Quality Guru's by sadananda500

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									Quality GURUS


Concentrated on "Quality Philosophy" as relating to management. "zero defects", "four absolutes", "fourteen steps to quality improvement", his "Vaccine" as a preventive medicine for management against poor quality and the phrase, "Quality is free", Maintained that management must have a quality appreciation of statistical variation. Mainly known for "14 point plan", Deadly diseases" and the "Deming Cycle" and “System of Profound Knowledge” American Engineer responsible for the concept of "Total Quality Control", "Cruical Element to Total Quality", “Industrial cycle”, “Hidden Plant”, “Quality Control” Harvard professsor known for his development of quality as a strategy and its meanings. "Eight Dimensions of Quality" Development of the Total Quality concept, Statistical Quality Control, the use of the "7 Tools" and the invention of the "Ishikawa Diagram" (also known as the Fishbone diagram). Known for his definition of Quality, "internal customer" and the "Quality Trilogy". Also noted for "Pareto analysis", the "Cost of Quality" and the concept of "Quality Councils" within an organisation. Known for his definitions of product specifications in relation to Quality and its translation into cost-effective production. Known for his development of the Zero Quality Control (ZQC) approach to Quality Management by using source inspection to detect errors and the effective use of PokaYoke devices to eliminate them before they become defects.



Professor DAVID






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PHIL CROSBY The four absolutes: 1. "The definition of quality is conformance to requirements". Crosby maintained that once the requirements were specified, quality is judged solely on whether they have been met. Therefore these requirements must be clearly defined by management and not left by default to front line personnel. 2. The system quality is prevention". Prevention before the event is more cost effective then detection after it. 3. "The performance standard is zero defect" The goal should be nothing less than perfect quality and that preventive costs do not rise dramatically as zero defects is approached. 4. "The measurement of quality is the price of non-conformance". Costing the price of failure is a prime motivator and if the effort is put into prevention it will more than pay for itself in greater production, less reworks and greater customer satisfaction. Fourteen steps to quality improvement Evolving form the need to define, understand and communicate the "absolutes" throughout all levels of an organisation. It is a methodology for implementing the quality improvement process (disliking "programme" as it implied temporary) in an organisation. 1. Ensure clearly visible signals that management is committed to quality permiate throughout the organisation. 2. Setup quality improvement teams with senior representitives to demonstrate high level commitment. 3. Measure and identify current and potential quality problem areas. 4. Evaluate "cost of quality" and ensure its potential as a management tool is understood at the appropriate levels. 5. Raise the level of quality awareness and encourage it as a personal concern of everyone. 6. Ensure corrective actions are placed, the importance is accepted and they are adequately addressed. 7. Establish a monitoring system for the improvement process. 8. Educate and train supervision on their role and responsibilities in the quality improvement process. 9. Programme "zero defect days" to communicate to all levels progress, taking the opportunity to reafirm management commitment to quality. 10. Encourage and environment that allows individual and team goals to be set. 11. Encourage two way quality communication and highlight obsticles to achieving individual and team goals. 12. Recognise and appreciate individual and team efforts. 13. Establish Quality Councils to discuss quality matters on a regular basis. 14. Visibly repeat steps 1 to 13 to demonstrate that the improvement process is continuous. The Crosby "Vaccine" In the Crosby style, the "Vaccine" is explained as medicine for management to prevent poor quality. It is in five sections that cover the requirements of Total Quality Management. Section 1 - Integrity. Treat quality seriously throughout the whole business organisation from top to bottom. That the companies future will be judged on its performance on quality. Section 2 - Systems. Appropriate measures and systems should be put in place for quality costs, education, quality, performance, review, improvement and customer satisfaction. Section 3 - Communication. The communication systems are of paramount importance to communicate requirements and specifications and improvement opportunities around the organisation. Customers and operators know what needs to be put in place to improve and listening to them will give you the edge.

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Section 4 - Operations. Work with and develop suppliers. Processes should be capable and improvement culture should be the norm. Section 5 - Policies. Must be clear and consistent throughout the business Dr.W.EDWARDS DEMING Deadly diseases. 1. "Lack of consistancy of purpose". 2. "Emphasis on short term profits". 3. Reliance on performance appraisal and merits. 4. Staff mobility. 5. Reliance on financial figures. 6. Excessive medical costs. 7. Excessive legal costs. 14 Points (a complete management philosophy) The 14 points for management were produced so that people could understand and implement the changes in management style. Adoption and action of these points, Deming said, was a clear signal, irrespective of the size or sector of the business, that management intend to succeed. 1. Maintain a consistent Quality message and purpose towards improvement. Should not vary with department, time or customer. 2. Quality requires a commitment to continuously improve. Your competition is and your customer expects it. 3. Switch to defect prevention approach rather then the defect detection. Check the process rather than the product. Prevent the process going wrong rather then looking at scrap and stopping the process to put it right. 4. It is more important that business is awarded on quality, reliability of delivery and commitment to improve rather than the lowest price quoted. Mutually beneficial to build partnerships with suppliers. 5. Constantly improve the production system or service to reduce the cost. Throughout the business, services and support. 6. Train employees to understand the concepts of variation, SPC, improvement and total quality approach. Make everyone aware they are responsible and contribute to quality. 7. Establish an environment for improvement and dispel any fears of change. Remove the feeling that quality improvement will penalise employees. 8. Change Supervision to coaching and support from chasing and a blame culture. Manage the resource and invest in a future partnership. 9. Irradiate organisational barriers to Quality Improvement. Remove department, communication barriers and anything that prevents customer complaints being actioned at the most appropriate place. 10. Discard unrealistic targets and meaningless slogans. Identify the real issues and performance instead of encouraging adversarial reactions. 11. With regard to natural variation, standards and numerical quotas that are beyond the control of employees should not be penalised. Natural variation states that no standard or quota can be exact and without variation. 12. Encourage employees to have pride in their work. Irradiate barriers that prevent it (unrealistic quotas, shorttermism rather then quality and lack of investment). Establish group schemes based on quality and improvement. 13. Train and educate for sel-improvement. Education must be widely based, relevant and continuing.

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14. Create and maintain an organisation to support these rules. The plan is essentially a long term endeavour and philosophy.

The Deming Cycle The Plan, Do, Check, Act (PDCA) cycle is an all-encompassing improvement methodology. Plan what to do. Could be design features or an improvement in the process itself. Use Pareto analysis to identify the most important aspects. Do the experimentation. Explore the problem by experimentation, identify and investigate causes. Check the solutions. To see if the assumptions and ideas were correct. Act on the results. Implement on a scale appropriate to the problem If successful, make it part of normal shop practice. System of Profound Knowledge Known as a "Win: Win" climate of joy in work, innovation and co-operation. The System of Profound Knowledge, or management by positive co-operation, is described in its four interrelated elements. A map of theory to understand the organisations we work in. 1. Appreciation for a system The need for managers to understand the relationships between functions and activities, and that the long term aim is for everyone to win - employees, shareholders, customers, suppliers and the environment. 2. Knowledge of statistical theory Knowledge and understanding of variation, process capability, control charts, interactions and loss function. 3. Theory of knowledge As all plans require prediction based on historical information, the theory must be understood before it can successfully be copied. 4. Knowledge of psychology The understanding of human interactions, how people are motivated and what disillusions them.

Industrial cycle Feigenbaun stated that the industrial cycle was an ongoing sequence to bring products or services to the customer. Including in these activities are marketing, purchasing, design, engineering, manufacturing, production, inspection, packaging, delivery, installation and service. He also maintained that the responsibility of quality was not the sole preserve of the quality professional, but was the responsibility of all. At the heart of Feigenbaum's concepts was a belief that the cycle begins and ends with the customer and in between were a multitude of different requirements to be defined and communicated, in this he saw the prime role of the quality professional to co-ordinate it. Warning of the consequencies of communication breakdowns resulting in directions other then the design actually being developed, it was pointed out that the total cost of quality (or cost of non-quality) accumulated throughout the whole process and it was essential to manage quality throughout to lower the overall cost. Arguing that it required a total approach to quality involving all functions to build-in quality at an early stage as opposed to after-the-fact detection. Meaning that effective controls at important stages of the complete process where product quality could be affected would be more than beneficial. The two fundemental concepts: 1. "quality is everybody's job"

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Management and Operators cannot totally delegate authority and responsibility and still expect a satisfactory product. 2. "because quality is everybody's job in a business, it may become nobody's job" This is most effectively excercised by an intermeshed and specialised support area whose sole responsibility is product quality. Therefore the two basic responsibilities are: 1. "provide quality assurance for the business's products" 2. "assist in assuring optimum quality costs for those products" Hidden plant One of the more well known concepts developed by Feigenbaum was that of the "hidden plant". He maintained that within every company or factory a proportion of its capacity was wasted by not getting it right first time. A figure muted in the 1950's was of 40% wasted capacity, and is still reasonably accurate today. Quality Control Emphasising that human relations was a basic issue in Quality Control activities, and such things as statistics and preventive measures where only a part of the whole equation. "Quality" is what suits the customer at the right price for both the provider and customer and a common sense approach to quality standards, conformance, corrective actions and planning for improvement is the control required to gain that quality. With his uncanny knack for seeing the whole picture, he reminds us that statistics and methods should be used where benefits can be gained and should not be solely relied upon to give the controls necessary for total quality; it is not the whole quality control system and the quality department is not just the quality professionals, it should be the complete workforce. By stimulating and encouraging everyone in an organisation to realise their responsibilities and potential effects on the quality of a product or service, Feigenbaum emphasises that success needs quality-thought at all levels with complete top management support. To encourage the right growth environment, quality issues should be widely communicated and commitment should be demonstrated by a recognition that this is not an overnight or temporary cost-cutting exercise. He also pointed out the recent change in customer perceptions of quality and the increased awareness of variation between products of the same company and its competition. Pointing out that the predictability of a controlled process is essential to achieving a product with a specific reliability is the most important driver for companies wanting to succeed and grow. Crucial elements of Total Quality The elements of total quality to enable a totally customer focus (internal and external) 1. Quality is the customers perception of what quality is, not what a company thinks it is. 2. Quality and cost are the same not different. 3. Quality is an individual and team commitment. 4. Quality and innovation are interrelated and mutually beneficial. 5. Managing Quality is managing the business. 6. Quality is a principal. 7. Quality is not a temporary or quick fix but a continuous process of improvement. 8. Productivity gained by cost effective demonstrably beneficial Quality investment. 9. Implement Quality by encompassing suppliers and customers in the system.

Professor DAVID GARVIN The eight dimensions.  1. Performance

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Main operating characteristics such as power, sound, speed etc. 2. Features The extras that supplement the main characteristics such as trim, sunroof etc. 3. Reliability How often it breaks down . 4. Conformance How close it is to the design specification or service to the customers experience. 5. Durability Length of life, toughness in use, service frequency etc. 6. Serviceability Ease, cost and friendliness of service. 7. Aesthetics Appearance and impression. 8. Perceived quality The feel, finish and manner in which the customer is dealt with. Dr. KAORU ISHIKAWA Company-wide quality Ishikawa built on Feigenbaum's concept of total quality and suggested that all employees have a greater role to play, arguing that an over-reliance on the quality professional would limit the potential for improvement. Maintaining that a company-wide participation was required from the top management to the front-line staff. As every area of an organisation can affect quality, all areas should study statistical techniques and implement as required with internal and external Quality Audit programmes. Going on to name areas such as engineering, design, manufacturing, sales, materials, clerical, planning, accounting, business and personnel that can not only improve internally but also provide the essential information to allow strategic management decisions to be made concerning the company. To illustrate this viewpoint Ishikawa said, "The results of these company-wide activities are remarkable, not only in ensuring the quality of industrial products but also in their contribution to the company's overall business". Under the "company-wide" Ishikawa umberella are not just a company's internal quality control activities but the company itself, the quality of management, human respect, after sales service and customer care. Therefore suggesting the following: Company-wide Quality benefits: 1. Reduced defects. 2. Improved product quality is improved. 3. Quality improvement becomes the norm. 4. Increased reliability. 5. Reduced costs. 6. Increased quality of production. 7. Waste is identified and reduced. 8. Rework is identified and reduced. 9. Improvement techniques are established and continually improved.. 10. Inspection and after-the-fact expenses are reduced. 11. Contracts are rationalised. 12. Sales and market opportunities are increased. 13. Company reputation is inceased. 14. Interdepartmental barriers are broken down and communication becomes easier. 15. False and inaccurate data is reduced. 16. Meetings are more effective and focused.

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17. Repairs and maintenance are rationalised. 18. Improvement in human relations. 19. Company loyalty is increased. Quality circles The Quality Circle is a main ingredient of Ishikawa's company-wide quality control consisting typically of 5 - 10 personnel who meet at regular intervals. Led by a supervisor or team leader, they aim to contribute to and improve processes and activities, build up job satisfaction and company loyalty, and utilise existing and hidden resource potential. As part of membership, each member should be fully conversant with statistical quality control techniques and related methodologies in order to achieve quality improvement. Wherever possible, the quality circles should be encouraged to implement improvements and solutions themselves, or present to higher management suggestions; which identifies an additional training requirement of data presentation and reporting. This naturally produces an environment where operators are continually looking for solutions to problems, gaining a greater commercial awareness with an ability to "stand back" from the process, greater involvement and at the same time develop by using quality tools. Murton Group comment on Quality Circles: The environment for Quality Circles was right in Japan as it was the norm that everyone worked and lived for the company, and formalising an already motivated set into groups able to utilise their knowledge, experience and enthusiasm on priority company issues. Once sufficiently established, the unrestricted regional meetings with delegates from all kinds of companies were set-up to communicate and apply lessons learnt. It was not long after that regional became national conventions organised for hundreds of delegates. Western managment styles and political meddling do not lend themselves to the stability of long term employment and even less to building company loyalties. In todays climate it would be difficult to imagine someone with no gaurantee of keeping their job of being seriously interested in resolving medium-to-long term company problems. As long as companies regard shareholders as more important than their own workforce, and short term profits more meaningful than executive accountability this will never change. 1. Classic "Quality Tools" For use by quality circles and others for ongoing improvement. 1. Statistical Process Control (SPC) chart. 2. Process chart. 3. Run diagram. 4. Histogram graph. 5. Pareto analysis. 6. Ishikawa (fishbone) diagram. 7. Measles chart. 8. Scatter correlation chart. 9. Check sheet. 2. Intermediate statistical methods For use by quality specialists and managers responsible for quality in their areas. Sampling surveys and inspections, statistical estimation and hypothesis resting, sensory tests and experimental design. 3. Advanced statistical methods For use by specialist quality professionals and consultants. Advanced experimental design, multivariate analysis and operational research techniques.

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Dr. JOSEPH JURAN Internal customer Juran realised that the customer was not just the end customer and that each person along the chain has an internal customer, and as such is supplier to the next in the chain. Therefore Juran maintained that at each stage was a "Three role model": supplier, process and customer. The "three role model" represents a breaking down of the complete cycle into numerous opportunities for ongoing process and business improvement. Emphasising that quality improvements can be identified and achieved throughout the complete cycle from the original customer need through to the receiving external customer. By exploring the complete lifecycle, Juran points out that the "big picture" must include suppliers and in so doing brings into the equation Purchasing and Sub-contract as prime elements to maintaining product quality (essential when prime contractorships are involved). Expanding this argument, he rightly states that, "a single source can more easily neglect to sharpen its competitive edge, cost and service", but goes on to temper it with a hands-on team approach to vendors being more productive than a adversarial one. By accepting that the cycle starts and ends with the customer, it can seen how important the concept is. Cost of quality The cost of quality, or not getting it right first time, Juran maintained should be recorded and analysed and classified into failure costs, appraisal costs and prevention costs.  Failure costs Scrap, rework, corrective actions, warranty claims, customer complaints and loss of custom  Appraisal costs Inspection, compliance auditing and investigations  Prevention costs Training, preventive auditing and process improvement implementation Quality trilogy Juran's view is that, "Quality does not happen by accident it must be planned". Seeing quality planning as the three elements of Quality Planning, Quality Control and Quality Improvement running parallel to budgeting, cost control and cost reduction. Stating that planning's key elements required to implement a company-wide strategy were to identify cusomer needs, define quality goals, identify and implement quality metrics, planning process capability, and continually monitor results to reduced manufacturing and non-manufacturing errors. All this supports his theory that quality is not free and there is a point where conformance is more costly than the value of the quality obtained. Quality Planning Road Map 1. Identify customers. 2. Determine customer needs. 3. Translate customer needs into specifications. 4. Develop product or service to meet customer needs. 5. Optimize product or service features and characteristics. 6. Develop process capabilities to produce product or service. 7. Prove process. 8. Productionise process. Quality Council A body typically comprising senior management with the responsibility for project managing the quality improvements. The council would set targets, run needs analysis for training and equipment, cost of quality measurement, co-ordination and liaise between groups and management levels. Essentially become the focal point of the quality improvement culture within the business organisation as they improve communication and breakdown interdepartmental or functional boundries.

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The breakthrough concept Like the Deming cycle, Juran's breakthrough concerns itself with the product/service life cycle. In essence this splits it up into two areas: the "journey from symptom to cause" and the "journey from cause to remedy". Dr GENICHI TAGUCHI Quality Loss Function Developed in the 1970's and taken up in the early 1980's by U.S. companies (Xerox, Ford and ITT), it provides an effective technique to assess product tests prior to productionisation which can also be utilised as a troubleshooting methodology for pressing problems; a simple quadratic loss function that is associated with the deviation from the best possible target value of the quality characteristic being assessed. Verification of this methodology can be seen in reduced variability about a target showing a decrease in loss that is inversely proportional to the increase in quality. Even though a loss will occur when within acceptable limits, the loss is minimal at or around the target. Therefore it can be seen that if a quality characteristic requires changing (maximise or minimised), then the loss function changes in view of the relationship with it. The quality loss is taken to mean the cost to the customer (and the effects on market share) as well as the company cost overheads of scrap and rework. and can be used for both on and off-line processes. Taguchi's Product development three stages. 1. System design stage Non statistical stage for engineering, marketing and customer knowledge. 2. Parameter stage How the product should perform against defined parameters. The robust solution of cost effective manufacturing irrespective of the operating parameters. 3. Tolerance design stage Tolerance round the desired settings. Finding the balance between manufacturing cost and loss. SHINGO Shingo's mainly remembered for his development in the 60's of the Zero Quality Control (ZQC) approach to Quality Management and its associated of the Poka-Yoke and source inspection systems when he realised that statistical techniques could not reduce defects to zero on their own. Basically, he devised a philosophy and system that stops the process whenever a defect occurs by relying on source inspection techniques to identify and prevent errors from becoming defects without resorting to statistical sampling. Often this is known as "foolproofing the process" in order to reduce defects to zero in order to create the Zero Quality Control environment by introducing mechanical or visual devices that will immediately indicate a problem has occured or completely prevent it from happening. Therefore, he proved that zero defects can be achieved by good engineering and process investigation. The use of colours, check lists, physical devives can be an enormous help in avoiding defects. For instance, the correct number of items supplied for an assembly would clearly indicate a problem if any remain after an operation, or that the physical presence of some component must be correctly located before the operation to can continue as in the case of the 'shut-off' current through the components of a welding operation. Shingo understands that mistakes are part of normality and as such target these areas to reduce the probability of process failure. The use of source inspection and poka-yoke devices are used to ensure that the correct conditions prior to production or operations being carried out. These often prevent the process from continuing until conditions are satisfied, as in the case of the beveled edge on a floppy disk which trips a lever in the drive to allow it to be inserted. Therefore, as it only allows one way it stops the process and prevents incorrect insertion until it is correctly aligned. Although it can be said that source, self-checks and successive checks are 100% process inspection, Shingo rightly points out that its benefit is the speed of the feedback and the ability to prevent repeats. Arguing that the

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purpose of inspection is to improve the process and prevent defects from occurring and as such is a basis for failsafing. Also that the ZQC approach with its source inspection is more preventive an approach for completely eliminating defects than SPC, which has a slower feedback mechanism and therefore is more corrective than preventive in relation to ZQC, that SPC allows for defects to occur and therefore is designed to maintain an acceptable level of defects rather than the elimination of them completely. However, it was noted each has its advantages and both ZQC and SPC can be combined; SPC to identify the existence of the special causes and ZQC to prevent their recurrence. Examples of Poka Yoke devices: 1. 3.5 Floppy Disk can only be inserted one way. 2. Filing cabinets that only allow one drawer to be opened at a time to prevent them falling over. 3. Automobile fuel tanks for unleaded petrol do not allow leaded fuel nozzles to be inserted. 4. Dead-man's handles on power tools that cut power when released. 5. Electrical circuit breakers that cut out when overloaded. 6. Spin Dryers that switch off when door is opened. 7. Washing machines that do not allow door to be opened if full of water. 8. Height flap board suspended at building entrances to give a soft physical indication of height restrictions before anything solid is encountered. 9. Sink overflows to prevent flooding. 10. Automobile interrior lights that come-on when a door is opened to indicate a potential hazzard

David Garvin
David Garvin identified his “eight dimensions of quality” which he maintained covered the meaning of quality to managers, operators and customers. By accepting that customers have a different perception of quality than that of a manager, quality effort can be focused. The eight dimensions. 1. Performance Main operating characteristics such as power, sound, speed etc. 2. Features The extras that supplement the main characteristics such as trim, sunroof etc. 3. Reliability How often it breaks down . 4. Conformance How close it is to the design specification or service to the customers experience. 5. Durability Length of life, toughness in use, service frequency etc. 6. Serviceability Ease, cost and friendliness of service. 7. Aesthetics Appearance and impression. 8. Perceived quality The feel, finish and manner in which the customer is dealt with.

Crosby, philip Deming, W Edward

Four Absolutes of Quality, Quality is Free 14 points for managing, System of Profound Knowledge

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Feigenbaum, armand V Garvin, David Ishikawa, kaoru Juran, Joseph M. Kanji, Gopal K Shewhart, walter A Shigeo Shingo Taguchi, genichi Welch, Jack

Total Quality Control Eight dimensions of quality fish bone diagram Juran's trilogy, Juran's Quality control handbook TQM statistical quality control Poka yoke, SMED Quality loss function, robust design six sigma


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