APES Review

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					                                         APES Review – John Sangdahl

1. Explain what ores are and how they form. (pp. 195–196)
2. Discuss the wide variety of uses for mineral resources. (pp. 196–197)

1. Explain why coal is a fossil fuel. (pp. 198–199)
2. Describe how petroleum and natural gas are formed and how they are removed from the earth. (pp. 199–200)
3. Discuss the importance of fossil fuels as a source of energy and of petrochemical products. (pp. 200–201)
4. Explain that fossil fuels are nonrenewable resources that must be used wisely. (p. 200)
5. Describe some of the effects that the use of fossil fuels has on the environment. (p. 201)

1. Summarize the process of nuclear fission. (pp. 202–203)
2. Summarize the process of nuclear fusion. (p. 203)

1. Describe both passive and active methods of harnessing energy from the sun. (p. 204)
2. Explain how geothermal energy may be used as a substitute for fossil fuels. (pp. 204–205)
3. Discuss hydroelectric energy and wind energy as alternative energy sources. (pp. 206–207)

ch 17-1
 1. State the principle of uniformitarianism. (pp. 323–324)
2. Explain how the law of superposition can be used to determine the relative age of rocks. (pp. 324–325)
3. Compare three types of unconformity. (p. 325)
4. Apply the law of crosscutting relationships to determine the relative age of rocks. (p. 326)

 ch 17-2
1. Describe the formation of varves. (p. 328 )
2. Explain the process of radioactive decay can be used to determine the absolute age of rocks.
( pp328-333 )

 ch 17 -3
1. Describe four ways in which entire organisms can be preserved as fossils. (p. 335)
2. List four examples of fossilized traces of organisms. (pp. 336–337)
3. Describe how index fossils can be used to determine the age of rocks. (pp. 338–339)

ch 18-1
1. Summarize the development of the geologic column. (p. 345)
2. List the major units of geologic time. (pp. 345–346)

ch 18-2
1. Identify the characteristics of Precambrian rock. (p. 348)
2. Explain what scientists have learned from the geologic record about life during the Paleozoic Era. (pp. 349–352)
3. Explain what scientists have learned from the geologic record about life during the Mesozoic Era. (pp. 352–356)
4. Explain what scientists have learned from the geologic record about life during the Cenozoic Era. (pp. 356–359)

ch 19
1. Identify the landmasses that made up Pangaea. (pp. 365–367)
2. Describe the breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea. (pp. 367–369)
ch 23-1
1. Discuss the composition of the earth’s atmosphere. (pp. 455–457)
2. Explain how two types of barometers work. (pp. 458–459)
3. Describe the layers of the atmosphere. (pp. 459–461)
4. Identify the weather conditions that increase the effects of air pollution. (p. 462)

ch 23-2
1. Explain how radiant energy reaches the earth. (pp. 463–466)
2. Describe how visible light and infrared energy warm the earth. (pp. 466–468)
3. Summarize the processes of radiation, conduction, and convection. (p. 468)

ch 23-3
1. Describe the global patterns of wind. (pp. 469–473)
2. Describe some factors that create local wind patterns. (p. 473)

1. Explain how water vapor enters the air. (pp. 479–480)
2. Explain the meaning of humidity and describe how it is measured. (pp. 480–483)
3. Describe what happens when the temperature of air decreases at or below the dew point. (p. 483)

ch 24-2
1. List the conditions that must exist for a cloud to form. (pp. 484–486)
2. Identify the types of clouds. (pp. 486–487)
3. Describe the four ways fog may form. (p. 488)

ch 24-3
1. Describe the various types of liquid and solid precipitation. (pp. 489–490)
2. Compare the two processes that cause precipitation. (pp. 491–492)
3. Describe how rain may be produced artificially. (pp. 492–493)
4. Describe how precipitation is measured. (p. 493)

ch 25-1
1. Explain how an air mass forms. (p. 499)
2. List and describe the types of air masses that usually affect the weather of North America. (pp. 500–501)

ch 25-2
1. Compare the characteristic weather patterns of cold fronts with those of warm fronts. (pp. 502–503)
2. Describe how a wave cyclone forms. (pp. 503–504)
3. Describe the stages in the development of hurricanes, thunderstorms, and tornadoes. (pp. 505–508)

1. Describe the types of instruments used to measure air temperature and wind speed. (pp. 509–510)
2. Describe the instruments used to measure upper-atmospheric weather conditions. (pp. 510–511)

1. Explain how a weather map is made. (pp. 512–514)
2. Describe the steps involved in preparing a weather forecast. (pp. 514–517)

1. Discuss the agents of mechanical weathering. (pp. 219–221)
2. Discuss the chemical reactions that decompose rock. (pp. 221–223)
ch 12-2
1. Explain how rock composition affects the rate of weathering. (pp. 224–225)
2. Discuss how the amount of exposure determines the rate at which rock weathers. (p. 225)
3. Describe the effects of climate on the rate of weathering. (pp. 225–226)

1. Explain how the composition of parent rock affects soil composition. (pp. 227–229)
2. Predict the type of soil produced in various climates. (pp. 229–230)
3. What is a soil profile and describe each horizon.

ch 12-4
1. Define erosion and list four agents of erosion. (pp. 231–232)
2. Identify various unwise farming methods that result in accelerated soil erosion and list four methods of soil
conservation that prevent this damage. (pp. 232–233)

1. Outline the stages of the water cycle. (pp. 243–244)
2. Explain the components of a water budget. (pp. 244–245)
3. List two approaches to water conservation. (pp. 245–246)

ch 13-2
1. Describe the way in which a river develops. (pp. 247–248)
2. Explain how a stream causes erosion. (pp. 248–249)
3. Describe youthful, mature, and old river valleys. (pp. 250–251)

ch 13-3
1. List two types of stream deposition and explain the differences between them. (p. 252)
2. Describe the change in a stream that causes flooding. (pp. 253–254)
3. Identify direct and indirect methods of flood control. (pp. 254–255)

ch 14-1
1. Distinguish between porosity and permeability. (pp. 261–263)
2. Identify the two moisture zones below the earth’s surface. (p. 263)
3. Relate the contour of the water table to the contour of the land. (p. 264)
4. Describe how groundwater can be polluted. (pp. 264–265)

1. Describe artesian formations. (pp. 266–267)
2. Describe two land features produced when groundwater is heated beneath the surface. (pp. 267–268)
                                        APES STUDY GUIDE FOR REVIEW

The beginning part of this outline was not important. So that is why it starts with III. About 99% of this
     outline will be very helpful. I will put this on my website. You should use Miller to fill in the details. You
     should study a little bit everyday. Cramming will not help you.
III. Why is environmental science so important? (sections in text on Sustainability, Our Impact, Increasing Human
     Numbers, and Meeting the Challenge: The Earth Summit)
     A. Sustainability
     B. Human population issues, particularly growth, numbers and consumption
     C. Challenges and complexity
IV. Introduction of some hot issues in environmental science, their implications, and their impact (sections in
    text on Endocrine Disrupters, Georges Bank, Bird Populations, Wolves, Exotic Species, Ozone Depletion, Global
    Warming, Tropical Rain Forest, Envirobrief on Coffee That's for the Birds, and Envirobrief on Welcome Home)
    A. Endocrine disrupters
    B. Commercial fisheries
    C. Declining bird populations
    D. Re-introduction of native species
    E. Introduction of exotic species
    F. Ozone depletion
    G. Global warming
    F. Deforestation

I. Method for solving environmental problems (sections in text on Solving Environmental Problems, Scientific
   Analysis of Environmental Problems, and Envirobrief on Literacy)
    A. Step-wise process
    B. Implementation of the scientific method
         1. The "method"
         2. Inductive vs. deductive reasoning
         3. Experimental controls
         4. Theories, principles, and laws
II. Health effects and risk assessment (sections in text on Assessment of Risk and Determining the Health Effects of
    Environmental Pollutants)
     A. Risk, risk assessment, and risk management
     B. LD50 and ED50
     C Carcinogens and chemical mixtures
III. Ecological risk assessment (sections in text on Ecological Risk Assessment, Cost-Benefit Analysis, and Balanced
     A. Sustainability
     B. Human population issues, particularly growth, numbers and consumption
     C. Challenges and complexity
IV. Sample environmental problems (sections in text on Case in Point: Lake Washington and Envirobrief on Salton
    A. Case study of Lake Washington
    B. Unresolved issues for the Salton Sea
V. Tragedy of the Commons (section in text on Focus On: The Tragedy of the Commons)
I. Historical perspective of the environmental movement in the United States (sections in text on Conservation,
   History of the U.S. Environmental Movement, The Environmental Movement of the Late-Twentieth Century, and
   Envirobrief on How Green is Your Campus)
    A. Conservation
    B. Colonial times through the early-1800s
    C. Mid-1800s through the early 1900s
         1., Henry David Thoreau,
         2. Theodore Roosevelt
         3. John Muir
     D. Mid-1900s through present
         1. Franklin Roosevelt
         2. Aldo Leopold
         3. Rachel Carson
     E. Establishment and policies of EPA
II. How much pollution is acceptable? (sections in text on An Economist's View, Government and Environmental
    Policy, Envirobrief on Trading Turtle Safety, Focus On: Natural Resources, the Environment, and the National Income
    Accounts, Focus On: Economics and the Environment in Central and Eastern Europe, and Case in Point)
     A. Economics
            1. Costs, cost estimates, and the "optimum" amount of pollution
            2. Pollution control via economic strategies
     B. Environmental policy
            1. United States
            2. Central and Eastern Europe
     C. Case study: Old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest
III. Environmental ethics (sections in text on Ethics, Values and Worldviews and Envirobrief on Religious About the
     A. Ethics and environmental ethics
     B. Worldviews and environmental worldviews
I. Introduction to ecology (section in text on The House We Live In)
     A. Terms and definitions
     B. Hierarchy: population, community, ecosystem, biosphere
II. Energy: Basic principles and biological processes (sections in text on The Energy of Life, Focus On: Life
    Without the Sun, and Mini-Glossary of Forms of Energy)
     A. Introduction and definitions
     B. Two laws of thermodynamics and their application to living systems
     C Photosynthesis, primary productivity in the deep sea (chemosynthesis), and cell respiration
         1. Chemical equations
         2. Relationship to basic laws of thermodynamics
III. Food chains and food webs (sections in text on The Flow of Energy Through Ecosystems, Focus On: Changes in
     Antarctic Food Webs, Envirobrief on Fishing Down the Food Web, and Envirobrief on More Is Sometimes Less)
     A. Energy flow and trophic levels
     B. Ecological pyramids: numbers of organisms, biomass, and energy
     C. Primary productivity
         1. Gross primary productivity
         2. Net primary productivity
     D. Human impact on food webs: Antarctic food webs and commercial fishing practices
     E. The link between productivity and biodiversity?
I. Species interactions (sections in text on Interactions Among Organisms and Focus On: Kingdoms of Life)
     A. Predator-prey interactions
         1. Pursuit and ambush
         2. Herbivory and plant defenses
         3. Defenses and adaptation
     B. Competition
     C. Symbiosis
         1. Definition
         2. Mutualism
         3. Commensalism
         4. Parasitism
II. Ecological niche (sections in text on The Ecological Niche and Envirobrief on Acorns and Lyme Disease)
     A. Definition
     B. Fundamental vs. realized niche
         1. Limiting factors
         2. Competitive exclusion
         3. Resource partitioning
III. Community structure and composition (sections in text on Lake Victoria, Biological Communities, Envirobrief
     on Otters in Trouble, and Species Diversity)
     A. Keystone species and community structure
     B. Species diversity due to community structure
          1. Margins and environmental stress
          2. Ecosystem services
     C. Natural selection, populations, and community structure
     D. Succession and community structure
          1. What is succession?
          2. Primary succession: who, where, how long, and examples
          3. 3. Secondary succession: who, where, how long, and examples
I. Biogeochemical cycles (section in text on The Cycling of Materials Within Ecosystems)
     A. Gaseous cycles
          1. Carbon cycle: natural events and human impact
                a. natural processes
                b. human impact and global warming
          2. Nitrogen cycle: role of bacteria, natural events, and human impact
                a. nitrogen fixation
                b. nitrification
                c. assimilation
                d. ammonification
                e. denitrification
                f. human impact
          3. Hydrologic cycle: natural events and human impact
     B. Sedimentary cycle
          1. Phosphorus cycle: natural events and human impact
II. Role of solar energy in global ecosystems and events (sections in text on Solar Radiation, The Atmosphere,
   Envirobrief on Human Impact on the Earth's Rotation, The Global Ocean, and Weather and Climate)
     A. Earth surface temperatures
         1. Latitude
         2. Season
     B. Wind and water flow patterns
         1. Atmospheric flow and wind patterns
         2. Global ocean currents
     C. Ocean and atmospheric interactions
         1. ENSO
         2. La Niña
     D. Weather vs. climate
         1. Precipitation and regional differences
         2. Tornadoes vs. tropical cyclones
III. Plate tectonics and environmental impact (section in text on Internal Planetary Processes)
     A. Earthquakes
     B. Volcanic eruptions
I. Terrestrial biomes (sections in text on Earth's Major Biomes, Envirobrief on the Value of Nature, Focus On: Vertical
   Zonation, and Focus On: Wildfires)
    A. What is a biome?
    B. Representative terrestrial biomes and their defining characteristics, both physical and biological
          1. Tundra
          2. Taiga or boreal forest
          3. Temperate rain forest
          4. Temperate deciduous forest
          5. Grasslands
          6. Chaparral
          7. Deserts
          8. Savanna
          9. Tropical rain forests
    C. Human impacts on biomes around the world
    D. Impact of altitude and latitude on distribution and type of vegetation present
II. Aquatic ecosystems (sections in text on Aquatic Ecosystems, Case In Point, and Envirobrief on Coral Bleaching)
     A. Environmental factors responsible for the structure of aquatic ecosystems
         1. Salinity
         2. Light
         3. Currents
         4. Dissolved oxygen
     B. Representative aquatic ecosystems
         1. Freshwater
              a. Flowing-water ecosystems
              b. Standing-water ecosystems
              c. Freshwater wetlands
         2. Estuaries
         3. Marine
              a. Intertidal zone
              b. Benthic environment
              c. Neritic province
              d. Oceanic province
     C. Human impacts on aquatic ecosystems
     D. A Case Study: Florida Everglades

I. Population ecology - the basics (sections in text on Principles of Population Ecology, Reproductive Strategies, and
   Focus On: Predator-Prey Dynamics)
    A. Four factors that influence population size
          1. Birth rate and death rate
          2. Immigration and emigration
          3. Calculation of population growth rate
    B. Biotic potential and carrying capacity
          1. Exponential growth and the J-shaped curve
          2. Carrying capacity and logistic growth, the S-shaped curve
    C. Life history strategies and survivorship curves
          1. K-selected and r-selected reproductive strategies
          2. Types I, II and III survivorship
    D. Density-dependent and density-independent factors that influence population size
          1. Density-dependent factors include predation, competition, and disease
          2. Density-independent factors are typically random or extreme abiotic events
II. Human population growth (sections in text including the Chapter Introduction, The Human Population, Mini-
    Glossary of Population Terms, Envirobrief on A Look at U.S. Population, and Envirobrief on Diverting the Flood of
     A. Historical perspective and current trends
     B. Differing population characteristics, highly developed and developing countries
          1. Infant mortality rate
          2. Total fertility rate
          3. Replacement-level fertility
          4. Age structure

I. The human population explosion (sections in text on The Human Population Explosion and Population, Resources
   and the Environment)
     A. Factors related to human population growth
          1. World hunger
          2. Economic effects
          3. Natural resources and consumption
          4. Environmental impact
     B. People overpopulation vs. consumption overpopulation
II. Urbanization (sections in text on Population and Urbanization and Envirobrief on Ecology Hits the Streets)
     A. Trends in distribution: rural and urban areas
     B. Urban population
         1. Environmental problems
         2. Environmental benefits

III. Fertility, national policies, and control of global human population growth (sections in text including the
     Chapter Introduction, Reducing the Total Fertility Rate, The Global Summit on Population and Development, Achieving
     Population Stabilization, Envirobrief on Successful Shots, Envirobrief on Reproduction and Women, and Focus On:
     Population Concerns in Europe)
     A. Fertility rates and related factors
          1. Cultural values
          2. Social and economic status of women
          3. Availability of family planning services
     B. National policies on fertility
          1. China
          2. India

     C. Control of global population growth
         1. Actions for individuals
         2. Actions for governments

I. Fossil fuels: formation and use (sections in text on Fossil Fuels, Coal, Envirobrief on Energy for China, Meeting the
   Challenge: Reclamation of Coal-mined Land, Oil and Natural Gas, and Envirobrief on Offshore Rig Debate)
     A. What are fossil fuels and how were they formed?
     B. Coal
          1. Grades of coal, their characteristics and uses
          2. Availability
          3. Mining practices
          4. Environmental impacts
               a. Mining
               b. Combustion
               c. Impact of technology
               d. Land reclamation
     C. Oil and natural gas
         1. Oil and natural gas products, their characteristics and uses
         2. Availability and exploration
              a. Relevant geology
              b. Reserves
              c. Global demand, supply, and distribution
         3. Environmental impacts
              a. Production and transportation
              b. Combustion
         4. Case study: The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
II. Synfuels (section in text on Synfuels and Other Potential Fossil Fuel Resources)
     A. Introduction and definitions
         1. Tar sands or oil sands
         2. Gas hydrates or methane hydrates
         3. Coal liquefaction
         4. Coal gasification
     B. Environmental impacts of synfuels
III. Energy consumption (sections in text including Chapter Introduction, Energy Consumption in Highly Developed
    and Developing Countries, An Energy Strategy for the United States, Focus On: Energy Subsidies and the Real Price of
    Fuel, and You Can Make a Difference: Getting Around Town)
     A. Highly developed vs. developing countries
     B. Perspective on recent energy crises in the United States
     C. A proposed energy strategy for the United States
           1. Increase energy efficiency and conservation
           2. Secure future fossil fuel energy supplies
           3. Develop alternative energy sources
           4. Minimize future impact on the environment

I. Nuclear energy (sections in text including Chapter Introduction and Introduction to Nuclear Processes)
    A. Historical perspective
    B. Introduction to nuclear processes
        1. Structure of atoms and associated terminology
        2. Radioactivity
    C. Nuclear processes as a source of energy
II. Nuclear power plants (sections in text on Conventional Nuclear Fission, Breeder Nuclear Fission, Is Nuclear Energy
    A Cleaner Alternative Than Coal?, Can Nuclear Energy Decrease Our Reliance on Foreign Oil?, and Fusion: Nuclear
    Energy For The Future)
     A. Fuel deposits and the nuclear fuel cycle
     B. Basic power plant design and energy production
          1. Production of electricity
          2. Safety features
     C. Compare and contrast nuclear fission, breeder nuclear fission and fusion
     D. Nuclear power vs. conventional energy sources
          1. Comparison to coal with respect to pollution
          2. Replacement for oil?
     E. Costs, including plant construction and safety issues
          1. Consumer perception
          2. Plant construction costs
          3. Costs associated with upgrading or prematurely closing out-dated plants
III. Safety in nuclear power plants, waste products, and potential impact (sections in text on Safety in Nuclear
     Power Plants, The Link Between Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Weapons, Focus On: The Effects of Radiation on
     Organisms, Focus On: Human Nature and Nuclear Energy , and Envirobrief on A Nuclear Waste Nightmare?)
     A. Safety in nuclear power plants
          1. Case study: Three Mile Island
          2. Case study: Chernobyl
     B. Link between nuclear energy and nuclear weapons
     C. Radioactive wastes
          1. Low-level vs. high-level wastes
          2. Storage of nuclear wastes
               a. Low-level: Carlsbad, NM
               b. High-level: Yucca Mountain, NV
          3. Decommissioning nuclear power plants
     D. Potential biological impact and DNA

I. Renewable energy sources (sections in text on Direct Solar Energy, Indirect Solar Energy, Other Renewable Energy
   Sources, Focus On: Cooking with Sunlight, and Envirobrief on Heating Goes Underground)
     A. Direct solar energy
          1. Passive vs. active solar heat
          2. Solar thermal electric generation
          3. Photovoltaic solar cells
          4. Solar-generated hydrogen
     B. Indirect solar energy
          1. Biomass energy
                a. Products: gas, liquid
                b. Advantages and disadvantages
          2. Wind energy
          3. Hydropower
                a. Dams
                b. Ocean waves
                c. Ocean thermal energy conversion
     C. Other renewable energy sources
          1. Tidal energy: limited distribution and potential problems
          2. Geothermal energy
                a. Hydrothermal reservoirs
                b. Hot, dry rocks
II. Energy conservation and efficiency (sections in text on Energy Solutions: Conservation and Efficiency, Envirobrief
    on A Starring Role in Energy Efficiency, and Envirobrief on Netting the Benefits of Home Energy Production)
     A. Energy consumption trends
         1. Economics
         2. Technology
               a. Energy Star - a consumer awareness program
               b. Cogeneration
     B. Efficiency
         1. Commercial buildings
         2. Homes
               a. a. "Net metering" - an economic incentive

I. Water : the basics (section in text on The Importance of Water)
    A. Structure and properties of water
         1. Molecular structure
         2. Physical properties and their significance
     B. Hydrologic cycle
         1. The prevalence of seawater
         2. Potential reservoirs or sources of fresh water
     C. Increasing dependence on freshwater resources
         1. Population growth and increased demand
         2. Per capita use and increased demand
II. Resource issues: water supply and quality (sections in text including the Chapter Introduction, How We Use
    Water, Water Resource Problems, Water Problems in the United States, Global Water Problems, and Envirobrief on U.S.
    Water Use Trends)
     A. Water uses, particularly irrigation
     B. General water resource problems
          1. Floods
              a. Case in point: the floods of 1993
          2. Arid and semi-arid regions and drought
          3. Depletion of surface and groundwater supplies
          4. Salinization from irrigation
     C. Water problems in the United States
          1. Surface water and increasing population in arid and semi-arid regions
              a. Mono Lake, replacement with reclaimed water
              b. Colorado River basin supply issues
          2. Groundwater
              a. Uses and increasing demands
              b. Ogallala Aquifer
          3. The San Francisco Bay and its delta
     D. Global water issues
          1. Adequate clean water supply
          2. Population growth and increasing demands
          3. Sharing water resources between countries
              a. The Rhine River basin
              b. The Aral Sea
          4. Potentially volatile situations involving sharing international water resources
III. Water management and conservation (sections in text on Water Management, Water Conservation, Envirobrief on
     Saving Water By Xeriscaping, Envirobrief on Where Water Conservation is Academic, and You Can Make A Difference:
     Conserving Water At Home)
     A. Recognizing water as a resource
     B. A sustainable water supply
          1. Role of dams and reservoirs
               a. Impact of dams on fisheries: Case in point: the Columbia River
               b. Impact of dams on human activities and interests: Case in point: the Missouri River
          2. Water diversion projects
          3. Desalinization
     C. Conservation of water resources
          1. Agriculture
          2. Industry
          3. Municipal, including actions of individuals

I. Soils: an introduction (sections in text on What is Soil?, Soil Composition, Envirobrief on The Future of Everglades
   Soil, Physical and Chemical Properties of Soil, Envirobrief on Soil Fungi and Plant Diversity, and Major Soil Groups)
     A. Definition
     B. Composition and formation of soil
           1. Composition of soil
         2. Organization or soil horizons
         3. Soil and nutrient cycling
     C. Physical and chemical properties of soil
         1. Texture and particle size
         2. Soil pH and plant growth
     D. Major soil groups
II. Environmental soil issues (sections in text on Soil Problems and Soil Conservation Policies in the United States)
     A. Erosion
         1. Case in Point: The American Dust Bowl
     B. Nutrient mineral depletion
     C. The United States
         1. Problems
         2. Policies
     D. International perspective
III. Conservation and reclamation (sections in text on Soil Conservation and Regeneration, You Can Make a
     Difference: Practicing Environmental Principles, and Meeting the Challenge: Municipal Solid Waste Composting)
     A. Conservation
           1. Conservation tillage
           2. Crop rotation
           3. Contour plowing, strip cropping, and terracing
           4. Fertilizer, organic or commercial inorganic?
     B. Reclamation

I. Minerals: an introduction (sections in text on Uses of Minerals and Mineral Distribution and Formation)
    A. Definitions
         1. Minerals; sulfides and oxides
         2. Rocks and ores; high-grade and low-grade
         3. Metallic and nonmetallic minerals
    B. Formation and distribution of mineral deposits
         1. Formation
              a. Magmatic concentration
              b. Hydrothermal processes
              c. Sedimentation
              d. Evaporation
         2. Distribution
II. Mineral resources (sections in text on How Minerals are Found, Extracted, and Processed, Chapter Introduction,
    Environmental Implications, Mineral Resources: An International Perspective, and Envirobrief on Not-So-Precious Gold)
     A. The process of mining
     B. Environmental impact of mining and refining minerals
          1. Effects of mining and refining on the environment
          2. Case in point: Copper Basin, Tennessee
          3. Restoration
     C. International perspective
          1. Demand for minerals
          2. Supply and distribution
III. Expanding mineral resources (sections in text on Increasing Our Mineral Supplies, Envirobrief on Diamonds
     Under the Tundra, and Meeting the Challenge: Industrial Ecosystems)
     A. New sources of minerals
         1. Deposits in new locations, including Antarctica and the ocean floor
         2. Advanced technologies, including biomining
     B. Extending supplies via substitution and conservation
         1. Mineral substitutes
         2. Conservation: reuse and recycling
         3. 3. Pros and cons of new (and smaller) appliances, conservation or not?
     C. General Mining Law (of 1872)
     D. Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (of 1977)

I. Introduction to biological diversity and why it is important (sections in text on How Many Species Are There?
   and Why We Need Organisms)
     A. What is biodiversity? An inclusive definition
     B. The significance of biological diversity
         1. Ecosystem services and species diversity
         2. Genetic diversity
              a. Research
              b. Medicine
              c. Agriculture
              d. Industry
         3. Aesthetics, ethics, and spiritual value
II. Threats to biological diversity (sections in text on Endangered and Extinct Species, Human Causes of Species
    Endangerment, Envirobrief on Solving Crimes Involving Organisms, and Envirobrief on Pollinators in Decline)
     A. Extinctions
         1. Endangered vs. threatened status
         2. Characteristics of endangered species
         3. Biologically distinct areas at particular risk
     B. Human activities threatening biological diversity
         1. Habitat loss
         2. Exotic species
         3. Pollution
         4. Overexploitation
         5. Case in Point: Disappearing Frogs
III. Conservation Issues and Policies (sections in text on Conservation Biology, Focus On: Reintroducing Endangered
     Animal Species to Nature, Meeting the Challenge: Wildlife Ranching as a Way to Preserve Biological Diversity in Africa,
     Conservation Policies and Laws, Wildlife Management, and What Can We Do About Declining Biological Diversity?)
     A. Conservation of biological diversity
          1. Habitat protection
          2. Habitat restoration
          3. Captive-breeding programs and seed banks
          4. Role of conservation organizations
     B. Wildlife Management
          1. 1. Migratory animals:
          2. 2. Aquatic organisms
     C. U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA)
          1. Provisions and controversies
     D. World Conservation Strategy
     E. What can we do about declining biological diversity?
          1. Increase public awareness
          2. Support research
          3. Control pollution
          4. Provide economic incentives

I. Introduction to land resources (sections in text on Importance of Natural Areas and Current Land Use in the
   United States)
     A. Importance of natural areas
    B. Land use in the United States
II. Land resources and threats (sections in text including The Chapter Introduction, Wilderness, National Parks, Focus
    On: A National Park in Africa, Wildlife Refuges, Forests, Envirobrief on Ecologically Certified Wood, Rangelands,
    Wetlands, and Agricultural Lands)
     A. Wilderness: definition and roles
     B. Wild and scenic rivers
     C. National parks
          1. Examples and purpose
          2. Threats and solutions
     D. Wildlife refuges
     E. Forests
          1. Ecosystem services and economic value
          2. Management practices
               a. Harvesting practices
               b. Deforestation: justification and impact
                   1) Tropical rain forests
                   2) Tropical dry forests
                   3) Boreal forests
                   4) Forests in the United States
                        a) Case in Point: Tongass National Forest
     F. Rangelands
          1. Importance
          2. Degradation and desertification
          3. Rangelands in the United States
               a. Management issues
                   1) Grazing rights
     G. Wetlands
          1. Ecosystem services and economic value
          2. Threats
          3. Policy and implementation issues
               a. Definition of a wetland
               b. Ownership of wetlands
          4. A special case: coastal wetlands
               a. Ecosystem services
               b. Management issues
               c. National marine sanctuaries
     H. Agricultural lands
          1. Ecosystem services and economic value
          2. Threats and policy
III. General threats to land resources, and conservation strategies (sections in text on Suburban Sprawl and
     Urbanization, Land Use, Envirobrief on DOE's Natural Labs, Conservation of Our Land Resources, and Meeting the
     Challenge: The Trout Creek Mountain Working Group)
     A. Urbanization, suburban sprawl, and the need for planning
     B. Land use planning
          1. Public planning
          2. Use of federal lands
     C. Conservation of land resources
     D. Meeting the Challenge: The Trout Creek Mountain Working Group

I. Food, nutrition, and human needs (sections in text on Human Nutritional Requirements, World Food Problems,
   Plants and Animals that Stand Between People and Starvation, and You Can Make a Difference: Vegetarian Diets)
     A. Human nutrition
         1. Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
         2. Minerals
         3. Vitamins
     B. Global food supply and its impact
         1. Diseases associated with malnutrition
         2. Global food supply
             a. Famine
             b. Stockpiles of grain
         3. Economics and food supply
         4. Culture, economics, and food supply
         5. Developing additional food resources
         6. Alternative lifestyles and increasing food availability: a vegetarian approach to nutrition
II. Agriculture (sections in text on The Principle Types of Agriculture, The Effect of Domestication on Genetic Diversity,
    Increasing Crop Yields, Increasing Livestock Yields, Food Processing and Food Additives, The Environmental Impacts of
    Agriculture, Solutions to Agricultural Problems, and Envirobrief on Genetic Engineering and Edible Vaccines)
     A. Types of agricultural practices
     B. Domestication, genetic diversity, and genetic engineering
           1. Potential problems with low genetic diversity
           2. Genetic engineering of crop plants and livestock
                a. Benefits, including pharmaceutical products
                b. Controversy
                c. Solutions?
     C. Increasing yields
           1. Increasing crop yields
                a. Case in Point: The Green Revolution
                b. Post-green revolution era
           2. Increasing livestock yields
     D. Food processing and additives
           1. Additives
           2. Testing and labeling
     E. Problems and solutions
           1. Problems: air and water pollution, degradation of land
           2. Solutions: changing agricultural practices
III. Fisheries (sections in text on Fisheries of the World and Envirobrief on Dolphin-Safe Tuna Labels)
     A. Challenges faced by commercial fisheries
         1. Management issues
               a. Overfishing
               b. Impact of by-catch
         2. Degradation of habitat
     B. Aquaculture: pros and cons

I. The atmosphere and an introduction to air pollution (sections in text on The Atmosphere as a Resource and
   Types, Sources of Air Pollution, Envirobrief on New Mowers for Cleaner Air, and Envirobrief on Buzzing in on Air
     A. The atmosphere and its composition
     B. Sources of air pollution
           1. Transportation
           2. Industry
           3. Natural sources
     C. Early detection of air pollution using bees
     D. Types of air pollution
           1. Particulates
          2.   Nitrogen oxides
          3.   Sulfur oxides
          4.   Carbon oxides
          5.   Hydrocarbons
          6.   Ozone
          7.   Miscellaneous
II. Air pollution and its effects (sections in text including The Chapter Introduction, Effects of Air Pollution, Urban
    Air Pollution, and Indoor Air Pollution)
     A. Outdoor air pollution
          1. Human health
                a. General issues
                b. Children
          2. Smog
                a. Types of smog
                b. Impact of topography and weather
                c. Impact of urban heat islands
     B. Indoor air pollution
          1. Sick building syndrome
          2. Indoor air pollution and asthma
          3. Radon
          4. Asbestos
III. Control of air pollution (sections in text including The Chapter Introduction, Controlling Air Pollutants, Air
    Pollution in the United States, Air Pollution in Developing Countries, Long-Distance Transport of Air Pollution,
    Envirobrief on Commuting for Clean Air, Meeting the Challenge: Clean Cars, Clean Fuels, and Focus On: Smoking)
     A. Reducing air pollution and energy conservation
     B. Air pollution in the United States
           1. The Clean Air Act
           2. Decreasing emissions from automobiles, minivans, sport utility vehicles, trucks, and buses.
           3. Case in Point: Los Angeles

     C. Air pollution in developing countries
         1. Overview
         2. Case in Point: Mexico City
     D. Global distribution of pollutants via atmospheric circulation
I. Global warming (sections in text including The Chapter Introduction, Global Warming, Envirobrief on Developing
   Countries and Carbon Emissions, and Envirobrief on Arctic Warming and the Native Cultures of the North)
    A. Overview of global warming or the greenhouse effect
    B. Causes of climate change
          1. Global warming
          2. Global cooling
    C. Effects of global warming
          1. Ice caps and glaciers
          2. Precipitation
          3. Organisms
          4. Human health
          5. Agriculture
    D. Issues and solutions to global warming
          1. International perspective: highly developed countries and developing countries
          2. Decreasing greenhouse gas emissions
          3. Mitigation
II. Ozone depletion (sections in text on Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere and Meeting the Challenge: Business
    Leadership in the Phase-Out of CFCs)
     A. Overview of ozone depletion
     B. Causes of ozone depletion
     C. Effects of ozone depletion
     D. Case in Point: Facilitating the Recovery of the Ozone Layer
III. Acid deposition (section in text on Acid Deposition)
     A. Overview of acid deposition
     B. Causes of acid deposition
     C. Effects of acid deposition
     D. Recovering from the effects of acid deposition
IV. Synergism (section in text on Links Among Global Warming, Ozone Depletion, and Acid Deposition)

I. Types and sources of water pollution (sections in text on Types of Water Pollution, Envirobrief on Harmful Algal
   Blooms, Eutrophication: An Enrichment Problem in Standing-Water Ecosystems, Sources of Water Pollution, and
   Groundwater Pollution)
     A. What is water pollution?
     B. Types of water pollution
          1. Sewage
          2. Disease-causing agents
          3. Sediment pollution
          4. Inorganic plant and algal nutrients
               a. Red tides
               b. "Dead zone" in the Gulf of Mexico
               c. Eutrophication
                    1) Oligotrophic and eutrophic lakes
                    2) Artificial eutrophication
                    3) Controlling artificial eutrophication
          5. Organic compounds
          6. Inorganic compounds
               a. Lead
               b. Mercury
          7. Radioactive substances
          8. Thermal pollution
     C. Sources of water pollution
          1. Point source vs. nonpoint source pollution
          2. Agricultural sources
          3. Municipal sources
          4. Industrial sources
     D. Groundwater pollution
II. Water quality issues and control (sections in text including The Chapter Introduction, Improving Water Quality,
    Envirobrief on Something Fishy, Laws Controlling Water Pollution, Case in Point: Water Pollution in the Great Lakes,
    Meeting the Challenge: Using Citizen Watchdogs to Monitor Water Pollution, You Can Make a Difference: Preventing
    Water Pollution, and Water Pollution in Other Countries)
     A. Improving water quality
          1. Purification of drinking water
          2. Chlorination
          3. Fluoridation
     B. Sewage treatment
          1. Municipal sewage treatment
                a. Primary treatment
                b. Secondary treatment
              c. Tertiary treatment
              d. Disposal of sludge
              e. Abnormalities in aquatic organisms correlated with sewage effluent
         2. Individual septic systems
         3. Case study: Arcata, CA
     C. U.S. water pollution control
         1. Legislation
              a. Refuse Act of 1899
              b. Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974
              c. Clean Water Act of 1972, 1981, and 1987
              d. Resource, Conservation, and Recovery Act
         2. Case in Point: Water Pollution in the Great Lakes
         3. The role of citizens in monitoring and enforcing environmental protection laws
         4. Individual actions that can minimize water pollution

I. Overview of pesticides (section in text on What is a Pesticide?)
    A. Definition and introduction to pesticides
        1. Broad- and narrow-spectrum pesticides
        2. First- and second-generation pesticides
    B. Major groups of insecticides
        1. Chlorinated hydrocarbons
        2. Organophosphates
        3. Carbamates
    C. Major groups of herbicides
        1. Nonselective herbicides
        2. Selective herbicides
             a. Broad-leaf herbicides
             b. Grass herbicides
        3. Case in Point: The Use of Herbicides in the Vietnam War
    D. Major groups of insecticides
        1. Chlorinated hydrocarbons
        2. Organophosphates
        3. Carbamates
II. Benefits and costs of using pesticides (sections in text on Benefits of Pesticides, Problems Associated with Pesticide
    Use, EnviroBrief on Pesticides in Schools, Solutions to the Pesticide Dilemma, EnviroBrief on Lethal Bug Juice, and
    EnviroBrief on Organic Cotton)
     A. Benefits of pesticides
          1. Disease control
          2. Crop protection
     B. Problems associated with using pesticides
          1. Development of genetic resistance
          2. Imbalances in the ecosystem
          3. Persistence, Bioaccumulation, and Biological Magnification
          4. Mobility in the environment
          5. Risks to human health
                a. Short-term effects
                b. Long-term effects
     C. Solutions to the Pesticide Dilemma
          1. Using cultivation to control pests
          2. Biological controls
          3. Pheromones and hormones
          4. Genetic controls
               a. Case in Point: Bt, Its Potential and Problems
          5. Quarantine
          6. Integrated pest management
               a. Case in Point: Integrated Pest Management in Asia
          7. Irradiating foods
III. Legislation and international issues (sections in text on Laws Controlling Pesticide Use, Focus On: The Bhopal
     Disaster, Changing Attitudes, and Meeting the Challenge: Reducing Agricultural Pesticide Use by 50 Percent in the United
     A. U.S. pesticide legislation
           1. Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act
           2. Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)
           3. Food Quality Protection Act
     B. Global pesticide issues
           1. Export and use of banned pesticides
           2. Import of food tainted with banned pesticides
     C. Changing perceptions to limit pesticide use

I. Overview of solid waste and related issues (sections in text on The Solid Waste Problem, Disposal of Solid Waste,
   and EnviroBrief on Composting at Rikers Island)
     A. Why is solid waste a problem?
     B. Types of solid waste
         1. Municipal solid waste
         2. Nonmunicipal solid waste
     C. Solid waste disposal
         1. Open dumps
         2. Sanitary landfills
              a. Problems associated with landfills
              b. Special case: plastics
              c. Another special case: tires
         3. Incineration
              a. Types of incinerators
              b. Problems associated with incineration
         4. Composting
II. Minimizing solid waste production (sections in text including The Chapter Introduction, Waste Prevention,
    EnviroBrief on Industrial Ecosystems, Meeting the Challenge: Reusing and Recycling Old Automobiles, and Integrated Waste
     A. Goals of waste prevention
          1. Example: An industrial ecosystem
     B. Reducing the amount of waste
          1. Pollution Prevention Act of 1990
          2. Fee-per-bag approach
     C. Reusing
          1. Refillable bottles in the U.S.
          2. Refillable bottles: an international perspective
     D. Recycling
          1. Paper
          2. Glass
          3. Aluminum
          4. Other metals
          5. Plastic
          6. Tires
     E. Integrated waste management
    III. A special case: hazardous wastes (sections in text on Hazardous Waste, EnviroBrief on Rocky Mountain Arsenal,
         and Management of Hazardous Waste)
         A. Introduction to hazardous waste issues
         B. Types of hazardous or toxic waste
             1. Dioxins
             2. PCBs
         C. Management issues and practices
             1. Chemical accidents
             2. Current policy
             3. Clean-up
                   a. The Superfund program
                   b. A former military site
                   c. Current production of toxic waste and "green chemistry"
                       1) Source reduction
                       2) Conversion to less toxic materials
                       3) Long-term storage
         D. Bioremediation of toxic wastes

Invasive Species
Terrestrial Plants
Downy brome (Bromus tectorum)
Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata)
Considerations and Impacts:
      It dominates areas and displaces natives, altering species composition.
      It decreases fuel load for burns.
      Rich soils, disturbed areas such as forests with fallen trees, habitat edges such as roads or streams, and
      disturbance from trails or agriculture can encourage invasion.
      In North America, it invades wet to dry-mesic deciduous forest and in the partial shade of oak savanna,
      edges, hedgerows, shaded roadsides, and urban areas. It occasionally occurs in full sun.
      It grows on sand, loam, and clay soils, and has also been found on limestone and sandstone substrates.
      Its seeds can remain viable for 5 years.
      Garlic mustard spreads exclusively by seed. Seeds are spread mostly by floodwaters or on humans, animals,
      and vehicles. Wind dispersal is minor.
Hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum)
      Giant hogweed is a public health hazard. The toxic sap, clear and watery, contains a substance that causes
         painful blisters.
      The blisters emerge when skin coated with the sap is exposed to sun. The combination of sap and sun
         produces painful
      burning blisters that may develop into purplish, blackened scars. It's illegal to move the plant within or
         between states, or
      to sell the seeds. Don't collect the seed heads to dry them Keep children away from this plant and use
         extreme caution when
      handling it. Some people do not react to this sap, but don't take chances.

Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica)
Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum)
Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata)
Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula)
Multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora)
Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia)
Saltcedar (Tamarix spp.)
Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius)
Scotch thistle (Onopordum acanthium)
Spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa)
Tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima)
Yellow star thistle (Centaurea solstitialis)

Terrestrial Animals
Africanized honeybee (Apis mellifera scutellata)
     Africanized Honey Bees (=Killer Bees) are dangerous because they attack intruders in numbers much
     greater than European Honey Bees. Since their introduction into Brazil, they have killed some 1,000
        humans, with victims
     receiving ten times as many stings than from the European strain. They react to disturbances ten times
        faster than European
     Honey Bees, and will chase a person a quarter of a mile. Other concerns with Africanized Honey Bees are
        the effects on
     the honey industry (with an annual value of $140 million dollars) and general pollination of orchards and
        field crops (with
     an annual value of 10 billion dollars). Interbred colonies of European and Africanized honey bees may differ
        in pollination
     efforts, be more aggressive, excessively abandon the nest, and not survive the winters. Further, beekeepers
        may not
     continue their business of honey production if faced with aggressive bees. The packaged bee and queen
        rearing industries
     are in the southern United States, which would affect the honey industry across the continent.

Asian long-horned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis)
Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus)
Brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis)
Cane toad (Bufo marinus)
     This pest’s impact has been far-reaching, with the invasion of cane toads into
     Queensland thought to be an important factor in the decline of many native
     animals.
European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar)
European starling (Sturnus vulgaris)
Glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca coagulata)
Hemlock Woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae)
Red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta)
Wild Boar (Sus scrofa)

Aquatic & Wetlands Plants
Brazilian waterweed (Egeria densa)
Eurasian water-milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum)
Giant salvinia (Salvinia molesta)
Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata)
Melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia)
Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria)
Water chestnut (Trapa natans)
Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)
Aquatic & Wetlands Animals
Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus)
Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus)
Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana)
Eurasian ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus)
European green crab (Carcinus maenas)
Nutria (Myocastor coypus)
Round goby (Neogobius melanostomus)
Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)
Veined rapa whelk (Rapana venosa)
Zebra mussel (Dreissenia polymorpha)

Fowlpox (Avipoxvirus)
West Nile virus (Flavivirus)

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