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• 時間:c. 850 B.C.? 與 c. 750 B.C.?
• 地點:地中海 (the Mediterranean Sea) 四周

• 民族:the Greeks and the Jews
• 語言:Hellenic (古希腊語),Hebrew (古閃族語)

• 文類:mythological (神話的),religious (宗教的)
• 代表作:the Homeric epics (荷馬的史詩),
      The Bible (聖經)
      What is an epic (史詩)?
• It is an extended narrative poem, exalted
  in style and heroic in theme.
  early or primary epics vs. literary epics
  Epic conventions: invocation, in medias
  res (in the middle of things), hero’s notable
  deeds (descent into the underworld), etc.
  E.g.: Iliad, Odyssey, Beowulf; Aeneid,
         Paradise Lost
  荷馬的史詩 Homer’s Epics:
• 作品:The Iliad (伊里亞德) &
     The Odyssey (奧迪賽)
• 內容:the Trojan War (c. 1200 B.C.)
        Iliad: for Ilios (Troy) or for Helen
        Odyssey: Odysseus’ homeward wanderings
• 趣事:a. The Golden Apple: “To the fairest”
            Peleus & Thetis, Eris (Discord)
            Hera, Athena, Aphrodite
    Zeus, Paris, Helen, Menelaus, Agamemnon
To   the   Fairest
• 趣事:b. Achilles’ Anger:
       Agamemnon, Chryseis, Apollo
       Briseis, Achilles, Patroclus,
       Hector, Priam
•    c. The Escape from Sirens:
       Odysseus and his men, the Sirens
       Filling ears with beeswax, tying to the mast
•    d. The Chaste Penelope:
        50 suitors, weaving a shroud,
        Telemachus, Odysseus’ bow
Achilles and Patroclus
Odysseus & the Sirens
Penelope & her Suitors
         聖經 (The Bible):
• 包括: the Old Testament,
     the New Testament (& the Apocrypha)
• 舊約:共 39 Books (篇) in 6 groups (類)
      written originally in Hebrew:
    History, Prophetic Books, Lyric Poetry
    Drama, Wisdom Literature, Tales
• 故事:Genesis: the creation of the world and
      man, the fall of Adam and Eve,
      Noah’s flood, the Tower of Babel
Tower of Babel
            聖經 (The Bible):
• Exodus: the escape by the Jews from their bondage in
           Egypt, led by Moses, crossing the Red Sea,
           wandering 40 years in the Sinai wilderness,
           reaching Canaan.
•   “The Book of Job” (drama): the problem of evil.
       Satan, God, Job, the Voice out of the Whirlwind
       theodicy (神義論)
•   “Jonah and the Whale” (tale):
       Jehovah wanted the prophet to preach in Nineveh.
       Rebelliousness & selfishness;
       universality & mercifulness of God.
Job suffering from boils
Moses & Tablet
             二源 即 二元:
• The Hellenic Tradition The Hebraic Tradition
  希腊的:神話的文化              希伯萊的:宗教的文化
  Mythological culture    Religious culture
  Polytheistic 多神         Monotheistic 單神
  Humanism 人文主義           Theism 神文主義
  Hedonism 享樂             Asceticism 禁慾
  For this world 今生      For the other world 來世
  Secular life 世俗生話      Divine life 神明生活
  Id (抑德) & Ego (本我)     Super-ego (超我)
•   建築、雕刻:
•   繪畫、音樂:
•   戲劇、文學、電影:
•   日常生活:

• It’s a choice between Scylla and
• We are David and Jonathan.
Scylla and Charybdis
David and Jonathan

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