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Biogas from Solid Waste. Conception and Construction of - Eawag

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                                                 !"#$%&'()*+                                             ,+
+
Table 1: Key figures for the characterization of the waste situation in Kumasi
Data sources: (KMA 2010; Ofori 2011)

 Parameter                             Unit

 Population Kumasi               1.6   million
 MSW generated                  0.75   kg/(capita!day)
 MSW generated                 1200    tons/day
 MSW collected                    81   %
 MSW collected                  972    tons/day
 Collection cost                   6   US$/Ton
 Disposal Cost                     4   US$/Ton

 Total cost                       10   US$/Ton


Table 2 shows the waste composition in Kumasi in the year 2010. The share of organic material
(40.2%) is low when compared to the national average of over 60% (NESSAP 2010). The sec-
ond largest share is inert material. Plastics and bottles which make up 20.1% of the total are
partly recycled on a informal basis by human scavengers (Wikner 2009).
Table 2: Waste characterization of MSW in Kumasi made by Ofori (2011)

 Material Type                                                            Tonnes         Share
 Organic Material                                                                 482             40.2%
 Inert (Sand, ash, fine organics, demolition waste)                               250             20.8%
 Plastics                                                                         238             19.9%
 Paper and Cardboard                                                               84              7.0%
 Textiles                                                                          83              6.9%
 Metals                                                                            27              2.2%
 Wood                                                                              20              1.7%
 Glass / bottles                                                                   14              1.3%

 Total                                                                           1,200           100.0%


A study on the organic waste flows has been carried out by Drechsel et al. (2004). The availab-
ility of organic waste is segmented into the major sources of waste. Furthermore the availability
of the waste recycling and compost production is considered. In this context, it is assumed that
the same numbers hold true for biogas production. Available means, it is not already used for
other purposes like animal feed and it is collected and can be transported. Manure, dung and
liquid waste (mainly night soil) is not considered as it is not appropriate to be treated in a dry




8                                                 Background
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Table 11: Test Run Specifications

 Parameter                                Specification
 Test Site                                KNUST sewage plant
 Substrate Material                       Organic fraction of MSW from Amanfrom dumpsite (8
                                          tonnes)
 Inoculant Material                       Sheep dung from Animal science KNUST (450 kg)
                                          Cow Dung from cattle research KNUST (1.05 t)
                                          Fresh sewage sludge (200 kg)
 Percolation liquid added                 Fresh water (pH 6.5, 1100 l)
                                          Cow dung liquid (pH 6.3, 750 l)
 Percolation Cycle                        250 to 500 litres daily
 Retention time                           23 days
 Temperature                              No heating, ambient temperature between 25 and 38°C




         4.2.2 Gas analysis and percolate pH

Throughout the test run, the gas composition and the produced volume are measured. The three
graphs in Figure 40 display the results from the gas analysis. The produced gas volume rose
constantly to a total of 15 m3.
The gas composition analysis shows a carbon dioxide content of nearly 40% within a few days
after starting up. At the same time the oxygen content dropped to less than 2%. However the
oxygen is not consumed completely but the content kept fluctuating around 2%. The methane
content rose constantly at a rate of about 1% per day. It reached a maximum of 21% after 23
days. At two occasions it can be seen, that the oxygen content rises notably. At these two points,
the methane as well as the carbon dioxide content drops. At the same points, the gas meter
counted backwards. The content of Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) varies considerably. It reached
maximum values of around 300 ppm. However, other measurements only recorded a concentra-
tion of a few ppm. The gaps in the three series are days where no measurements were taken.




48                                            Performance
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         5.2 Results

To start, Table 13 gives an overview of the most important characteristics of the studied biogas
plants. The hypothetical full-scale plant is based on the built prototype. It is assumed that the
gas is used to power a biogas electricity generator, which feeds in the grid. The plant is operated
with the organic fraction of municipal waste. The substrate is fermented for 28 days (Lutz 2010)
and then post-composted for 6 weeks (Bütikofer 2011) to obtain organic fertilizer (compost).


Table 13: Plant specifications



                                     Prototype                           Full Scale Plant

Digester size                    33m3 total volume                165m2(5 * 33m2) total volume
                                 23m3 load volume                     115m3 load volume
Generator                               none                        10 kW el, biogas generator
Capacity                          6 tonnes per batch                    6 tonnes per batch
(Fresh Substrate)                0.25 tonnes per day1                  1.25 tonnes per day1
Substrate                          MSW (organic)                         MSW (organic)
Retention time            28 days, 6 week post composting        28 days, 6 week post composting
Life time                                                                    20 years




                5.2.1              Costs

All values for the calculation of the investment costs are listed in Table 14. When possible, the
actual costs from the construction of the prototype are used. Otherwise sources of the literature
values are enclosed. For the full-scale plant, the costs are generally multiplied by the number of
additional digesters, assuming that there is no price reduction due to bulk purchases or more
effective construction work. The costs for the additional parts are added.




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                                               Financial Assessment                                57
Table 14: Investment costs

 Material                                   Prototype      Full Scale         Source        Lifespan
                                              [US$]         [US$]                              [a]

 Shipping Container                              1,200           6,000     Prototype           20
 Percolate Tank                                     50             250     Prototype           10
 Pipes and Connections                             120             600     Prototype            5
 Tools                                             150             750     Prototype            5
 Pump                                              100             500     Prototype            4
 Filter                                             20             100     Prototype            1
 Door Sealing                                      200           1,000     Assumption           5
 Floor Sealing                                      50             250     Prototype            4
 Generator(inclusive Grid Connection)                           20,000     Arthur 2009         10


 Workers Office                                                  2,000     Assumption          20
 Water Connection                                                  300     Assumption          20
 Electricity Connection                                            300     Assumption          20
 Roofing for waste separation and com-                           1,000     Rothenberger        20
 posting                                                                   et al (2006)
 Contingencies (+10%)                                            3,305     Yescombe
                                                                           (2002)

 Total Material Cost                             1,890          36,355

 Construction work
 Manager wage                                      750           3,750     Arthur 2009
 Worker wage                                       300           1,500     Arthur 2009
 Transport                                         500           1,500     Prototype
 Welding                                           200           1,000     Prototype
 Generator & Grid Connection                                     1,000     Assumption
 Site preparation                                                1,000     Assumption
 Other (+10%)                                      175             975     Assumption


 Total Work Cost                                 1,925          10,725


 Total Cost                                      3,815          47,080


The largest cost components are the generator and the grid connection. The next major invest-
ment is the digester, which is a second hand shipping container. The work cost amounts to one
quarter of the total investment cost of the full-scale plant. The total investment costs of the full-
scale plant sum up to 47,080 US$.




58                                             Performance
The column “life span” lists the expected life time of each part. Some parts such as the percolate
filter will need regular replacement. These lifetime values are used to calculate the yearly re-
placement cost according to formula 1.1 in chapter 5.1.1.
The operation and maintenance costs are further dependent on the price of the substrate material
and the required labour. The substrate price reflects the collection, transport and fuel costs and
is assumed at 17 US$ per tonne. For the operation it is assumed that the prototype needs one
part time manager (20% work load, 20US$ daily wage) and one full time worker (10 US$ daily
wage). The full-scale plant needs one manager, five workers and one part time specialist me-
chanic (20% work load, 25 US$ daily wage) to maintain the generator. The workers duties in-
clude separation of the waste, loading and unloading of the feedstock, managing the percolation
system, post-composting of the digested material and maintaining the plant. The costs are as-
sessed for one operational year.
Table 15 Operation and maintenance costs

                                          Prototype               Full Scale             Source
                                        [US$ per Year]          [US$ per Year]


 Substrate Cost                                        1,000               5,000       Prototype
 Electricity, water and consumables                       50                 350       Prototype
 Plant worker wages                                    3,650              18,250       Arthur 2009
 Manager wage                                              -               7,300       Arthur 2009
 Technician wage                                           -               1,825       Arthur 2009
 Replacement                                              92               1,460       Prototype
 Total                                                 4,792              34,185



The operation and maintenance costs are 4,792 US$ for the prototype and 34,185 US$ for the
full scale plant. Apart from the difference in scale, the variation is due to the fact that a genera-
tor is maintenance intensive and is assumed to be replaced every 10 years (Gronauer and
Aschmann 2003). The separation of waste, the loading/unloading of the substrate and the com-
posting of the effluent are labour intensive.


             5.2.2                Benefits

The benefits are calculated via the gas output as described in chapter 5.1.1 using the values
listed in Table 16. It is assumed that half of the fermented substrate is kept in the digester to
inoculate the new process (see share fresh feedstock). The retention time is taken from running
plants in Europe (Gronauer and Aschmann 2003; Lutz 2010). Considering the feedstock and the
retention time, a theoretical specific gas output of 100 m3 per ton of feedstock is assumed. This
value is rather conservative but agrees with literature (FNR 2006).
In a first step, the amount of fresh feedstock is calculated. The five parallel digesters have a
capacity of 0.83 tonnes per day and 301 tonnes per year. The calculated gas output is 83 m3 per




                                             Financial Assessment                                  59
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                                         W%#6/2&3%#!                                      bb!
!

				
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