table.--- Put your hand there.
  They believe that the earth is flat. --- They believe it…
9. Transformation. A sentence is transformed by being
    made negative or interrogative or through changes
    in tense, mood, voice, aspect, or modality.
  EXAMPLES
  He knows my address.
  He doesn’t know my address.
  Does he know my address?
  He used to know my address.
  If he had known my address…
10. Integration. Two separate utterances are
  integrated into one.
 EXAMPLES
 They must be honest. This is important.--- It is
  important that they must be honest.
 I know that man. He is looking for you.--- I know
  the man who is looking for you…
11. Rejoinder. The students makes an
  appropriate rejoinder to a given utterance. He is
  told in advance to respond in one of the
  following ways:
BE POLITE. EXAMPLES
Thank you.---You’re welcome.
May I take one? ---Certainly.
AGREE. EXAMPLES
He’s following us.---I think you’re right.
This is good coffee.--- It’s very good.
12. Restoration. The students is given a
  sequence of words that have been culled from
 a sentence but still bear its basic meaning. He
  uses these words with a minimum of changes
  and additions to restore the sentence to its
  original form. He may be told whether the time
  is present, past, or future.
 EXAMPLES
 students/waiting/bus--- The students are
 waiting for the bus.
 boys/build/house/tree---The boys built a
 house in a tree…
• Communicative Language Teaching
 (see Chapter 2 )
 Total Physical Response (全身反应法)
• A teaching technique whereby a learner (usually
  young learner) responds to language input with body
  motions. This could be, for example, the acting out a
  chant. James Asher who noted that children listen and
  respond with gestures before they speak devised this
  technique. One benefit is that TPR allows for low
  anxiety learning since students don’t have the stress
  of producing language. “Simon Says” is an example of
  a TPR activity, where the teacher commands her
  robots to do some task in the classroom. Acting out
  stories and giving imperative commands are common
  TPR activities. It’s great for early stages but difficult to
  teach complex language.
    Suggestopedia&The Silent Way
• Suggestopedia/Lozanov Method (暗示法/罗扎诺
 夫法)
 It is a method of foreign-language teaching
 developed by the Bulgarian Lozanov. It makes
 use of dialogues, situations and translation to
 present and practise language, and in particular,
 makes use of music, visual images, and
 relaxation exercises to make learning more
 comfortable and effective.
• The Silent Way(沉默法)
    It is a method of foreign-language teaching
 developed by Gattegno which makes use of gesture,
 mime, visual aids, wall charts, and in particular
 Cuisiniere rods (wooden sticks of different lengths and
 colors) that the teacher uses to help the students to
 talk. The method takes its name from the relative
 silence of the teacher using these techniques.
    Like Suggestopedia, the Silent Way rests on more
 cognitive than affective arguments for its theoretical
 sustenance. Much of the Silent Way is characterized
 by a problem-solving approach to learning. Richards
 and Rodgers (1986:99)summarize the theory of
 learning behind the Silent Way:
 1. Learning is facilitated if the learner discovers or
 creates rather than remembers and repeats what is to
 be learned.
2. Learning is facilitated by accompanying
  (mediating) physical objects.
3. Learning is facilitated by problem solving
  involving the material to be learned.
    The Natural Approach(自然法)
• It is a term for an approach proposed by Terrell,
 to develop teaching principles which
 (a) emphasize natural communication rather
 than formal grammar study
 (b) are tolerant of learners’ errors
 (c) emphasize the informal acquisition of
 language rules.
• Community Language Learning(集体/社团语言学习法)
 It is a method of second and foreign language
 teaching developed by Charles Curran. CLL is an
 application of counseling learning(咨询学习法)to
 second and foreign language teaching and learning. It
 uses techniques developed in group counseling to
 help people with psychological and emotional
 problems. The method makes use of group learning in
 small or large groups. These groups are the
 “Community”. The method places emphasis on the
 learners’ personal feelings and their reactions to
 language learning. Learners say things which they
 want to talk about, in their native language. The
 teacher (known as “Counselor”) translates the learners’
 sentences into the foreign language, and the learner
 then repeats this to other members of the group.

				
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