Life in the Outer Solar System by pptfiles


									Life in the Outer Solar System
Jupiter and Io Voyager 2, 1979

                     •   Ganymede’s

                     •   Io
Cassini 4-image Composite of
     Jupiter (2000 Flyby)
Solid rotation typifies the   Differential rotation typifies
terrestrial planets: Every    Jupiter: Particles at different
part of the object takes      locations in the fluid take
exactly the same time to      different lengths of time to
complete one rotation.        complete one rotation.
                                   Zones appear dark because
                                   their high-altitude clouds are

Belts appear bright
because we see to warmer
depths of the atmosphere.

                   The Great Red Spot (a region of
                   cool, high-altitude clouds)
                   appears dark.

             Infrared Image
                                  Winds on the north side of the
                                  Great Red Spot flow westward.

   Turbulence downwind of
   the Great Red Spot

Winds within the Great Red Spot
circulate counterclockwise.
                                  Winds on the south side of the
                                  Great Red Spot flow eastward.

              20,000 km           Earth’s Diameter
Galileo Probe Enters Jupiter
Jupiter’s Magnetosphere
Orbits of the Galilean Satellites

          Radius (RJ): Period (days):
       Io         5.9         1
       Europa     9.4         2
       Ganymede   15          4
       Callisto   26.3        9.43
Relative Sizes and Distances
        from Jupiter
Voyager 1—February 1979
Voyager Mosaic Image of Io
 Except for these areas–not seen by Voyager
 Io Anomaly Discovery—Voyager
        1 March 8,1979
   What’s this?

…an unknown
moon behind Io???

Volcanoes of Io
   Galileo composite Image—1996

Side of Io facing Jupiter
Infrared Glow from Active Volcanoes
                   Io Torus

                Forget Io!

5 Million Amps of Current flows between Jupiter and Io!
Europa—Voyager 1 1979
Galileo Sept 19, 2003—False
Color Infrared and Visible
  Triple Bands
Formed when crust fractures
• Ridges separate and darken
• Water oozes up and freezes when another fracture occurs
Interior of Europa
Europa, the second Galilean moon of Jupiter,
might contain simple organic life that could have
evolved _________.

        1) in its atmosphere
        2) in its liquid ethane oceans
        3) in its tidal pools
        4) in the liquid water that likely exists under
           its thin, cracked crust
        5) nowhere on Europa --- organic life is
           impossible there since it is so cold
            Saturn from Voyager                    Titan

       Enceladus                 We’ll look here


   Enceladus               Enceladus’ Surface

• Almost 100% reflective
                           • Geological resurfacing—
• Areas where no craters     liquid interior?
Ejection from Enceladus

• 2nd largest moon in Solar System—larger than Mercury and Pluto

• Why so smoggy?
Interpreting Titan’s Spectrum
   Titan Haze

Titan's air is predominantly made up of nitrogen with other
hydrocarbon elements which give Titan its orange hue. These
hydrocarbon rich elements are the building blocks for amino acids
necessary for the formation of life. Titan's environment may be
similar to that of the Earth's before life began putting oxygen into
the atmosphere.
Huygens Probe at ESA
Descent of Huygens Probe
   Titan’s Lakes

   Huygens image—visible light

Cassini image—infrared

North Pole lakes—
Larger than Lake Superior
Titan’s River Channels and Coastline

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