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Level II Orienteering Technical

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					Level II Orienteering Technical
                   1. Map Reading
Map Reading Basics

   Fold the map
   Lock the thumb
   Orient the body
   Many quick map glances
       1-2 seconds per glance
       Repeat several times
       Form an image in your mind
What is “Map Reading”
   Mental conversion between 2 Dimensions
    and 3 Dimensions
   What looks simple in 2D may be complex
    in 3D           What looks like a few groups of
                      trees will look like a forest when
                      viewed from control 12.

                      Once you get inside the
                      clumps of trees they will all
                      look the same.
Precision Map Reading
   Read all details
       Run slowly or walk
       Stop if necessary
       Map read ahead
       Run straight (narrow focus)
       Look for distinct features
            Open marsh
            Large boulder
            Open knoll
            Features that standout
             from common features
             around
            Run on top
Precision Map Reading
   Read all details
       Run slowly or walk
       Stop if necessary
       Map read ahead
       Run straight (narrow focus)
       Look for distinct features
            Open marsh
            Large boulder
            Open knoll
            Features that standout
             from common features
             around
            Run on top
Precision Map Reading
   Read all details
       Run slowly or walk
       Stop if necessary
       Map read ahead
       Run straight (narrow focus)
       Look for distinct features
            Open marsh
            Large boulder
            Open knoll
            Features that standout
             from common features
             around
            Run on top
Rough Map
Reading
    Simplify away small details
    Run fast
    Map read ahead
    Run straight (broad focus)
    Double check (error
     prevention)
    Look for distinct catching
     features
         Hills, slopes, valleys
         Open marshes
         Vegetation changes
         Large depressions
         Run on top
Rough Map
Reading
    Simplify away small details
    Run fast
    Map read ahead
    Run straight (broad focus)
    Double check (error
     prevention)
    Look for distinct catching
     features
         Hills, slopes, cliffs
         Open marshes
         Vegetation changes
         Large depressions
         Run on top
Map Reading Pitfalls
   Precision
       Map not oriented (wrong
        features read)
       Look too far ahead (open
        terrain)
       Micro parallel errors
       Run past (now map
        reading features 360o)
       Run too fast, lose contact
        and have to stop to
        relocate
Map Reading Pitfalls
   Rough
       Map not oriented
        (macro parallel errors)
       Look too close (slow
        speed)
       Run too fast (lose map
        contact, forced to slow
        down)
       Fail to double check
        (small error leads to
        large error)
Map Reading Golden Rules
   Precision                              Rough
       “Run only as fast as                   “Run only as fast as you
                                                know approximately
        you know exactly                        where you are on the map”
        where you are on the                         (You know which feature
        map”                                          you are on, which feature
            (Your thumb is locked                    is coming up but may not
                                                      know your exact location)
             on your current location
                                               Teds note: “This is still too dangerous
             and you know which                 for me, I prefer to know exactly at all
             feature is coming up.)             times as this prevents parallel errors
                                                and ‘losing map contact’ type errors”
Map Simplification
   How much information do I need to get
    from A to B
       Choices
          Direct compass, run really fast and pray
          Precision, read all details, run slowly and feel safe

          Balance of precision and rough map reading

       Depends on the map and terrain
       Depends on the route choice
       Depends on your abilities
Map Simplification (Terrain)
   Grassland (rolling
    hills)
       Vegetation/hill combo
       Ridge/depression
        combo

       Tend to use compass
        to get initial direction
Map Simplification (Terrain)
   Mixed Forest (rolling hills)
       Ridge/depression combo

       Tend to follow contour
        handrails with a compass
        to orient the map
Map Simplification (Terrain)
   Glaciated rocky forest
       Reentrants
       Ridges, slopes
       Cliffs (if downslope)
       Open marshes

       Tend to use rough
        compass bearings
        more
Map Simplification
Whitehorse (YT)
      River Valley glacial
       moraine
      Contour details
      No Rock
      South slopes are dry, north
       slopes thick, deadfall
      Balance 30% rough with
       70% precision map reading
      Compass bearing every leg
Map Reading Error Prevention
   Parallel Error
       Prevention: Redundant map checks (fast
        map glances)
       Prevention: If you are not sure, look for more
        clues that you are correct (catch an error
        early)
       Prevention: Look for possible parallel features
        (ie be aware before they bite you)
Map Reading Error Prevention
   Lose contact when Precision map reading
       Prevention: Redundant map checks (fast
        glances)
       Prevention: Map read features ahead
       Prevention: Beware of badly mapped features
       Prevention: Slow down at the Attack point to
        be sure
       Prevention: STOP when you lose contact -
        relocate
Map Reading Error Prevention
   Lose Contact when rough map reading
       Prevention: Map read ahead, anticipate
       Prevention: Beware of parallel features
       Prevention: Redundant map reading double
        check that the long feature you are on is the
        correct one (look for distinguishing features)
Map Reading Error Prevention
   Error: Stop too soon
       Prevention: Map read ahead to large distinct
        features as opposed to the “relocate when
        you reach a feature technique”.
       Prevention: Know the map scale
       Prevention: When map reading, ask yourself,
        “what features shall I see along the way?”
Map Reading Error Prevention
   Error: Run too far
       Prevention: See “Lose Map Contact” error
        prevention.
       Prevention: Know the map scale
       Prevention: When map reading, ask yourself,
        “what features shall I see along the way?”
Map Reading Error Causes
   Error: Lose map contact
       Cause: Run too fast for map reading ability
       Cause: Lose concentration, get distracted
       Cause: Multitude of mapmaker errors (it
        should take more than 1 error for you to lose
        map contact)
Map Reading Error Causes
   Error: Parallel error
       Cause: Map not folded or oriented
        properly
       Cause: Failed to perform redundancy checks
       Cause: Slight map errors that lead you astray
            (Remember to always double check)
       Cause: Lose concentration, distracted
Map Reading Training
   Line Orienteering
   Control picking
   Rough/Precision course (both)
   Map making (highly recommended)
   Concentration training (“put a watch on it”)
   Corridor orienteering is obsolete
Map Reading Training
   Line O
       Line shall follow intricate map
        and varying map details
       changes in direction (practice
        folding, thumbing)
       straight section (race situation)
       2-4 km in length
       Concentrate 100%
       Learn optimum speed
Map Reading Training
   Control Picking
       Many controls with or without flags/ribbons
       Small point features
       Very short legs and changes in direction
       Practice folding
       Thumbing
Map Reading Training
   Rough/Precision
       Long legs (rough map
        reading) followed by 3-4
        very short legs (detailed
        areas for precision map
        reading)
       Long legs shall be run as
        hard as possible
       Short legs shall be run
        slowly, carefully using
        precision map reading
Map Reading Training
   Map Making
       Best way to learn how to map read
       Spend several hours relocating
       Learn to judge distance
       Learn to orient the map and relate objects to each
        other spatially
       Earn money
       Learn how map makers interpret orienteering base
        maps
       Learn to respect map makers and their problems
Map Reading Training
   Concentration Course (Timed Control
    Picking)
       Time the session to introduce/simulate stress
       Practice redundancy checking, map reading
        ahead
       Use Control Picking style course
       Detailed area
       Difficult orienteering

				
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posted:12/26/2012
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