Teacher instructional guide Chemistry Grade 12 GCE AL

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Teacher instructional guide Chemistry Grade 12 GCE AL Powered By Docstoc
					       ridhk úoHdj
           12 jk fYa%Ksh



         .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yh
      ^2009 jif¾ isg ls%hd;aul fõ&




úoHd" fi!LH yd YdÍßl wOHdmk fomd¾;fïka;=j
            úoHd yd ;dlaIK mSGh
           cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh



                 i
ridhk úoHdj
12 jk fYa%Ksh




.=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yh
^2009 jif¾ isg ls%hd;aul fõ&




© cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh



m%:u uqo%Kh - 2009




úoHd" fi!LH yd YdÍßl wOHdmk fomd¾;fïka;=j
cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh




uqo%Kh -




                               ii
wOHCI ckrd,a;=udf.a mKsúvh

  j¾I 2007 § 6 iy 10 hk fYa%Ksj,g y÷kajd fok ,o ksmqK;d mdol bf.kqï
  b.ekaùï m%fõYh l%ufhka jißka jir 7" 8" yd 11 hk fYa%Ksj, úIh ud,dj
  iïnkaOfhka o fhdod .kakd ,o w;r 2009 jif¾§ th w'fmd'i^W$fm<& mka;sj,g
  wod< úIhud,dj iïkaOfhka o jHdma; lsÍug cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kfha úIhud,d
  iïmdoljreka iu;a ù ;sfí' tuksid 12 iy 13 jk fYa%Ks j, úúO úIh yd wod<
  úIh ks¾foaY o .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%y o isiqka ;=< m%.=K l<hq;= ksmqK;d o
     q              s
  ksmK;d uÜgï o ms<n| iúia;rd;aul f;dr;=re bÈßm;a fldg ;sfí' fuu f;dr;=re
  ;u úIh yd wod< bf.kqï - b.ekaùï wjia:d iïmdokfha § .=rejrekag uy;afia
  m%fhdackj;ajkq we;'


  w'fmd'i ^W'fm<& úIh i|yd .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%y ilia lsÍfï § úIhud,d
  iïmdoljreka úiska lksIaG oaú;Shsl úIhud,dj yd fcHIaG oaú;Shsl ^10" 11 fYa%Ks&
  úIhud,dj ilik úg wkq.ukh fldg we;s m%fõYhg jvd fjkia jQ m%fõYhla
  wkq.ukh fldg we;s nj i|yka lrkq leue;af;ñ' 6" 7" 8" 9" 10 yd 11 hk fYA%Ksj,
  § úIh lreKq b.ekaùfï § wkq.ukh l<hq;= bf.kqï yd b.ekaùï m%fõY
  iïnkaOfhka .=rejreka wNsu; wdlD;shlg fhduq lrk ,o uq;a w'fmd'i^W'fm<&
  úIh ks¾foaY yd .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%y iïmdokfha § .=rejrekag ;u wNsu;h
  mßÈ ls%hdlsÍug;a m%Yia; ksoyila N=la;s ú§ug;a bv m%ia:dj i,id ;sfí' fuu
  ;,fha § .=rejrhdf.ka wfmaCId lrkqfha ta ta úIh tallhg fyda mdvug kshñ;
  ksmqK;d iy ksmqK;d uÜgï j¾Okh lsÍu msKsi fhdað; bf.kqï l%uj,ska ;uka
  wNsu; b.ekakqï l%uhla fhdod .ekSu h' ;uka fhdod .kakd b.ekakqï m%fõYh
  i;=gqodhl yd ld¾hlaIu f,i fhdod .ksñka wfmalaIs; ksmqK;d yd ksmqK;d uÜgï
  <`.d lr .ekSu .=rejreka úiska fkdmsßfy<d bgq lrkq ,eìh hq;= h' fuu ksoyi
  .=rejrekag ,nd §ug ;SrKh lrk ,oafoa w'fmd'i ^W'fm<& úNd.fha we;s jeo.;alu
  iy tu úNd.h flfrys wOHdmk moaO;sfha ish¨ u wh olajk ixfõ§ nj ie,ls,,g    a
  f.k nj igyka lrkq leue;af;ñ'


  fuu .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yh .=rejreka yg udye`.s w;afmd;la fõjd hs m%d¾:kh
  lrñ' wfma orejkaf.a keKei mdokakg fuu .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yfha we;s
  f;dr;=re l%ufõo iy Wmfoia wmf.a .=rejrekag ksis u`. fmkaùula lrkq we;ehs
  wfmaCId lrñ'


  uydpd¾h ,d,a fmf¾rd
  wOHlaI ckrd,a
  cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh'

                                   iii
                                    ix{dmkh

okakd foa mj;ajd f.k hdug yd mQ¾jfhka ;SrKh lrk ,o foa bf.kSug ld,hla ;siafia
lghq;= lsrSu ksid" mj;sk foa kej; f.dv keÕSug mjd wo wmg yelshdj we;af;a iq¿
jYfhks' mdi,a uÜgfï bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdj,sfha uyd mßudK fjkila we;s lrñka
fodrg jäk fuu oaú;shsl wOHdmkh ms<sn| kj iyY%lfha m<uq jk úIhud,d
m%;sixialrKh" tlS fkdyelshdj ch .ekSu i|yd lghq;= lrk w;r okakd foa
ixialrKhg;a" mQ¾jfhka ;SrKh fkdl< foa .fõIKhg;a" fyg mej;sh yels foa
f.dvkeÕSug;a yelshdj we;s rgg jevodhS mqrjeis msßila ìys lsÍu wruqKq fldg y÷kajd
oS ;sfí'

Tn 6-11 fY%aKsj, fuu úIhh u fyda fjk;a úIhhla fyda W.kajk .=re Nj;l= kï
w'fmd'i' ^W'fm<& i|yd;a ie,lsh hq;= uÜgulska wfmalaId lrk kj bf.kqï-b.ekaùï
l%u ms<sfj;aj,g wkq.; ùu jvd;a myiq jkq we;' ta ta ksmqK;d Tiafia ksmqK;d uÜgï
                                         s                                 s
y÷kd .ksñka tajd idlaId;alrKhg iqÿiq l%hdldrlï ie,iqï lr .ekSu fï m%;ixialrKh
hgf;a jeo.;a fjhs' bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh ;=< .=rejrhd fï ;dla biau;= l<
l%ums<sfj;a j¾;udkhg fkd.e<fmk nj;a" isiqka ;ks ;ks j bf.k .kakjdg jvd
w;aoelSï fnodyod .ksñka iyfhda.fhka bf.kSu w¾:j;a nj;a kj N+ñldjlg msúfik
.=re Nj;=ka f;areï .; hq;= fjhs' ta wkqj .=rejrhd miqmiska isáñka" YsIHhd bosßhg f.k
tk bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%u yels ;dla f;dard .ksñka b.ekaùu kj uÕlg f.k taug
lghq;= lsÍu fuys oS wfmalaId flf¾'

oaú;shsl wOHdmk úIud,d m%;sixialrKh hgf;a cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh úiska 6-11
fY%aKsj, .Ks;h" úoHdj" fi!LHh yd YdÍßl wOHdmkh" ;dlaIKh yd jdKsc úoHdj hk
úIhhkag wod< j iïmdokh lrk ,o .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%y mßYS,kh l< fyd;a YsIH
flakaøSh" ksmqK;d mdol yd l%shdldrlï fmrgq lr .;a bf.kqu yd b.ekaùu ms<sn|
meyeos,s woyila Tng ,efnkq we;' fï .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%y uÕska bosßm;a lrkq
,nk l%shdldrlï W;aidy .kafka bf.kqu" b.ekaùu yd we.hSu tl u fõosldjla u;g
f.k taughs' tfia u 5E wdlD;sh mokï lr .ksñka o iyfhda.S bf.kqï ^Co-operative
Learning& l%ums<sfj;a fhdod .ksñka o fuf;la fidhd f.k we;s foa kej; f.dvkÕñka
bka Tíng f.dia kj ksmehqï ìys lrñka Wodjk fyg oskhg l,a we;s j iQodkï ùug;a
fï l%shdldrlï YsIHhdg bv i,id fokq we;'

ks¾udKYS,S .=re mrmqrla ìys lsÍfï wruqKska b.ekaùï l%shdj,shg wod< l%shdldrlï
ika;;sfhka f;dard .;a l%shdldrlï lsysmhla muKla w'fmd'i' ^W'fm<& .=re ud¾f.damfoaY
ix.%yhkag we;=<;a lr ;sfí' tfy;a imhd we;s wdo¾Y l%shdldrlï mßYS,kfhka o
w'fmd'i' ^idfm<& m%;sixialrKh mokï lr .;a uQ,O¾u ms<sn| wjfndaOh jeä oshqKq lr
.ksñka o úIhhg yd mka;shg .e<fmk mßos l%shdldrlï ie,iqï lr .ekSfï úYd,
ksoyila Tng we;' fï .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yhg we;=<;a wdo¾Y l%shdldrlï isõ wdldr
jQ f;dr;=re iuQyhla Tng imhhs' iEu l%shdldrlula wdrïNfha u Tn olskafka tu
l%shdldrlu Tiafia YsIHhd f.k hdug n,dfmdfrd;a;= jk wjidk b,lalhhs' ksmqK;dj
hkqfjka kï lr we;s fuh mq¿,a h' oS¾> ld,Sk h' B<Õg i|yka ksmqK;d uÜgu fuu
ksmqK;dj fj; <Õd ùu i|yd isiqka úiska idlaId;a lr .; hq;= úúO yelshdj,ska tla
                                                      q                   q
yelshdjla muKla biau;= lrhs' fï wkqj n,k l, ta ta ksmK;d uÜgu wod< ksmK;djg

                                     iv
jvd iqúfYaIS h' flá ld,Sk h' B<Õg we;af;a wod< l%shdldrlu wjidkfha .=re Nj;d
ksÍlaIKh lsÍug n,dfmdfrd;a;= jk p¾hd lsysmhls' .=re isiq fomd¾Yjhg u nrla
fkdjk fia fï p¾hd .Kk mylg iSud lsÍug W;aidy ord ;sfí' bf.kqï M, jYfhka
y÷kajd we;s fï p¾hd ksmqK;d uÜgug jvd iqúfYaI jk w;r úIh lreKq mokï lr .;a
yelshd ;=klska o bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdj,sfhka u;= lr .kakd fmdÿ yelshd follska o
iukaú; fjhs' úIh yelshd ;=k ÿIalr;d wkqms<sfj,ska fm< .iajd we;s w;r wvq ;rñka
m<uq folj;a idlaId;a lr .ekSu i|yd mka;sfha iEu isiqjl= u bf.kqï-b.ekaùï
l%shdldrlfï yoj; f,i ie,flk .fõIKh fj; fhduqlr .ekSug .=re Nj;d lghq;=
l< hq;= wdldrh l%shdldrlfï ó<Õ fldgiska bosßm;a lr ;sfí' kshqla;slrKh ^Engage-
ment& kï jk tlS mshjfrka iEu l%shdldrlula u wdrïN jqj o l%shdldrlï ie,iqï lsÍu
wdrïN jkafka 5E wdlD;sfha fojk "E" wl=rg wod< .fõIKfhka nj Tn wu;l fkdl<
hq;= h'

.fõIKhg ^Exploration& uÕ fmkajk Wmfoia wdo¾Y l%shdldrlïj, B<Õ fldgihs'
.eg¨fõ úúO me;sj,ska ;u lKavdhug ,efnk me;a; muKla .fõIKfhka bf.kqug
fhduqjk isiqka" bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%u rdYshla Tiafia wod< wka; fj; f.k hdu i|yd
.=rejrhd fï Wmfoia fm< .iajhs' m%Yak Tiafia isÿ lrkq ,nk úu¾Ykd;aul wOHhk
^Inquiry-based Learning& fyda l%shdfjka bf.kqug uÕ mdok w;aoelSï mdol bf.kqu ^Ex-
periential Learning& fyda f;dard .ekSug fuys oS .=re Nj;dg ksoyi ;sfí' by; lskï
wdldrfhka fyda isiqka ,nk oekqu mdol lr .ksñka úIhhg iqúfYaIS jQ fyda úIhud,dfõ
úIh lsysmhla yryd osfjk fyda .eg¨ úi|Su i|yd Tjqka fhduq lr .ekSu w'fmd'i'
^W'fm<& úIh .=re Nj;=kaf.a j.lSu fjhs'

fujka .eg¨ mdol bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%u Ôú; h:d¾: mokï lr f.k ie,iqï lsÍu
w¾:j;a h' u;fNaohg ;=vq oS we;s ;;a;aj" Wml,ams; ;;a;aj" iudka;r woyia fuka u
m%d:ñl uQ,dY% fï i|yd fhdod .ekSug Tng ksoyi ;sfí' lsheùu" f;dr;=re tla/ia lsÍu
yd l<ukdlrKh" m%;HfõlaIKh" ksÍlaIKh" idlÉPd lsÍu" l,ams; f.dvkeÕSu yd
mÍlaId lsÍu" mqfrdal:k mÍlaId lsÍu" m%Yak yd ms<s;=re ilia lsÍu" iurEmKh" .eg¨
úi|Su yd fi!kao¾hd;aul ld¾h wdosh .fõIKh i|yd fhdod .; yels l%uYs,am lsysmhls'
hdka;%sl bf.kqula fia ie,flk lgmdvï lsÍu jqj o fkdjeo.;a hehs wu;l lr oeóug
fuys oS bv ;nd ke;'

isiqyq l=vd lKavdhï jYfhka .fõIKfha fhfo;s' .=re Nj;d i;= oekqu neyeßka ,nkq
fjkqjg .=re iydh ,nd .ksñka oekqu yd wjfndaOh f.dvkÕ;s' lKavdhfï fiiq wh
iuÕ woyia yqjudre lr .ksñka fidhd .;a oekqu jeä oshqKq lr;s' fï ish,a, m%Yia:
uÜgñka isÿjkafka isiqkag wjYH lshùï øjH yd fhojqï imhd oSug .=re Nj;d bosßm;a
jqjfyd;a h' tfia u <uqka bf.kSfuys fhfok uq¿ ld,h mqrd u lKavdhï w;r .ejfiñka
bf.kqu i|yd <uqkag iydh jqjfyd;a h' fun÷ bf.kqï m%fõYhl oS wkdjrKh uQ,sl
jQj o" th ksoyia wkdjrKhla fkdjk nj;a uÕfmkajk wkdjrKhla ^guided discovery&
nj;a Tn f;areï .; hq;= fjhs' .=re Nj;df.ka fuka u iu jhia lKavdhfuka o
fmdaIKh fjñka fufia bf.k .kakd isiqkag Ôú;h i|yd jeo.;a w;aoelSï /ila u
,efnk nj wuq;=fjka lsj hq;= ke;'

      .fõIKfhka miq j t<fUkafka újrK ^Explanation& wjia:djhs' fuys oS l=vd

                                    v
lKavdhï iQodkï jkafka iajlSh wkdjrK iduQyslj;a" ks¾udKYS,Sj;a iuia; lKavdhug
bosßm;a lsÍughs' bosßm;a lsÍu ms<sn| j.lSu lKavdhfï ish¨ fokd w;r iu fia fnoS
                                                   q a
;sîu;a bosßm;a lsÍu i|yd kjH l%u f;dard .ekSug isikg we;s ksoyi;a fuys úfYaI;ajhhs'
bka wk;=re j t<fUk úia;drK ^Elaboration& mshjf¾ oS wmeyeos,s foa meyeos,s lsÍug"
idjoH foa ksjeros lsÍug" .s,syqKq foa iïmQ¾K lsÍug isiqkag bv ,efí' tfia u oekgu;a
okakd fohska neyerg hñka w¨;a u woyia bosßm;a lsÍug jqj o isiqkag wjldY we;' iEu
l%shdldrlula u wjika jkafka .=rejrhd bosßm;a lrk flá foaYkhlsks' iïfm%aIK
N+ñldj fj; hdug fuh .=re Nj;dg bv i,id fok w;r wjOdkhg ,la j ;sfnk
ksmqK;d uÜgu hgf;a úIh ks¾foaYh uÕska y÷kajd oS ;sfnk ish¨ u jeo.;a lreKq
wdjrKh jk mßos fï foaYkh meje;aùug .=re Nj;d j. n,d .; hq;= fjhs' iEu .=re
Nj;l= u wksjd¾hfhka l< hq;= fï úia;drKhg uÕ fmkaùu i|yd ta ta l%shdldrlï
ie,eiafï wjidk fldgfia ie,iqï lr ;sfí'

idudkH wOHdmk moaO;sh ;=< wo oDYHudk jk .eg¨ ch .ekSu i|yd .kqfokqjlska
                                                           s           a
wdrïN ù oS¾> .fõIKhla" isiq újrK yd úia;drK fm<la yd iudma;l .=re iïfm%IKhlska
ieÿï ,;a mßKduk .=re N+ñldjlska iukaú; kj wOHdmk l%uhla fufia moaO;shg
                                                             q
y÷kajd oSug cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh lghq;= lr we;' .=re Nj;d m%uL j lrk b.ekaùula
fjkqjg .=re uÕ fmkaùï hgf;a isiqka ksr; jk bf.kqula f,i fuh ye|skaúh yels h'
isiqyq lsheùï øjH mßYS,kh lrñka o .=Kd;aul fhojqï Ndú; lrñka o .fõIKfha
fhfo;s' oskm;d mdi,a meñfKñka m%S;sfhka W.ks;s' Ôú;hg yd jev f,dalhg wjYH
ksmqK;d /ila u mdi,a wOHdmkh yryd idlaId;a lr .ks;s' Ñka;k yelshd" iudc
yelshd yd mqoa., yelshd jvjd .ksñka cd;sh f.dv keÕSu i|yd iQodkï fj;s' fï
ish,af,a id¾:l;ajh i|yd wdo¾Y m%Yakj,g ms<s;=re ,shñka u;lfha r|jd .;a oekqu
úuid n,k úNd. l%uhla fjkqjg ðú; h:d¾:hkag uqyqK oSug YsIHhd i;= iQodku
fidhd n,k úNd. l%uhl wjYH;dj lemS fmfka'

fuu bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdj,sfha lemS ffmkk ,laIKhla jkafka l%shdldrlu mqrd u
osfjk fohdldr jQ o w¾:dkaú; jQ owe.hSï ^Evaluation& l%shdj,shhs' kshqla;lrKh o .=re
wNsu;h mßos fmr oekqu iïnkaO we.hSula i|yd fhdod .; yels h' tfia u .fõIKh;a"
újrKh;a" úia;drKh;a ;=<ska we.hSu Yla;su;a lr .ekSu m%ùK .=re Nj;l=f.a j.lSu
fjhs' ,sÅ; mÍlaIK wju lrñka mdi,a mdol we.hSï jevms<sfjf<a h:d¾:jdoS iajNdjh
/l.ekSu i|yd;a" jdr mÍlaIK i|yd wksjd¾h m%Yak we;=<;a lrñka mdi,a mdol we.hSï
jevms<sfj< fj; mdi,a msßia keUqre lr .ekSu i|yd;a" bf.kqfï kshu M, idlaId;a lr
.;a nj lshefjk iq;;H we.hSï ^Authentic Evaluations& jevms<sfj<la rgg y÷kajd oSu
i|yd;a lghq;= rdYshla oekgu;a cd;sl uÜgfuka wdrïN ù ;sfí' l<ukdlrK md¾Yajfha
ukd WmfoaYk kdhl;ajh yd ;;a;aj iy;sl lsÍfï j.lSu hgf;a fï kj jevms<sfj<
id¾:l lr .ksñka w¨;a Y%S ,xldjla i|yd fodrgq újD; lsÍu rfÜ hym; m;k ish¨
fokdf.a u ifudaOdksl j.lSu fjhs'

foaYudkH wdpd¾h whs' t,a' .sksf.a
iyldr wOHlaI ckrd,a ^úIhud,d ixj¾Ok&
úoHd yd ;dlaIK mSGh
cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh



                                     vi
WmfoaYkh (           uydpd¾h ,d,a fmf¾rd            -       wOHlaI ckrd,a
                                                            cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh'
                     wdpd¾h whs' t,a' .sksf.a       -       iyldr wOHlaI ckrd,a
                                                            cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh'

wëCIKh       (       iS' tï' wd¾' weka;ks uy;d      -       wOHlaI ^úoHd" fi!LH yd
                                                            YdÍßl wOHdmk &
                                                            cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh'

úIh iïnkaëlrKh( ta' ã' ta' o is,ajd uy;d                -   jHdmD;s lKavdhï kdhl
                                                            ^ridhk úoHdj&
                                                            jHdmD;s ks,OdÍ
                                                            cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh'
úIhud,d lñgqj (
   wNHka;r
      iS' tï' wd¾' weka;ks uy;d             -       wOHlaI ^úoHd" fi!LH yd
                                                    YdÍßl wOHdmk &
                                                    cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh'
      ta' ã' ta' o is,ajd uy;d                  -   jHdmD;s lKavdhï kdhl
                                                    ^ridhk úoHdj&
                                                    jHdmD;s ks,OdÍ
      ví' ta' iqu;smd, uy;d                 -       jHdmD;s ks,OdÍ
      t,a' fla' jvqf.a uy;d                 -       jHdmD;s ks,OdÍ
      ud,skS rd.jpdß ñh                     -       jHdmD;s ks,OdÍ

   ndysr
      uydpd¾h tÉ' ã' .=Kj¾Ok                -       fld<U úYaj úoHd,h
      uydpd¾h ví' ã' ví' ch;s,l             -       Y%S chj¾Okmqr úYaj úoHd,h
      uydpd¾h tia' mS' oerKsh.,             -       Y%S chj¾Okmqr úYaj úoHd,h
      uydpd¾h wð;a wfífialr                 -       Y%S chj¾Okmqr úYaj úoHd,h
      uydpd¾h lu,a nKavdr .=Kfyar;a         -       Y%S ,xld újD; úYaj úoHd,h
      uydpd¾h iql=u,S úu,fiak               -       le<Ksh úYaj úoHd,h
      wdpd¾h fla' ta' tia' m;sr;ak          -       le<Ksh úYaj úoHd,h
      wdpd¾h iqoka; ,shkf.a                 -       Y%S chj¾Okmqr úYaj úoHd,h
      wdpd¾h cks;d ,shkf.a                  -       le<Ksh úYaj úoHd,h
      wdpd¾h c.;a fm%aupkaø                 -       fudrgqj úYaj úoHd,h
      moaud fmdkakïfmreu ñh                 -       uyskao úoHd,h" .d,a,'
      wdkkao w;=fldar< uhd                  -       foaú nd,sld úoHd,h" fnd/,a,'
      iS' ã' úfÊ.=Kisxy ñh                  -       úYdLd úoHd,h" fld<U 4'
      hQ' mS' isßmd, uhd                    -       uOH uyd úoHd,h" weye,shf.dv'
      uqos;d lrúg ñh                        -       uOH uyd úoHd,h" wkqrdOmqr'
      tï' î' rkankavd uhd                   -       iqux., úoHd,h" jdßhfmd,'
      tÉ' Ô' ta' whsrdx.kS ñh               -       iqcd;d úoHd,h" ud;r'
      tka' tia' nd,fudayka uhd              -       l,dm wOHdmk ld¾hd,h" yegka'
      tia' fõ¨ms,af,a fukúh                 -       yskaÿ úoHd,h" fld<U 4'
      tia' ;sf,hskdoka uhd                  -       yskaÿ ldka;d úoHd,h" fld<U 6'
      Ysfrdaó uqksodi ñh                    -       hym;a tfârdf.a lkHdrduh"
                                                    kdhllkao'
                                      vii
     wd¾' tka' à' nKavdr uhd            -   O¾urdc úoHd,h" uykqjr'
     mS' Ô' tia' fmruqK uhd             -       a
                                            mskkj, uOH uyd úoHd,h" rUqllk a
     nkaÿ, rKisxy uhd                   -   fjia,s úoHd,h" fnd/,a,'
     iS' tka' ta' fmf¾rd fukúh          -   foaúnd,sld úoHd,h" fnd/,a,'
     tï' tka' tia' chiQßh ñh            -   u,shfoaj nd,sld úoHd,h" l=reKE.,'
     B' ù' mS' O¾ujxY ñh                -   idka; mdjq`M úoHd,h" ñ,d.sßh'
     Nød o is,ajd ñh                    -   idka; mdjq`M úoHd,h" ñ,d.sßh'


msgljr ks¾udKh                          -   wd¾' wd¾' fla' m;srK ñh
                                            cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh'


mß.Kl ieliSu                            -   wd¾' wd¾' fla' m;srK ñh
                                            cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh'
                                            wd¾' ta' ã' whs' oikdhl ñh
                                            cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh'

fjí wvúh                                -   www.nie.lk

úúO iydh                                -   ux., je,smsáh uhd
                                            cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh'
                                            moaud ùrj¾Ok ñh
                                            rxð;a ohdjxY uhd
                                            cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh'




                                 viii
                            mgqk

                                                msgqj

1'0   wOHCI ckrd,a;=udf.a mKsúvh                 ii

2'0   ix{dmkh                                    iii

3.0   iïm;a odhl;ajh                             iv

4'0   bf.kqïM, yd fhdað; bf.kqï - b.ekaùï        1 - 144

      l%shdldrlï

5'0   mdi, mokï lr.;a ;lafiarelrKh - ye|skaùu    145

6'0   we.hSï ie,iqï                              147




                            ix
ksmqK;dj 1'0             ( mod¾:fha iajNdjh ks¾Kh lsÍu i|yd bf,lafg%dksl
                             ieleiau" bf,lafg%dksl wka;¾l%shd yd Yla;s yqjudre fhdod
                                 s
                             .ksh'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 1'1         ( mrudKql jHQyh ms<sn| wdlD;s úuiqug ,la lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                  ( 05 hs'

bf.kqï M,                (

       ² mod¾:fha úoHq;a iajNdjh ;yjqre lsÍu i|yd wod< mÍlaIKd;aul f;dr;=re
          úia;r lrhs'
       ² WmmrudKq wxY=" iuia:dksl yd úlsrKYS,;dj ms<sn| f;dr;=re bosßm;a lrhs'
       ² mrudKql wdlD;s ixikaokd;aul j úuid n,hs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (

       ² mod¾:fha úoHq;a iajNdjh ms<sn| idlaIH
         ² msßueoSu jeks l%u u`.ska úúO mod¾: u; iaÓ;s úoHq;a wdfrdamK we;s l<
               yels ùu
          ² ndysr úoHq;a Odrdjla iemhSfuka hï mod¾:hla fjk;a mod¾:hla njg
               m;a l< yels ùu ^úoHq;a úÉfþokh&
                                        s
          ² mod¾:j, isÿ jk fjkia ùï wdY%; j úoHq;h ckkh ùu ^ir, fldaIh$úh<s
           fldaI&
       ² WmmrudKql wxY= ms<sn| f;dr;=re iuyrla



                                                             a
                                            bf,lafg%dakh fm%dfgdakh             q a
                                                                             kshfg%dkh

          wxY=fõ ixfla;h                            e             p             n

          wxY=fõ ialkaOh$kg                    9'107 × 10-31 1'6725 × 10-27 1'6742 × 10-27

          wxY=fõ idfmalaI ialkaOh                    1            1            1
                                                   1840
          wxY=fõ wdfrdamKh$C                   1'602 × 10-19 1'602 × 10-19     0
          wxY=fõ idfmalaI wfrdamKh                   -1           +1           0




                                           1
² iuia:dksl
  tl u mrudKq l%udxlh we;a;d jQ o fjkia ialkaO l%udxl we;a;d jQ o
  mrudKq tu uQ,øjHfha iuia:dksl f,i ye|ska fõ'

² kshqla,hsv
  hï ksYaÑ; fm%dafgdak ixLHdjla yd ksYaÑ; kshqfg%dak ixLHdjla iys;
  mrudKqjla" whkhla" kHIaáhla fyda ixfhdackh jQ mrudKqjla kshqla,hsvhla
  f,i ye|ska fõ'

                             kshqla,hsv j¾.h

      1' iajdNdúl j mj;akd ia:dhs kshqla,hsv
      2' iajdNdúl j mj;akd wia:dhs kshqla,hsv
      3' lD;%su úlsrKYS,s kshqla,hsv



² úlsrKYS,;dj
  kHIaáfha ia:dhs;dj Wfoid wia:dhs kHIaá úiska fyda wxY= úiska fyda úlsrK
  ksl=;a lsÍu úlsrKYS,;dj f,i ye|ska fõ'
                         úoHq;a fCIa;%h
                                                   ;srh È,siSfuka úlsrK
                                                   y÷kd .efka'
    úlsrKYS,S m%Njh
                                    γ               α lsrK
                                    β
                                                       lsrK



                                                       lsrK



             s
² mrudKqj ms<n| kHIaál wdlD;sh bosßm;aa lsÍug mokï jQ .hs.¾ iy udiavkaf.a
  mÍlaIKh

                                        f¾pkh lrk ,o
                                        úÿre n,anh
      ßla; fmdïmh
                                               ;=kS f,day ;yvqj
          - wxY= m%Njh
                                                  N%uK m%;s§ma; ;srh



                                                  N%uK wkaùlaIh
       f,â wdjrKh


                  wm.ukh jQ         -lsrK
                                    2
² .hs.¾ iy udiavkaf.a mÍlaIKfha oS ,;a ksÍlaIK meyeos,s lsÍu




                                                                 mrudKq



                                                               kHIaá
      wxY=


                                                           wm.ukh
                                                           jq  wxY=




² mrudKql wdlD;s
                              α
  ² f;dïika 'ma,ï mqäu' wdlD;sh

                                   bf,lafg%dak




                         Ok wdfrdams; f.da,h
  ² ro¾m'¾â mrudKql wdlD;sh




                                    kHIAáh

                                    bf,lafg%dak


                               3
         ² fnda¾ wdlD;sh




              fnda¾ wdlD;sh wkqj yhsârcka mrudKqfõ kHIaáh
                   yd bf,lafg%dak mj;sk m<uq ljp y;r


fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
      ² iaÓ;s úoHq;h" úoHq;a ridhksl fldaI iy úoHq;a úÉfþokh wdo¾Y lr
        fmkaùfuka mdvu wrUkak'
      ² mrudKqj ms<sn| f;dïika" ro¾m'â yd fnda¾ bosßm;a l< wdlD;s ms<sn|
        lKavdhï.; j idlÉPd lsÍug i,iajkak'
      ² tu wdlD;s ikaikaokd;aul j úuiqug ,la lrñka iuQy idlÉPdjla
        fufyhjkak'




                                     4
ksmqK;dj 1'0           ( mod¾:fha iajNdjh ks¾Kh lsÍu i|yd bf,lafg%dksl
                         ieleiau" bf,lafg%dksl wka;¾l%shd yd Yla;s yqjudre
                         fhdod .kshs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 1'2       ( mod¾:fha Yla;s yqjudre ks¾Kh lrkq msKsi úoHq;a pqïnl
                           lsrKj, úúO;ajh úYaf,aIKh lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                ( 05 hs'

bf.kqï M,              (
       ² ;rx.hl .=K úia;r flfrk rdYs kï lr tajd w;r in|;d m%ldY lrhs'
       ² úoHq;a pqïnl j¾Kdj,sfha úúO mrdi y÷kajd tu mrdij,g wh;a lsrKj,
         Ndú; i|yd ksoiqka imhhs'
       ² WÑ; Wml%u Ndú; lrñka oDYH mrdih ksÍlaIKh lr tys iajNdjh jd¾;d
         lrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
                                               λ
       ² ;rx. wdhuh      yd ixLHd;h jk
          úg úoHq;a pqïnl ;rx.hl m%fõ.h -
         C=
       ² úoHq;a pqïnl ;rx.hl Yla;sh -
         E= h                                                       oï
         fuys h hkq ksh;hls' th ma,dkala
         ksh;h kï fõ'                                               ks,a
         ma,dkala ksh;h } 6'624 × 10-34 J s
                                                                    fld<
          fu u`.ska
                                                                    ly

                                                                    ;eô,s
       ² ixLHd;h wdfrdayKh jk
          ms<sfj<g úoHq;a pqïnl ;rx. fm<                            r;=
          .eiaùfuka ,efnk igyk úoHq;a
          pqïnl j¾Kdj,sh fõ'




                                                   úoHq;a pqïnl j¾Kdj,sh

                                        5
       ² úoHq;a pqïNl j¾Kdj,sfha úúO mrdij,g wh;a lsrKj, m%fhdack
         ² f¾äfhda ;rx.     ( rEmjdyskS" .=jka úÿ,s udOH Tiafia ikaksfõok
                               lghq;= i|yd fhfoa'
         ² laIqø ;rx.        ( laIqø ;rx. W÷kaj, l%shdldÍ;ajh fu u`.ska isÿ fõ'
                               j¾Kdj,SlaI l%u uÕska flfrk úYaf,aIK
                               lghq;=j, oS fhfoa'
         ² wfOdarla; ;rx.    ( fN!; Ñls;ail m%;sldr lghq;=j, oS fhfoa' ÿria:
                               md,l ix{d ksl=;a lsÍfï oS yd j¾Kdj,SlaI l%u
                               u`.ska flfrk úYaf,aIK lghq;=j, oS Ndú; flf¾'
         ² oDYH ;rx.         ( oDIaáh" PdhdrEm Ys,amh fuu mrdifha ;rx. weiqßka
                               isÿ fõ' j¾Kñ;sl úYaf,aIKfha oS fhfoa'
         ² mdrcïnq, ;rx.     ( úIîc keiSug" uqo,a fkdaÜgq wdosfha fhdod we;s ryiH
                               ixfla; lshùug fhfoa' j¾Kdj,SlaI úYaf,aIKj,
                               oS Ndú; flf¾'
         ² X - lsrK          ( X lsrK PdhdrEm .ekSu yd iaMál wdosfha jHqy
                               yeoEÍfï oS Ndú; flf¾'
         ² γ - lsrK          ( ms<sld i|yd m%;sldr lsÍfï oS Ndú; flf¾'

fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
       ² m%siauhla wdOdrfhka iqÿ wdf,dal loïnhla úfNaokh ùug i,iajd ;srhla
         u;g ,nd .kak' tys j¾K úfNaokh ù we;s wdldrh ksÍlaIKh lsÍu i|yd
         isiqkag wjia:dj ,nd fokak'
       ² úoHq;a pqïNl j¾Kdj,sfha úúO mrdij,g wh;a lsrKj, Ndú; fidhd n,d
         meñfKk f,i isiqkag mQ¾jfhka oekqï fokak'
       ² tla tla mrdifha m%fhdack l=vd lKavdhï ,jd iuia; mka;shg bosßm;a
         lrjkak'




                                      6
ksmqK;dj 1'0          ( mod¾:fha iajNdjh ks¾Kh lsÍu i|yd bf,lafg%dksl
                        ieleiau" bf,lafg%dksl wka;¾l%shd yd Yla;s yqjudre
                        fhdod .kshs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 1'3      ( mrudKqj, bf,lafg%daksl Yla;s uÜgï ms<sn| idlaIH
                          úYaf,aIKh lrhs'

ld,Éfþo               ( 08 hs'

bf.kqï M,             (
       ² wkqhd; whkSlrK Yla;s m%ia;dr weiqßka mrudKqj, bf,lafg%dak m%Odk Yla;s
          uÜgïj, yd Wm uÜgïj, meje;au ms<sn| j idlaIH bosßm;a lrhs'
       ² mrudKql yhsârcka j¾Kdj,sfha f¾Ld fY%aKs fnda¾ wdlD;sh uÕska .=Kd;aul
         j meyeos,s lrhs'
       ² hï mrudKqjl msysá bf,lafg%dakhl wkkH;dj Bg wod< lafjdkagï wxl
         l=,lfhka úia;r jk nj m%ldY lrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
                    s                                                    a
       ² ldnka" Tlaicka yd fmdia*ria hk uq,øjHj, wkqhd; whkSlrK Yla;s m%i;drh




                            k




       ² fuu uQ,øjHj, mj;sk ish¨ u wkqhd; whkSlrK Yla;Ska rEmfha fmkajd
                                                                  a
          we;' tu wkqhd; whkSlrK Yla;s .Kk mrudKqfõ we;s bf,lafg%dk .Kkg
          iudk fõ' wkqhd; whkSlrK Yla;sfha laIKsl jeä ùï flfrys wjOdkh
          fhduq l< úg bf,lafg%dak ldKav jYfhka úúO Yla;s uÜgïj, msysgd we;s
          nj ;yjqre fõ'


                                        7
          ² wjfYdaIK j¾Kdj,sh

wdf,dal    ' '            isyska isÿre
 lïnh        ' '          iys; ;yvq                                          s a
                                                                           m%iuh
           ' '' '
            ' ''


          ksheÈh
                                                                                             wika;;sl j¾Kdj,sh




          ² úfudapk j¾Kdj,sh

                                 isyska isÿre
                                 iys; ;yvq
                                                                              s a
                                                                            m%iuh
 W;af;að; wjia:dfõ
 mj;sk jdhq ksheosh




                                                                                             f¾Ld j¾Kdj,sh




          ² yhsârcka ys úfudapk j¾Kdj,sfha f¾Ld we;s jk wkaou meyeos,s lsÍu

                    n=5
                    n=4
                    n=3
                                                   l=656 nm
                                        l=486 nm
                             l=434 nm




                                                              ndu¾
                                                                 a s
                                                              fY%Kh
                n=2




                ,hsudka
                   a s
                fY%Kh            400                              500                600               700
                                                                            ;rx. wdhduh$nm




                    n=1


                                                                       8
² lafjdkagï wxl
  ² m%Odk lafjdkagï wxlh ^n&
    bf,lafg%dakh wh;a m%Odk Yla;s uÜgu fuuÕska ksrEmKh flf¾'
    n = 1, 2, 3, ......

  ² Woaos.xY lafjdkagï wxlh ^l&
             a
    bf,lafg%dkh wh;a WmYla;s uÜgu (s, p, d, f, ...) fuu`.ska ksrEmKh flf¾'
    l = 0, 1, 2, ...... ^n-1&

  ² pqïnl lafjdkagï wxlh ^ml&
    hï WmYla;s uÜgul bf,lafg%dakh mj;akd ldlaIslh (ksoiqka (px, py, pz )
    fuuÕska ksrEmKh flf¾'
    ml= -l,(-l+1),....,0,.....,(l-1), l

  ² neuqï lafjdkagï wxlh ^ms&
    hï ldlaIslhl msysá bf,lafg%dakhl osYdk;sh ksrEmKh flf¾'

    ms =




                                          9
          mrudKqjl uq,a Yla;s uÜgï ;=fkys mj;sk bf,lafg%dak i|yd
            n, l, ml yd ms hk lafjdkagï wxl i;r fhfok wdldrh
   m%Odk           s
               Woao.xY            pqïnl           neuqï      ldlaIslj,       m%Odk Yla;s
 lafjdkagï lafjdkagï wxlh lafjdkagï wxlh lafjdkagï wxlh       we;s uq`M    uÜgug wh;a uq`M
   wxlh            l                 ml            ms        bf,lafg%dak     bf,lafg%dak
      n    (0 isg n-l olajd) (-l isg +l olajd) (+1/2, -1/2 )   .Kk              .Kk

     1             0              0            + 1$2             2               2
                                               - 1$2
     2             0              0            + 1$2             2
                                               - 1$2
                   1              -1           + 1$2
                                               - 1$2
                                  0            + 1$2             6
                                               - 1$2
                                 +1            + 1$2                             8
                                               - 1$2
     3             0              0            + 1$2             2
                                               - 1$2
                   1              -1           + 1$2
                                               - 1$2
                                  0            + 1$2             6
                                               - 1$2
                                 +1            + 1$2
                                               - 1$2
                   2             -2            + 1$2
                                               - 1$2
                                  -1           + 1$2
                                               - 1$2
                                  0            + 1$2             10
                                               - 1$2
                                 +1            + 1$2
                                               - 1$2
                                 +2            + 1$2                             18
                                               - 1$2
* mrudKqjl msysá hï bf,lafg%dakhl lafjdkagï wxl l=,lh ,shd oelaùug we;s
  yelshd w'fmd'i'^W$fm<& úNd.fha oS uek n,kafka ke;' by; j.=j bosßm;a
  flfrkafka hï bf,lafg%dakhla i|yd jk lafjdkagï wxl l=,lh Bg wkkH
  jk nj fmkajd oSu i|yd muKs'
fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
         ² fok ,o uQ,øjHhl wkqhd; whkSlrK Yla;s o;a; bj;a jk bf,lafg%dak
           ixLHdjg tosß j m%ia;dr .; lrjkak'
         ² by; j.=j isiqka iu`. tl;=j f.dv kxjkak'

                                              10
ksmqK;dj 1'0               ( mod¾:fha iajNdjh ks¾Kh lsÍu i|yd bf,lafg%dksl
                             ieleiau" bf,lafg%dksl wka;¾l%shd yd Yla;s yqjudre
                             fhdod .kshs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 1'4           ( mrudKqj, yd whkj, jHqyh yd .=K ks¾Kh lrkq ms K s i
                               ta j dfha yq f ol,d jdhq u h mrudKq j , yd whkj, N+ ñ
                               wjia:dfõ bf,lafg%dak úkHdi úYaf,aIKh lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                    ( 07 hs'

bf.kqï M,                  (
       ² bf,lafg%dak msrSfï rgdjg wod< uQ,O¾u yd kS;s m%ldY lrhs'
       ² mrudKql l%udxlh 1 isg 54 olajd jk uQ,øjHj, jdhq wjia:dfõ mj;sk
         yqol,d mrudKqj, yd whkj, bf,lafg%dak úkHdi iïu; wdldrhg ,shd
         olajhs'
       ² Yla;s uÜgïj, yd WmYla;s uÜgïj, ia:dhS bf,lafg%dak úkHdi ie,ls,a,g
         .ksñka uQ,øjHj, wkqhd; whkSlrK Yla;s yd m%:u whkSlrK Yla;s úp,kh
         meyeos,s lrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (

       ² Wm Yla;s uÜgïj, mej;sh yels Wmßu bf,lafg%dak ixLHd

               Wm Yla;s uÜgu          ldlaIsl ixLHd       mej;sh yels Wmßu
                                                         bf,lafg%dak ixLHdj

                       s                     1                   2

                       p                     3                   6

                       d                     5                   10

                       f                     7                   14

       ² bf,lafg%dak msÍfï rgdjg wod< uQ,O¾u yd kS;s
          yqkaâ kS;sh
          iudk Yla;sfhka hq;a ldlaIslj, bf,lafg%dak mj;skqfha tajdfha neuqï
          iudka;r jk mßos h' ke;fyd;a úhq.au bf,lafg%dak ixLHdj Wmßu jk mßos
          h'
          mjq,S nysIaldr uQ,O¾uh
          fuu uQ,O¾ufhka lshefjkafka hï ldlaIslhl bf,lafg%dak follg jvd
          mej;sh fkdyels nj hs' ^ke;fyd;a mrudKqjl hï bf,lafg%dakhla i|yd jk
          lafjdkagï wxl l=,lh thg u wkkH jk nj hs'&
          f.dvkexùfï uQ,O¾uh
          ñka lshefjkafka ldlaIslj,g bf,lafg%dak msÍu mjq,S nysIaldr uQ,O¾uhg
          wkqj hñka ldlaIslj, Yla;s wdfrdayKh jk wkqms<sfj<g isÿ jk nj hs'

                                              11
       ² WmYla;s uÜgïj, Yla;s wdfrdayKh jk wkqms<sfj<




mrudKql l%udxlh 1- 20 olajd uQ,øjHj, m%:u whkSlrK Yla;s úp,k m%ia;drh
                m%:u whkSlrK Yla;h$kJ mol-1
                                 s




                                                   mrudKql l%udxlh




                                              12
fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
      ² wod< kshu yd uQ,O¾u fhdod .ksñka mrudKql l%udxlh 1- 54 olajd uQ,øjHj,ska
        mjrk ,o lsysmhl bf,lafg%dak úkHdi lKavdhï jYfhka f.dvkxjkakg
        fhduq lrkak'
      ² mjrk ,o uQ,øjHj, bf,lafg%dak úkHdi ii|ñka tajdfhka jvd;a ia:dhS
        úkHdi iys; uQ,øjH y÷kd .ekSug i,iajkak'
      ² wkqhd; whkSlrK Yla;s yd m%:u whkSlrK Yla;s úp,k" bf,lafg%dak
        úkHdij, ia:dhs;dj weiqfrka ú.%y lsÍug fhduq lrkak'




                                       13
ksmqK;dj 1'0             ( mod¾:fha iajNdjh ks¾Kh lsÍu i|yd bf,lafg%dksl
                           ieleiau" bf,lafg%dksl wka;¾l%shd yd Yla;s yqjudre
                           fhdod .kshs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 1'5         ( mrudKqj, yd whkj, jHqyh yd .=K ks¾Kh lrkq
                           msKsi tajdfha yqfol,d jdhquh mrudKqj, yd whkj,
                           N+ñ wjia:dfõ bf,lafg%dak úkHdi úYaf,aIKh lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                  ( 07 hs'

bf.kqï M,                (
       ² bf,lafg%dak úkHdi mokï lr f.k wdj¾;s;d j.=j f.dvkxjhs'
       ² uQ,øjH s, p, d iy f f.dkq hgf;a j¾.SlrKh lrhs'
       ² s, p iy d f.dkqj,g wh;a uQ,øjH iy 1 isg 18 olajd ldKavj,g wh;a uQ,øjH
           y÷kd .kshs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (

       ² 15 jk msgqfõ oelafõ'

fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (

       ² úYd, m%udKfha wdj¾;s;d j.=jla m%o¾Ykh lr ldKav yd wdj¾; ms<sn| fmr
           oekqu isysm;a lrkak'

       ²   s f.dkqjg" p f.dkqjg yd d f.dkqjg wh;a uQ,øjH lsysmh ne.ska tajd wh;a
           f.dkqj i|yka fkdlr isiq lKavdhïj,g mjrkak'

       ² tajdfha bf,lafg%dak úkHdi ,shd wjika jYfhka bf,lafg%dak msreKq WmYla;s
           uÜgu y÷kd .kakg fhduq lrkak'

       ² wdj¾;s;d j.=fõ tu uQ,øjHj,g ysñ ia:dkh mÍlaId lr ne,Sug i,iajkak'

       ² uQ,øjHhla wdj¾;s;d j.=fõ msysá ldKavh" wdj¾;h yd f.dkqj iuÕ tys
           bf,lafg%dak úkHdih olajk iïnkaO;d fy<s lr .ekSug isiq lKavdhï
           fhduq lrjkak'




                                        14
                                                                                                        ns2 np6
                                                                                                        18/VIII
ns1   ns2                                               ns2 np1   ns2 np2 ns2 np3   ns2 np4   ns2 np5
1/I   2/II                                              13/III    14/IV    15/V 16/VI 17/VII
             3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12




                                                                                                                  15
ksmqK;dj 1'0             ( mod¾:fha iajNdjh ks¾Kh lsÍu i|yd bf,lafg%dksl
                           ieleiau" bf,lafg%dksl wka;¾l%shd yd Yla;s yqjudre
                           fhdod .kshs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 1'6         ( mod¾:fha jHqyh yd .=K ks¾Kh lrkq msKsi nyq mrudKql
                               moaO;sj, mj;akd m%d:ñl wka;¾l%shd úYaf,aIKh lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                  ( 07 hs'

bf.kqï M,                (
       ² ixhqc;d nkaOkjdoh bosßm;a lrhs'
       ² mrudKqjl ldlaIsl w;sÉPdokh ùfuka ridhksl nkaOk iEfok nj m%ldY
           lrhs'
       ² nkaOkhg iïnkaO mrudKqj, úoHq;a RK;d fjki wkqj tajd ks¾O%eùh
         iyixhqc nkaOk" O%eùh iyixhqc nkaOk iy whksl nkaOk f,i fjka
         lrhs'
       ² odhl nkaOk iy f,dayl nkaOk we;s jk wdldrh meyeos,s lrhs'
úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² mrudKqfjys ixhqc;d ljpfha bf,lafg%dak nkaOk iEoSug iyNd.s fõ'
       ² nyq mrudKql moaO;shl Yla;sh wju lr .ekSu i|yd mrudKq w;r mj;sk
           wdl¾IKh ridhksl nkaOkhla f,i y÷kajhs'
       ²   nkaOk bf,lafg%dak hq.,a mrudKq folg u fmdÿ jk mßos ;nd .ekSfuka
           iyixhqc nkaOk iEfoa'
       ²   iyixhqc nkaOkj,ska ne÷kq wKq ;=< fyda whksl moaO;s ;=< fyda mj;akd
           wdl¾IK m%d:ñl wka;¾ l%shd f,i ye|skaúh yel'
       ²   wKqjl mj;sk nkaOkhl oS bf,lafg%dak ;ud foig wdl¾IKh lr .ekSfï
           yelshdj uQ,øjHfhka uQ,øjHhg fjkia fõ' m%udKd;aul j m%ldY l< fuu
           yelshdj uQ,øjHhl úoHq;a RK;dj f,i ye|ska fõ'
       ²   úoHq;a RK;dj úúO mßudKhkag wkqj m%ldY lr we;' fmda,ska mßudKhg
           wkqj úúO uQ,øjH i|yd úoHq;a RK;d w.h my; j.=fõ oelafõ'
              fmda,ska mßudKh wkqj uQ,øjHj, úoHq;a RK;d w.hhka
                                                                  H
                                                                  2.1

                   Li    Be        B       C       N      O        F
                   1.0   1.5      1.0     2.5     3.0    3.5      4.0

                   Na    Mg       Al      Si       P      S       Cl
                   0.9   1.2      1.5     1.8     2.1    2.5      3.0

                    K    Ca       Ga      Ge      As     Se       Br
                   0.8   1.0      1.6     1.8     2.0    2.4      2.8

                   Rb    Sr       In      Sn      Sb     Te        I
                   0.8   1.0      1.7     1.8     1.9    2.1      2.5

                   Cs    Ba       Tl      Pb      Bi     Po       At
                   0.7   0.9      1.8     1.9     1.9    2.0      2.2
                                            16
² fmda,ska mßudKhg wkqj tla tla uQ,øjH i|yd ksYaÑ; úoHq;a RK;d w.hla
  m%ldY lr we;s uq;a hï uQ,øjH mrudKqjl úoHq;a RK;dj tu mrudKqfõ
  mßirh ^uqyqïlrKh" wdfrdamKh" TlaislrK wxlh& u; fjkia fõ'
  ksoiqka (             yd           hk m%fNaoj,os N ys úoHq;a RK;dj
                    f,i úp,kh fõ'
² tlir bf,lafg%dak hq.,la mj;sk mrudKql ldlaIslhla fjk;a mrudKqjl
  ixhqc;d ljpfha ysia ldlaIslhla iu`. w;sÉPdokfhka nkaOkhla iEosh yels
  h' fu f,i iEfok nkaOkh odhl nkaOkh f,i y÷kajkq ,efí' fuys oS
  tlir bf,lafg%dak hq.,h fokq ,nk m%fNaoh odhl ldKavh f,i o nkaOkh
  iEoSu i|yd bf,lafg%dak ,nd .kakd m%fNaoh m%;s.%dyl ldKavh f,i o
  y÷kajkq ,efí'


                                         +   -             -
  ksoiqka (                                       fyda
                                                               +




² úoHq;a RK;d fjki wêl mrudKq hq.,hla w;r nkaOkhla we;s ùfï oS tla
  mrudKqjl ixhqc;d bf,lafg%dak fjk;a mrudKqjlg ,nd oS we;s jk Ok yd
  RK whk w;r yg .kakd iaÓ;s úoHq;a wdl¾IKh whksl nkaOkhla f,i
  ye|ska fõ'
² >k wjia:dfõ mj;sk fidaähï laf,darhsâ ie,l+ úg whk" iaÓ;s úoHq;a
  f,i wdl¾IKh ù ksYaÑ; rgdjlg weisÍ mj;S t neúka whksl ixfhda.hla
  >k wjia:dfõ mj;sk úg whkj,g ip,kh ùfï yelshdj ke;' wxY= msysá
  ia:dkj, u isg lïmkh ùu muKla isÿ fõ' fï wkqj whksl iaMálhla
  úoHq;h ikakhkh fkd lrhs'
² øj wjia:dfõ mj;sk fidaähï laf,darhsâ ie,l+ úg whk fjka j mj;S'
  whksl ixfhda.hla øj wjia:dfõ mj;sk úg whkj,g ip,kh ùfï yelshdj
  mj;sk neúka úoHq;h ikakhkh lrhs'
² f,day mrudKqj, ixhqc;d ljpfha bf,lafg%dak mrudKqjg ,sys,a j ne|S we;'
  t neúka f,day mrudKqj, ixhqc;d ljpfha bf,lafg%dak uqod yßñka Ok
  whk f,i mej;Sug keUqrejla we;' ta wkqj f,day mrudKqj,ska ksoyia jk
  bf,lafg%dak u`.ska we;s jk bf,lafg%dak c,dYfha .s,S mj;sk Ok whkj,ska
  iukaú; moaO;shla we;s fõ' Ok whk iy bf,lafg%dak c,dYh iaÓ;s úoHq;a
  jYfhka wdl¾IKh ù f,dayl nkaOk iEfoa'



                         bf,lafg%dak c,dYh




² ksoyia bf,lafg%dak mj;sk neúka f,day úoHq;h ikakhkh lrhs'

                                17
      ² f,day whkfha ;ru l=vd jk úg" f,day whkfha wdfrdamKh úYd, jk úg
        yd f,dayl nkaOkhg odhl lrk bf,lafg%dak ixLHdj jeä jk úg m%n,
        f,dayl nkaOk we;s fõ'
      ² f,dayl nkaOk m%n, jk úg f,dayfha øjdxlh by< hhs'

fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (

      ² úúO m%d:ñl wka;¾ l%shdj,g ksoiqka jk wKq yd whksl moaO;s iuQyh ne.ska
        isiq lKavdhïj,g ,nd oS tajd ms<sn|
      j my; i|yka oE idlÉPd lsÍug fhduq lrkak'
        ² m%d:ñl wka;¾ l%shd yg f.k we;s wdldrh
        ² úoHq;a RK;d fjki wkqj m%d:ñl wka;¾ l%shdj, iajNdjh yd fmkakqï
           lrk .=Kdx.




                                     18
ksmqK;dj 1'0             ( mod¾:fha iajNdjh ks¾Kh lsÍu i|yd bf,lafg%dksl
                             ieleiau" bf,lafg%dksl wka;¾l%shd yd Yla;s yqjudre fhdod
                                 s
                             .ksh'

ksmqK;dj uÜgu 1'7        ( mod¾:fha jHqyh yd .=K ks¾Kh lrkq msKsi iyixhqc
                             wKqj," O%eùh iyixhqc wKqj, yd ir, whk ldKavj,
                             yev úYaf,aIKh lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                  ( 07 hs'

bf.kqï M,                (
       ²   iq,n j yuq jk yd Wmßu jYfhka mrudKq oyhla olajd wvx.= iyixhqc
           wKqj, yd whk ldKavj, ,qúia jHqy w|shs'
       ²   ixhqc;d ljp bf,lafg%dak hq., úl¾IK jdoh fhdod .ksñka iyixhqc
           wKqj, yd whk ldKavj, uOH mrudKqj jgd tu bf,lafg%dak hq.,a osYdk;
           jk wkaou yd wKqfõ$whkfha cHdñ;sl yevh mqfrdal:kh lrhs'
       ²                                         q
           WÑ; WodyrK weiqfrka sp, sp2 yd sp3 uqyïlrKh we;s jk wkaou úia;r lrhs'
       ²   fok ,o wKqjlg fyda whk ldKavhlg fyda mej;sh yels ish¨ u iïm%hqla;
           jHqy we| tajdfha ia:dhS;dj ixikaokd;aul úuiqug ,la lrhs'
       ²   iïm%hqla; jHqy wdOdrfhka iïm%hqla; uqyqï jHqyfha mj;sk nkaOkj, os. yd
           m%n,;dj ms<sn| ms<s.; yels u; m%ldY lrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² iyixhqc wKqjl fyda whk ldKavhl fyda mj;akd iyixhqc nkaOk ¨úia
                                                               a
           ;s;a ixfla;j,ska t kï yjqf,a ;nd .kakd bf,lafg%dk hq.,a flá f¾Ldjlska
           ke;fyd;a ;s;a hq.,lska ^fyda ;s;a - l;sr hq.,lska& o tla tla mrudKqj u;
           msysá tlir hq.,a ;s;a hq.,aj,ska fyda l;sr hq.,aj,ska o olajkq ,nk jHqyhla
                                 a
           ¨úia jHqyh f,i ye|skfõ' ¨úia jHqyfha olajkq ,nkafka ixhqc;d bf,lafg%dk  a
           muKs'
           ksoiqk ( c, wKqj i,luq'
                                                     ²²
                                                 ²   O²
           Tlaisckaj, ¨úia ixfla;h                   ²²

           yhsv%ckaj, ¨úia ixfla;h                   H×
                                                     ²²
                                               ²×

                                                      ²×




           c, wKqfõ ¨úia ;s;a l;sr jHqyh H           O H
                                                     ²²

                                                     ²²
           c, wKqfõ ¨úia jHqyh                 H O H
                                                     ²²

       ² ¨úia jHqyhla u`.ska wKqjl mrudKq iïnkaO ù mj;sk wdldrh ms<sn|j;a
           ixhqc;d ljpj, mj;sk bf,lafg%dak ixLHdj ms<sn|j;a nkaOkj, iajNdjh
           ms<sn|j;a f;dr;=re ,efí' kuq;a yev ms<sn| f;dr;=re ¨úia jHqyfhka m%ldY
           fkdfõ' wKqjl uOH mrudKqj jgd msysá σ nkaOk bf,lafg%dak hq.,a .Kk

                                          19
         yd tlir hq.,a .Kk ¨úia jHqyfhka ,nd f.k ixhqc;d ljp bf,lafg%dak
         hq.,a úl¾IK jdoh ^VSEPRT& fhdod .ksñka wKqj, yev mqfrdal:kh l< yel'




                f¾Çh




                                                      ;%swdk;s oaú msrñvdldr



            ;,Sh ;%sfldaKdldr




              p;=ia;,Sh                                     wIag;,Sh


                uOH mrudKqj jgd ;sfnk bf,lafg%dak hq.,a .Kk wkqj
                          tajd wjldYfha osYdk; jk wdldrh
  bf,lafg%dak hq.,     hq.,a ilia jk        wKqfõ yevh
tl;=j nkaOk tlir          wkaou


  2     2       0      f¾Çh                 f¾Çh


        3       0                           ;,Sh ;%sfldaKdldr
  3                    ;,Sh ;%sfldaKdldr
        2       1                           fldaKsl


        4       0                           p;=ia;,Sh


  4     3       1                           ;%sfldaKdldr
                       p;=ia;,Sh            msróvh


        2       2                           fldaKsl


                                           20
  bf,lafg%dak hq.,    hq.,a ilia jk           wKqfõ yevh
tl;=j nkaOk tlir      wkaou


         5      0                             ;%swdk;s oaú msróvh


         4      1                              iS-fida
  5
         3      2    ;%sfldaKdldr             T - yevh
                     oaú msrñãh


         2      3                             f¾Çh




         6      0                             wIag;,Sh


  6      5      1    wIag;,Sh                 iup;=ri%dldr
                                              msróãAh


         4      2                             ;,Sh
                                              iup;=ri%dldr

        tl u wKqjla fyda whk ldKavhla i|yd bf,lafg%dak ieleiqfï fjkialï
        u; muKla fjkia jk ,qúia jHqy folla fyda jeä .Kkla mj;sk wjia:d
        yuqfõ' hï wKqjla i|yd jk t jeks jHqy iïm%hqla; jHqy f,i ye|ska fõ' wKqfõ
        ienE jHqyh ñka tllaj;a fkd jk w;r th iïm%hqla; jHqy uqyqï ùfuka iEfok
        jvd;a ia:dhs fjkia jHqyhls'




             O3 i|yd jk iïm%hqla; jHqy                       O3 ys iïm%hqla; uqyqu



      ² iïm%hqla; uqyqï jHqyfha O - O nkaOk" os.ska iudk jk w;r tu os. O - O
        talnkaOk os.g jvd wvqfõ' O } O oaú;aj nkaOk os.g jvd jeä fõ'




                                         21
fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
      ² my; i|yka wKqj,$whkj, ¨úia jHqy we| cHdñ;sl yev ks¾Kh lsÍug
         Wmfoia fokak' ^fjk;a WÑ; ksoiqka o bosßm;a lsÍu l< hq;= h'&
         BeCl2, BF3, CH4, NH3, H2O, PCl3, NH4+, SF6, SF4, ClF3, XeF2, IF5, XeF4
            -      2-
         NO 3 , CO 3 , SO 2- ,
                          4


                                                 q
      ² my; wKqj,$whkj, uOH mrudKqfõ uqyïlrKh ks¾Kh lsÍug i,iajkak'
        BeCl2, BF3, CH4, NH3, H2O, C2H2, C2H4 , NH4+ ^fjk;a WÑ; ksoiqka o bosßm;a
         lsÍu l< hq;= h'&

      ² my; m%fNaoj, iïm%hqla; jHqy we| iïm%hqla; uqyqu we|Sug Wmfoia fokak'
         O3,                     N2O ^fjk;a WÑ; ksoiqka o bosßm;a lsÍu l< hq;= h'&




                                           22
ksmqK;dj 1'8                ( mod¾:fha iajNdjh ks¾Kh lsÍu i|yd bf,lafg%dksl
                              ieleiau" bf,lafg%dksl wka;¾l%shd yd Yla;s yqjudre
                              fhdod .kshs'

   q
ksmK;d uÜgu                 ( mod¾:fha jHqyh yd .=K ks¾Kh lrkq msKsi úúO moaO;s
                                ;=< mj;sk oaú;Shsl wka;¾l%shd úYaf,aIKh lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                     ( 07 hs'

bf.kqï M,                   (
       ² O%eùlrKh" oaúO%ej >Q¾Kh yd O%ejKYS,;dj hk ixl,am WÑ; WodyrK f.k
          yer olajñka úia;r lrhs'
       ² úIh ks¾foaYhg we;=<;a oaú;Shsl wka;¾l%shd j¾. WÑ; ksoiqka f.kyer
         olajñka úia;r lrhs'
       ² hï øjHhl mj;akd oaú;Shsl wka;¾l%shdj, iajNdjh yd tu øjHfha fN!;sl
         .=K w;r iïnkaO;d biau;= lrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² tlsfkl yd ridhksl j nkaOkh ù mj;akd mrudKq folla w;r úoHq;a
          RK;d fjki fya;= fldg f.k fyda fjk;a ndysr n,mEula fya;=fjka fyda
          nkaOkhg iïnkaO mrudKqj, bf,lafg%dak j,d wiuñ;sl j jHdma; ùu
          O%eùlrKh f,i y÷kajhs'

          ksoiqka (
                                +δ                     −δ



                                           a
       ² fujeks oaúO%ejhl tla wdfrdamK flakøhl mj;akd wdfrdamKfha;a tu mrudKq
                                s
          w;r nkaOk osf.ys;a .=K;h nkaOkfha oaúO%ej >Q¾Kh kï fõ' nyq mrudKql
          wKqj, oaúO%ej >Q¾Kh tla tla nkaOkh iïnkaOfhka ie,lsh yels h' tajdfha
          iïm%hqla;h wKqfõ oaúO%ej >Q¾Kh f,i ie,fla'

                      ²²                      ish¨ u N - H nkaOkj, oaúO%ej >Q¾Kj,
                                                    q a    s
                                              iïm%hl;h u`.ka NH3 wKqfõ oaúO%ej >Q¾Kh
                       N
                                              ,efí'


       iuyr iuñ;sl wKq i|yd oaúO%ej >Q¾Kh Y+kH fõ'

       ksoiqka (
                   Cl − δ   Be+ δ    Cl − δ




                                              23
² O%ejKYS,;dj
  mßmQ¾K whksl ixfhda.hla ie,l+ úg tajdfha ix>gl jk legdhk yd
  wekdhk iúê >k f.da, jYfhka mj;sk nj ie,fla' kuq;a whksl ixfhda.h
  iukaú; jk legdhkfha yd wekdhkfha iajNdjh wkqj wekdhkfha
  bf,lafg%dak j,dj legdhkh fj;g wdl¾IKh ùu fya;=fjka wekdhkfha
  bf,lafg%dak j,dfõ úlD;s;d we;s fõ'

  kso (   mQ¾K whksl nkaOkh                      O%eùlrKhla fkdue;


              úlD;s ùu                           O%ejKYS,;dj jeä ùu



                                       hï m%udKhlg iyixhqc
                                       ,laIK fmkakqï lsÍu
² O%ejKYS,;dj by< kxjk idOl
  ² legdhkh (   m%udKfhka l=vd ùu
                    by< wdfrdamKhlska hqla; ùu
  ² wekdhkh (       m%udKfhka úYd, ùu
                    by< wdfrdamKhlska hqla; ùu

² ksoiqka (   AgF, AgCl, AgBr iy AgI j, whksl .=K my; mßos úp,kh fõ'
              AgF > AgCl > AgBr > AgI
              wekdhkh úYd, ùu fya;=fjka O%ejKYS,;dj jeä jk w;r ta
              wkqj iyixhqc ,laIK hï muKlg fmkakqï lsÍu fuhg fya;=j
              hs' MCO3       MO + CO2
                  2-
              CO3 ldKavh O2- yd CO2 f,i ì|S hdug M2+ whkfha
              O%ejKYS,;dj n,mdhs ,efí' II ldKavfha legdhkj, O%ejKYS,;dj
              Be>Mg>Ca f,i úp,kh fõ' tu ksid fo jk ldKavfha
              ldnfkagj, ;dm úfhdack WIaK;aj BeCO3< MgCO3< CaCO3
              f,i úp,kh fõ'

úúO oaú;shsl wka;¾l%shd i|yd ksoiqka
² oaúO%ej - oaúO%ej wka;¾l%shd




² yhsârcka nkaOk
² yhsârcka nkaOk hkq úoHq;a RK mrudKqjlg ^X& iyixhqc j ne|S mj;sk
  yhsârcka mrudKqjla" tlir bf,lafg%dak hq.,a tlla fyda lsysmhla iys;
  úoHq;a RK mrudKqjla ^Y& iu`. we;s lr .kakd úfYaI iaÓ;s úoHq;a
  wka;¾l%shdjls'
                                24
                                   Xδ−   Hδ+///////////////Y− δ
         X yd Y hkq F, O, N, Cl hkd oS jvd úoHq;a RK mrudKq jk wjia:dj, oS
         yhsârcka nkaOk jvd;a m%n, fõ' ^yhsârcka nkaOk m%n,;dj F>O>N>Cl
         f,i wvq fõ' fuh FONCl kS;sh f,i ye|skafõ'& X ydY hk ia:dk by;
         i|yka uQ,øjH mrudKqj,g wu;r j fjk;a mrudKq úiska w;alr .kakd
         iuyr úfYaI wjia:dj, oS m%n, yhsv%cka nkaOk yg .kakd kuq;a fuu úIh
         ks¾foaYh ;=< t jeks wjia:d wjOdrKh fkd flf¾'




                                       %
                                   yhsvcka nkaOk



                                   c, wKq w;r mj;akd yhsv%cka nkaOk
                     ;dmdxlh$ 0C




                                          wdj¾;s;d j.=fõ msysá wdj¾;h

                 15" 16 yd 17 ldKavj, yhsârhsvj, ;dmdxl úp,kh

fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
      ² 15" 16 yd 17 ldKavj, yhsv%hsvj, ;dmdxl úp,k m%ia;drh m%o¾Ykh lr tu
        úp,khg fya;= úh yels lreKq úuikak'
                    s
      ² ir, wKq lsymh ne.ska isiq lKavdhïj,g bosßm;a lr tajdfha oaúO%ej >Q¾Khla
        mej;Su$fkdmej;Su yd oaúO%ej >Q¾Kfha m%n,;d ms<sn| idlÉPd lsÍug
        i,iajkak'
      ² iqÿiq wKql$whksl moaO;s lKavdhïj,g mjrd tajdfha mej;sh yels oaú;Shsl
        wka;¾l%shdj, iajNdjh yd ta wkqj ysñ jk .=K ms<sn| idlÉPd lsÍug fhduq
        lrkak'
                                      25
^ fuh E5 wdlD;shg wkqj ie,iqï l< fhdað; l%shdldrluls&

   q
ksmK;dj         1'0   ( .=K yd jHqyh weiqrska mod¾:fha iajNdjh ú.%y lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 1'9    ( cd,j, ieleiau mokï lr .ksñka tajdfha .=K úu¾Ykh
                       lrhs'
l%shdldrlu     1'9 ( cd, ieleiau weiqßka mod¾:fha .=K úuiuq'
ld,Éfþo             ( 07 hs
.=Kd;aul fhojqï     ( ² weuqKqu 1'9'1g we;=<;a cd,dldr jHqyh oelafjk mska;+rh
                       ² weuqKqu 1'9'2g we;=<;a lKavdhï .fõIK Wmfoia m;%sldfõ
                         msgm;a myla
                                q                               s
                       ² weuqKu 1'9'3g we;=<;a "cd, úúO;ajh" ,smfhys msgm;a myla
                       ² äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a
bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdj,sh (
mshjr 1'9'1         ( ² cd,fha mska;+rh mka;shg m%o¾Ykh lrkak'
                       ² my; i|yka .eg¨ mka;shg bosßm;a lrkak'
                         ² cd,h hkafkka woyia jkafka l=ula o@
                         ² cd,j, olakg ,efnk fmdÿ ,laIK fudkjd o@
                         ² cd, ieliqu iys; mod¾: mj;S o@
                         ² cd, ieliqï iys; mod¾: f.dv keÕS we;s ne|Sï fl n÷
                             o@
                       ² my; i|yka lreKq u;= lrñka idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak'
                         ² ;ekqï tall l%uj;a rgdjlg tlsfkl iïnkaO ùfuka
                             ks¾udKh jQjla cd,hla fyj;a oe,sila f,i ye|skaúh
                             yels nj
                         ² úêu;a rgdjlska hq;= ùu yd kej; kej; fhfok uQ,sl
                                                             a
                             tallhlska ks¾udKh ù mej;Su oe,sij, fmdÿ ,laIKhla
                             nj
                         ² oe,sia wdldrfha jHQy iys; úúO mod¾: iajNdjfha mj;sk
                             nj
                         ² mrudKq fyda wKq fyda whk fyda l%uj;a rgdjlg ilia
                             jQ cd, ieliqï iys; mod¾: mj;sk nj
                         ² cd,uh mod¾:j, ;ekqï tallh wkqj tajd my; mßos
                             j¾. l< yels nj
                             ² iu mrudKql cd,
                             ² úIu mrudKql cd,
                             ² ks¾O%eùh wKql cd,
                             ² O%eùh wKql cd,
                             ² whksl cd,
                         ² cd,uh mod¾:j, ;ekqï tallfha iajNdjh wkqj cd,h
                             f.dvkeÕSfï oS we;s lr .kakd ne|Sï úúO jk nj
                         ² cd,h f.dv keÕSfï oS we;s lr .kakd ne|Sïj, iajNdjh"
                             cd,fha fN!;sl .=K flfrys n,mdk nj
                                                                   ^ñks;a;= 15 hs&

                                         26
mshjr 1'9'2   (     ² mka;sh lKavdhï mylg fnokak'
                    ² Wmfoia m;%sld" lshùï øjH" äuhs lvodis yd meiag,a
                      lKavdhïj,g imhkak'
                    ² ld¾h mjrd" lKavdhï" .fõIKfhys fhdojkak'
                    ² iuia; lKavdhï bÈßm;a lsÍula i|yd iQodkï lrjkak'
                                                                 ^ñks;a;= 60 hs&
mshjr 1'9'3       ( ² lKavdhï wkdjrK mka;shg bÈßm;a lrjkak'
                    ² m%:u úia;drKh i|yd bÈßm;a l< lKavdhïj,g u wjia:dj
                      fokak'
                    ² fiiq lKavdhïj, ixj¾Okd;aul fhdackd úuikak'
                    ² my; lreKq u;= lrñka iudf,dapkhl fhfokak'
                      ² iucd;Sh mrudKqj,ska f.dvkeÕS we;s oshuka;s yd ñksrka
                         oe,sia iu mrudKql cd, i|yd ksoiqka jk nj
                      ² úIucd;S h mrudKq j ,s k a f.dvkeÕS we;s is , s l ka
                         vfhdlaihsâ úIu mrudKql cd, i|yd ksoiqkla jk
                         nj
                      ² ks¾O%eùh whãka wKqj,ska f.dvkeÕS we;s whãka iaMál
                         ks¾O%eùh wKql cd, i|yd ksoiqkla jk nj
                      ² O%eùh wKqj,ska f.dvkeÕS we;s whsia O%eùh wKql cd,hla
                         i|yd ksoiqka jk nj
                      ² fidaähï whk yd laf,darhsâ whkj,ska ieÿï,;a
                         fidaähï laf,darhsâ whksl cd, i|yd ksoiqkla jk
                         nj
                      ² iucd;Sh yd úIucd;Sh mrudKql oe,sia ks¾udKh ù
                         we;af;a mrudKq tlsfkl iyixhqc j ne|Sfuka nj
                      ² ks¾O%eùh wKql cd, f.dvkeÕS we;af;a fm%aß; oaúO%ej -
                         fm%aß; oaúO%ej w;r we;s lr .kakd wdl¾IK n, uÕska
                         ks¾O%eùh wKq tlsfkl ne|Sfuka nj
                      ² O%eùh wKql cd, f.dvkeÕS we;af;a iaÓr oaúO%ej-iaÓr
                         oaúO%ej w;r we;s lr .kakd wdl¾IK n, uÕska O%eùh
                         wKq tlsfkl ne|Sfuka nj
                      ² whks l cd, f.dvkeÕS we;a f ;a Okdfrda m s ; yd
                         RKdfrdams; whk w;r we;s lr .kq ,nk m%n, iaÓ;s
                         úoHq;a wdl¾IK uÕska whk tlsfkl ne|Sfuka nj
                      ² iucd;Sh yd úIucd;Sh mrudKql cd, f.dvkeÕS we;af;a
                         m%n, iyixhqc nkaOkj,ska neúka tu oe,siaj,ska
                         ks¾udKh jQ øjH by< oeä njlska o by< øjdxl$
                         ;dmdxlj,ska o hq;= nj
                      ² mrudKql cd, ;=< mj;sk iyixhqc nkaOk jvd;a m%n,
                         neúka ødjK .; ùug keUqrejla fkdue;s nj
                      ² ip, bf,lafg%dak fkdue;s mrudKql cd, úoHq;h
                         ikakhkh fkdlrk nj




                                     27
                          ² ÿn, jeka v'jd,aia n,j,ska tlsfkl ne÷Kq wKqj,ska
                            iukaú; ks¾O%eùh wKql cd, iys; øjH oeä núka wvq
                            w;r wfkl=;a cd,j,ska ks¾udKh jQ øjHj,g idfmalaI
                            j my< øjdxl$;dmdxlj,ska hqla; nj
                          ² ks¾O%eùh wKqj,ska ks¾udKh ù we;s neúka ks¾O%eùh
                            wKql cd,j,ska ks¾ñ; øjH ks¾O%eùh ødjl ;=< osh jk
                            w;r ip, bf,la f g% d a k fkdue;s neúka úoHq ; h
                            ikakhkh fkd lrk nj
                          ² iaÓr oaúO%ej-iaÓr oaúO%ej wdl¾IK n,j,ska ^fyda
                            yhsârcka nkaOkj,ska& ne÷Kq wKqj,ska iukaú; O%eùh
                            wKql cd,j,ska ks¾ñ; øjH ks¾O%eùh wKql cd,j,ska
                            ks¾ñ; øjHj,g idfmalaI j by< oeä njlska yd by<
                            øjdxl$;dmdxlj,ska hq;= nj
                          ² O%eùh wKql cd,j,ska ks¾ñ; øjH O%eùh ødjl ;=<
                            ødjHùug       jeä     keUqrejla     olajk      w;r
                            ip,kbf,lafg%dak fkdue;s ksid úoHq;h ikakhkh
                            fkd lrk nj
                          ² m%n, iaÓ;s úoHq;a wdl¾IKj,ska ne÷Kq whksl cd,j,ska
                            ks¾ñ; øjH by< øjdxl$;dmdxl fmkajk w;r oeä
                            núka o by< jk nj
                          ² whksl cd,j,ska hqla; øjH O%eùh ødjl ;=< osh ùug
                            keUqrejla olajk nj
                          ² whksl cd,j,ska iukaú; øjHj, o ip, bf,lafg%dak
                            fkdue;s neúka >k wjia:dfõ oS úoHq;h ikakhk
                            fkdlrk nj
                          ² whksl cd,j,ska iukaú; øjH ú,Sk l< úg yd ødjK
                            .; l< úg ip, whk mj;sk ksid úoHq;h ikakhkh
                            lrk nj
                                                                  ^ñks;a;= 45 hs&
;lafiare yd we.ehSï ks¾Kdhl (
²   cd, ieleiau wkqj mod¾: j¾.SlrKh lrhs'
²   fok ,o mod¾:hl cd, ieliau wkqj fmkakqï l< yels fN!;sl .=K mqfrdal:kh
    lrhs'
²   tlsfklg fjkia cd, ieliqï iys; mod¾:j, fN!;sl .=K ikaikaokh lrhs'
²   jHqyh wkqj fmkakqï l< yels .=K mqfrdal:kh lrhs'
²   ixlaIsma; j bosßm;a l< f;dr;=re úia;drKh lrhs'
                                                                    weuqKqu 1'9'1




                                cd,hl rEm igyk
                                        28
                                                                  weuqKqu 1'9'2
lKavdhï .fõIKh i|yd Wmfoia

                   cd, ieleiau weiqßka mod¾:fha .=K úuiuq"

² my; i|yka cd, j¾. w;ßka Tn lKavdhug mejfrk cd, j¾.h ms<sn| wjOdkh
  fhduq lrkak'
  ² iu mrudKql cd,
  ² úIu mrudKql cd,
  ² ks¾O%eùh wKql cd,
  ² O%eùh wKql cd,
  ² whksl cd,
² ,smsh lshjd" Tng mjrk ,o cd, j¾.hg ksoiqka jk mod¾: y÷kd .kak'
² tu mod¾:j, jHqyh ms<sn| idlÉPd lrkak'
² tu mod¾:j, jHqyh wkqj cd,h f.dvkexùfï oS we;s lr .kakd nkaOkj,
  iajNdjh ;SrKh lrkak'
² cd,fha iajNdjh wkqj wod< mod¾:j, my; i|yka fN!;sl .=K ms<sn| j we.hSula
  lrkak'
  ² øjdxl$;dmdxl
  ² úoHq;a ikakdhl iajNdjh
  ² oeä nj
  ² ødjH;dj
² Tng wod< cd, ieleiafuka hqla; ixfhda.j, by; i|yka .=K wfkl=;a cd, ieliqï
  iys; ixfhda.j, tu .=K iuÕ ii|kak'
² Tfí wkdjrK ks¾udKYS,S j mka;shg bosßm;a lsÍug iQodkï jkak'
                                                                weuqKqu 1'9'3

                           cd, úúO;ajh úuid n,uq'

   mrudKq" wKq fyda whk uÕska ks¾ñ; cd, wdldrfha jHQy iys; mod¾: iajNdúl j
mj;S' fïjd w;=ßka mrudKql cd, f.dv keÕS we;af;a mrudKq w;r we;s lr .kq ,nk
iyixhqc nkaOkj,sks' wKql cd, ks¾udKh jkqfha wKq w;r we;s lr .kq ,nk wka;¾
wKql nkaOk fyj;a oaú;Shsl wka;¾l%shd uÕsks' whksl cd, ks¾udKh jkqfha m%;súreoaO
wdfrdamK iys; whk w;r we;s lr .kakd iaÓ;s úoHq;a wdl¾IK uÕsks'

úúO wdldrfha cd, ieliqï lsysmhla my; úia;r flf¾'
mrudKql cd,
   mrudKql cd, iuyrla tl u j¾.fha mrudKqj,ska ks¾udKh ù we;s w;r ;j;a
iuyrla j¾. foll fyda jeä .Kkl mrudKqj,ska ks¾ñ; h' tl u j¾.fha mrudKqj,ska
ks¾ñ; cd, iumrudKql cd, f,iska ye|ska fõ' ldnkaj, nyqrEmS wdldr jk oshuka;s
yd ñksrka fï i|yd ksoiqka fõ' tlsfklg fjkia mrudKq iïnkaO ù ks¾ñ; cd, úIu
mrudKql cd, f,i ye|skafjk w;r is,sld ^SiO2& fï i|yd ksoiqkla fõ'
oshuka;s ks¾udKh ù ;sfnkafka sp3 uqyqïlrKhg ,la jQ ldnka mrudKq tlsfkl
iyixhqc j ne|Sfuks' ieu ldnka mrudKqjla u fjk;a ldnka mrudKq y;rla iuÕ tal
iyixhqc nkaOkj,ska ne|S mj;sk wdldrhg fuu oe,sia ilia ù we;' oe,sia jHQyh ;=<
                                      29
                             s                              a           a
tla tla ldnka mrudKqj jgd msyá wfkla mrudKq uOH mrudKqj flakø lr.;a p;=i;,hl
YS¾I u; msysgk wdldrhg ilia ù mj;S' fuh ;%sudk fhdaO oe,sia jHqyhls' fuh
iyixhqc fhdaO wKqjla f,i o ie,lsh yels h' iajNdúl øjH w;ßka oeä núka by< u
øjHh oshuka;s fõ'




rEmh 1'9'1 oshuka;sj, cd, ieleiau

    ñksrka ks¾udKh ù ;sfnkafka sp2 uqyqïlrKhg ,la jQ ldnka mrudKq tlsfkl
iyixhqc j ne|Sfuks' ieu ldnka mrudKqjla u fjk;a ldnka mrudKq ;=kla iuÕ tal
iyixhqc nkaOkj,ska ne|S mj;sk wdldrhg oe,si ilia ù we;' oe,sia jHQyh ;=< tla tla
ldnka mrudKqj jgd msysá wfkla ldnka mrudKq ;=k uOH mrudKqj flakaø lr.;a ;,Sh
;%sfldaKhl YS¾I u; msysgk wdldrhg ilia ù we;' fuh oaúudk fhdaO oe,sia jHQyhls'
ñksrkaj, ieu ldnka mrudKqjla u i;= uqyqïlrKh fkdjQ p ldlaIslhla mj;sk w;r tys
tla úhq.au bf,lafg%dakhla o we;' kquqyqï p ldlaIslh oaúudk oe,sfia ;,hg ,ïnl j
msysghs' t neúka oaúudk ldnka ia:r w;r wdl¾IK we;s lsÍug fuu úhq.au bf,lafg%dak
ork p ldlaIsl WmldÍ fõ'




rEmh 1'9'2 ñksrkaj, cd, ieleiau
   is,sld hkq tlsfklg fjkia mrudKq j¾. follska ks¾ñ; úIu mrudKql oe,silska
iukaú; øjHhls' ieu is,slka mrudKqjla u Tlaiscka mrudKq y;rla iuÕ o iEu
Tlaiscka mrudKqjla u is,slka mrudKq folla iuÕ o iyixhqc j ne÷Kq oe,sia jHQyhlska
is,sld iukaú; fõ'




rEmh 1'9'3 is,sldj, cd, ieleiau
                                        30
wKql cd,
   wKql cd, iuyrla iumrudKql wKqj,ska ks¾udKh ù mj;sk w;r ;j;a iuyrla
úIu mrudKql wKqj,ska ks¾udKh ù we;' oe,si ks¾ñ; wKqfõ O%eùh iajNdjh i,lñka
tajd ks¾O%eùh wKql cd, yd O%eùh wKql cd, f,i j¾. l< yel'
   whãka iaMál iumrudKql ks¾O%eùh wKql cd,hla i|yd ksoiqkla fõ' whãka wKqj
úYd, wKqjls' t neúka úúO fya;+ka u; whãka wKq ;djld,sl j fm%aß; oaúO%ej we;s lr
.kshs' t jeks fm%aß; oaúO%ej-fm%aß; oaúO%ej w;r we;s lr .kakd wdl¾IK uÕska whãka
oe,si ks¾udKh ù we;'




rEmh 1'9'3 - I2 oe,si

  c, wKqj O%eùh wKqjls' whsia iaMál O%eùh wKql cd,hla i|yd losu ksoiqkls' c,
wKqfõ O _ H nkaOkj, mj;akd iaÓr oaúO%ej fya;=fjka whsia iaMálh ;=< H2O wKq
wka;¾ wKql yhsv%cka nkaOkj,ska ne|S mj;S'




rEmh 1'9'3 whsia iaMál
whks l cd,
fndfyda whksl ixfhda. iaMálrEmS jHqyhla iys; >k øjH f,i iajNdúl j mj;S' fuu
iaMál oe,si ks¾udKh ù ;sfnkafka whksl ixfhda.fha wka;¾.; m%;súreoaO wdfrdamK
iys; whk wjldYfha ksYaÑ; rgdjlg weysÍ ilia ùfuks' tu m%;súreoaO wdfrdamK iys;
whk w;r mj;skqfha iaÓ;s úoHq;a wdl¾IK hhs' fidaähï laf,darhsâ whksl oe,silg
losu ksoiqkls' fidaähï laf,darhsâ oe,si ks¾udKh ù we;af;a iEu Na+ whkhla jgd u
Cl- whk yhla o" iEu Cl- whkhla jgdu Na+ whk yhla o mj;sk wdldrhg ilia ù fuks'




rEmh 1'9'6   NaCl iaMál oe,si                    Na+          Cl-

                                        31
ksmqK;dj 2'0            ( ridhksl .Kkh ksje/os j isÿ lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 2'1        ( wKq yd mrudKq iïnkaO fN!;sl rdYs fhdod .ksñka
                            ridhksl iQ;% f.dv kxjhs'

ld,Éfþo                 ( 08 hs'

bf.kqï M,               (
                                                                           a
       ² fN!;sl rdYs m%ldY lsrSu i|yd wod< Wmi¾. iys; uQ,sl SI tall yd jHq;mkak
         SI tall Ndú; lrhs'
       ² ksjeros j ñkqï .ekSfï oS yd .Kkfha oS ^tl;= lsÍfï oS" wvq lsÍfï oS" .=K
         lsÍfï oS yd fnoSfï oS & id¾:ldxl ksjeros j yiqrejhs'
       ² m%;sY; ixhq;s okakd úg wkqNúl iq;%h o" wkqNúl iQ;%h yd idfmalaI wKql
         ialkaOh okakd úg wKql iQ;%h o ks¾Kh lrhs'
       ² >gkd .=K yd ú;a;s .=K WodyrK iys; j úia;r lrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² wka;¾ cd;sl tall l%uh - SI
          wka;¾ cd;sl tall l%uh ^Systeme International d' Unite's - SI & wkqj uQ, rdYs
          y;la iy tajdg tall y;la iïu; lr f.k we;'

          rdYsh                    tallh          tallfha ixfla;h

          os.                      ógrh                  m
          ialkaOh                  lsf,da.a?uh           kg
          ld,h                     ;;amrh                s
          ;dm.;sl WIaK;ajh         fl,aúkh               K
          úoHq;a Odrdj             weïmshrh              A
          øjH m%udKh               ujq,h                 mol
          oSma; ;Sj%;dj            lekafv,dj             cd

       SI jHq;amkak tall
               a
          jHq;mkak fN!;sl rdYshl SI tallh tu fN!;sl rdYsfha w¾: oelaùu wdY%fhka
          ,nd .; yels h' th ,sùfï oS uQ,sl rdYSka fjka fldg oelaùug tla tla uQ,sl
          rdYsfha ixfla; w;r ysoeila ;nkq ,efí' we;eï jHq;amkak rdYs i|yd Ndú;
          lrk úfYaI kï we;' kuq;a tajd o SI uQ, tall weiqfrka m%ldY l< yels h'
          úfYaI kï fkdue;s jHq;amkak tall lSmhla my; j.=fõ oela fõ'

       rdYsh                       w¾: oelaùu$iólrKh             SI tallh

       j¾.M,h                      os. × m<,                     m2
       mßudj                       os. × m<, × Wi                m3

       m%fõ.h                                                    m s-1
                                   úia:dmkh
                                    ld,h

                                           32
                              m%fõ.h fjki
   ;ajrKh                        ld,h                           m s-2
                              ialkaOh
   >k;ajh                                                       kg m-3
                              mrsudj

   .uH;dj                    ialkaOh × m%fõ.h                   kg m s-1


   úfYaI kï iys; SI tall



                SI tallfha               w¾: oelaùu     wkH SI tall      uQ,sl tall
  rdYsh                      ixfla;h                      weiqfrka        weiqfrka
                úfYaI ku                 ^iólrKh&
                                                          m%ldYh           m%ldYh
n,h             ksõgkh         N       ialkaOh×;ajrKh                      kg m s-2
                                           n,h
mSvkh           meial,h        Pa                           N m-2          kg m-1 s-2
                                         j¾.M,h
ld¾hh           cQ,h           J       n,h×úia:dmkh         Nm             kg m2 s-2

    s
Yla;h           cQ,h           J
                                        lïmk .Kk
ixLHd;h         y'Üih          Hz                                          s -1
                                          ld,h
úoHq;a          l+f,dauh       C        Odrdj×ld,h                         As
wdfrdamKh
                                          ld¾hh
úoHq;a úNjh          a
                fjda,gh        V                            J C-1          kg m2 s-3 A-1
                                         wdfrdamK


úoHq;a          ´uh            Ω          úNjh              V A-1          kg m2 s-2 A-1
m%;frdaOh
   s                                      Odrdj

úoHq;a Odß;dj   *ervh          F        wdfrdamKh           C V-1
                                          úNjh




                                         33
  .=Kk idOlh        Wmi¾.fha ku                          ixfla;h

      1018              tlaid                            exa     E
      1015              fmgd                             peta    P
      1012              fgrd                             tera    T
      109               .s.d                             giga    G
      106               fu.d                             mega    M
      103               lsf,da                           kilo    k
      102               fylafgd                          hecto   h
      101               fvld                             deca    da
      10-1              fvis                             deci    d
      10-2              fikaás                           centi   c
      10-3              ñ,s                              milli   m
      10-6              uhsfl%da                         micro   μ
      10-9              kefkda                           nano    n
      10-12             msflda                           pico    p
      10-15             f*ïfgda                          femto   f
      10-18             wefgda                           atto    a

hïlsis fN!;sl rdYshl w.h Wmi¾.h iu. ,sùfï oS tu Wmi¾.hg wod< ixfla;h SI
ixfla;hg bosßfhka ysoeila fkd;nd ,súh hq;= h'
                                 1
       WodyrK (   ;;amrfhka         =1×10-3 s =1 ms
                               1000

                                    1
                  ógrfhka              =1×10-2 m=1 c m
                                   100

                  ógr          1000 = 1×103 m = 1 km

    ´kE u fN!;sl rdYshla my; oelafjk mßos bosßm;a l< yel'
           fN!;sl rdYsh } ixLHd;aul w.h × tallh
           ksoiqka ( os. } 5 cm

id¾:dxl
.Kka lsÍu iy uekSu w;r fjkila we;' .Kka lsÍu ksYaÑ;j u l< yels w;r
uekSu wdikak w.h m%ldY lsÍula fõ' m%ldY lrk ,o lsishï fN!;sl rdYshl
ixLHd;aul w.fhys wvx.= jk w¾:j;a wxl .Kk id¾:dxl f,i y÷kajhs'

ksoiqka (
mEkl os. úúO ñkqï WmlrKj,ska uek my; mßos m%ldY           l< yels h'
fikaá ógr fldgia muKla igyka fldaÿjlska uekSu             18 cm
                         ógr fldaÿjlska uekSu             18'1 cm
                     j¾ksh¾ le,smrhlska uekSu             18'12 cm


                                          34
fï wkqj ñkqï WmlrKhlska uek m%ldY lrk w.hla wdikak w.hla ñi ksYaÑ; w.hla
fkd jk nj meyeos,s fõ'
by; oS m<uq ñkqu id¾:dxl follska o fo jk ñkqu id¾:dxl ;=klska o f; jk ñkqu
id¾:ldxl 4 lska o m%ldY lr we;s nj i,lkq ,efí'
ixLHd tl;= lsÍfï oS" wvq lsÍfï oS" .=K lsÍfï oS yd fnoSfï oS id¾:dxl ksjeros j yeisrùu
wjYH h'
ksoiqka (
             ^I&      13 .8
                       1 .005
                     123 .2846 +
                       0 .023
                     138 .1126

fuys oS jeä u fodaIhla we;af;a uq,ska u i|yka ixLHd fõ h' tu ksid ms<s;=r 138'1 f,i
.kq ,efí' wvq lsÍfï oS o" fuu l%uh u wkq.ukh flf¾'
                   2.45×1.478
           ^II&                 = 0.01078
                     335.6
fuys olajd we;s ixLHdj, id¾:dxl .Kk 3 iy 4 fõ' ms<s;=r wvq u id¾:dxl .Kkg
^id¾:ldxl 3& jeghsh hq;= fõ' ta wkqj ms<s;=r bosßm;a l< hq;af;a 0'0108 jYfhks'

ú;a;s .=K ^ Extensive Properties & (
        moaO;sfha m%udKh u; r|d mj;sk .=K ú;a;s .=K fõ'
        ksoiqka( mßudj" tka;e,amsh
>gkd .=K ^ Intensive Properties &
        moaO;sfha m%udKh u; r|d fkd mj;sk .=K >gkd .=K fõ'
        ksoiqka ( WIaK;ajh" idkaøKh
m%;sY; ixhq;sh (
        ksoiqka ( KMnO4 158.04 g j, K, 39.10 g o, Mn, 59.94 g o O, 64.00 g o wka;¾.; fõ'
                                                39.10
       K j, ialkaO m%;sY;h                  }            × 100 = 24.74 %
                                                158.04

                                                54.94
       Mn j, ialkaO m%;sY;h                 }            × 100 = 34.76 %
                                                158.04

                                                64.00
       O j, ialkaO m%;sY;h                  }            × 100 = 40.50 %
                                                158.04


wdkqNúl iQ;%h ( ixfhda.hl ixhq;sh yd tl`. jk mßos jQ ta ta mrudKq ixLHd w;r ir,
                u mQ¾K ixLHd;aul wkqmd;h fmkakqï lrk iQ;%h tys wkqNúl iQ;%h
                kï fõ'
                ksoiqka ( fnkaiSkaj, wkqNúl iQ;%h CH fõ'
wKql iQ;%h (    ixfhda.hl wKqjl we;s ta ta uQ,øjH mrudKq ixLHdj kshu jYfhka
                fmkakqï lrk iQ;%h wKql iQ;%h fõ' ixfhda.hl idfmalaI wKql
                ialkaOh yd idfmalaI wdkqNúl iQ;% ialkaOh w;r wkqmd;h mQ¾K
                ixLHdjla fõ'
                ksoiqka ( fnkaiSkaj, wKql iQ;%h C6H6 fõ'

                                                    35
                               idfmalaI wKql ialkaOh
                                                            }n
                               idfmalaI wdkqNúl iQ;% ialkaOh
                               wKql iQ;%h } ^wdkqNúl iQ;%h&n
ksoiqk (
ldnksl ixfhda.hl ialkaOh wkqj C- 48.12 % la o H - 8.32 % la o N- 21.20 % la o wvx.= fõ'
b;sßh Tlaiscka fõ'
 ^I& ixfhda.fha wdkqNúl iq;%h ks¾Kh lrkak'
 ^II& idfmalaI wKql ialkaOh 155 kï ixfhda.fha wKql iQ;%h ks¾Kh lrkak'
                                     H = 1.01, C = 12.00, N = 14.00, O = 16.00
C, Hiy N ialkaO m%;sY;j, tl;=j                          = 48.12+ 8.32+21.20 = 77.64%
t neúka O ys ialkaO m%;sY;h                             = 100 - 77.64
                                                        = 22.36%
 ixfhda.h 100 g ie,lSfuka
                               C         H              N            O
 ialkaO wkqmd;h                 48'12   ( 8'32 (      21'20        ( 22'36
 ujq, wkqmd;h                   48'12   ( 8'32 (      21'20       ( 22'36
                                12'00     1'01        14'00         16'00
                                4'01    ( 8'32 (       1'51       ( 1'40
 ujq, w;r ir,                   4'01    ( 8'32 (       1'51        ( 1'40
 wkqmd;h                        1'40      1'40         1'40           1'40
 ^l=vd u ixLHdfjka fnoSfuka&
                                 2'9 ( 5'9           ( 1'1        ( 1
 ujq, w;r ir,
 mQ¾K ixLHd;aul                  3    ( 6        (     1      (      1
 wkqmd;h
wdkqNúl iQ;%h C3H6NO
idfmalaI wdkqNúl iQ;% ialkaOh                        = 3(C) + 6(H) + 1(N) + 1(O)
                                                     = 3(12) + 6(1) + 1(14) + 1(16)
                                                     = 72
ixfhda.fha idfmalaI wKql ialkaOh                     = 155
                     tu ksid n                       = 155/72
                                                     = 2.15
n hkq mQ¾K ixLHdjla jk neúka n } 2
tu ksid wKql iQ;%h = (C3H6NO)n
                               = (C3H6NO)2
                               = C 6H 12N 2O 2

fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
         ² fN!;sl rdYs hkq l=ula oe hs y÷kajd fokak' ñkqï jYfhka ,nd .kakd" w¾:
           olajk ,o" .Kka lr ,nd .kakd yd w.h mjrk ,o fN!;sl rdYs jYfhka
           tajd úia;r lrkak'
         ² úúO .Ks; l¾uj, oS id¾:dxl yiqrejk wdldrh WÑ; ir, WodyrK weiqßka
           myod fokak'
         ² m%;sY; ixhq;s ,nd oS we;s úfgl ixfhda.j, wdkqNúl iQ;% yd wKql iQ;%
           ksjeros j ,nd .ekSug fhduq lrkak'

                                                              36
ksmqK;dj 2'0                ( ridhksl .Kkh ksje/os j isÿ lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 2'2            ( ñY%Kj, ixhq;s úúO wdldrj,ska m%ldY lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                     ( 04 hs'

bf.kqï M,                   (
       ² ixhq;sh hkak w¾: olajhs'
       ² ialkaO Nd.h" mßud Nd.h yd ujq, Nd.h w¾: olajhs'
       ² ialkaO Nd." mßud Nd. yd ujq, Nd. wdY%s; .eg¨ úi|hs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² ñY%Khl ixhq;sh Nd.hla f,i m%ldY l< yels h'

       ² A yd B ñY%Khl oS
                                              A ialkaOh
                 A j, ialkaO Nd.h }
                                         A ialkaOh + B ialkaOh
          ksoiqk ( Zn, Mg yd Cu wvx.= ñY% f,dayhl 5'00 g ialkaOhl Mg 1'00 g wvx.=
                   fõ kï
                                      1.00 g   1
                Mg ialkaOh Nd.h } 5.00 g }
                                               5

       ² A yd B     ñY%Khl oS
                                              A mßudj
                 A j, mßud Nd.h }
                                         A yd B ñY%Kfha uq`M mßudj
          ksoiqk ( t;fkda,a 20.00 cm3 mßudjlg uq`M mßudj 100.00 cm3 jk f;la c,h
                   tl;= lrkq ,efí'

               t;fkda,ays mßud Nd.h }

       ² A yd B ñY%Khl oS          A ujq, .Kk
                     A ujq, Nd.h } uq`M ujq, .Kk

          KCl ujq, 5la NaCl ujq, 3la ñY% ù we;s moaO;shl

                 KCl ys ujq, Nd.h }


       ² fldgia ñ,shkhlska fldgia .Kkla (ppm) f,i m%ldYs; ixhq;h } Nd.h×106
                                                                s
       ² fldgia ì,shkhlska fldgia .Kkla (ppb) f,i m%ldYs; ixhq;sh } Nd.h×109

          ksoiqk (    hï ødjKhl 20'000 g la ;=< A kï ødjHh 0'020 g la wvx.= fõ'

                      ^I&   A ødjHfha ialkaO Nd.h }




                                            37
       ^II& ødjKfha A ixhq;sh fldgia ishhlg fldgia .Kkla    (pph) f,i



       ^III& ødjKfha A ixhq;sh fldgia odylg fldgia .Kkla   (ppt) f,i




       ^IV& ødjKfha A ixhq;sh fldgia ñ,shkhlg fldgia .Kkla    (ppm) f,i




fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
      ² moaO;sj, wvx.= oE ms<sn| m%udKd;aul f;dr;=re úúO wdldrj,ska isiq
         lKavdhïj,g bosßm;a lrkak'
      ² ialkaO Nd.h" mßud Nd.h fyda ujq, Nd.h WÑ; mßos fhdod f.k tu moaO;sj,
        ixhq;s m%ldY lsÍug fhduq lrjkak'
      ² pph, ppt, ppm wdosh WÑ; mßos f;dard .ksñka ixhq;sh m%ldY lsÍug fhduq
        lrkak'




                                      38
ksmqK;dj 2'0           ( ridhksl .Kkh ksje/os j isÿ lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 2'3       ( wod< ksh; fhdod .ksñka ridhksl .Kkh lsÍïj, fhfohs'

ld,Éfþo                ( 07 hs'

bf.kqï M,              (
       ² wej.dâfrda ksh;h ^L&" jdhq ksh;h ^R& yd *erfâ ksh;h ^F& w.h yd tall
         iys;j m%ldY lrhs'
       ² wej.dâfrda ksh;h" jdhq ksh;h iy *erfâ ksh;h iïnkaO .Kkhkaa isÿ
         lrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² wej.dâfrda ksh;h ^L&

                            hk iólrKh u`.ska fokq ,efí'
                  fuys N - wxY= ixLHdj
                        n - øjH ^ujq,& m%udKh
          wej.dâfrda ksh;h ^L& } 6'022×1023 mol-1

       ² jdhq ksh;h ^R&
         jdhq ms<sn| yeoEÍfï oS jdhq ksh;h ^R& yuq fõ'
       ² hï jdhq ksheoshla i,luq' jdhqfõ mSvkh P, mßudj V, jdhq m%udKh ujq, n yd
         jdhqfõ ksrfmalaI WIaK;ajh T jk úg
            PV = nRT
         jdhq ksh;h R = 8.314 J K-1 mol-1
       ² *erfâ ksh;h ^F&
         fm%dafgdakfha ujq,sl wdfrdamKh f,i *erfâ ksh;h w¾: oelafõ'
            F = eL
            L - wej.dâfrda ksh;h
            e - bf,lafg%dakfha wdfrdamKh
            *erfâ ksh;h F = 96485 C mol-1


fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
       ² isiqka lKavdhïj,g fnod wej.dâfrda ksh;h" id¾j;% jdhq ksh;h yd merfâ
         ksh;h ms<sn| f;dr;=re idlÉPd lsÍug fhduq lrjkak'
       ² tajd wdY%s; ir, .eg¨ bosßm;a lrñka isiqkag wNHdi lsÍug i,iajkak'




                                        39
ksmqK;dj 2                ( ridhksl .Kkh lsßïj, fhfohs'

ksmqK;dj uÜgu 2'4         ( ;=,s; ridhksl iólrK wdYs%; .Kkh lsßïj, fhfohs'

ld,Éfþo                   ( 08 hs'

bf.kqï M,                 (
       ² ialkaO iy wdfrdamK ixia;s:sh ie,ls,a,g .ksñka" ridhksl iólrKhl
         ;=,s;;dj mÍlaId lrhs'
       ² fidaÈis l%uh" .Ks;uh l%uh ^ix.=Kl ieie|Sfï l%uh& iy TlaislrK$
         TlaisyrK yd w¾O m%;sl%shd weiqßka iólrK ;=,kh lrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² ridhksl iólrKhla u.ska m%udKd;aul f;dr;=re ,nd.ekSu i|yd th ;=<s;
         úh hq;= h'
       ² fidaÈis l%uh (Inspection Method)
         m%;sls%hl iy m%;sM,j, tla tla mrudKq ixLHd ;=,kh lsÍfuka iólrKh
         ;=,kh lsÍu fidaÈis l%uh f,i ye¢kaúh yel' fuu l%ufha § m%;sls%hdj,
         M,j, wvx.= jk uQ,øjH fjka fjka jYfhka ;=,kh lrkq ,efí' m<uq j
         wju mrudKq .Kkla wvx.= jk uQ, øjH i,ld n,k w;r tl u uQ,øjH
         mrudKqj,ska iukaú; wKq ^ksoiqka - Cl2, O2) wjidk mshjf¾ § i,ld n,kq
         ,efí'
         ksoiqka (- C5H10(g) + 15/2O2 (g)  5CO2(g) + 5H2O (l)
            tlsfklg fjkia uQ,øjH ;=kla by; iólrKfha i|yka ix>glj,
            oelafõ'
            C tl m%;sls%hlhl yd M,hl wvx.= fõ'
            H tl m%;sl%shl yd M,hl wvx.= fõ'
            O tl m%;sls%hl yd M, foll wvx.= fõ'

             C   ;=,kh        C5H10(g) + O2 (g)           5CO2(g) + H2O (l)
             H   ;=,kh        C5H10(g) + O2 (g)           5CO2(g) + 5H2O (l)
             O   ;=,kh        C5H10(g) + 15/2O2 (g)       5CO2(g) + 5H2O (l)

             15/2   hkak 15 hk mQ¾K ixLHdjg mßj¾;kh lsÍu i|yd 2 ka .=K l< hq;=
           h'
           ;=,s; iólrK 2C5H10(g) + 15O2 (g)            10CO2(g) + 10H2O (l)
       ² .Ks;uh l%uh
               s %s
           m%;lhl yd M, okakd úg ix.=Kl ieie£fï l%uh u.ska iólrK ;=,kh
           lsrSu .Ks;uh l%uh f,i oelaúh yel'
            ksoiqk ( a Cu + b HNO3          c Cu(NO3)2 + d NO + e H2O

          ix.=Kl ieieª úg
            Cu mrudKq ie,l+ úg          a=c
            H mrudKq ie,l+ úg           b = 2e
            N mrudKq ie,l+ úg           b = 2c + d
            O mrudKq ie,l+ úg           3b = 6c + d + e

                                               40
            a=1  kï c = 1
            wdfoaY l< úg
                       b = 2 + d ...... (1)
                       3b = 6 + d +e .....(2)
            b = 2e w.h ms<sfj<ska          ^1& iy ^2& g wdfoaY l< úg
            2e = 2 + d
            6e = 6 + d + e
            2e - d = 2 ...... (3)
            5e - d = 6 ...... (4)
            (4) - (3) ka ;
            3e = 4
              e = 4/3

            b = 2 x 4/3 = 8/3
            d = b - 2 = 8/3 - 2 = 2/3

            ix.=Kl wdfoaY l< úg
                   8
            Cu +   3   HNO3                    Cu (NO3)2 +   NO +   H2O
            3 ka .=K l< úg
            3Cu + 8HNO3                        3Cu (NO3)2 + 2NO + 4H2O

       ² TlaislrK$TlaisyrK w¾O m%;sls%hd weiqfrka m%;sl%shd ;=,kh lsÍu

          ksoiqka ( - Cu ;kql HNO3 iu`. m%;sls%hd lr Cu(NO3)2 " NO iy H2O idohs'
                                                      4
                                                      2
                   s %s           s
            w¾O m%;lhd weiqßka ;=,; iólrK f.dvkexùfï § whk jYfhka ie,lSu
                                      3
            myiqfõ'

          TlaisyrK w¾O m%;sls%hdj
                NO3-                     NO

               (+5)                     (+2)

mshjr 1 - TlaislrK wxl weiqfrka bf,lafg%dak yqjudrej ;=,kh lsÍu


mshjr 2 - wdfrdamK ;=,kh - ^wdï,sl udOHfha § wdfrdamK ;=,kh lsÍug H+Ndú;d
          l< yel'&


mshjr 3 - ialkaO ;=,kh $mrudKq ;=,kh
                                                    (1)
TlaislrK w¾O m%;sls%hdj
         Cu → Cu2+
         by; whqßkau ;=,kh l< úg
         Cu → Cu2+ + 2e...... (2)
         iólrK ;=,kh i|yd TlaisyrKfha oS ,nd.;a bf,lafg%dak ixLHdj yd
         TlaislrKfha oS bj;a jQ bf,lafg%dak ixLHdj ;=,kh l< hq;= h'

                                                     41
          (1) × 2 + (2) × 3




fhdað; bf.kqï b.ekaùï ls%hdldrï (
        ² p- f.dkqj yd d- f.dkqj wdYs%; b.ekaùï ld¾hhfha § yuq jk iólrK
          ;=,kh i|yd bÈßm;a lrkak'
        ² isiqkag fidaÈis l%uh" .Ks;uh l%uh yd TlaislrK- TlaisyrK l%uh wdYs%; j
          iólrK ;=,kh lsÍu i|yd lKavdhï mejreula fokak'




                                       42
ksmqK;dj 2'0           ( ridhksl .Kkh ksje/os j isÿ lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 2'5       ( úúO tall weiqßka m%ldYs; ixhq;s w;r in|;d u;= lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                ( 08 hs'

bf.kqï M,              (
       ² ujq,$mßud weiqßka m%ldYs; ixhq;sh idkaøKh jYfhka y÷kajhs'
       ² ialkaO$mßud" ujq,$ialkaO yd ujq,$mßud weiqßka m%ldYs; ixhq;s w;r in|;d
         u;= lrhs'
       ² ixhq;sh ialkaO$mßud" ujq,$mßud yd ujq,$ialkaO weiqßka .Kkh lr m%ldY
         lrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² ixhq;sh m%ldY l< yels úúO wdldr we;' tajd kï
            ialkaO Nd.h
            mßud Nd.h
            ujq, Nd.h
            ialkaO$mßud
            ujq,$mßud
            ujq,$ialkaO
       ² ujq,$mßud weiqfrka m%ldYs; ixhq;sh idkaøKh f,i y÷kajkq ,efí'
                                                   s
       ² b;d l=vd m%udKj,ska wvx.= ix>glj, ixhq;h ppm fyda ppb u`.ska fndfydaúg
         m%ldY lrkq ,efí'
         ppm } ialkaO Nd.h × 106 yd ppb } ialkaO Nd.h × 109 f,i o
         ppm } mrsud Nd.h × 106 yd ppb } mrsud Nd.h × 109f,i bosrsm;a l< yels h'
       ² c,fha >k;ajh          } 1000 g dm-3 fõ'
         ;kql c,Sh ødjKhl >k;ajh 1000 g dm-3 f,i ie,lsh yels h' t neúka
         ødjK 1 dm3 ialkaOh } 1 kg } 1000 g } 1000000 mg
         t jeks úgl ialkaO$mßud wkqmd;hla jqj o ppm f,i m%ldY l< yels h'
         ialkaO Nd.hla f,i
         1ppm hkq fldgia 1000000 mg l fldgia 1 mg wvx.= fõ hkakhs' t neúka
         ;kql ødjK i|yd
            1ppm = 1 mg kg -1 = 1 mg dm-3
                   = 1 μg g -1     = 1 μg cm-3

          ksoiqk ( ødjKhl Fe3+ ixhq;sh 1'5 ppm f,i m%ldY lr we;' tu ixhq;sh
                   >k fvis ógrhg ujq,j,ska m%ldY lrkak'
                   1'5 ppm = 1'5 mg dm-3




                                        43
      ² wdfrdamK >k;ajh

           wdfrdamK >k;ajh                f,i w¾: oelafõ'
         ksoiqk (
         ødjKhl Fe3+ whk idkaøKh 1 mol dm-3 fõ' ødjKfha + wdfrdamK >k;ajh
         fidhkak'

         + wdfrdamK >k;ajh




      ² mßudj fjkqjg ialkaOh fhdod we;s úg




fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
      ² ixhq;s fiùug wod< .eg¨ lKavdhïj,g bosßm;a lr tajd .Kkh lsÍu
         Wmfoia fokak'




                                     44
ksmqK;dj 3'0           ( mod¾:fha m%Odk wjia:dj, yeisÍï úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 3'1       ( mod¾:j,g wdfõKsl ,dlaIKsl úia;r lsÍu i|yd mod¾:fha
                           m%Odk wjia:d ;=fkys wxY= ieliS we;s wdldrh fhdod .kshs'

ld,Éfþo                ( 03 hs'

bf.kqï M,              (
       ² mod¾:fha m%Odk wjia:d jk >k" øj yd jdhqj, wxY= ieleiau úia;r lrhs'
       ² wxY= ieleiau weiqßka >k" øj yd jdhqj, mßudj" >k;ajh" yevh iy iïmSvH;dj
            hk .=K ixikaokh lrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (

                           >k                     øj                    jdhq

     mrsudj               a
                       ksYÑ; hs'                 a
                                              ksYÑ; hs'            wka;¾.; n÷fka
                                                                   mßudj w;alr .kshs'

     yevh                 a
                       ksYÑ; hs'              wka;¾.; n÷fka        wka;¾.; n÷fka
                                              yev w;alr .ksh'  s   uq`M mßudj w;alr
                                              kuq;a n÷fka uq`M     .ksh's
                                              mßudj mqrd jHdma;
                                              fkdfõ'

     iïmSvkhg ,la      iïmSvkh                iïmSvkh              úYd, jYfhka
     lsÍfï yelshdj     l< fkd yels h'         l< fkd yels h'       iïmSvkhg ,la
                                                                   l< yels h'

     >k;ajh                          s
                       by< w.hla .ksh'                      s
                                              by< w.hla .ksh'                    s
                                                                   my< w.hla .ksh'




fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
       ² WÑ; ksoiqka weiqfrka mod¾:fha wika;;sl iajNdjh ms<sn| idlaIH u;=
            lrkak'
       ² >k" øj yd jdhqj, wxY= ieleiau úia;r lr oS ta weiqßka mßudj" yevh
         iïmSvkhg ,la lsÍfï yelshdj yd idfmalaI >k;ajh hk .=K iei|Sug
         isiqka fhduq lrkak'
       ² WÑ; ir, l%shdldrlï lsysmhla wdo¾Ykh lsÍfuka mod¾:fha wika;;sl
         iajNdjh ms<sn| idlaIH u;= lrkak'
       ² >k" øj yd jdhq mod¾:j, wxY= ieleiau ms<sn| isiqkaf.a fmr oekqu isysm;a
         lrkak'
       ² ta weiqfrka >k" øj yd jdhqj, yevh" mßudj" iïmSvkhg ,la lsÍfï yelshdj
         yd idfmalaI >k;aj ms<sn| ixikaokh lsÍu isiqkag mjrkak'


                                         45
   q
ksmK;dj 3             ( mod¾:fha m%Odk wjia:dj, yeisÍï úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 3'2      ( ;d;aúl jdhqj, yeisÍï rgd úia;r lsÍu i|yd mßmQ¾K jdhq
                          ms<sn| wdlD;sh fhdod .kshs'

ld,Éfþo               ( 08 hs'

bf.kqï M,             (
       ² mrsmQ¾K jdhq iólrKh m%ldY lr tys mo y÷kajhs'
                                           a                               a
       ² mßmQ¾K jdhq iólrKh weiqfrka fndhs," pd,aia yd wej.dâfrda kshu jHq;mkak
         lrhs'
       ² jdhqjl ujq,sl mßudj mÍCIKd;aul j ks¾Kh lr jd¾;d lrhs'
       ² mßmQ¾K jdhq iólrKh wdY%s; .eg¨ úi|hs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² jdhqjl WIaK;ajh" mSvkh" mßudj yd øjH ^ujq,& m%udKh hk idOl jdhqfõ
          yeisÍu flfrys n,mdhs' jdhqjla ms<sn| by; i|yka rdYs y;r we;=<;a
          iïnkaO;djla f,i mßmq¾K jdhq iólrKh ye¢kaúh yels h'
                                                 id¾j;% jdhq ksh;h
                          PV = nRT
                                                 R = 8.314 J K-1 mol-1


       ² mßmQ¾K jdhq iólrKh weiqfrka fndhs,a kshuh jHq;amkak lsÍu'
                         PV = nRT
          ksh; WIaK;ajhl § ksh; jdhq ialkaOhla i|yd nT .=Ks;h ksh; fõ'
          R ksh; ksid nRT= k ksh;hls'

                          PV = k (fyda        fyda          )


          tkï ksh; WIaK;ajhl mj;sk ksh; jdhq ialkaOhl mSvkh" jdhqfõ
          mßudjg m%;sf,dau j iudkqmd;sl fõ' ^fndhs,a kshuh&

       ² mßmQ¾K jdhq iólrKh weiqfrka pd,aia kshuh jHq;amkak lsÍu'




          ksh; jdhq ialkaOhl mSvkh ksh; úg              ksh;hls'


                             ^fyda V = kT fyda V αT &
          tkï ksh; mSsvkhla hgf;a mj;sk ksh; jdhq ialkaOhl mßudj" jdhqfõ
          ksrfmalaI WIaK;ajhg wkqf,dau j iudkqmd;sl fõ' ^pd,aia kshuh&

                                         46
      ² mßmQ¾K jdhq iólrKh weiqfrka wej.dâfrda kshuh jHq;amkak lsÍu'




         fuys N yd L hkq ms<sfj,ska jdhq wKq .Kk yd wej.dâfrda ksh;h fõ'
         tlu WIaK;ajfha yd mSvkfha mj;sk A yd B jdhQkaf.a iudk mßud i|yd
         by; iïnkaO fh§fuka




         tkï tlu WIaK;ajfha yd mSvkfha mj;sk úúO jdhQkaf.a iudk mßud ;=<
         iudk wKq .Kkla wka;¾.; fõ' ^wej.dâfrda kshuh&

fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
      ² iïu; WIaK;ajfha oS yd mSvkfha oS mßmQ¾K jdhq ujq,hla iïnkaOfhka
        f;dr;=re wdfoaY lr jdhq ksh;fha w.h ,nd .ekSug isiqka fhduq lrjkak'
      ² fndhs,a" pd,aia yd wej.dâfrda kshu i|yka lr tajd mßmQ¾K jdhq iólrKh
        weiqfrka jHq;amkak lsÍug fhduq lrjkak'




                                     47
ksmqK;dj 3'0             ( mod¾:fha m%Odk wjia:dj, yeisÍï úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 3'3         ( ;d;a;aúl jdhqj, yeisrSu úia;r lrkq msKsi jdhq   ms<sn|
                             wKql pd,l jdoh fhdod .kshs'

ld,Éfþo                  ( 04 hs'

bf.kqï M,                (
       ² wKql pd,l jdofha Wml,amk i|yka lrhs'
       ² wKql pd,l iólrKh m%ldY lr tys mo y÷kajhs'
       ² uelaiafj,a-fnda,Üiaudka jl% uÕska jdhq ms<sn| j bosßm;a lr we;s f;dr;=re
          úia;r lrhs'
       ² jdhqf.da,Sh ixhq;sh flfrys úfhda. m%fõ.fha jeo.;alu úia;r lrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² wKql pd,l jdofha Wml,amk (
         ² jdhqjl wKq wLKav wyUq p,s;hl fhfoñka mj;S'
         ² wyUq p,s;fha fhfok wKq tlsfkl .efÜ'
         ² wKq tlsfkl .eà fmd,d mekSfï oS moaO;sfha iuia; pd,l Yla;sh ksh;
            j mj;S'
          ² jdhq mSvkh we;s jkafka jdhq wKq wka;¾.; n÷fka ì;a;s u; .eàu
            fya;=fjks'

       ² wKql pd,l iólrKh

          P=   mSvkh
          V=    jdhqfõ mßudj
          m=   jdhq wxY=jl$wKqjl ialkaOh
          N=   uq`M jdhq wxY=$wKq ixLHdj
             = j¾. uOHkH m%fõ.h
          tla tla jdhq wxY=j, m%fõ. ms<sfj<ska c1, c2, ......, cN   kï




          j¾. uOHkHh uQ, m%fõ.h }

          uOHkHh m%fõ.h }
       ² úfhda. m%fõ.h
          ´kE u jia;=jla mDÓú .=re;ajdl¾IKfhka iïmQ¾Kfhka u ñoS wNHdjldYhg
          m%úIaG ùu i|yd mDÓú mDIaGfhka m%lafIamKh úh hq;= wju m%fõ.h tys
          úfhda. m%fõ.h f,i y÷kajkq ,efí' jdhq wxY=jl uOHkH m%fõ.h mDÓúfha
          úfhda. m%fõ.h blaujd .sh úg th mDÓú jdhqf.da,fhka bj;a ù hhs'

                                           48
         ² yhsârcka" yS,shï jeks ieye,a¨ jdhqj, uOHkH m%fõ.h" mDÓúfha úfhda.
           m%fõ.h blaujd hk neúka tajd mDÓú jdhqf.da,fhka bj;a j f.dia we;'

      ² hï j¾.hl wKq fjk;a j¾.hl wKq wka;¾.; wjldYhla mqrd jHdma; ùu
         úirKh f,i ye|skafõ'
         ksoiqka ( .kaOhlska hq;a øjHhla ldurhl ;enQ úg tu >kaOh ldurh mqrd
                    tldldr j jHdma; jk f;la úirKh ùu isÿ fõ'
         úirKh ùfï YS>%;dj - >k < øj < jdhq
         úúO jdhq fjkia YS>%;dj,ska úirKh jk nj mÍlaIKd;aul j fidhd f.k
         we;' wefudakshd iy yhsv%laf,daßla wKq jd;h ;=<ska úirKh ù wefudakshï
         laf,darhsâ ksmoùu my; wegjqu u`.ska wdo¾Ykh l< yels h' idfmalaI wKql
         ialkaOh wvq wefudakshd wKqj, úirK YS>%;dj yhsârckalaf,darhsâ wKqj,g
         jvd jeä nj ñka meyeos,s fõ'




                                     yhsârlaf,daßla        idkaø wefudakshd
                                     wï,h                  ødjKh


      ² úirKh YS>%;dj flfrys n,mdk idOl
        j¾. M,h" idkaøK wkql%uKh iy WIaK;ajh muKla i|yka lsÍu m%udKj;a
        h'
      ² jdhqjl uOHk m%fõ.h WIaK;ajh iu`. úp,kh jk wkaou my; uelaiafj,a
        fnda,aÜiaudka jl%j,ska oelafõ'
                hï Yla;shlska hq;a
                wKq Nd.h




                                                           wKql Yla;sh$ kJ mol-1

fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
      ² wKql pd,l iólrKh y÷kajd oS wKql pd,l jdofha Wml,amk ms<sn| j
        idlÉPd lrkak'
      ² uelaiafj,a-fnda,aÜiaudka jl% bosßm;a lr tajdfhka jdhq yeisÍu ms<sn| ,efnk
        f;dr;=re idlÉPd lsÍug isiq lKavdhï fhduq lrkak'
      ² m%;sldrl fnda;,hlg øj fn%daóka ìxÿjla oud ixjD; lr ksÍlaIKh lsÍug
        ie,eiaùfuka úirKh wdo¾Ykh lrkak'

                                                      49
ksmqK;dj 3'0              ( mod¾:fha m%Odk wjia:dj, yeisÍï úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 3'4          ( jdhq ñY%Khl yeisÍu ú.%y lsÍug fvda,agkaf.a wdxYsl
                              mSvk kshuh Ndú; lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                   ( 02 hs'

bf.kqï M,                 (
       ² wdxYsl mSvkh hkak y÷kajd" fvda,agkaf.a wdxYsl mSvk kshuh m%ldY lrhs'
       ² mßmQ¾K jdhq iólrKh weiqfrka fvda,agkaf.a wdxYsl mSvk kshuh jHq;amkak
         lrhs'
       ² fvda,agkaf.a wdxYsl mSvk kshuh wdY%s; .eg¨ úi|hs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² jdhq ñY%Khl uq`M mSvkh flfrys ix>gl jdhq u`.ska odhl jk m%udKh
           tajdfha wdxYsl mSvk f,i ye|skafõ'
       ²   jdhq ñY%Khl ix>gl jdhqjla ñY%Kh wka;¾.; n÷fkys ;ks j wvx.= lr
           ;sfnk úg we;s lrkq ,nk mSvkh tu ix>gl jdhqfõ wdxYsl mSvkh fõ'
       ²   fvda,agkaf.a wdxYsl mSvk kshuh
           jdhq ñY%Khl uq`M mSvkh tla tla ix>gl jdhqfõ wdxYsl mSvkj, tl;=jg
           iudk fõ'
       ²   A, B yd C jdhq wka;¾.; ñY%Khl oS tla tla jdhqfõ wdxYsl mSvk ms<sfj<ska
           PA, PB yd PC fõ kï
           ñY%Kfha uq`M mSvkh Pt } PA+ PB + PC
       ²   mßmQ¾K jdhq iólrKh weiqfrka fvda,agkaf.a wdxYsl mSvk kshuh jHq;amkak
           lsÍu
           A yd B jdhq ñY%Khl tla tla jdhqfjka ms<sfj<ska ujq, nA yd nB wvx.= fõ'
           PV = nRT
           A jdhqj i|yd




           B jdhqj i|yd




           jdhq ñY%Kh i|yd




                                          50
fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
                            a                 s               S
      ² jdhqf.da,h úúO jdhQkf.a ñY%Khla nj isym;a lr jdhqf.da,h mSvkh flfrys
        tla tla ix>gl jdhqfõ odhl;ajh fln÷ o hkak ms<sn| nqoaê l,ïnk
        idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak'
            s
      ² mka;h lKavdhï lr my; i|yka wdldrfha ir, .eg¨ úioSug fhduq lrkak'
        ² jdhq ñY%Khl tla tla ix>gl jdhqfõ wdxYsl mSvk oS we;s úg jdhq ñY%Kfha
          ixhq;sh yd uq`M mSvkh ks¾Kh lsÍu
        ² jdhq ñY%Khl uq`M mSvkh yd ixhq;sh oS we;s úg tla tla jdhqfõ wdxYsl
          mSvk ks¾Kh lsÍu
        ² jdhq ñY%Khl uq`M mSvkh yd wdxYsl mSvk oS we;s úg ixhq;sh ks¾Kh
          lsÍu'




                                      ntotal = n A + nB
                                     PtotalV PAV PBV
                                             =      +
                                      RT       RT RT
                                     ∴ Ptotal = PA + PB




                                      51
ksmqK;dj 3'0           ( mod¾:fha m%Odk wjia:dj, yeisÍï úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 3'5       ( ;d;a;aúl jdhq i|yd fhÈh yels jk fia mßmQ¾K jdhq
                           iólrKh i|yd ixfYdaOk fhdackd lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                ( 03 hs'

bf.kqï M,              (
       ² iïmSvH;d idOlh w¾: olajd ;d;aúl yd mßmQ¾K jdhq iïnkaO j tu w.h
         úp,kh jk wkaou m%ia;dßl j bosßm;a lrhs'
       ² ;d;a;aúl jdhq" mßmQ¾K jdhq yeisÍfuka wm.ukh ùug fya;= pd,l wKql
         jdofha Wml,amk Wmqgd olajñka úia;r lrhs'
       ² ;d;a;aúl jdhq mßmQ¾K yeisÍfuka olajk wm.uk i|yd ixfYdaOk we;=<;a
         lr ilia l< iólrKhla f,i jeka v' jd,aia iólrKh bosßm;a lrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (

       ²

         z hkq iïmSvH;d idOlh fõ' mßmQ¾K jdhq i|yd z } 1 fõ' kuq;a ;d;a;aúl
         jdhq i|yd fuu w.h ksh;hla fkdjk nj mÍlaIKd;aul f;dr;=re u`.ska
         fy<s ù we;'
       ² WIaK;ajh 273 K ys oS úúO jdhq i|yd PV .=Ks;hg tosß j P ys m%ia;drh




                                                  mßmQ¾K jdhq




           wvq mSvk ;;a;aj hgf;a ;d;a;aúl jdhq" mßmQ¾K yeisÍug <`.d jk nj fuu
           m%ia;drhg wkqj meyeos,s fõ'




                                        52
      ² úúO WIaK;ajhka oS yhsârcka jdhq ujq,hla i|yd PV/RT w.hg tosß j P ys
         m%ia;drh




                                   mSvkh

         by< WIaK;ajhka ys oS ;d;a;aúl jdhq mßmQ¾K yeisÍug <`.d jk nj by;
         m%ia;drj,g wkqj meyeos,s fõ'

      ² jeka v' jd,aia iólrKh

        P } mSvkh
        V } mßudj
        n } øjH ^ujq,& m%udKh
        R } id¾j;% jdhq ksh;h
        T } ksrfmalaI WIaK;ajh
        a yd b hkq ;d;a;aúl jdhq i|yd ksh; ^jeka v' jd,aaia ksh;& fõ'
        jeka v' jd,aaia iólrKh weiqfrka .Kkhka isÿ lsÍu wkjYH hs'

fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
      ² iïmSvH;d idOlh ;d;a;aúl jdhq iïnkaOfhka fjkia jk wkaou m%ia;dr
        weiqfrka wOHhkhg i,iajkak'
      ² ;d;a;aúl jdhq mßmQ¾K;ajfhka wm.ukh ùug fya;= yd mßmQ¾K yeisÍug
        <`.d jk ;;a;aj idlÉPd lsÍug fhduq lrkak'
      ² ;d;a;aúl jdhq i|yd fhosh yels jk fia jeka v' jd,aia iólrKhg ixfYdaOk
        we;=<;a lr we;s wdldr idlÉPd lrkak'




                                      53
ksmqK;dj 4'0             ( tka;e,ams fjkia ùï yd wyUq;dfõ fjkia ùï úu¾Ykh
                             lrñka ridhksl moaO;sj, ia:dhS;dj yd úm¾hdi isÿ ùug
                             we;s yelshdj ms<sn| fm/hSï lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 4'1         ( m%;sl%shlj, yd M,j, tka;e,ams w.h ii|ñka ridhksl
                             moaO;sj, ia:dhS;dj ms<sn| fm/hSï lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                  ( 06 hs'

bf.kqï M,                (
       ² moaO;sh" mßirh" udhsu" ixjD; moaO;sh" újD; moaO;sh yd tal,s; moaO;sh w¾:
         olajhs'
       ² tka;e,amsh wjia:d Y%s;hla f,i yd ;dm.;sl .=Khla f,i y÷kajhs'
       ² j.=.; l< tka;e,ams o;a; weiqfrka m%;sl%shd wdY%s; tka;e,ams úm¾hdi .Kkh
         lrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² úYajfhka wOHhkh i|yd f;dard.;a fldgi moaO;sh f,i ye|skafõ'
       ² wOHhkh i|yd úYajfhka f;dard.;a fldgi yereKq fldg b;sß ish,a, mßirh
          kï fõ'
       ² moaO;sh yd mßirh fjka flfrk iSudj udhsu f,i ye|skafõ'

               moaO;sh   mßirh
                         udhsu
       ² udhsu yryd Yla;sh yd mod¾:h yqjudre jk moaO;s újD; moaO;s kï fõ'

                              Yla;sh yd mod¾:

       ² udhsu yryd Yla;sh muKla yqjudre jk moaO;s ixjD; moaO;s fõ'

                                  s
                              Yla;h

       ² udhsu yryd Yla;sh;a" mod¾:h;a hk fol u yqjudre fkd jk moaO;s tal,s;
          moaO;s kï fõ'
       ² mod¾: m%udKh u; r|d mj;sk .=K ú;a;s .=K kï fõ'
         ksoiqka ( ialkaOh" mßudj" ;dm Odß;dj
       ² mod¾: m%udKh u; r|d fkdmj;sk .=K >gkd .+K kï fõ'
         ksoiqka ( WIaK;ajh" mSvkh" >k;ajh" ÿiai%dú;dj" ujq,sl mßudj" ujq,sl
                   ;dmOdß;dj
       ² moaO;shl WIaK;ajh" mSvkh" tys wvx.= øjH" tajdfha m%udK wdosh ms<sn|
                                           a
         úia;rh moaO;shl wjia:dj f,i ye|skfõ' hï moaO;shla i|yd fuu f;dr;=re
         iqúfYaIS fõ'
       ² moaO;shla mj;sk wjia:djg iqúfYaIS w.hla iys; .=K wjia:d Y%S; hkqfjka
         ye|skafõ' fuu .=K moaO;sfha b;sydih u; r|d fkd mj;shs'

                                          54
      ² wjia:d Y%s;hl isÿ jk fjkia ùfï m%udKh tys wdrïNl wjia:dj yd wjidk
         wjia:dj u; muKla r|hs' fjki isÿ lrkq ,nk ud¾.fhka iajdh;a; fõ'
      ² mßudj" WIaK;ajh" >k;ajh" j¾;kdxlh wdosh wjia:d Y%s; i|yd ksoiqka fõ'
      ² ksh; mSvk ;;a;aj hgf;a oS" moaO;shlg imhkq ,nk fyda moaO;shlska msg
        lrkq ,nk fyda ;dm m%udKh tka;e,ams fjki ^ΔH& jYfhka ye|skafõ' fuh
        ;dm .;sl .=Khls' wjia:dfõ Y%s;hls'
      ² m%;sl%shdjla wdY%s; tka;e,ams úm¾hdi ^ΔH&" M,j, yd m%;sl%shlj, tka;e,ams
        fjkiska ,efí'
               ΔH = HM, - Hm%;sl%shl
      ² m%;sl%shdjla wdY%s; tka;e,ams úm¾hdih
           ΔH < 0 kï m%;sl%shdj ;dmodhl fõ'
           ΔH > 0 kï m%;sl%shdj ;dmjfYdaIl fõ'
      ² m%;sl%shdj isÿ ù we;s m%udKh ^Extent of Reaction - ε& ms<sn| ixl,amh fuu úIh
        ks¾foaYh ;=< wksjd¾h fkd flf¾' ta wkqj fok ,o m%;sl%shdjla bosßfha
        kJ mol-1 ^m%;sl%shd isÿ ù we;s tall m%udKhlg Yla;s fjki& hkak fjkqjg
        Ndú; jka f ka m% ; s l % s h djg wod< uq ` M Yla ; s fjki kJ fõ' ta wkq j
        iafgdhslsfhdañ;sl wxl ^υ -tallh 1 hs'& fjkqjg iafgdhslsfhdañ;sl ix.=Kl
        ^mol& Ndú; fõ' tfy;a m%;sl%shdj isÿ ù we;s m%udKh ms<sn| ixl,amh IUPAC
        u`.ska ks¾foaY fldg we;s fyhska th Ndú; lr isÿ lrk .Kkhka o we.hSïj,
        oS ksjeros f,i i,lkq ,efí'

fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
      ² úúO m%;sl%shd wdY%s; m%;sl%shl yd M, i;= iïu; tka;e,ams w.h ^t kï tu
         øjHj, iïu; W;amdok tka;e,ams w.h& isiq lKavdhïj,g ,nd oS tu m%;sl%shd
         wdY%s; tka;e,ams úm¾hdi ΔH = HM, - Hm%;sl%shl weiqfrka .Kkh lsÍug fhduq
         lrjkak'




                                        55
ksmqK;dj 4'0            ( tka;e,ams fjkia ùï yd wyUq;dfõ fjkia ùï úu¾Ykh
                            lrñka ridhksl moaO;sj, ia:dhS;dj yd úm¾hdi isÿ ùug
                            we;s yelshdj ms<sn| fm/hSï lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 4'2        ( wdY%s; tka;e,ams úm¾hdi úYaf,aIKh lrñka mßj¾;k isÿ
                            ùug we;s yelshdj ms<sn| fm/hSï lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                 ( 16 hs'

bf.kqï M,               (
       ² úIh ks¾foaYhg we;=<;a tka;e,ams úm¾hdi iy iïu; tka;e,ams úm¾hdi
          w¾: olajhs'
       ² tka;e,ams rEmigyka yd ;dm ridhksl pl% Ndú;fhka úúO l%shdj,s wdY%s;
          tka;e,ams úm¾hdi .Kkh lrhs'
       ² úúO ix>glj, ødjK tka;e,ams mÍlaIKd;aul j ks¾Kh lr jd¾;d lrhs'
       ² wï,j, yd Niauj, WodiskSlrK tka;e,ams mÍlaIKd;aul j ks¾Kh lr
         jd¾;d lrhs'
       ² m%;sia:dmk m%;sl%shdjl tka;e,ams úm¾hdi mÍlaIKd;aul j ks¾Kh lr jd¾;d
         lrhs'
       ² fyia kshufha j,x.=;dj iqÿiq m%dfhda.sl mÍlaIKhla weiqfrka mÍlaId lr
         jd¾;d lrhs'
úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² iïu; W;amdok tka;e,amsh ^        &θ
                                        ΔH C
          iïu; ;;a;aj hgf;a we;s ixfhda. ujq, tlla iïu; ;;a;aj hgf;a we;s tys
          ix>gl uQ,øjHj,ska W;amdokh lsÍfï oS isÿ jk tka;e,ams úm¾hdih hs'
          ksoiqka ( H2O(l) ys W;amdokfha iïu; tka;e,amsh -286 kJ mol-1 fõ'
                    th fufia oelaúh yel'




       ² iïu; oyk tka;e,amsh ^        &
          iïu; ;;a;aj hgf;a oS uQ,øjHhl fyda ixfhda.hl fyda ujq,hla jeäuk;a
          Tlaiscka ;=< uq`Mukska u oykh lsÍfï oS isÿjk tka;e,ams úm¾hdih hs'




                                         θ
       ² iïu; nkaOk ú>gk tka;e,amsh ^ ΔH D &
                   a                                                      a
          iïu; ;;a;j hgf;a oS jdhquh m%fNaohl nkaOk ujq,hla ì| jdhquh ;;a;jfha
          ix>gl njg m;alsÍfï oS isÿ jk tka;e,ams úm¾hdih hs' ^fuh úfYaIs; l<
          uQ,øjHhl fyda ixfhda.hl úfYaIs; l< nkaOkhla iïnkaOfhka m%ldY
          flf¾'&



                                         56
    ² iïu; WodiSkslrK tka;e,amsh ^ ΔH θ t &
                                      neu

      iïu; ;;a;aj hgf;a oS c,Sh ødjKhl we;s H+ whk ujq,hla c,Sh ødjKhl
      we;s OH- whk ujq,hla iu`. m%;sl%shd lr c,h ujq,hla iEoSfï oS isÿ jk
      tka;e,ams úm¾hdih hs'


    ² iïu; øjK tka;e,amsh ^     &
      iïu; ;;a;aj hgf;a oS jdhquh whk ujq,hla jeäuk;a ødjl m%udKhla
      yuqfõ" ødjK ;;a;ajhg m;aùfï oS isÿ jk tka;e,ams úm¾hdih hs'
                        jeäuk;a
Δ        Mn+ (g) +      ødjlh
                                   → Mn+ (solvent)

    ² iïu; c,SlrK tka;e,amsh ^       &
      iïu; ;;a;aj hgf;a oS jdhquh whk ujq,hla jeäuk;a c,h m%udKhla iu`.
      ødjK ;;a;ajhg m;aùfï oS isÿ jk tka;e,ams úm¾hdih hs'
         Na+(g)+H2O(l)→ Na+(aq)


    ² iïu; ixl%uK tka;e,amsh
      iïu; ;;a;ajfha mj;sk øjHhl ujq,hla tla l,dmhl isg tu øjHfha u
      fjk;a l,dmhla njg m;aùfï oS isÿ jk tka;e,ams úm¾hdih hs' ^fuys oS
      l,dmhla jYfhka úfYaIfhka nyqrEmS wdldr woyia flf¾' l,dm úm¾hdi
      jYfhka .efkk fN!;sl wjia:d úm¾hdi yd wdY%s; tka;e,ams úm¾hdi fjku
      úia;r flf¾'&
        C(graphite) → C(diamond)
    ² iïu; ødjK tka;e,amsh ^           &
      iïu; ;;a;aj hgf;a hï øjH ujq,hla ødjlhl osh lr 1 dm3l ødjKhla
      iEoSfï oS isÿ jk tka;e,ams úm¾hdih hs'
        NaCl(s) + (aq) → NaCl (aq)
                           } 1 kJ mol-1
    ² fyia kshuh
      ridhksl m%;sl%shdjl oS isÿjk tka;e,ams úm¾hdih" m%;sl%shdj l=uk ud¾.h
      Tiafia isÿ l< o ksh; w.hla .kshs'


              ΔΗ2    ΔΗ3


                    E

      fyia kshuhg wkqj
        ΔH1= Δ H2+ΔH3




                                           57
                                        2C(S,gr)




           tka ; e,a m s h




                                  tka;e,ams rEmigyk




                             2C(S,gr)




                                   ;dm ridhksl pl%h


fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
      ² ;dmodhl m%;sl%shdjla yd ;dmdjfYdaIl m%;sl%shdjla wdo¾Ykh lrkak'
      ² fhdað; m%dfhda.sl l%shdldrlï isÿ lrkak'
      ² ;dm-ridhksl pl% yd tka;e,ams rEmigyka Ndú; lr lKavdhï jYfhka
         .eg¨ úi|Sug fhduq lrkak'




                                           58
ksmqK;dj 4'0              ( tka;e,ams fjkia ùï yd wyUq;dfõ fjkia ùï úu¾Ykh
                               lrñka ridhksl moaO;sj, ia:dhS;dj yd úm¾hdi isÿ ùug
                               we;s yelshdj ms<sn| fm/hSï lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 4'3          ( fndaka - ydn¾ pl% fhdod .ksñka whksl moaO;sj, ia:dhS;dj
                               ms<sn| fm/hSï lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                   ( 08 hs'

bf.kqï M,                 (
       ² whksl ixfhda.j, W;amdok tka;e,amsh ks¾Kh lsÍfï oS fhdod .efkk úIh
         ks¾foaYhg we;=<;a tka;e,ams úm¾hdi w¾: olajhs'
       ² whksl ixfhda.hla W;amdokh lsÍu yd iïnkaO fndaka - ydn¾ ^Born-Haber&
         pl%h f.dv kxjhs'
                                                                           s
       ² fndaka - ydn¾ pl%h wdOdrfhka whksl ixfhda.hl iïu; W;amdok tka;e,amh
         .Kkh lrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² iïu; W!¾èjmd;k tka;e,amsh ^       &
          iïu; ;;a;aj hgf;a >k uQ,øjHhl ujq,hla fyda >k ixfhda.hl ujq,hla
          fyda iïmQ¾Kfhka jdhquh wjia:djg m;a lsÍfï oS isÿjk tka;e,ams úm¾hdih
          hs'
               Ca(s) → Ca(g)
       ² iïu; jdIamSlrK tka;e,amsh ^       &
          iïu; ;;a;aj hgf;a mj;sk øj ixfhda.$uQ,øjH ujq,hla jdhquh ixfhda.$
          uQ,øjH ujq,hla njg m;alsÍfï oS isÿ jk tka;e,ams úm¾hdih hs'
               Br2(l) → Br2(g)
       ² iïu; ú,hk tka;e,amsh ^       &
          iïu; ;;a ; a j hgf;a mj;a k d >k ixfhda . $uQ , øjH ujq , hla " øj
          ixfhda.$uQ,øjH ujq,hla njg m;alsÍfï oS isÿ jk tka;e,ams úm¾hdih hs'


       ² iïu; ;+lrK tka;e,amsh ^iïu; mrudKqlrK tka;e,amsh& ^         &
          iïu; ;;a;aj hgf;a oS uQ,øjHhla jdhquh wjia:dfõ we;s mrudKq ujq,hla
          njg m;alsÍfï oS isÿ jk tka;e,ams úm¾hdih hs'


       ² m<uq whkSlrK tka;e,amsh ^               &
          iïu; ;;a;aj hgf;a oS jdhquh uQ,øjH mrudKq ujq,hlska kHIaáhg ,sys,aj
          u ne|S we;s bf,lafg%dakh ne.ska bj;a lr jdhquh tal Ok whk ujq,hla
          iEoSfï oS isÿjk tka;e,ams úm¾hdih hs'


                                            59
                                                  θ
      ² bf,lafg%dak ,nd .ekSfï iïu; tka;e,amsh ΔH EA   (        )
         iïu; ;;a;aj hgf;a oS jdhquh ;;a;ajfha mj;sk mrudKq ujq,hlg
         bf,lafg%dak ,nd oS jdhquh ;;a;ajfha mj;sk tal RK whk ujq,hla iEoSfï
         oS isÿ jk tka;e,ams úm¾hdihhs'
         Cl(g) + e → Cl- (g)   ΔH EA = −352 kJ mol-1
                                  θ


                                                  θ
      ² whksl ixfhda.hl iïu; oe,sia tka;e,amsh ΔH L    (    )
         iïu; ;;a;aj hgf;a oS jdhquh Ok whk iy RK whkj,ska >k wjia:dfõ
         we;s whksl ixfhda.hl ujq, tlla iEoSfï oS isÿ jk tka;e,ams úm¾hdih hs'



      ² fndaka - ydn¾ pl%h
                                         s
         whksl ixfhda.hl W;amdok tka;e,amh fiùu i|yd f.dvk`.k ;dm ridhksl
         pl%h fndaka - ydn¾ pl%h f,i y÷kajhs'




                                                                           θ
                                         Na + (g) + Cl- (g) → NaCl(s)   ΔH L = -780 kJ mol -1




                 >k NaCl W;amdokh i|yd fndaka-ydn¾ pl%h


fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
      ² wod< tka;e,ams úm¾hdi w¾: olajkak'
      ² úúO whksl ixfhda. isiq lKavdhïj,g mjrd tajdfha W;amdok tka;e,ams
        fiùug wod< tka;e,ams w.hka imhkak'
                                                                             s
      ² fndaka - ydn¾ pl%h weiqfrka mjrk ,o whksl ixfhda.fha W;amdok tka;e,amh
        .Kkh lsÍug isiqkag mjrkak'




                                        60
ksmqK;dj 4'0             ( tka;e,ams fjkia ùï yd wyUq;dfõ fjkia ùï úu¾Ykh
                             lrñka ridhksl moaO;sj, ia:dhS;dj yd úm¾hdi isÿ ùug
                             we;s yelshdj ms<sn| fm/hSï lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 4'4         ( ridhksl úm¾hdij, iajhxisoaO;dj ms<sn| fm/hSï lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                  ( 07 hs'

bf.kqï M,                (
       ² tkafg%dmsh (S) yd .síia (G) Yla;sh hk mo úia;r lrhs'
       ² Δ G, Δ H hk Δ S w;r iïnkaO;dj m%ldY lrhs'
       ² lsishï m%;sl%shdjl fyda isoaêhl iajhxisoaO;dj ms<sn| j Δ G wdOdrfhka
          fm/hSï lrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² moaO;shl tkafg%dmsh hkq moaO;sfha wyUq;dj ms<sn| ñkquls'
                             s
       ² tkafg%dmsh wjia:d Y%;hla jk w;r th moaO;sfha wdrïNl yd wjidk wjia:dj
         u; muKla r|d mj;sk w;r fjkia ùï isÿ jk ud¾.h u; r|d mj;S'
       ² tkafg%dmsh o fN!;sl yd ridhksl fjkia ùï flfrys n,mdk idOlhls'
                                        a                                    =
       ² tal,s; moaO;shl isÿ jk iajhxisoO fjkia ùï tkafg%dmsfha jeä ùu fya;fjka
         isÿ fõ'
             s                                           s
       ² lsihï moaO;shla yd iïnkaO tkafg%dmsh wjia:d Y%;hla ksid" tkafg%dms fjki
         wjidk tkafg%dms w.fhka wdrïNl tkafg%dms w.h wvq lsÍfuka .Kkh l<
         yels h'
                                ΔS = Swjidk - SwdrïNl
         ridhksl m%;sl%shdjla i|yd
                                ΔS = S M, - S m%;sl%shl
         fuu fjki iïu; ;;a;aj hgf;a uek we;s úg
                                ΔSθ = SθM, - Sθm%;sl%shl

       ² úm¾hdihla flfrys ΔH iy ΔS j, iuia; n,mEu ΔG kï .síia Yla;s
         fjki u`.ska ,nd foa' ksh; WIaK;ajfha oS ^T& fïjd w;r iïnkaO;dj fufia
          hs'
                                  ΔG = ΔH - TΔS
          iajhxisoaO j isÿ jk m%;sl%shdjla i|yd     ΔG<O
          iajhxisoaO j isÿ fkd jk m%;sl%shdjla i|yd ΔG>O
          iu;=,s; m%;sl%shdjla i|yd                 ΔG = O

       ² ksh; tkafg%dms moaO;shl ^ΔS = 0& iajhxisoaO;dj ΔH u`.ska ;SrKh jk w;r
         ksh; tka;e,amsh hgf;a ^ΔH = 0& isÿjk úm¾hdihl iajhxisoaO;dj ΔS u`.ska
          ;SrKh fõ'




                                         61
fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
           s s%          a                     a
      ² m%;lhdjl iajhxisoO;dj fyda oS we;s ;;a;jhla hgf;a th isÿ fkdùu ;SrKh
          flfrk idOlh tka;e,ams fjki muKla fkdjk nj fmkaúh yels WodyrK
          imhkak'
          ksoiqka (
              m%;sl%shdjl Δ H > 0 úg oS bfí isÿ jk wjia:d
              m%;sl%shdjl Δ H < 0 úg oS bfí isÿ fkdjk wjia:d
      ²   l%shdjla ùu$fkdùu ta wdY%s; moaO;sfhys wyUq;d fjkiaùu u; o r|d mj;akd
          nj m%ldY lrkak'
      ²   wyUq;dj iy th m%udKd;aul j oelaùug Ndú; lrk 'tkafg%dmsh' .=Kd;aul
          j meyeos,s lrkak'
      ²   Δ H > 0 kuq;a iajhxisoaO j isÿ jk ridhksl m%;sl%shd i|yd ksoiqka olajd
          wyUq;dj tys oS jeä ù we;s wdldrh fmkajkak'
      ²   uQ,øjHj, iy ixfhda.j, wyUq;dj m%udKd;aul j ks¾Kh lr j.=.; lr
          we;s nj fmkajkak'
      ²   ΔS, Δ H yd Δ G w.hka imhd oS" we;s m%;sl%shdjla iajhxisoaOj isÿ fõ o fkd
          fõ o hk j. ;SrKh lsÍug isiqka fhduq lrkak'
          wjYH úgl oS ΔG = ΔH - TΔS iólrKh Ndú;hg o fhduq lrkak'




                                        62
ksmqK;dj 5'0            ( s, p yd d f.dkqj,g wh;a uQ,øjHj, yd i x f h d a . j ,
                            .=K y÷kd .ekSu i|yd tajd úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 5'1        ( s yd p f.dkqj,g wh;a uQ,øjHj, .=K yd tajdfha úp,k
                            rgd úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                 ( 08 hs'

bf.kqï M,               (
       ² s iy p f.dkqj, uQ,øjHj, fN!;sl .=K úia;r lrhs'
       ² s iy p f.dkqj, uQ,øjH" wdj¾;hla Tiafia bosßhg fmkakqï lrk m%jK;d
          m%ldY lrhs'
       ² s iy p f.dkqj, uQ,øjH" ldKavhla Tiafia my<g fmkakqï lrk m%jK;d
          m%ldY lrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (

       ² s iy p f.dkqj, uQ,øjHj, fN!;sl .=K
       m<uq wdj¾;h
       uQ,øjH               Li     Be     B       C        N        O       F      Ne
       fN!;sl wjia:dj       s      s      s       s        g        g       g      g
       øjdxlh$0C            180    1280   2030    3700^G& -210      -219    -220   -250
                                                  3550^D&
       ;dmdxlh$0C           1330   2480   3930    4830    -200      -180    -190   -245

       fo jk wdj¾;h
       uQ,øjH               Na     Mg     Al      Si       P        S       Cl     Ar
       fN!;sl wjia:dj       s      s      s       s        s        s       g      g
       øjdxlh$0C            98     650    660     1410     44       119     -101   -189
       ;dmdxlh$0C           890    1120   2450    2680     280      445     -34    -186
       ² iyixhqc wrh

                                   tl u uQ,øjHfha mrudKq folla iyixhqc j
                                   ne|S we;s úg tu mrudKq fol w;r wka;¾ kHIaál
                                   ÿßka yß wvla tys iyixhqc wrh f,i ye|ska fõ'
                                   iyixhqc wrh } d/2
                  d
       ² jeka v' jd,aia wrh (      wKq folla tlsfklg yels ;dla <`.ska mj;sk
                                   úg" wdikakfha mj;sk kHIaá fol w;r ÿßka yß
                                   wvla jeka v' jd,aia wrh kï fõ'
                            d
                                                 jeka v' jd,aia wrh } d/2




                                          63
² f,dayl wrh
  ² f,day oe,sfia we;s hd no legdhk kHIaá folla w;r we;s ÿßka yß wvla
      f,dayl wrh fõ'

                           d
                                   f,dayl wrh } d/2


  ² kHIaál wdfrdamKh iy ksjdrl wdprKh mrudKql wrh flfrys n,mdhs'
  ² ldKavhla osf.a my<g hdfï oS iyixhqc mrudKql wrh jeä jk w;r
      wdj¾;hl jfï isg ol=Kg hdfï oS wvq fõ'
² ixhqc;dj iy TlaislrK wxl
  ² wekdhk iy legdhk iEoSu ixhqc;d ljpfha we;s bf,lafg%dak .Kk iy
      whkslrK Yla;sh u; r|d mj;S'
  ²   I, II, III ldKavj, uQ,øjH legdhk idok w;r V, VI, VII ldKavj, uQ,øjH
      wekdhk idohs'
  ²   IV ldKavj, uQ,øjH M4+ whk fkd idohs' thg fya;=j m<uq" fojk"
      f;jk yd isõjk whkSlrK Yla;sj, tl;=j by< w.hla .ekSuhs'
  ²   wdj¾;hla Tiafia bosßhg hk úg uQ,øjHj, Wmßu TlaislrK wxlh
      jeä fõ'
  ²   lsishï ixfhda.hl oS uQ,øjHhlg ;sìh yels by< u TlaislrK wxlh tys
      we;s ixhqc;d bf,lafg%dak ixLHdjg iudk fõ'


                               Tlaihsvj, oS TlaislrK wxl
                               yhsârhsvj, oS TlaislrK wxl
                               laf,darhsvj, oS TlaislrK wxl
            TlaislrK wxl




² bf,lafg%dak nkaOq;dj
  ² fndfyda uQ,øjHj, m<uq bf,lafg%dak nkaOq;dj RK w.hla .kshs' thg
      fya;=j tl;= jQ bf,lafg%dakh kHIaál wdfrdamKh u`.ska wdl¾IKh lsÍu
      hs' fo jk bf,lafg%dak nkaOq;dj ieu úg u Ok w.hla .kshs' thg
      fya;=j oekgu;a RK wdfrdams; whkhlg RK wdfrdams; bf,lafg%dakhla
      tl;= ùu hs'




                                   64
      ² fo jk yd f; jk wdj¾;j,g wh;a uQ,øjHj, m<uq bf,lafg%dak nkaOq;d

      uQ,øjH             Li      Be    B       C      N     O      F

               a
      bf,lafg%dk         -59'6   +66   -26'7   -122   +31   -141   -318
          q
      nkaO;dj$kJ mol-1
      uQ,øjH             Na      Mg    Al      Si     P     S      Cl

               a
      bf,lafg%dk         -90     +67   -30     -135   -60   -200   -364
          q
      nkaO;dj$kJ mol-1

      ² wdj¾;hla yryd jfï isg ol=Kg hdfï oS mrudKql wrh wvq jk w;r
        whkSlrKh Yla;sh jeä fõ' tu ksid legdhk iEoSfï m%jK;dj wvq jk
        w;r TlaislrKh lsrSfï yelshdj o wdj¾;hla yryd hdfï oS wvq fõ'
      ² tfia u wdj¾;hla yryd jfï isg ol=Kg hdfï oS wekdhk ieoSfï yelshdj
        jeä jk w;r TlaisyrKh lsÍfï yelshdj o jeä fõ'

fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
      ² wdj¾; Tiafia bosßhg yd ldKav Tiafia my<g s yd p f.dkqj,g wh;a uQ,øjH
         fmkakqï lrk úp,k rgd .fõIKh lsÍug isiqkag u`. fmkajkak'




                                       65
ksmqK;dj 5'0             ( s, p yd d f.dkqj,g wh;a uQ,øjHj, yd i x f h d a . j ,
                             .=K y÷kd .ekSu i|yd tajd úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 5'2         ( s, p yd d f.dkqj,g     wh;a uQ , øjHj, ridhks l .= K
                             úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                  ( 06 hs'

bf.kqï M,                (
       ² s f.dkqfõ uQ,øjH jd;h" c,h yd ;kql wï, iu`. isÿ lrk m%;sl%shd
         ikaikaokd;aul j ksÍlaIK lr jd¾;d lrhs'
       ² m<uq yd fo jk ldKavj, uQ,øjH jd;h" c,h yd ;kql wï, iu`. olajk
         m%;sl%shdj, iajNdjh tu ldKav Tiafia my<g úp,kh jk wkaou úia;r
         lrhs'
       ² m<uq yd fo jk ldKavj,g wh;a uQ,øjH yd p f.dkqfõ uQ,øjH jd;h" c,h
         yd ;kql wï, iu`. olajk m%;sl%shd ;=,s; ridhksl iólrK weiqfrka m%ldY
         lrhs'
       ² s yd p f.dkqj,g wh;a uQ,øjH c,h" jd;h yd wï, iu`. olajk m%;sl%shd
         ksÍlaIKh lr jd¾;d lrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² c,h iu`.
         ² m<uq jk ldKavfha f,day ish,a, u c,h iu`. m%;sl%shdlr H2 msg lrñka
               yhsâfrdlaihsv njg m;a fõ'
             ksoiqka( Na c,h iu`. fõ.fhka m%;sls%hd lrñka yhsârcka msg lrhs'
                     2Na(s) + 2H2O(l) → 2NaOH(aq) + H2(g)
             l=vd K lene,a,la c,hg tl;= l< úg .sks .ksñka m%;sl%shd lrhs'
          ² Na j,g jvd fõ.fhka K c,h iu`. m%;sl%shd lrk neúka ldKavfha
             my<g h;a u c,h iu`. m%;sl%shd Ys>%;dj jeä jk nj ks.ukh l< yels
             h'
           ² fo jk ldKavfha uQ,øjHhla jk Mg ys msßisÿ lrk ,o lene,a,la c,hg
             tl;= l< úg m%;sl%shd jk nj olakg fkd ,efí' Mg iys; c,h WKqiqï
             l< úg fifuka m%;sl%shd jk nj olakg ,efí'
                     Mg(s) + 2H2O(l) → Mg(OH)2(aq) + H2(g)
          ² Na j,g idfmalaIj Mg c,h iu`. olajk m%;sl%shdldÍ;ajh wvq neúka
             m<uq jk ldKavfha f,dayj,g idfmalaI j fo jk ldKavfha f,day c,h
             iu`. wvq m%;sl%shdldÍ;ajhla olajk nj lsj yels h' Be c,h iu`. m%;sl%shd
             fkd lrhs' Ca, Sr iy Ba c,h iu`. m%;sl%shd lr H2 msglrñka
               yhsâfrdlaihsv idohs'
                     Ca(s) + 2H2O(l) → Ca(OH)2(aq) + H2(g)
          ² Be iy Mg yqud,h iu`. m%;sl%shd fldg f,day Tlaihsv idohs'
                     Be(s) + H2O(g) → BeO(s) + H2(g)
                     Mg(s) + H2O(g) → MgO(s) + H2(g)
          ² p-f.dkqfõ uQ,øjH ie,l+ úg ye,cka muKla c,h iu`. m%;sl%shd lrk
               w;r m%;sl%shdldÍ;ajh ldKavfha my<g hk úg wvq fõ'

                                         66
   *a¨fjdÍka c,fha we;s Tlaiscka úia:dmkh lrhs'
     2F2(g) + 2H2O(l) → 4HF(aq) + O2(g)
  il%shk Yla;sh by< neúka Cl2 c,h iu`. fiñka m%;sl%shd lrhs'
     Cl2(g) + 2H2O(l) → HCl(aq) + HOCl(aq)
      0                    (-1)         (+1)
  *a¨fjdÍka yer wfkl=;a ye,ck c,h iu`. by; i|yka mßos oaúOdlrK
  m%;sl%shdjla olajhs'
² jd;h iu`.
  ² m<uq ldKavfha f,day jd;h iu`. olajk m%;sl%shd lsysmhls'
     ksoiqka (
         4Na(s) + O2(g) → 2Na2O(s)
         2Na(s) + O2(g) → Na2O2(s)
     jd;fha CO2 we;s úg Na2CO3 iEÈh yels h'
         Na2O(s) + CO2(g) → Na2CO3(s)
     K, Rb, Cs iqm¾ Tlaihsv idoñka m%;sl%shd fõ'
         K(s) + O2(g) → KO2(s)
     m<uq ldKavfha Li muKla jd;fha r;a l< úg khsÜrcka iu`. m%;sl%shd
     lrhs'
         6Li(s) + N2(g)        2Li3N(s)
  ² msßisÿ lrk ,o ue.akSishï má lene,a,la yd l=vdjg lmd .;a fidaähï
                                                                 S s
     lene,a,la jd;hg újD; j ;nd ál fõ,djlska ksÍCIKh l< úg ue.akihï
     máhg jvd flá ld,hl oS fidaähï lene,af,a È,siqu wvq jk nj olakg
     ,efí' fï wkqj jd;h iu`. ue.akSishïj, m%;sl%shdldÍ;ajh fidaähï
     j,g jvd wvq nj meyeÈ,s fõ'
  ² t neúka m<uq jk ldKavfha f,dayj,g idfmaCIj fo jk ldKavfha f,day
     jd;h iu`. m%;sl%shdldÍ;ajh wvq h'
  ² fo jk ldKavfha f,day jd;fha r;al< úg Tlaihsv iy khsg%hsv idoñka
     oykh fõ'
         2Mg(s) + O2(g)         2MgO(s)
         3Mg(s) + N2(g)         Mg3N2(s)
     Be m%;sl%shd ùu i|yd b;d by< WIaK;ajhlg r;a l< hq;= hs'
  ² p-f.dkqfõ uQ,øjH ie,l+ úg we¨ñkshï jd;fha r;a l< úg Tlaihsv
     idoñka úYd, ;dm m%udKhla uqod yßñka m%;sl%shd fõ'
         4Al(s) + 3O2(g)        2Al2O3(s)
     Tlaihsâ mg,hlska wdjrKh ù mj;sk ksid ldur WIaK;ajfha oS we¨ñkshï
     jd;h iu`. m%;sl%shd fkd fõ'
  ² by< WIaK;ajfha oS C oykh ù CO2 idohs'
       C(s)+O2(g)      CO2(g)
    Si b;d by< WIaK;ajhlg r;a l< úg Tlaihsâ idohs'
  ² b;d by< WIaK;ajfha oS muKla O2 iu`. N2 m%;sl%shd ù NO idohs'
       N2(g) + O2(g) Â 2NO (g)
    iqÿ f*dia*ria jd;h iu`. ^O2& m%;sl%shd lrhs'
    iSñ; Tlaiscka yuqfõ        P4(s)+3O2(g) → 2P2O3(s)
    jeämqr Tlaiscka yuqfõ      P4(s)+5O2(g) → 2P2O5(s)
                                67
         ² S jd;fha oykh ù SO2 idohs'
           S(s)+O2(g)        SO2(g)
      ² wï, iu`.
        ² s f.dkqfõ f,day kHIaáhg ,sys,a j ne÷kq bf,lafg%dak msg lrñka WÉp
           jdhq úkHdih iys; ia:dhs legdhk idoñka Tlaisydrl f,i l%shd lrhs'
         ² m<uq jk ldKavfha f,day wï, iu`. m%;sl%shd lrñka úYd, ;dm m%udKhla
           uqod yßk neúka iafMdagkhla isÿfõ' t neúka mÍlaIdjg ,la lsÍu fkdl<
           hq;= h'


         ² fo jk ldKavfha f,day ;kql wï, iu`. m%;sl%shd lr fõ.fhka H2 msg
           lrhs'



           Mg u`.ska idkaø HNO3 TlaisyrKh ùu o isÿ fõ'



         ² p f.dkqfõ uQ,øjH wï, iu`. úYd, úúO;ajhlska hq;=j m%;sl%shd isÿ lrhs'



      ² C, S, P WKqiqï idkaø H2SO4 iu`. m%;sl%shd lrhs'




      ² C, S, P WKqiqï idkaø HNO3 iu`. m%;sl%shd lrhs'




fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
      ² msfkda,ama;,Ska ìxÿjla tl;= lrk ,o c, îlrhlg l=vd fidaähï lene,a,la
        tl;= lr ,efnk ksÍlaIK idlÉPd lrkak'
      ² msfkda,ama;,Ska ìxÿjla tl;= lrk ,o c,h wvx.= lelEreï k,hlg msßisÿ
        lrk ,o Mg má lene,a,la tl;= lr ksÍlaIKh lrkak' miqj tu ødjKh
        kgjd ksÍlaIKh lsÍug i,iajkak'
      ² c,h iy wï, iuÕ f,day olajk m%;sl%shd isÿ lr ksrSlaIK ,nd .ekSug
        wjia:dj i,ikak'


                                       68
ksmqK;dj 5'0            ( s, p yd d f.dkqj,g wh;a uQ,øjHj, yd i x f h d a . j ,
                            .=K y÷kd .ekSu i|yd tajd úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 5'3        ( s yd p f.dkqj,g wh;a ixfhda.j, .=K yd tajdfha úp,k
                            rgd úu¾Ykh lrhs'


ld,Éfþo                 ( 12 hs'

bf.kqï M,               (
       ² wod< ;dm.;sl o;a; Wmfhda.Slr .ksñka s f.dkqfõ ,jKj, c,fha ødjH;dj
         ixikaokh lrhs'
       ² wod< ;dm.;sl o;a; Wmfhda.S lr .ksñka s f.dkqfõ khsÜf¾gj, ldnfkagj,
         yd nhsldnfkagj, ;dmia:dhS;dj ks¾Kh lrhs'
       ² s yd p f.dkq j , fya , hs v " Tla i hs v " yhs â rhs v yd yhs â frdla i hs v j,
         wdï,sl$Ndiañl$WNh.=KS iajNdjh wdj¾; Tiafia bosßhg yd ldKav Tiafia
         my<g úp,kh jk wkaou m%ldY lrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² fok ,o ixfhda. hq.,hl ødjH;dj my; mßos iei|Sug l< yels h'




                                           69
² by; wjia:d folg wod< .síia Yla;s fjkiaùu iei|Su u`.ska tajdfha ødjH;d
  iei|sh yels h' .síia Yla;s fjki fuys oS MgSO4 i|yd >K w.hla jk w;r
  BaSO4 i|yd Ok w.hhla fõ' ta wkqj .síia Yla;s fjki jvd;a RK jk
  BaSO4 ys ødjH;dj MgSO4j,g idfmalaIj by< nj ks.ukh l< yel'
  ² ii|kq ,nk .síia Yla;s w.h hq.,u >K w.hka kï ixLHd;aul j jvd
    úYd, w.h iys; øjHfha ødjH;dj by< nj ks.ukh l< yel'
  ² ii|kq ,nk .síia Yla;s w.h hq.,u Ok w.hhka kï ixLHd;aul j l=vd
    Ok w.h iys; øjHfha ødjH;dj by< nj ks.ukh l< yel'
² fok ,o ixfhda. hq.,l ;dm ia:dhS;dj iei|Sfï oS o by; l%ufõoh u WÑ;
  fõ'




  by;       yd      iei|sfï oS jvd l=vd Ok w.h iys; ldnfkagh jk
  MgCO3 myiqfjka ;dm úfhdackhg ,la jk nj mqfrdal:kh l< yel' i;H
  jYfhka u MgCO3 ys úfhdack WIaK;ajh 540 0C oS muK jk w;r CaCO3
  úfhdackh jkqfha 900 0C oS muK h'
² s f.dkqfõ m<uq ldKavhg wh;a ,jK ish,a,la u mdfya c,fha ødjH fõ'
² s f.dkqjg wh;a fo jk ldKavfha f,day idok ,jKj, ødjH;dj ms<sn|
  f;dr;=re my; j.=fõ oelafõ'




                               70
       Cl-       Br-   I-       OH-
Be2+   ødjHh     ødjHh ødjHh    wødjHh wødjHh ødjHh     ødjHh   ødjHh   ødjHh ødjHh       ødjHh

Mg2+ ødjHh       ødjHh ødjHh    wødjHh wødjHh ødjHh     ødjHh   ødjHh   ødjHh ødjHh       ødjHh

Ca2+   ødjHh     ødjHh ødjHh    hï;ï wødjHh ødjHh       ødjHh   ødjHh   ødjHh hï;ï hï;ï
                                ødjHh                                          osh fõ osh fõ
Sr2+   ødjHh     ødjHh ødjHh    hï;ï wødjHh ødjHh       ødjHh   ødjHh   ødjHh wødjHh wødjHh
                                ødjHh
Ba2+   ødjHh     ødjHh ødjHh    fyd|ska wødjHh ødjHh    ødjHh   ødjHh   ødjHh osh   osh
                                ødjHh                                        fkd fõ fkd fõ




       ² 3 jk wdj¾;fha uQ,øjH idok Tlaihsvj, wdï,sl$Ndiañl$WNh.=KS iajNdjh

         Na2O          MgO         Al2O3       SiO2         P 2O 5      SO 2     Cl2O7
         m%n,          ÿn,         WNh.=KS     b;d ÿn,      ÿn,         wdï,sl   b;d m%n,
         Ndiañl        Ndiañl                  wdï,sl       wdï,sl               wdï,sl



       ² 3 jk wdj¾;fha uQ,øjHj, yhsfv%dlaihsvj, wdï,sl$Ndiañl$WNh.=KS iajNdjh
         NaOH          Mg(OH)2     Al(OH)3     Si(OH)4      P(OH)5      S(OH)6 Cl(OH)7
                                                    7           7          7          7
         NaOH          Mg(OH)2     Al(OH)3     H4SiO4       H3PO4       H2SO4    HClO4
         m%n,          ÿn,         WNh.=KS     b;d ÿn,      ÿn,         m%n,     b;d m%n,
         Ndiañl        Ndiañl                  wdï,sl       wdï,sl      wdï,sl   wdï,sl

       ² 3 jk wdj¾;fha yhsv%hsvj, wdï,sl$Ndiañl$WNh.=KS iajNdjh

         NaH           MgH2        AlH3        SiH4         PH3         H2S      HCl
         m%n,          ÿn,         WNh.=KS     b;d ÿn,      ÿn,         wdï,sl   b;d m%n,
         Ndiañl        Ndiañl                  wdï,sl       wdï,sl               wdï,sl


fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
         ² s f.dkqfõ uQ,øjH idok ,jKj, ødjH;d mÍlaId lsÍug isiq lKavdhïj,g
               wjia:dj fokak'
         ² s f.dkqfõ uQ,øjH idok khsÜf¾g" nhsldnfkag yd ldnfkagj, ;dmia:dhS;dj
           mÍlaId lsÍug fhduq lrkak'
         ² j.=.; l< .síia Yla;s w.hhka isiqka g ,nd oS ,jKj, ødjH;d yd ;dm
           ia:dhS;d iei|Sug isiqka fj; mjrkak'




                                               71
ksmqK;dj 5'0               ( s, p yd d f.dkqj,g wh;a uQ,øjHj, yd i x f h d a . j ,
                               .=K y÷kd .ekSu i|yd tajd úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 5'4           ( s yd p f.dkqj,g wh;a uQ,øjHj, yd ixfhda.j, úúO;ajh
                               y÷kd .ekSu msKsi tajd ms<sn| úu¾Ykfha fhfohs'

ld,Éfþo                    ( 15 hs'

bf.kqï M,                  (
       ² Tlaiscka" i,a*¾ yd f*dia*riaj, nyqrEmS wdldr ms<sn| f;dr;=re bosßm;a
           lrhs'
       ²   f*dia*ria" i,a*¾ yd laf,daÍka idok Tlais wï,j, jHqy bosßm;a lrhs'
       ²   H2O2 , H2 iy SO2 Tlaisldrl yd Tlaisydrl f,i yeisfrk wjia:d i|yd
           ksoiqka ;=<s; ridhksl iólrK weiqfrka bosßm;a lrhs'
       ²                       %
           c,Sh udOHfha oS yhsvcka fya,hsvj, wdï,sl;dj" laf,darhsvj, c, úÉfþokh
           laf,daÍka yd laf,daf¾Ü whkj, oaúOdlrKh yd ye,ckj, idfmalaI
           Tlaisldrl m%n,;d WÑ; ksoiqka f.k yer olajñka úia;r lrhs'
       ²   WÉP jdhqj, .=K i|yka lr tajd idok ixfhda. i|yd ksoiqka bosßm;a lrhs'
       ²   ksmqK;d uÜgu 5'4 hgf;a fhdað; m%dfhda.sl mÍlaIK isÿ lr jd¾;d lrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² f*dia*riaj, nyqrEmS wdldr




           iqÿ f*dia*ria       r;= f*dia*ria                      l¨ f*diamria
       ² f*dia*ria jd;fha we;s O2 iu`. m%;sl%shd lrk ksid c,fha .nvd lrhs'
         kuq;a N2 ys N ≡ N nkaOkfha m%n,;dj ksid ksoyia jdhqjla f,i jdhqf.da,fha
         mj;S'
       ² f*dia*ria ys Tlais wï,




             Hypophosphorus Acid           Orthophosphorus Acid            Phosphoric Acid




                                               72
² Tlaiscka ys nyqrEmS wdldr

  Tlaiscka O2                        ´fidaka O3

                   ²²
          ²²
           O
          ²²       O
                   ²²




² i,a*¾ys nyqrEmS wdldr
  ² i,a*¾j, nyqrEmS wdldr iaMálrEmS iy wiaMálrEmS hkqfjka m%Odk wdldr
     folls'
  ² ish¨ u iaMálrEmS i,a*¾ S8 wKqj,ska iukaú; fõ'




² iaMálrEmS i,a*¾




  frdïniSh i,a*¾                               taldk;s i,a*¾
  úksúo fmfkk ly meye;s iaMál fõ'              ÿUqre meye;s b|slgq jeks iaMál fõ'
  Tm = 113 0C                                  Tm = 119 0C

² wiaMálrEmS i,a*¾
  iqúld¾h i,a*¾ yd l,s, i,a*¾ fï i|yd ksoiqka h'
² i,a*¾j, Tlais wï,

               O                                                  O
                                         ² ²
               S                         S                        S
     HO             O         HO                 O          S            OH
           OH                            OH                       OH

          H2SO4                     H2SO3                       H 2 S2 O 3

                                    73
² yhsârcka fmfrdlaihsâ (H2O2)


                                                       H

         O                            O0       O1110
         1040                         98
   H            H

                                H
       H2O                                 H2O 2

² H2O2 Tlaisydrhla f,i




² H2O2 Tlaisldrhla f,i




² i,a*¾ vfhdlaihsâ ^SO2 &
  wj¾K jdhqjls' jd;hg jvd >k;ajhlska hqla; jk w;r lgql .kaOhla we;'
  c,fha fyd|ska osh fõ'
² SO2 c,fha osh ù i,amshqßla ^IV& wï,h idohs' th ÿn, wï,hls'
    SO2(g) + H2O(l) → H2SO3(aq)
² SO2 Tlaisldrlhla f,i
    2Mg(s) + SO2(g)       2MgO(s) + S(s)
    3Mg(s) + SO2(g)       2MgO(s) + MgS(s)
² SO2 Tlaisydrlhla f,i
      SO2 (g) + 2H2O (l)     4H+(aq) + SO 2- (aq) +2e
                                          4

  (i) H /KMnO4iu`.
       +

      5SO2(g) + 2H2O(l) + 2KMnO4 (aq)→ K2SO4(aq)+2MnSO4(aq)+2H2SO4(aq)

  (ii) H+/K2Cr2O7iu`.
      K2Cr2O7(aq) + H2SO4(aq) + 3SO2(g) → K2SO4(aq) + Cr2(SO4)3(aq) + H2O(l)

  (iii) FeCl3 (aq) iu`.
       FeCl3(aq) + SO2(g)+ 2H2O(l) → H2SO4(aq) + FeCl2(aq) +2HCl(aq)




                                 74
        ye,ck iu`.
     (iv)
        SO2(g)+Cl2(g)+2H2O(l)→H2SO4(aq) + 2HCl(aq)
    (v) H2O2iu`.
        H2O2(aq) + SO2 (g)→H2SO4(aq)
  ² úrxck ldrlhla f,i
        SO2(g) +2H2O(l) →H2SO4(aq)+2H+(aq) + 2e
        X      + 2H+ + 2e → XH2
            j¾Kj;a                 wj¾K ixfhda.h
            idhu
  ² yhsârcka i,a*hsâ (H2S)
  ² wj¾K jdhqjla jk w;r" c,fha uo jYfhka osh fõ' l=Kq ì;a;r .kaOhla
    we;'
  ² H2S c,Sh ødjKhla ;rula wdï,sl fõ'
        H2S(aq) Â H+(aq) + HS-(aq)
        HS-(aq) Â H+(aq) + S2-(aq)
  ² wdï,sl iajNdjh i|yd idlaIH
    (i) fidaähï iu`. m%;sl%shdj
        jeämqr 2H2S(g) + 2Na(s) → 2NaHS(s) + H2(g)

            2Na(s) + H2S(g) → Na2S(s) + H2(g)
        (ii) fidaähï yhsfv%dlaihsâ iu`. m%;sl%shdj
            jeämqr 2NaOH(aq) + H2S(g)→Na2S(s) + 2H2O(l)

            jeämqr H2S(g) + NaOH(aq)→NaHS(s) + H2O(l)

    ² H2S fndfyda f,day whk iu`. m%;sl%shd lr i,a*hsv ,nd foa' fuh f,day whk
        y÷kd .ekSfï mÍlaIdjla f,i fhdod .efka'
            Pb2+(aq) + H2S(g) → PbS(s) + 2H+(aq)
            Cu2+(aq) + H2S(g) → CuS(s) + 2H+(aq)
    ² H2S Tlaisydrlhla f,i
 (i) 2KMnO4(aq)+3H2SO4(aq)+5H2S(g)→K2SO4(aq)+5S(s)+2MnSO4(aq)+8H2O(l)
(ii) K2Cr2O7(aq)+4H2SO4(aq)+3H2S(g)→K2SO4(aq)+Cr2(SO4)3(aq)+3S(s)+7H2O(l)
 (iii) 2          (aq) + 12H+(aq) + 2H2S(g)→2S(s) + 2As3+(aq) + 8H2O(l)
    óg wu;rj c,Sh S2- whk iu`. As3+ m%;sl%shdù wjlafIamhla idohs'
        2As3+(aq) + 3S2-(aq) → As2S3(s)
    ² H2S Tlaisldrlhla f,i
        Cu(s)+H2S(g)          CuS(s)+H2(g)
    ² SO2 yd H2S jdhq fjkalr y|qkd .ekSu
    ^1& c,Sh H+/K2Cr2O7 ;=<ska fuu jdhq nqnq,kh l< úg ;eô,s mdg ødjKh fld<
                                                          q
        meyehg yefrk kuq;a S l,s, we;s ùu ksid H2S nqn,kh l< ødjKh wmeyeos,s
        fõ'
    ^2& c,Sh Pb(CH3COO)2j,ska fm`.jQ fmryka lvodishla jdhqjg we,aÆ úg H2S
        jdhqj u`.ska fmryka lvodish u; l`M mdgla we;s flf¾'

                                    75
       ^3& c,Sh H+/KMnO4 ;=<ska fuu jdhq fjka fjka j nqnq,kh l< úg oïmdg
           wj¾K jk w;r H2S nqnq,kh l< ødjKh i,a*¾ we;s ùfuka wmeyeos,s fõ'
       ^4& SO2 j,ska u,afm;s úrxckh isÿjk w;r H2S j,ska tfia fkdfõ'


       ² ye,ck
          F2     - ,d lymdg úI jdhqjls'
          Cl2    - ,d fld, mdgg yqre lymdg úI jdhqjls'
          Br2    - r;= ÿUqre øjhls'
          I2     - os,sfik l`Mmdg >khls' ^W!¾Ojmd;kh fõ&
          At     - úlsrKYS,S uQ,øjHhls'

       ² laf,darSkaj, Tlais wï,


                 O                        Cl                         Cl
        H                 Cl       HO               O          HO    O      O
            HOCl                        HClO2                       HClO3
                      O

                     Cl                                 Tlaisldrl .=Kh
            HO        O        O                        HOCl< HClO2<HClO3<HClO4
                                               ( ΔH )
                                                    θ
                                                    d
                                                    f
                     HClO4




yhsârcka fya,hsv ^HX&
                    &

                iïu; W;amdok            iïu; nkaOk ú>gk
                        s
                tka;e,amh                       s
                                        tka;e,amh
                      /kJ mol-1                /kJ mol-1        nkaOkh ÿ¾j, fõ'
                                                                nkaOk os. jeä fõ'
      HF             -273                      562
                                                                ia:dhS;dj wvq fõ'
      HCl             -92                      431
                                                                wdï,sl .=Kh jeä fõ'
      HBr             -36                      366
      HI               27                      299




                                               76
WÉpjdhq iy tajdfha ixfhda.

            ksIal%sh hs'   He
                                  ldur WIaK;ajfha
            ixfhda.        Ne
            fkd idohs             oS wj¾K jdhq fõ'
                           Ar
                                  ;ks mrudKq f,i
                           Kr     mj;S'
                           Xe
                           Rn - úlsrKYS,S h

             ;dmdxl b;d wvq h' ldKavh Tiafia my< u mrudKql l%udxlh jeä
       j;a u ;dmdxlh jeäfõ' mrudKql wrh jeäj;a u O%eùlrKh ùfï yelshdj jeä
       fõ'
             úoHq;a RK;dj jeä uQ,øjH iu`. Xe ixfhda. idok nj 1962 oS muK jk
       úg fidhd f.k ;sfí'
             ksoiqka ( XeF2, XeF4, XeF6, XeO3

       14 yd 15 ldKavj, laf,darhsvj, c,úÉfþokh
       CCl4 c, úÉfþokh fkdfõ'

            SiCl4 (l)+2H2O(l)→4HCl (aq)+SiO2(s)
            SiCl4 (l)+4H2O(l)→4HCl (aq)+Si(OH)4(aq)
            NCl3(g)+3H2O(l) →NH3(aq)+3HOCl(aq)
            PCl3(g)+3H2O(l) →H3PO3(aq)+3HCl(aq)
            PCl5(g)+H2O(l) →POCl3(aq)+2HCl(aq)
            PCl5(g)+4H2O(l) →H3PO4(aq)+5HCl(aq)
            AsCl3(aq)+3H2O(l) →H3AsO3(aq)+3HCl(aq)
            SbCl3(aq)+H2O(l) →SbO+(aq)+3Cl-(aq)+2H+(aq)
            BiCl3(aq)+H2O(l) →BiO+(aq)+3Cl-(aq)+2H+(aq)

       c,Sh udOHfha oS yhsv%cka fya,hsvj, wdï,sl;dj
       úh<s jdhq ;;a;ajfha we;s yhsârckafya,hsv wdï,sl fkd fõ' flfia kuq;a
       tajdfha c,Sh ødjK wdï,sl fõ'

            HCl (g)+H2O(l)→ H3O+(aq)+Cl-(aq)

       yhsâfrd*a¨fjdßla wï,h ÿn, wï,hla jk w;r wksl=;a yhsv%cka fya,hsv
       ish,a, u m%n, wï, fõ' fuhg fya;=j H-F nkaOkh úfYaIfhka Yla;su;a ùu
       hs'

                                      77
      laf,daÍkays oaúOdlrKh
      ^i& ;kql NaOH iu`.
           Cl2 (g) + 2NaOH(aq)→ NaCl(aq) + NaOCl(aq) + H2O(l)
           (0)                      (-1)        (+1)
      ^ii& idkaø NaOH iu`.
           Cl2 (g) + 6NaOH(aq)→ 5NaCl(aq) + NaClO3(aq) + 3H2O(l)
           (0)                      (-1)        (+v)

fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
      ² fmd*riaj, Tlais wï,j, jHQy we| tajd kï lsÍug isiqkag u`. fmkajhs'
      ² yhs â rcka f*frdla i hs â " i,a * ¾ vfhdla i hs â yd yhs â rcka i,a * hs â "
         Tlaisydrlhla iy Tlaisldrlhla f,i l%shd lrk m%;sl%shd i|yd WodyrK
         imhkak'




                                        78
ksmqK;dj 5'0                                    ( s, p yd d f.dkqj, uQ,øjHj, yd ixfhda.j, .=K y÷kd
                                                    .ekSug tajd úu¾Ykh lr n,hs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 5'5                                ( d f.dkqfõ uQ,øjHj, .=K wdj¾;hla Tiafia úp,kh jk
                                                    wkaou y÷kd .ekSu i|yd tajdfha .=K úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                                         ( 05 hs'

bf.kqï M,                                       (
                                  ²  f; jk wdj¾;fha msysá d f.dkqfõ uQ,øjH fmkajk úp,H TlaislrK
                                    wjia:d i|yka lrñka úp,H TlaislrK wjia:d mej;Sfï .=Kh s yd p
                                    f.dkqj, uQ,øjH iu`. ii|hs'
                                  ² f; jk wdj¾;hg wh;a d f.dkqfõ uQ,øjHj, úoHq;a RK;dj" m%:u whkSlrK
                                    Yla;sh yd whksl wrh wdj¾; Tiafia bÈßhg úp,kh jk rgdj s yd p
                                    f.dkqj,g wh;a uQ,øjH iu`. ii|hs'
                                  ² WÑ; WodyrK bÈßm;a lrñka d f.dkqfõ uQ,øjH yd ixfhda.j, W;afm%arl
                                    f,i lghq;= lsÍfï yelshdj yd j¾Kj;a ixfhda. iE§fï .=Kh úia;r lrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
    m<uq fjks whkS l rK Yla ; s




                                                           mrudKq l l% u dxl




                                        H isg Cs olajd uQ,øjHj, m<uq jeks whkSlrK Yla;s m%ia;drh




                                                                    79
                      Sc isg Zn olajd uQ,øjHj, f,dayl wrh" úoHq;a RK;dj yd whkSlrK Yla;sj, úp,kh

     f,dayl ^mrudKql& wrh/nm

     úoHq;a RK;dj
     m<uq jk whkSlrK Yla;sh / kJ mol-1
     fo jk whkSlrK Yla;sh / kJ mol-1
     ;=ka jk whkSlrK Yla;sh/ kJ mol-1




80
                     s- f.dkqfõ uQ,øjH                             wka;ßl uQ,øjH

     uQ,øjH
     mrudKql wrh/nm
     øjdxlh/0C
     ;dmdxlh/0C
     >k;ajh/g cm
     whksl wrh/nm




     K isg Zn olajd uQ,øjHj, fN!;sl .=K
             Sc      Ti       V     Cr      Mn      Fe       Co      Ni      Cu      Zn

iq,n         Sc2O3   Ti2O3 V2O3     Cr2O3   MnO   FeO        Co      NiO     Cu2O    ZnO
Tlaihsv              TiO2 V2O5      CrO3    MnO2 Fe2O3       Co2O3           CuO
                                            Mn2O7

iq,n
             ScCl3   TiCl3   VCl3   CrCl2   MnCl2   FeCl2    CoCl2   NiCl2   CuCl    ZnCl2
laf,darhsv
                     TiCl4          CrCl3   MnCl3   Fe2Cl6                   CuCl2

                                            VII
                                    VI      VI      VI
ixfhda.j,                    V      V       V       V        V
oS
                     IV      IV     IV      IV      IV       IV      IV
fmkakqï
lrk
               III   III     III    III     III     III      III     III     III
TlaislrK             II      II     II      II      II       II      II      II      II
wxl                  I       I      I       I       I        I       I       I


       Sc isg Zn olajd uQ,øjHj, TlaislrK wxl ^iq,n TlaislrK wxl ;ol`M
       wl=ßka olajd we;'&




                          Sc isg Zn olajd uQ,øjHj, øjdxl yd ;dmdxl



                                            81
 d f.dkqfõ uQ,øjH yd tajdfha ixfhda. l¾udka;j, oS W;afm%arl f,i fhdod
 .kakd wjia:d

 d f.dkqfõ        W;afm%arl f,i                       W;afm%arKh flfrk m%;sl%shdj
 uQ,øjHh          fhdok øjH

 Ti               TiCl3/Al2(C2H5)6                    nC2H4 →
                                                      taf;aka nyqwjhùlrKh

 V                V2O5or vanadate(VO3-)               2SO2+O2→2SO3
                                                      iam¾Y l%uh

 Fe               Fe or Fe2O3                         N2+3H2Â 2NH3
                                                      fyan¾ l%uh

 Ni               Ni                                  RCH = CH2+H2→RCH2CH3
                                                      udcÍka ksIamdokh

 Cu               Cu or CuO                           CH3CH2OH+1O2→CH3CHO+H2O
                                                      t;fkda,a" t;ke,a njg TlaislrKh

 Pt               Pt                               2SO2+O2→2SO3
                                           (       )n
                                               c c iam¾Y l%uh

 Pt               Pt                                  4NH3+5O2→4NO+6H2O
                                                      NO→NO2→HNO3
                                                      wefudakshdj,ska khsá%la wï,h
                                                      ksmoùu


jefkaähïj, TlaislrK wjia:d


TlaislrK wjia:d           +V               +IV                +III                 +II

c,Sh ødjKfha oS
j¾Kh                      ly               ks,a               fld<                 oï

whkh                      VO2+             VO2+               V3+                  V2+

ku           vhsTlafidjefkaähï(V)    Tlafidjefkaähï(IV) jefkaähï(III)          jefkaähï(II)
              whkh                   whkh                   whkh                whkh
            dioxovanadium(V) ion     oxovanadium(IV) ion   vanadium(III) ion   vanadium(II) ion




                                          82
fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (

                                    s                            s        s
      ² d f.dkqfõ j¾Kj;a ixfhda. lsymhla yd tajdfha c,Sh ødjK lsymhla mka;hg
         m%o¾Ykh lrkak'
      ² úúO j¾Kj,ska hq;a ixfhda. iE§u yd tajdfha § f,dayj, TlaislrK wjia:d
         úúO ùu wjOdrKh lrkak'
      ² wod< m%ia;dßl yd j.=.; l< f;dr;=re isiq lKavdhïj,g § mjrk ,o
        ,CIKhla Sc isg Zn olajd úp,kh jk wkaou .fõIKhg fhduq lrkak'
      ² mjrk ,o ,CIKh s yd p f.dkqj,g wh;a uQ, øjHj, tu ,CIKh yd
        iei£ug isiq lKavdhï fufyhjkak'




                                     83
ksmqK;dj 5'0           ( s, p yd d f.dkqj,g wh;a uQ,øjHj, yd i x f h d a . j ,
                           .=K y÷kd .ekSu i|yd tajd úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 5'6       ( d f.dkqfõ ixfhda.j, úúO;ajh y÷kd .ekSu i|yd tajdfha
                           .=K úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                ( 04 hs'

bf.kqï M,              (
       ² jefkaähï" fl%dañhï yd ueka.kSiaj, Tlaihsvj, iajNdjh
         wdï,sl$Ndiañl$WNh.=KS f,i m%ldY lrhs'
       ² fl%dañhï yd ueka.kSiaj, Tlais wekdhk Tlaisldrl f,i l%shd lrk m%;sl%shd
         i|yd ksoiqka bosßm;a lrhs'


úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
     uex.kSiaj, Tlaihsv
     Tlaihsvh                TlaislrK wxlh            Tlaihsvfha iajNdjh
     MnO                          +II                     Ndiañl
     Mn2O3                        +III                    ÿn, Ndiañl
     MnO2                         +IV                     WNh.=KS
     MnO3                         +VI                     ÿn, wdï,sl
     Mn2O7                        +VII                    wdï,sl
     fl%dañhïj, Tlaihsv
     Tlaihsvh                TlaislrK wxlh           Tlaihsvfha iajNdjh
     CrO                          +II                      ÿn, wdï,sl
     Cr2O3                       +III                      WNh.=KS
     CrO2                         +IV                      ÿn, wdï,sl
     CrO3                         +VI                      wdï,sl

               iQ;%h        TlaislrK wxlh      wdï,sl-Ndiañl
                                                 iajNdjh
               VO           +II                 Ndiañl
               V2O 3        +III                Ndiañl
               VO2          +1V                 WNh.=KS
               V2O 5        +V                  wdï,sl

       ² by; lS Tlaihsv j¾. wï,j, § yd Niauj, § ødjH;dj weiqßka wdï,sl"
          Ndiañl fyda WNh.=KS f,i j¾. l< yels h'

                                        84
      ² wdï,sl udOHfha § MnO4- Tlaisldrlhla f,i SO2 iu`. m%;sl%shdj
        MnO4-(aq) + 5e + 8H+ (aq) → Mn2+(aq) + 4H2O(l) TlaiyrK w¾O m%;lhdj
                                                              s         s %s
          (+VII)                        (+II)
        SO2(g) + 2H2O(l) → SO4 (aq) + 2e + 4H+(aq) TlaisyrK w¾O m%;sls%hdj
                                   2-


        (+IV)                  (+VI)
        2MnO4 (aq) + 5SO2(g) + 2H2O(l) → 2Mn2+(aq) + 5SO42-(aq) +4H+ (aq)
               -


        ;=,s; whksl iólrKh
      ² Ndiañl udOHfha § MnO4- Tlaisldrlhla f,i SO2 iu`. m%;sl%shdj
        MnO4-(aq) + 3e + 2H2O(l) → MnO2 + 4(OH)- (aq) TlaiyrK w¾O m%;lhdj
                                                             s          s %s
          (+VII)                       (+IV)
        SO2(g) + 4(OH)-(aq) → SO42-(aq) + 2H2O(l) + 2e TlaisyrK w¾O m%;sls%hdj
         (+IV)                   (+VI)
        2MnO4-(aq) + 3SO2(g) + 4(OH)- (aq) → 2MnO2 + 3 SO42-(aq) + 2H2O(l)
        ;=,s; iólrK
        CrO42- Tlaisldrlhla f,i
        CrO42-(aq) + 8H+ (aq)+ 3e → Cr3+(aq) + 4H2O(l)
        SO2(g) + 2H2O(l) → SO42-(aq) + 2e + 4H+(aq)
        2CrO42-(aq) + 4H+(aq) + 3SO2(g) → 2Cr3+(aq) + 2H2O(l) + 3SO42-(aq)
        Cr2O72- Tlaisldrlhla f,i
        Cr2O72-(aq) + 14H+(aq) + 6e → 2Cr3+(aq) + 7H2O(l)
        SO2(g) + 2H2O(l) → 4H+(aq) + SO42- (aq) + 2e
        Cr2O72-(aq) + 2H+(aq) + 3SO2(g) → 2Cr3+(aq) + H2O(l) + 3SO42-(aq)

fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
      ² fmkakqï lrk úp,H TlaislrK wjia:d wkqj V, Cr yd Mn i|yd meje;sh
        yels Tlaihsvj, iQ;% úuikak'
      ² úúO Tlaisydrl j¾. iu`. (SO2, H2S jeks) CrO42-, Cr2O72-, MnO4- wdï,sl yd
        Ndiañl udOHj, § olajk m%;sl%shd fjk fjk u w¾O whksl m%;sl%shd Ndú;
        lr whksl iólrK f.dv ke`.Sug wjia:dj i,ikak'




                                      85
ksmqK;dj 5'0              ( s, p yd d f.dkqj,g wh;a uQ,øjHj, yd i x f h d a . j ,
                               .=K y÷kd .ekSu i|yd tajd úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 5'7          ( d f.dkqfõ ixlS¾K ixfhda.j, úúO;ajh y÷kd .ekSu i|yd
                               tajdfha .=K úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                   ( 06

bf.kqï M,                 (
       ² Cr, Mn, Fe, Co yd Cu hk uQ,øjH H2O, NH3 yd Cl- hk ,s.k ^nkaOk& iu`.
          idok ixlS¾Kj, iQ;% yd j¾K m%ldY lrhs'
                          s
       ² uOH mrudKqj" TlailrK wxlh yd ,s.k moaO;sh ixlS¾K ixfhda.j, j¾Kh
         flfrys n,mdk wkaou WÑ; ksoiqka weiqßka f.k yer olajhs'
       ² Copper(II) yd Cobalt(II) ,jK yhsâfrdlaf,daßla wï,h iu`. olajk m%;sl%shd
         ksÍCIKh lr jd¾;d lrhs'
                a                            s
       ² uex.kSij, +II, +IV, +VI iy +VII TlailrK wjia:dj,g wod< j¾K ksÍCIKh
         lr jd¾;d lrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² Cr, Mn, Fe, Co yd Cu hk uQ,øjH H2O, NH3 yd Cl- hk ,s.k iu`. idok
          ixlS¾K

       ,s.k                          uOH f,day whkh
       moaO;sh       Cr 3+
                                     Mn2+       Fe3+               Co2+         Cu2+
          H2O      [Cr(H2O)6]3+   [Mn(H2O)6]2+ [Fe(H2O)6]3+ [Co(H2O)6]2+ [Cu(H2O)6]2+
                     ks,a-oï        ,d frdai        ly ÿUqre     frdai          ,d ks,a
          NH3    [Cr(NH3)6]3+                                  [Co(NH3)6]2+   [Cu(NH3)4]2+
                     ly                                          ly ÿUqre       ks,a
          Cl-                                                  [CoCl4]2-       [CuCl4]2-
                                                                  ks,a             ly

       ² uOH f,day mrudKqj wkqj ixlS¾Kfha j¾Kh fjkia fõ'
         ksoiqka' [Cr(H2O)6]3+ - ks,a-oï meyeh" [Fe(H2O)6]3+ - ly ÿUqre meyeh
       ² uOH f,day mrudKqfõ TlaislrK wjia:dj wkqj ixlS¾Kfha j¾Kh fjkia
         fõ'
         ksoiqka' [Fe(H2O)6]2+ - ,d fld< meyeh" [Fe(H2O)6]3+ - ly - ÿUqre meyeh"
                  [Mn(H2O)6]2+ ,d frdai meyeh" [Mn(H2O)6]3+ - oï meyeh
       ² ,s.kh fjkia ùu wkqj o j¾Kh fjkia fõ'

          ksoiqka ( [Co(H2O)6]2+ frdai meyeh" [Co(NH3)6]2+ - ly ÿUqre meyeh




                                               86
      ² yhsâfrdlaf,daßla wï,h iu`. Cu2+(aq) olajk m%;sl%shdj
        Cu2+(aq) + 4HCl(aq) → [Cu(Cl)4]2-(aq) + 4H+(aq)
        ks,a                      ly
      ² yhsfv%dlaf,daßla wï,h iu`. Co2+(aq) olajk m%;sl%shdj
        Co2+(aq) + 4HCl(aq) → [Co(Cl)4]2-(aq) + 4H+(aq)
        frdai                   ks,a
      ² Cr j, Tlais whk iy mßj¾;k



         ly              ;eô,s

fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
      ² uOH mrudKqj" TlaislrK wjia:dj iy ,s.k moaO;sh wkqj j¾K fjkiA
        ùïj,g ksoiqka jk ixlS¾K ixfhda.j, ksheÈ isiqkag m%o¾Ykh lrkak'
      ² fok ,o m%dfhda.sl l%shdldrlïj, lKavdhï jYfhka ksr; ùug isiqkg
        wjia:dj ,nd fokak'
      ² uex.kSiaj, úúO TlaislrK wjia:djka ys § fmkakqï lrk j¾K ksrSlaIKh
        lsrSug wjia:dj i,ikak'




                                      87
ksmqK;dj 5'0           ( s, p yd d f.dkqj, uQ, øjHj, yd ixfhda.j, .=K y÷kd
                           .ekSug tajd úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 5'8       ( úu¾Ykh myiq lrjkq msKsi d f.dkqfõ ixlS¾K ixfhda.
                           kdulrKh lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                ( 04

bf.kqï M,              (
       ² IUPAC kdulrKfha jeo.;alu i|yka lrhs'
       ² ir, legdhk yd ixlS¾K wekdhk iys; ixfhda. iy ixlS¾K legdhk yd
         ir, wekdhk iys; ixlS¾K ixfhda. IUPAC l%uhg kï lrhs'
       ² ixfhda.fha IUPAC ku § we;s úg tajdfha jHQy bÈßm;a lrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
      ² ixlS¾K ixfhda.j, IUPAC kdulrKh
          fuys § ixlS¾K ixfhda.hl IUPAC ku f.dvke`.Sug fuka u IUPAC ku § we;s
          úg ixfhda.fha jHQy iQ;%h ,sùug wfmalaId flf¾' d f.dkqfõ uQ,øjH idok
          ixlS¾K ixfhda. muKla i,ld ne,Su m%udKj;a h'
          ixlS¾K ixfhda. ir, j fldgia folla hgf;a i,ld n,kq ,efí'
          (i) legdhk ir, jk w;r wekdhk ixlS¾K jk ixfhda.'
          (ii) legdhk ixlS¾K w;r wekdhk ir, jk ixfhda.'

          l=uk ixlS¾K ixfhda. wdldrh ie,l=j o kdulrKh Wfoid fmdÿ kS;s
          ud,djla mshjfrka mshjr wkq.ukh l< hq;= fõ'
          ^1& ir, wldnksl ixfhda.hl § fuka u fuys§ o legdhkh m<uq j o"
               wekdhkh Bg miq j o kï lrkq ,efí' legdhkfha ku yd wekdhkfha
               ku w;r ysoeila ;eîu o l< hq;= h'
          ^2& ixfhda.fha wvx.= ixlS¾K whk fldgi y÷kd .ekSu jeo.;a u mshjr
               fõ' uq,ska i|yka l< mßÈ fuh Ok wdfrdams; fyda RK wdfrdams; fyda
               úh yels h'
               y÷kd.;a ixlS¾K whkfhys uOHu f,day mrudKqj jgd we;s ldKav
               ke;fyd;a ,s.k (ligand) fojkq j y÷kd .; hq;= h'

               (i)   WodiSk nkaO ldKav we;s úg ta i|yd úfYaIs; jQ kï fhÈh hq;=
                     h'
                     ksoiqka :-
                           H2O -       tlajd        -      aqua
                           NH3 -       weïñka       -      ammine
                           CO    -     ldnkhs,a     -      carbonyl
                           NO    -     khsÜfrdihs,a -      nitrosyl




                                       88
      (ii)    RK wdfrdams; nkaO ldKav we;s úg tjdfha bx.%Sis kfuys w.g
              - ´ - m%;Hh tl;= lrkq ,efí'
              ksoiqka :-
              Cl- -      laf,dafrda       - chloro
              CN - -
                         ihfkda           - cyano
              NO 2- -    khsfg%da         - nitro
              OH - -
                         yhsâfrdlafida    - hydroxo
              SCN - -    ;fhdaihfkafgda   - thiocyanato
              H -
                     -   yhsâßfvda        - hydrido
              O 2-
                     -   Tlafid           - oxo

      (iii)   Ok wdfrdams; nkaO ldKav we;s úg tajdfha bx.%Sis kfuys w.g -
              'bhï' - (ium) hk m%;Hh tl;= lrkq ,efí'
              ksoiqka :-
                    +
                      NH3 - NH2 - yhsâriSkshï         - Hydrazinium

(4)   uOH f,day mrudKqj jgd we;s nkaO ldKav ie,lSfï § tl u j¾.hlg
      wh;a nkaO ldKav tllg jvd jeä .Kkla we;s wjia:dj, § tu nkaO
      ldKav ixLHdj fmkakqï lsÍu i|yd ldKavfha kug fmr" ixLHdjg
      wod< kduh fmr wE÷ula (prefix) f,i fhdokq ,efí'
      tlu j¾.fha ldKav 2" 3" 4" 5 iy 6 la we;s úg ms<sfj<ska vhs (di)"
      g%hs (tri)" fgÜrd (tetra)" fmkagd (penta) iy fylaid (hexa) hk fmr wE÷ï
      Ndú; lrkq ,efí'

(5)   ixlS¾K whkh Ok wdfrdams; jQ úg fyda WodiSk jQ úg fyda tys wvx.=
      f,daayh kï lsÍfï § f,dayfha bx.%Sis kduh Ndú; lrkq ,nk w;r tu
                                    s
      kug miqj ysoeila fkd;nd TlailrK wxlh lemsg,a frdau b,lalïj,ska
      ir, jrykla ;=< fmkakqï l< hq;= h'
            ksoiqka :-
                  Co3+ -      cobalt(III)
                  Fe2+ -      iron(II)
                  Cr  6+
                         -    chromium(VI)

(6)   oeka ixlS¾K whkh kï lsÍu l< yels h' fuys § m<uqj nkaO ldKav
      o" fojkqj f,dayh o" kï lrkq ,efí' ku ,sùfï § tu jpk w;r
      bv fkd;eîug j. n,d .; hq;= h'
            ksoiqka :-
            [Co(NH3)6]3+ -   hexaamminecobalt(III) ion
            [Fe(H2O)6]2+ -   hexaaquairon(II) ion
            [Cu(NH3)4] -
                       2+
                             tetraamminecopper(II) ion

(7)   ixlS¾K whkhg nkaO ldKav j¾. lsysmhla iïnkaO ù we;s wjia:dj,
                                                S                   s s
      nkaO ldKav kï lsÍfï § tajdfha kï bx.%is fydaäfha wl=re wkqm<fj<g
      (alphabetical order) fhfok whqßka i|yka l< hq;= h'
      ksoiqka :- [Fe(CN)2 (NH3)4]+ - tetraamminedicyanoiron(II) ion


                                89
(8)   ixlS¾K whk fldgi Ok f,i wdfrdams; fyda RK f,i wdfrdams;
      fyda WodiSk fyda úh yelsh' ta wkqj f,dayh iïnkaO j fhdok kduh
      o fjkia fõ'
      (i)                                                 s
            ixfhda.hla ixlS¾K whk fldgi Ok f,i wdfrdam; fyda WodiSk
            fyda jk wjia:djkays § tys wvx.= f,dayfha ku fhdod kï lrkq
            ,efí' fuys § o f,dayfha TlaislrK wxlh ir, jrykla ;=<
            lemsg,a frdau b,lalñka oelaùu w;HjYHh h'
            ksoiqka :-
            [Fe(CN)3 (NH3)4] fuh WodiSk h' t úg fuys ku jkq fha"
            triamminetricyanoiron (III)
             [Cu(H2O)6 ]2+
             fuh Ok wdfrdams; h' fuys ku jkqfha hexaaquacopper(II) ion

      (ii)   ixlS¾K whk fldgi RK wdfrdams; jk wjia:djkays § tys
             wvx.= f,dayfha ku w.g 'ate' hk m%;Hh tl;= lrkq ,efí'
             fuys§ o f,dayfha TlaislrK wxlh ir, jrykla ;=< lemsg,a
             frdau b,lalñka oelaúh hq;= h'
             ksoiqka :-
             [CoCl4]2- tetrachlorocobaltate(II) ion
             [Co(CN)6]3- hexacyanocobaltate(III) ion
             [CuCl4]2- tetrachlorocuprate(II) ion
             [Fe(CN)6]4- hexacayanoferrate(II) ion
             [Fe(CN)6]3- hexacayanoferrate(III) ion
             [Ag(CN)2]- diacayanoargentate(I) ion
             [Cr(Br)6]3- hexabromochromate(III) ion

      fuf;la bf.k.;a kS;s l%udKql+, j ms<sme§fuka ixfhda.hl IUPAC
      kduh f.dv k`.d .; yels h'

      (i)    ir, legdhkhla o" ixlS¾K wekdhkhla o we;s wjia:d
             fuys § Ok wdfrdams; fldgi iy RK wdfrdams; fldgi w;r
             bvla ;nd we;s whqre;a" ixlS¾K fldgfiys kduh bv fkd ;nd
             tl È.g u ,shd we;s whqre;a" wjOdrKh flf¾'
             ksoiqka :-
             K3[Fe(CN)5 NO] Potassium pentacyanonitrosylferrate(II)
             Na2[ZnCl4] Sodium tetrachlorozincate(II)

      (ii)   ixlS¾K legdhkhla o" ir, wekdhkhla o we;s wjia:d
             [Ag(NH3)2]Cl2 Diamminesilver(I) chloride
                               s                                s
             fuys § Ok wdfrdam; fldgfiys ku iy RK wdfrdam; fldgfiys
             ku w;r bvla ;eìh hq;= h'
             ksoiqka :-
             [Fe(OH)2(H2O)4]Br Tetraaquadihydroxoiron(III) bromide
             [CoCl(NH3)5](NO3)2 Pentaammine chlorocobolt(III) nitrate(V)

                                   90
oeka wjOdkh fhduq lrkqfha ixlS¾K ixfhda.hl ku § we;s úgl § tys
jHqy iQ;%h f.dv k`.d .kakd wdldrh ms<sn|j h'
1' idudkH l%uhg u Ok wdfrdams; whkh m<uqj o" RK wdfrdams; whkh
   Bg miqj o" oelaúh hq;= h'
2' ieu úg u ixfhda.fha we;s ixlS¾K whk fldgi fldgq jrykla ;=<
   ,súh hq;= h'
  wod< wdfrdamKhla wef;d;a th fldgq jrykg msg;ska ol=Kq Wv
  fl<jfrys oelaúh hq;= h' wdfrdamKfha ,l=K o" ixLHd;aul w.h
  o i|yka l< hq;= h'
  ksoiqk :- [Fe(CN)6]3-
3' ixlS¾K whk fldgfiys jHqy iQ;%h ,sùfï § m<uq j f,dayh o" Bg
   miqj nkaO ldKav o ,shd oelaúh hq;= h' nkaO ldKav ,sùfï § kdulrKfha
   § fuka bx.%Sis fydaäfha wl=re ms<sfj< fuys § Ndú; fkd flf¾' ta
   fjkqjg nkaO ldKav ,shkqfha tajd ork wdfrdamKhg wkql+, j hs'
   t kï" RK wdfrdams; nkaO ldKav uq,g o" WodiSk nkaO ldKav Bg
   miqj o" Ok wdfrdams; nkaO ldKav wjidkhg o tk mßÈ h' tfia jqj
                                                 S             s s
   o tla ldKavhla ;=< we;s úúO nkaO ldKav bx.%is fydaäfha wkqm<fj<g
   ilia l< hq;= h' fuh ksoiqka u`.ska my; meyeÈ,s lr we;'

  ksoiqk 1 (- Pentacyanonitrosylferrate(II) ion ys ridhksl iQ;%h ,shkak'
              fuh RK wdfrdams; ixlS¾K wekdhkhls' fldgq jryk
              ;=< f,dayh ,shkq ,efí'
              [Fe .....]
              CN- whkh RK wdfrdams; ksid f,dayhg miq j whkh
              i|yka l< hq;= w;r thg miq WodiSk NO nkaOk ldKavh
              i|yka l< hq;= fõ'
              [Fe (CN)5NO]
              f,dayfha TlaislrK wxl +II fõ' ixlS¾K whkfha
              uq`M wdfrdamKh -5 +2 = -3
              tu ksid iQ;%h [Fe (CN)5NO]3- fõ'
  ksoiqk 2 (- Pentaamminechlorocobalt (III) ion ys ridhksl iQ;%h
              ,shkak'
              fuh Ok wdfrdams; ixlS¾K whkhls' fuu f,day
              whkh Co3+ fõ' fldgq jryka ;=< f,dayh ,shkq ,efí'
              [Co .....]
              nkaO ldKav Cl- iy NH3 fõ' RK wdfrdams; nkaO
              ldKav uq,g o miqj WodiSk nkaO ldKav o bosßm;a lrkq
              ,efí'
              [CoCl(NH3)5]
              f,dayh +3 TlaislrK ;;a;ajfha we;s ksid
              uq`M wdfrdamKh +3 + (-1) = +2
              tu ksid iQ;%h [CoCl(NH3)5]2+
              ixlS¾K ixfhda.fha uq`M ku oS we;s úg o jHqy iQ;%h
              ,sùug mq`Mjk'

                             91
             ksoiqk 3 (- Potassium pentacyanonitrosylferrate(II)
                         m<uq jk ksoiqk wkqj ixlS¾K wekdhkfha jHqyh
                         [Fe (CN)5NO]3- fõ'
                         ixfhda.hla iEoSfï oS wdfrdamK WodiSk úh hq;= h'
                         ixlS¾K ixfhda.fha -3 wdfrdamKh WodiSk ùu i|yd
                         K+ whk ;=kla iïnkaO úh hq;= h'
                         tu ksid iQ;%h K3[Fe (CN)5NO]

             ksoiqk 4 (-Pentaamminechlorocobalt(III) bromide
                                                             %
                         fo jk ksoiqkg wkqj ixlS¾K whkfha iQ;h [CoCl(NH3)5]2+
                                                          -
                         fõ' fuu whk WodiSk lsÍu i|yd Br whk folla ;sìh
                         hq;= fõ'
                         tu ksid iQ;%h [CoCl(NH3)5]Br2

fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
      ² mka;sh lKavdhïj,g fnod ir, wekdhk iu`. jk ixlS¾K legdhk iy
         ir, legdhk iu`. jk ixlS¾K wekdhk iys; ixfhda. oS tajd kdulrKh
         lrk f,i isiqkag Wmfoia fokak'




                                        92
ksmqK;dj 6'0            ( ldnksl ixfhda.j, úúO;ajh úuid n,hs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 6'1        ( ridhk úoHdfõ úfYa I la f Ia ; % h la f,i ldnks l
                          ridhkfha jeo.;alu úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                 ( 03 hs'

bf.kqï M,               (
       ² ldnka m%Odk ix>gl uQ,øjHh f,i wka;¾.; iajdNdúl yd lD;%su ixfhda.
          úYd, ixLHdjla mj;sk nj m%ldY lrhs'
       ² wod< lreKq f.k yer olajñka úYd, ixfhda. ixLHdjla iEoSug ldnka i;=
          yelshdj úia;r lrhs'
       ² úúO lafIa;%j,ska ksoiqka f.k yer olajñka ffoksl Ôú;fha oS ldnksl
          ridhkh jeo.;a jk wkaou fmkajd fohs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² ldnksl ixfhda. rdYshla we;s ùug odhl jk ldnka i;= .=Kdx. lsysmhla
          my; oelafõ'
       ² ldnka mrudKq folla w;r m%n, tal nkaOk" oaú;aj nkaOk yd ;%s;aj nkaOk
          iEosh yels h' ldnka wh;a y;r jk ldKavfha mj;sk is,slkaj,g idfmalaIj
          ldnka idok C - C, C = C, C ≡ C yd C - H nkaOk" jvd by< nkaOk Yla;kf.ka
                                                                           S a
                                           ≡
          hqla; jk nj ksÍlaIKh lr we;' wod< f;dr;=re my; j.=fõ oelafõ'

                                        nkaOk Yla;sh
                     nkaOkh             $kJ mol-1

                            C-C              346
                            C=C              610
                            C C              835
                            C- H             413
                            Si - Si          226
                            Si - H           318



       ² ldnka mrudKqjlg iyixhqc nkaOk y;rla iEosh yels h' fï wkqj fmkS
          hkafka ldnka oduhlg úúO ldKav rdYshla iïnkaO úh yels nj;a" úYd,
          úúO;ajhlska hq;= ixfhda. mej;Sug tu .=Kh odhl jk nj;a h'
       ² ldnksl ixfhda. úYd, ixLHdjla mej;Sug odhl jk ;j;a fya;=jla jkafka
          ldur WIaK;ajfha oS yd idudkH jdhq f.da,Sh ;;a;aj yuqfõ tajd olajk
          ia:dhS;dj hs' ldnksl ixfhda. Tlaiscka iu`. isÿ lrk m%;sl%shd úYd,
          jYfhka ;dmodhl fõ'



                                        93
          C3H8(g) + 5O2 (g)   3CO2(g) + 4H2O(l)
          ta wkqj ldnksl ixfhda. ;dm.;sl j wia:dhS fõ' kuq;a ldnksl ixfhda.
          Tlaiscka iu`. isÿ lrk m%;sl%shd wdY%s; il%shk Yla;s w.hhka úYd, fõ' t
          neúka ldnksl ixfhda. pd,l ridhksl j ia:dhS jk w;r úYd, ixLHdjla
          iajNdúl j mj;S'


fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
  ² bkaOk" T!IO" ;Ska;" ma,diaála" frosms<s" idhï wdosfha wvx.= uQ,sl ix>gl uQ,øjH
    .ek isiqkaf.ka úuikak' ta wkqj ldnksl ixfhda. y÷kajd fokak'
  ² mka;sfha isiqka lKavdhï lsysmhlg fnokak' tosfkod Ôú;fha oS úúO lafIa;%h
    ;=< Ndú;hg .efkk ldnksl ixfhda.j,g WodyrK yd tajdfha jeo.;alu idlÉPd
    lsÍug isiq lKavdhïj,g mjrkak'




                                         94
ksmqK;dj 6'0            ( ldnksl ixfhda.j, úúO;ajh úuid n,hs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 6'2        ( l%shdldÍ ldKav weiqfrka ldnksl ixfhda.j, úúO;ajh
                             úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                 ( 04 hs'

bf.kqï M,               (
       ² úIh ks¾foaYhg we;=<;a l%shdldÍ ldKavj, kdu iy ixfla; y÷kd .kshs'
       ² ldnksl ixfhda.j, úúO;ajh mj;akd l%shdldÍ ldKav weiqfrka y÷kd
               s
           .ksh'
       ² tla tla l%shdldÍ ldKavh iys; ixfhda. ioDYH fY%aKs kï lr ksoiqka bosßm;a
           lrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² iuyr ldnksl ixfhda.j, C yd H muKla ix>gl uQ,øjH f,i wvx.= fõ'
           tajd yhsâfrdldnk f,i ye|skafõ'
       ²   jHQyh mokï lrf.k yhsâfrdldnk we,s*eál yd wefrdaueál f,i uQ,sl
           j¾. follg fnfoa'
       ²   újD; ldnka oduj,ska muKla iukaú; yhsâfrdldnk l=,lh we,s*eál
           ^wplS%h& yhsâfrdldnk kï fõ'
       ²   we,aflak" we,alSk yd we,alhsk jYfhka we,s*eál ldnksl ixfhda. j¾.
                                          π
           lrkq ,efí'
       ²   úia:dk.; (delocalized)      bf,lafg%dak j,hla idoñka ia:dhS ù we;s pl%Sh
           ldnksl ixfhda. wefrdaueál ixfhda. jYfhka ye|skafõ'
       ²   C6H6 wKql iQ;%fhka oelafjk fnkaiSka" wefrdaueál yhsâfrdldnk ixfhda.
           l=,lfha ir, u ixfhda.h fõ'
       ²   fndfyda ldnksl ixfhda.j, ldnka oduhg khsg%cka" Tlaiscka jeks úIu-
           mrudKq iïnkaO ùfï oS ldnka yd iïnkaO jQ mrudKq w;r úoHq;a-RK;d
           fjki fya;=fjka tu mrudKq ldKavh úiska ixfhda.hg ,dlaIKsl jQ
           m%;sl%shdldÍ;ajhla ,nd foa' t jeks mrudKq ldKavhla l%shdldÍ ldKavhla
           (functional group) f,i ye|skafõ' hï ixfhda. wKqjl mj;sk l%shdldÍ
           ldKav wkqj tajd j¾. lrkq ,efí'

           l%shdldÍ ldKavh     ioDY fY%aKsfha ku        WodyrK
               OH              we,afldfyd,             CH3CH2OH Ethanol
                               Alcohol
                   O
               C
                   H           we,aäyhsv               CH3CHO       Ethanal
                               Aldehyde
                   O
               C               lSfgdak                 CH3COCH3 Propanone
                               Ketone

                                            95
               O
           C                 ldfndlais,sla wï,       CH3COOH Ethanoic acid
               OH
                             Carboxylic acid
               O
           C                 wï, laf,darhsv          CH3COCl Ethanoyl chloride
               Cl
                             Acid chloride
               O
           C                  tiagr                  CH3COOCH3 Methyl ethanoate
               O      R
                              Ester
           NH2                weuhsk                 CH3CH2 NH2 Ethylamine
                              Amine

               O
                             weuhsv                   CH3CONH2 Ethanamide
           C
               NH 2          Amide


           C    NH 2          weuhsfkda wï,          CH3CHNH2COOH
           COOH                                      2-Aminopropanoic acid


           x                  we,als,a fya,hsv*       CH3CH2Cl Chloroethane


          * IUPAC kdulrKfha oS ye,ck ldKavh l%shdldrS ldKavhla f,i fkd ie,fla'


fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
  ² úúO l%shdldÍ ldKav wvx.= ldnksl ixfhda.j, jHQy iQ;% isiqkag bÈßm;a lr tajd
    y÷kd .ekSug fhduq lrkak'
  ² ridhksl ixfhda. ,ehsia;=jla isiq lKavdhïj,g oS tajd w;=ßka tla ioDY fY%aKshlg
    wh;a jk ixfhda. f;dard j.= .; lsÍug yd wod< ioDY fY%aKs f.dv kexùug
    wjia:dj ,nd fokak'




                                           96
ksmqK;dj 6'0            ( ldnksl ixfhda.j, úúO;ajh úuid n,hs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 6'3        ( úu¾Yk myiq lrkq msKsi we,s*eál ldnksl ixfhda.
                            kdulrKh lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                 ( 07 hs'

bf.kqï M,               (
       ² iq,n ldnksl ixfhda.j, jHjydßl kï iy iïu; kdulrKhl wjYH;dj
          m%ldY lrhs'
       ² IUPAC kS;s fhdod .ksñka úIh ks¾foaYfha i|yka jHQyuh iSudjg we;=<;a
         fok ,o ldnksl ixfhda. kdulrKh lrhs'
       ² ixfhda.hl IUPAC ku m%ldY l< úg jHQy iq;%h we| olajhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² Y=oaO yd jHjydr ridhk úoHdj ms<sn| wka;¾cd;sl ix.uh úiska 1949 oS
         (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry - IUPAC) ldnksl ixfhda.
         kï lsÍfï l%udkql+, l%uhla bosßm;a lrk ,oS'
       ² IUPAC kdulrKhg wkqj ixfhda.hla i|yd fhdokq ,nk ku my; oelafjk
         mßos fldgia lsysmhlska f.dvk`.d .; yels fõ'
         1' jHQyfhys m%Odk l%shdldÍ ldKavh oelaùug fhdokq ,nk m%;Hh
         2' ixfhda.fha m%Odk ldnka iels,a, y÷kd .ekSug fhdokq ,nk iels,af,a
            ku
         3' wdfoaY ldKav oelaùug fhdokq ,nk Wmi¾.
         4' wdfoaY ldKav" w;sf¾l ldKav iy m%Odk l%shdldÍ ldKavh iels,a,g
            iïnkaO ù ;sfnk ia:dkh oelaùug fhdokq ,nk wxl
                                                              s s
       ² we,smeál ixfhda. kdulrKfha oS my; oelafjk mshjr wkqm<fj,g wkq.ukh
         lsÍfuka myiqfjka ixfhda.fha IUPAC kduh f.dvk.d .; yels h'
         1' m%Odk l%shdldÍ ldKavh y÷kd .ekSu'
         2' m%Odk oduh f;aÍu'
         3' m%Odk oduhg fhdok kdu uQ,h f;aÍu
         4' wjfYaI ldKav ^w;sf¾l ldKav& oelafjk m%;Hhka odufhys kduhg tl;=
            lsÍu'
         5' m%Odk l%shdldÍ ldKavh oelaùug fhdok m%;Hh odufhys kduhg tl;=
            lsÍu'
         6' wdfoaY ldKav kï lsÍu'
         7' wdfoaY ldKavj, kï iels,af,a kug tl;= lsÍu'
         8' ldnka iels,a, wxlkh lsÍu'
         9' m%Odk l%shdldÍ ldKavfha yd wdfoaY ldKavj, msysgqu oelaùug fhdok
            wxl tu ldKav bosßfhka fhoSu'




                                          97
                 ldKavh            m%Odk l%shdldÍ                  wdfoaY ldKavh
                                 ldKavh jYfhka ku                  jYfhka ku

                -                            Thsla wï,h
                                             oic acid
                -                            TtaÜ
                                             oate
                -                            weuhs â
                                             amide
                                                                        ihfkd
                                                                        cyano
                    -                        we,a                       f*dauhs,a
                                             al                         formyl

                            O                ´ka                        Tlafid
                        C                    one                        oxo

                -                            ´,a                        yhsâfrdlais
                                             ol                         hydroxy
                -                            weuhska                    weuhsfkd
                                            amine                       amino
           ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                            whska                       whska
                                            yne                         yne
                                            Bka                         Bka
                                            ene                         ene
                                            -                           fyaf,da
                                                                         halo
                  -NO2                      -                           khsÜfrd
                                                                        nitro




1 j.=j - l%shdldÍ ldKavj, m%uqL;dj wvq fjk ms<sfj<g ilia lrk ,o fY%aKsh




                                        98
           ldnka mrudKq         kdu uQ,h      wkqrEm yhsâfrdldnkfha
              .Kk                                      ku
                  1            meth               Methane
                  2            eth                Ethane
                  3            prop               Propane
                  4            but                Butane
                  5            pent               Pentane
                  6            hex                Hexane

             m%Odk odufha mj;sk ldnka mrudKq ixLHdj wkqj ixfhda.fha
                kug fhfok kdu uQ,h yd wkqrEm yhsfâfrdldnkfha ku

       ² IUPAC kdulrKhg wkql+, j ixfhda.fha jHQy iQ;%h we|Su'
         IUPAC   kdulrKhg wkql+, j ixfhda.hl jHQy iQ;%h we|Su my; oelafjk
         mshjrj,a wkq.ukh lsÍfuka l< yels fõ'
         1. iels,a, y÷kdf.k tu kduh wkqj iels,a, we|Su
         2. iels,a, wxlkh lsÍu
         3. oS we;s IUPAC ku wkqj m%Odk l%shdldÍ ldKavh yd wjfYaI ldKav
         y÷kdf.k tu ldKavj, kug fmr ;sfnk wxlh wkqj tu ldKav iels,af,a
            ksjeros ia:dkj,g iïnkaO lsÍu'
         4. ieu ldnka mrudKqjl u ixhqc;dj y;r jk mßos yhsârcka mrudKq
            iels,af,a jHQyhg fhoSu'

fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
  ² úIh ks¾foaYfha i|yka iSudjkag hg;a j ixfhda. lsysmhl jHQy § tajd IUPAC
    l%uhg kï lsÍug isiqka fhduq lrkak'
  ² úIh ks¾foaYfha i|yka iSudjkag hg;a j hï ixfhda.hl IUPAC kduh ÿka úg thg
    wod< jHQyh ,sùug isiqka fhduq lrkak'
  ² Wla; mejreï lKavdhï ls%hdldrlï f,i bÈßm;a lrkak'




                                         99
   q
ksmK;dj 6            ( ldnksl ixfhda.j, úúO;ajh úuid n,hs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 6'4     ( tl u wKql iQ;%h iys; wKqj, mrudKq ilia ù meje;sh yels
                        úúO wdldr úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ld,Éfþo              ( 05 hs'

bf.kqï M,          (
       ² fok ,o wKql iQ;%hla i|yd mej;sh yels ish¨ u jHQy iQ;% w|shs'
       ² fok ,o wKql iQ;%hla i|yd w|sk ,o ish¨ u jHQy iQ;%" jHQy iudjhúl yd
         ;%sudk iudjhúl f,i j¾. lrhs'
       ² fok ,o wKql iQ;%hla i|yd mej;sh yels iudúhúl w;=ßka úfYaIs; l<
         ,laIK iys; iudjhúlj, jHQy w|shs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
      ² tlu wKql iQ;%h we;s tlsfklg fjkia jHqy mej;Sfï ixisoaêh iudhúl;dj
        f,i y÷kajhs'
      ² ixfhda.hl iudjhúl tlsfklg fjkia fN!;sl yd ridhksl .=K fmkaúh
        yels h'
      ² ldnksl ixfhda.j, iudjhúl;dj my; wdldrhg j¾. l< yelshs'
                                       iudjhúl;dj




              jHqy iudjhúl;dj                                ;%sudk iudjhúl;dj



     odu        ia:dk^msygï&
                         s q    l%shdldÍ ldKav          mdr;%sudk                   s
                                                                                 m%;rEmwjhj
 iudjhúl;dj     iudjhúl;dj      iudjhúl;dj             iudjhúl;dj                iudjhúl;dj



       •   odu iudjhúl;dj
           tlu ioDY fY%aKshg wh;a" tlu wKql iQ;%h i|yd ldnka odufha iajrEmh
           fjkia ùfuka odu iudjhúl ,efí'
                                                 CH3
           ksoiqka( CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3         yd         CH3 CH       CH3

                ìhqfÜka (Butane)                       2-fu;s,afm%dfmaka (2-Methylpropane)

       •   ia:dk iudjhúl;dj
           tl u wKql iQ;%h" tlu l%shdldÍ ldKavh iy tl u ldnka iels,a, mej;sh
           o l%shdldÍ ldKavh iïnkaO j we;s ldnka mrudKqj fyda l%shdldÍ ia:dkfha
           msysàu fyda fjkia ùfuka ia:dk iudjhúl ,efí'



                                                 100
  ksoiqka (
                                                 OH
  ^i&                                     CH3    CH         CH3
         Propan-1-ol                      Propan-2-ol


  ^ii&
           But-1-yne                      But-2-yne

                 Cl                              Cl
 ^iii&                Cl
                O                                O
                                                          Cl

          1,2-Dichlorobenzene               1,3-Dichlorobenzene

• l%shdldÍ ldKav iudjhúl;dj
  tl u wKql iQ;%h i|yd fjkia l%shdldÍ ldKav we;s jHqy mej;Su l%shdldÍ
  ldKav iudjhúl;dj f,i y÷kajhs'
  ksoiqka(

                               O                     O
   ^i&                                    CH 3   C
               CH 3CH 2    C
                               H                     CH 3
                 Propanal                  Propanone
                               O                      O
  ^ii&        CH 3CH 2     C              CH 3   C
                               OH
                                                      O        CH3
              Propanoic acid              Methyl ethanoate

• ;%sudk iudjhúl;dj
  tl u wKql iQ;%h yd tlu jHQy iQ;%h we;s uq;a" ;%sudk wjldYfha nkaOk
                                                       s
  osYdk; ù we;s wdldrh fjkia ùfuka" fjkia jHQy ,eîu ;%udk iudjhúl;dj
  kï fõ' fok ,o wKql iQ;%hla i|yd mej;sh yels ;%sudk iudjhúl w;=frka
  tlla wksflys o¾mK m%;sìïnh jk jHQy m%;srEmwjhj iudjhúl f,i
  ye|skafõ' tlla wksflys o¾mK m%;sìïnh fkdjk jHQy mdr;%sudk iudjhúl
  kï fõ'
• mdr;%sudk iudjhúl;dj
  cHdñ;sl iudjhúl;dj mdr;%sudk iudjhúl;dj fmkakqï lrk tla
  wjia:djls' C } C oaú;aj nkaOkhl oS         nkaOkhg wu;r j mj;sk
  nkaOkh ksid tu ldnka mrudKqj,g nkaOkh jgd ksoyfia N%uK ùug
  fkd yels h' fï fya;=j ksid wvx.= mrudKq tl u wdldrhg nkaOkh ù we;s
  kuq;a tajdfha ;%sudkfha msysàu fya;= fldg f.k fjkia úkHdi mej;sh yels
  h' th cHdñ;sl iudjhúl;dj f,i y÷kajhs'
  tfia ,efnk fjkia jHQyj,g cHdñ;sl iudjhúl hehs lshkq ,efí'



                                    101
          we,alSkj, jHQy iQ;% u`.ska cHdñ;sl iudjhúl y÷kd .; yels h'
                       a              p
                            C     C
                        b             q

               yd           kï tu ixfhda.h cHdñ;sl iudjhúl;dj fmkajhs'
          by; wjia:djl oS iudk ldKav folla oaú;aj nkaOkfha wCIhg idfmaCI j
          tl u me;af;a jQfha kï thg isia ^cis& iudjhúlh hhs o fome;af;a msysáfha
          kï thg g%dkaia ^trans) iudjhúlh hhs o lshkq ,efí'
          ksoiqka - But -2-ene

               CH3          CH3                   CH3       H
                 C      C                           C   C
               H            H                     H         CH3
             cis iudjhúlh                         trans iudjhúlh

         a, b, p yd q ldKav y;r u wiudk jk úg o cHdñ;sl iudjhúl;dj fmkajhs'
         kuq;a t jeks iudjhúl isia yd g%dkaia f,i kï l< fkd yel' tu ixfhda.
         kdulrKh fuu úIh ks¾foaYhg wod< fkd fõ'
         tlla wfkflys o¾mk m%;sìïN jk iudjhúl m%;srem wjhj j, ye|skafõ'
       • m%;srEmwjhj iudjhúl;dj
         tlsfklg fjkia ldKav y;rla iïnkaO ldnka mrudKqjla iys; ixfhda.
         m%;srEm wjhj iudjhúl;dj olajhs' tla m%;srEmwjhjhla muKla wvx.=
         ødjKhla yryd ;,O%eú; wdf,dalh hejQ úg O%ejK ;,h N%uKh fõ' tla
         m%;srEmwjhjhla u`.ska O%ejK ;,h tla osYdjlg o wfkla m%;srEmwjhjh
         u`.ska Bg m%;súreoaO osYdjg o N%uKh isÿ flfrhs' m%;srEmiudjhúl u`.ska
         O%ejK wjhj ;,h N%uKh lrk ksid tajd m%ldY il%sh iudjhúl f,i o
         ye|skafõ'

              fn%dfudlaf,dfrd*a¨fjdfrdóf;akj,a
                   (Bromochlorofluoromethan)
                    m%;srEm wjhj iudjhúl

                                                        o¾mKh


fhdað; bf.kqï - b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
        • C4 H8 yd C5 H12 wKql iQ;%j,g we|sh yels ish¨ u jHQy iQ;% bosßm;a lrk
          f,i is i q k a g ls h d" iudjhúl;dj" jHQ y iudjhúl;dj iy ;% s u dk
          iudjhúl;dj hk mo y÷kajd fokak'
        • mka;sh lKavdhïj,g fnod iudjhúl ms<sn| úIh ks¾foaYfha wka;¾.;
          ish¨ u me;s wkdjrKh jk fia wKql iQ;% isiqkag fokak' tu wKql
          iq;%j,g we|sh yels ish¨ u jHqy iQ;% bosßm;a lr tajd j¾.SlrKh lrk f,i
          isiqkag Wmfoia fokak'
        • WÑ; øjH fhdod .ksñka wKqj, cHdñ;sl yevj, wdlD;s ;kd tajdfha úúO;ajh
          y÷kd .ekSug fhduq lrkak'
                                            102
ksmqK;dj 7'0            ( yhsâfrdldnkj, jHQyh yd .=K w;r iïnkaO;d úu¾Ykh
                            lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 7'1        ( we,s*eál yhsâfrdldnkj, jHQyh" fN!;sl .=K yd nkaOk
                            iajNdjh úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                 ( 06 hs'

bf.kqï M,               (
       ² we,aflak" we,alSk iy we,alhskj, nkaOk iajNdjh WÑ; WodyrK weiqfrka
          úia;r lrhs'
       ² we,aflak" we,alSk yd we,alhsk ioDYH fY%aKs Tiafia tajdfha fN!;sl .=K
         úp,kh jk wkaou ikaikaokd;aul j újrKh lrhs'
       ² ir, we,aflak" we,alSk yd we,alhskj, cHdñ;sl yevh iuÕ ldnka
         mrudKqj, uqyqïlrKh iïnkaO lr olajhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² wkqhd; idudðlhska fofofkl= fjkia jkafka CH2 tallhlska muKla kï
         t jeks ixfhda. fY%aKshla ioDY fY%aKshla f,i ye|skafõ'
         ksoiqka f,i we,aflak fY%aKsh f.k úia;r lr osh yels h'
       ² we,aflak wKqjla ks¾O%eùh fyda b;d ÿn, f,i O%eùh fyda fõ' ks¾O%eùh wKq
         folla w;r wdl¾IK n, f,i we;af;a b;d ÿn, jekavjd,aia n,hs' fY%aKsfha
         uq,a idudðlhska ldur WIaK;ajfha oS jdhq fõ' my<g hk úg øj iy >k
         idudðl ixfhda. yuq fõ'
       ² ldnka odu w;= fnoSu;a iu`. jeka v'jd,aia wdl¾IK ÿn, fõ' ldnka myla
         we;s we,aflak idudðlhska ie,l+ úg (

                   ixfhda.h                             ;dmdxlh

                   Pentane                                 360 C
                   2- Methylebutane                        280 C
                   2, 2 Dimethylpropane                     90 C



              S
       ² we,alkj, o fN!;sl .=K fndfyda ÿrg we,aflakj, fN!;sl .=Kj,g iudkhs'
       ² we,alhskj, o O%eùh;dj wvq neúka fN!;sl .=K w;ska we,alhsk o wkqrEm
         we,aflak yd we,alSkj,g fndfydaÿrg iudk fõ'
       ² ldnka - ldnka nkaOk ieoSfï oS C mrudKq sp, sp2 yd sp3 f,i uqyqïlrKhg
         Ndck fõ'




                                          103
               q
            uqyïlrKh                      WodyrKh               cHdñ;sh

              sp                                                f¾Çh

                                          H             H
              sp2                               C=C             ;,Sh
                                           H            H

                                                H
              sp3                                               p;=ia;,Sh
                                           H    C   H
                                                H




²     ldnkaj, N+ñ wjia:dfõ bf,lafg%dak úkHdih - 1s2 2s2 2p2
      ldnkaj, N+ñ wjia:dfõ bf,lafg%dak úkHdihg wkqj ldnka mrudKqjl we;af;a
      úhq.au bf,lafg%dak folla muKs'
    ² kuq;a ldnka mrudKqjla CH 4 idok úg i¾jiu nkaOk y;rla idohs' fuh jgyd
      .ekSu i|yd ldnka mrudKqfõ bf,lafg%dak W;af;að; wjia:djg m;a ù bka miq
      uqyqïlrK l%shdj,shg wj;S¾K jk nj Wml,amkh l< yels h'
    ² fuys oS ldnka ys 2s Wm Ylaa;s uÜgfuys we;s bf,lafg%dakhla 2p ysia ldlaIslhlg
      ixl%uKh ùfuka miq uqyqïlrKh isÿ fõ'
    ² W;af;að; bf,lafg%dak iys; ldnka mrudKqj sp3 fyda sp2 fyda sp uqyqïlrKhkag
      Ndck ùfuka ms<sfj<ska    tal nkaOk"               oaú;aj nkaOk iy      ;%s;aj
      nkaOk idok wdldrh úia;r l< yels h'




                                          104
² N+ñ wjia:dfõ" W;af;að; wjia:dfõ iy uqyqïlrKh jQ ldnka mrudKqj, ixhqc;d
  ljpfha we;s úúO ldlaIslj, Yla;s fjki ixikaokd;aul j my; oelafõ'




 N+ñ wjia:dj              W;af;að; wjia:dj




 N+ñ wjia:dj              W;af;að; wjia:dj




                                                  sp


N+ñ wjia:dj
                      W;af;að; wjia:dj




                                 H




                                        H
                          H
                                       H


                    CH4   wKqj - uOH ldnka mrudKqfõ
                                 uqyqïrKh sp3 fõ'




                                      105
                      C2H4   wKqj - uOH ldnka mrudKqj,
                                   uqyqïlrKh sp2 fõ'




                                          nkaOk

                        nkaOk




                                                        nkaOk
                                      nkaOk

                       C2H2 wKqj   - uOH ldnka mrudKqj,
                                     uqyqïlrKh sp fõ'




  ² uqyqï ldlaIslhl s m%;sY;h nkaOk os. i|yd n,mdhs' ksoiqka jYfhka
             q
          uqyïlrKh                         C- H nkaOk ÿr ^wexiag%ï tallj,ska&
          sp3                                      1.112
          sp2                                      1.103
          sp                                       1.079


fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
  ² we,aflak" we,alSk yd we,alhskj, fmdÿ iQ;% isiqkag y÷kajd fokak' tla tla fmdÿ
    iQ;%hg wod< ixfhda.h ne.ska ,sùug isiqkag wjia:dj ,nd fokak' ta w;=ßka ir,
    we,aflakhl" we,alSkhl yd we,alhskhl jHQyh" Tjqka fï jk úg;a bf.k f.k
    we;s uqyqïlrK weiqßka meyeos,s lrkak'
  ² mka;sh lKavdhï ;=klg fnod methane, ethene yd ethynej, ldnka mrudKqj,
    uqyqïlrK wdldrh" cHdñ;sl yev yd fN!;sl .=K ;¾ldkql+, j f.dvk`.d bosßm;a
    lsÍug wjia:dj ,nd fokak'
  ² myiqfjka fidhd .; yels øjH Wmfhda.S lr f.k wdlD;s idod wKqj, yev úia;r
    lsÍug wjia:dj ,nd fokak'


                                            106
ksmqK;dj 7'0               ( yhsâfrdldnkj, jHQyh yd .=K w;r iïnkaO;d úu¾Ykh
                                lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 7'2           ( fnkaiSkaj, nkaOk iajNdjh úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                    ( 05 hs'

bf.kqï M,                  (
         ² fnkaiSkaj,g ms<s.; yels jHqyhla   uq,ska u bosßm;a lf<a fll=f,a úiska
           kuq;a fu u`.ska fnkaiSkaj, ish¨ .=K úia;r fkdùug fya;= bosßm;a lrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
     ²    idudkH ;;a;aj hgf;a wix;Dma;;dj ms<sn| mÍlaIKj,g fnkaiSka ms<s;=re
          fkd foa' tneúka fnkaiska i|yd ir, we,alSk fyda we,alhsk i;= wdldrfha
          jHqyhla meje;sh fkd yels h'

     ²     fnkaiSka i|yd fll=f,a fhdackd l< jHQyh u.ska wKqfõ oaú;aj nkaOk
                      Q          S           S                             S a
           ;=kla oelajj;a " we,alk ;rug fnkaika wix;Dma; ke;' fï ksid fnkaikj,
           jHQyh fll=f,a jHqyhg iudk fkd jk nj meyeos,s h'

     ²     fnkaiSkaj, ldnka mrudKq folla w;r nkaOk ÿr tlsfkl iudk jk w;r
           tys w.h 1.39 x 10-10 m fõ' ;j o fnkaiSka wKqj iïmQ¾Kfhka ;,Sh fõ'
           kuq;"a
                   oaú;aj nkaOkhl os.                    m
                 tal nkaOkhl os.         m
           fï ksid fnkaiSkays jHQyh my; iïm%hqla; jHQyj, uqyqula úh hq;= nj
           meyeos,s fõ'

                       H                                     H

               H       C                                     C
                                        H     H                      H
                   C             C                   C           C

                   C             C                   C           C
             H                          H     H                      H
                       C                                     C
                       H                                     H
                               fll=f,af.a iïm%hqla; jHQyh
     ²        fuu fo ysia B;,fhka oelafjkafka fnkaiSka fuu jHqy fol w;r udre
           jk nj fyda iu;=,s; mj;sk nj fyda fkd fõ' iïm%hqla;;djh hs'
              iy  w;r fjki meyeos,s lr fokak'

     ²     wKql ldlaIsl jdoh u`.ska fnkaiSkaj, jHQyh jvd;a fyd|ska meyeos,s fõ'
           tys ish¨ u ldnka mrudKq sp2 uqyqïlrKh ù we;'

                                               107
                           ² fuys oS kquqyqï p ldlaIslj, we;s bf,lafg%dak ixhq.aul oaú;aj nkaOk
                             f,i mj;sk neúka fomi we;s kquqyqï p ldlaIsl iu`. w;sÉPdokh úh
                             yels h'
                           ² fuhska pl%Sh bf,lafg%dak j,djla ìysùfï yelshdj ;sfí' tu ksid
                             p bf,lafg%dak yh pl%Sh j úia:dk.; ùu u`.ska i;H ;%s;aj nkaOk ;=kla
                             iys; jHQyhg idfmalaI j fnkaiSkays iïm%hqla; jHQyh ia:dhS fõ'

            ²              fnkaiSka wKqjl ia:dhS;dj meyeos,s lsÍug iïu; yhsârckSlrK tka;e,amS
                           o;a; o bjy,a fõ'




                           kuq;a fnkaiSka oaú;aj nkaOk ;=klska iukaú; jQfha kï"          tys iïu;
                           yhsârckSlrK tka;e,amsh                 tkï"               úh hq;= h'
                           tkï ^360-208& }             m%udKhlska fnkaiSka tys fll=f,a jHQyhkg
                           jvd ia:dhSj mj;sk nj meyeos,s h'
                       >




                       fll=f,a jHqyh


                                                                    iïm%hqla;;d Yla;sh
    Yla;sh $kJ mol-1




                                                                        -1
                                                         - 360 kJ mol
                            >




                                                               >




fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (

²           C6H6 wKql iQ;%hg wod< j ;sìh yels újD; odu jHQyhla we|Sug isiqkag mjikak'
            tu jHQyj, oaú;aj nkaOk" ;%s;aj nkaOk fyda tu nkaOk foj¾.h u fyda mj;sk
            nj;a" ta wkqj tajd wix;Dma;;d mÍlaIdj,g ms<s;=re Èh hq;= nj;a Tjqkag wjOdrKh
            lrkak'



                                                         108
    ksmqK;dj 7'0                         ( yhsâfrdldnkj, jHQyh yd .=K w;r iïnkaO;d úu¾Ykh
                                                 lrhs'

    ksmqK;d uÜgu 7'3                     ( we,aflak" we,alSk iy we,alhskj, jHQyh weiqfrka
                                           tajdfha m%;sl%shd úu¾Ykfha yd ixikaokfha fhfohs'

    ld,Éfþo                              ( 10 hs'

    bf.kqï M,                            (
           ² we,aflak" we,alSk yd we,alhskj, m%;sl%shdYS,s;ajh tajdfha jHQyh weiqfrka
              úia;r lrhs'
           ² we,aflak" we,alSk yd we,alhsk isÿ lrk ,dlaIKsl m%;sl%shd tajdfha jHQyh
             iajNdjh iu`. iïnkaO lrhs'
           ² fuf;aka laf,daßkSlrKh" t;Skaj,g fn%daóka yd yhsv%cka fya,hsâ wdl,kh
             hk m%;sl%shdj, hka;%Kh meyeos,s lrhs'

    úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
           ² we,aflakj, úfYaI l%shdldÍ ldKavhla fkdue;' ;jo" we,aflakj, ish¨
              iyixhqc nkaOk        nkaOk fõ'     nkaOk"        nkaOkj,g jvd ia:dhS
              neúka we,aflak idudkH ridhkd.dr m%;sldrl iu`. ^ OH-, CN-, H+ wdosh
              iu`.& m%;sl%shd idudkH ;;a;aj hgf;a m%;sl%shd fkd fmkajhs'

                                                         s s%
           ² we,aflakj, nkaOkj, O%eùh;dj b;d wvq ksid m%;lh;dj wvq ù we;' nkaOk
              iuúÉfþokh ù uqla; LKavl iEoSug keUqre fõ ^uqla; LKavlhl úhq.au
              bf,lafg%dakfha jeo.;alu myod fokak&'

           ² t neúka iuúÉfþokh isÿ úh yels Cl2, Br2 wdosh iu`. muKla m%;sl%shd lrhs'
              wdrïNl m%;sls%hdj

                                                          '
                        Cl           Cl                  2Cl
                            '                                          '
                        Cl           H       CH3         HCl + CH3
                                                 '        '
                    Cl           Cl              CH 3    Cl + CH3Cl
                        '                                                  '
'                      Cl        H           CH2Cl             HCl + CH2 Cl

                                Cl
                                                 '                 '
                   Cl                        CH2Cl             Cl + CH2Cl2

                   '                                                   '
                   Cl           H        CHCl2            HCl + CHCl2


                                Cl
                                             '                 '
                   Cl                        CHCl2            Cl + CHCl3



                                                               109
                 '                                              '
                 Cl        H     CCl3             HCl + CCl3

                           Cl
                                     '                 '
             Cl                      CCl3              Cl + CCl4
           s %s
kej;Sfï m%;lhd
         '            '                  Cl Cl
        Cl            Cl

             '             '
       H 3C                CH3               CH3CH3


² m<uq mshjfrka ckkh jk Cl uqla; LKavlfhka flfrkafka CËH nkaOkh
    iuúÉfþokh lsßu hs' fï l%shdj,fha oS ldnka iys; uqla; LKavlhla
    ckkh fõ'
²   wdrïNfha .egqï iïNdú;dj wkqj Cl uqla; LKavlhla CH4 wKq iu`. .eàfï
    yelshdj by< neúka CH3Cl we;s fõ'
²   iEfok CH3 uqla; LKavlh m%;sl%shdfõ uq,a w;rueosh fõ' miqj fjk;a w;r
    ueos iEosh yel' kso ( CH2Cl                                                     Cl
²   m%;sl%shdj isÿ jk w;rueo oS o odu wjika mshjr isÿ úh yels ksid os.ska os.gu
    m%;sl%shdj isÿ ùug os.ska os.g u ysret<sh iemhsh hq;= h'
²   t;S k a wKq f õ ;,fhka fomig k`.d we;s              bf,la f g% d a k >k;a j h
    bf,lafg%d*S,sl m%;sldrl wdl¾IKh lr .ekSug iu;a fõ' bf,lafg%d*hs,h
    π bf,lafg%dak j,djg wdl¾IKh ù ldnka mrudKqjlg ne÷Kq miq wfkla
                                     π
                                     i
                                     i
    ldnkaj,g iïnkaO ù we;af;a ldKav ;=kla muKla ksid ixhqc;d iïmQ¾K
    lr .ekSug ;j;a nkaOkhla we;s fõ'
²   yhsârcka fya,hsv iu`. we,alSk m%;sl%shd lrhs' fuys oS yhsâcka whk
    bf,lafg%d*hs, f,ig l%shd lrñka oaú;aj nkaOkhg myr foa' fuu
    bf,lafg%d*s,sl wdl,k m%;sl%shj, oS w;rueos ldfndlegdhk iEfoa'
²   ldfndlegdhkj, ia:dhS;dj ;D;shsl              oaú;Shsl    m%d:ñl
                                         R                  R           H
                                             +                  +           +
                                 R       C        R         C       R   C
                                         R                  H           H

² ldfndlegdhkfha + wdfrdams; C mrudKqjg we,als,a ldKav iïnkaO j we;s
  úg legdhkfha ia:dhS;dj jeä fõ' thg fya;=j jkafka we,als,a ldKav u.ska
  tajd iïnkaO j we;s Okdfrdams; ldnka mrudKqj foig nkaOk Tiafia
  bf,lafg%dak úl¾Ykh lsÍuhs' fuys oS isÿjkafka Ok wdfrdamKh iïmQ¾K
  whkh mqrd úisÍ f.dia ia:dhSlrKh ùu h'
  ^fuys oS R ldKav u`.ska we,als,a ldKav ksrEmKh fõ' ldfndlegdhkfha
  wdfrdamKh iïm%hqla;;dj u`.ska úia:dk.; ùug wod< moaO;s idlÉPd lsÍu
  wjYH ke;'&
                                       S                      s
² yhsârcka fya,hsv iu. wiuñ;sl we,alkhl isÿ jk bf,lafg%d*s,l wdl,k
  m%;sl%shdj, oS bf,lafg%d*hs,h ne|Sfuka miq
  ² wiuñ;sl ldfndlegdhk folla iEosh yels h'


                                                      110
                             C2 u;                 CH 3 Ë CH Ë + CH 2
                       fm%dafgdakSslrKh            m%d:ñl ldfndlegdhkh

       3
            CH 3 Ë 2 CH Ì 1 CH 2
                           Cl u;
                       fm%dafgdakSslrKh             CH 3 Ë + CH Ë CH 3
                                                    oaú;Shsl ldfndlegdhkh

² ñka jvd ia:dhS ldfndlegdhkh jvd myiqfjka iEfoa'
  ² wkqj jvd ia:dhs ldfndlegdhkh ,efnkafka oaú;aj nkaOkh fomi
    ldnka mrudKQ fol w;ßka yhsârcka mrudKq jeä .Kkla iïnkaO ù we;s
    ldnka mrudKqjg bf,lafg%d*hs,h iïnkaO ùfuks'
  ² fuu ksÍlaIKh" we,alSk úYd, ixLHdjl m%;sl%shd wOHhkh lsÍfuka miq
    udfldaksfld*a kshuh f,i idudkHlrKh lr we;'
  ² yhsârckafya,hsv w;ßka yhsârckafn%dauhsâ muKla m%;sl%shd udOHfha
    fmfrdlaihsv we;s úg óg m%;súreoaO osYdjg iïnkaO ùu isÿ fõ'
    fuhg fya;=j fmfrdlaihsv yuqfõ yhsârckafn%dauhsâ iy we,alSk
       w;r m%;sl%shdj isÿ jkafka uqla; LKavl hka;%Khla yryd neúks' fuu
       hka;%Kh meyeos<s lsÍu wjYH ke;'

  Wod (
                                            π
                                            δ
                                     fmfrdlaihsv

² we,alSkj,g fn%daóka wdl,kfha hka;%Kh
  ² we,alSkfha ;,h fomi we;s       bf,lafg%dak >k;ajh ksid fn%daóka wKqfõ
    fm%aß; oaúO%ejhla we;s fõ' bf,lafg%d*hs,h f,i l%shd lrkafka fuu fm%aß;
       oaúO%ejh hs'
                                        H             H                          H    H
 H                 H
                                                              H + ( Br   -
       C      C                  H      C             C                      H   C    C    H
 H                 H
                                                                                 Br   Br
             Br    +                            Br+

             Br-   -




² we,alSkj,g i,a*shqßla wï, wdl,kh yd ,efnk M,fha c, úÉfþokh'

                                                          H
                         idkaø
     CH 2      CH2 + H2SO4                      CH3       C       H
                                                          OSO 3H

     CH3CH2OSO3H + H2O                             CH3CH2OH + H2SO4



                                              111
       ² Hg2+ whk iy ;kql i,a*shqßla wï,hwe;s úg we,alhskj,g tla c, wKqjla
           wdl,kh fõ'
                                         H 2O
              CH           CH                        CH 2 CH                    CH 3 CHO+ H+
                                       O H
           Bfkda,h we,aäyhsvh njg laIKslj m%;sixúOdkh jkafka                                   CÌO   ys
           ia:dhS;dj by< jk ksid h'

       ² isis,a laIdÍh                          iu. we,alSkj, m%;sl%shdj

             CH 2          CH 2                   CH 2 CH2
                                                  OH        OH

       ² we,alSkj, W;afm%aß; yhsv%ckSlrKh
           idudkH ;;a;aj hgf;a oS H2 yd we,alSk m%;sl%shd fkdlrhs' kuq;a ishqï f,i
           l=vq lrk ,o Pt/Pd/Ni f,day W;afm%arl yuqfõ oS we,alSk yhsv%cka iu.
           m%;sl%shd ù wkqrEm we,aflak idohs'

                                                        l=vq
           Wod (

       ²                 yd                 we,alhskj, ;%s;aj nkaOkh idok C g
                                         ≡
           iïnkaO H ^w.%ia: yhsv%cka& wdï,sl .=K olajhs'
           fuu we,alhskj, wdï,sl H f,day u`.ska úia:dmkh l< yel'

                                           Na                  -
             H     C       C       CH 3              Na +C          C    CH 3+ H2
                                           NH3/Cu2Cl2
             CH3       C       C     H                         CH 3 C       CCu
                                         NH3/AgNo3
             CH3       C       C H                       CH 3 C           CAg

                                          NaNH2             -
             H     C       C       CH 3              Na+C           C    CH 3+ NH3




fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
                                             q a           q
  ² CH4 " C2H4 iy C2H2 wKqj, wdo¾Y wdlD;s isikg fmkajd" uqyïlrKh wkqidrfhka
    ldnka - ldnka nkaOkj, ia:dhS;dj meyeos,s lrkak'
  ² mka;sfha isiqka lKavdhï ;=klg fnokak'  ta tla tla lKavdhug ms<sfj<ska
    we,aflak" we,alSk iy we,alhsk iïnkaO úIh ks¾foaYfha olajd we;s m%;sl%shd
    wOHhkh lr jd¾;d lsÍug mjrkak'




                                                                   112
ksmqK;dj 7'0            ( yhsâfrdldnkj, jHQyh yd .=K w;r iïnkaO;d úu¾Ykh
                            lrhs'

ksmqK;dj uÜgu 7'4       ( fnkaiSkaj, ,dlaIKsl m%;sl%shd weiqfrka tys ia:dhS;dj
                          úYaf,aIKh lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                 ( 07 hs'

bf.kqï M,               (
       ² fnkaiSka wdl,k m%;sl%shdj,g jvd wdfoaY m%;sl%shd flfrys olajk keUqrej
          WÑ; WodyrK weiqßka fmkajd fohs'
       ² khsÜfrdalrKfha" we,als,alrKfha yd ye,ckSlrKfha hka;%K weiqfrka
         fnkaiSkaj, ,dlaIKsl m%;sl%shd f,i bf,lafg%d*s,sl wdfoaY m%;sl%shd úia;r
         lrhs'
       ² we,aflak" we,alSk yd we,alhsk isÿ lrk m%;sl%shd iu`. fnkaiSka isÿ lrk
         m%;sl%shd ii|hs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² fnkaiSkaj, we;s ,sys,a j ne÷kq     bf,lafg%dak j,dj ksid fnkaiSka j,h
          fomi wêl bf,lafg%dak >k;ajhla we;' fï bf,lafg%dak >k;ajh ksid
          bf,lafg%d*hs, wdl¾IKh fõ' bf,lafg%d*hs,h iu`. wka;¾l%shd lsÍfuka
          miq ldfndlegdhkhla iEfoa' fuhska fnkaiSkaj,fha bf,lafg%dak W!k;djla
          we;s fõ' pl%Sh j úia:dk.; jQ bf,lafg%dak j,dj ,nd .ekSug we;s m%jK;dj
                                         π
          ksid H+ bj;a ù wdfoaY m%;sl%shdjla isÿ fõ'

          fnkaiSkaj, bf,lafg%d*s,sl wdfoaY m%;sl%shd(

          khsÜfrdalrKh -
                                                                           S a
          id' HNO3 iy id' H2SO4 j,ska ieos khsÜfrdalrK ñY%Kh yuqfõ oS fnkaikj,g
          khsÜfrda ldKavhla wdfoaY ù khsÜfrdafnkaiSka ksmo fõ'
                                                         NO 2
                             id' HNO3/ id' H2SO4

                                    50 0C




          fnkaiSkaj,g wod< hka;%K ,sùfï oS iïm%hqla; jHqy foflka tlla f.k
          hka;%K ,sùug fhdod .efka'




                                                   113
jryka ;=< we;s iïm%hqla; jHqy ;=< we;s jl% B;, rys; j ksrEmKh lsÍug
fhduq lrkak' ^B;, Ndú; jkafka tla iïm%hqla; jHQhlska wfkl ,efnk
wdldrh wjfndaO lr .ekSug muKS'&

*S%â,a l%d*aÜ we,als,alrKh
ks¾c,Sh AlCl3 jeks ¨úia wï,hla yuqfõ oS fnkaiSka" we,als,a fya,hsv iu.
m%;sl%shdfõ' fuys oS thg we,als,a ldKavhla wdfoaaY fõ'
                                                R
                  ks¾c,Sh' AlCl3/R-Cl




                         ks¾c,Sh




ye,ckSlrKh
ye,ck jdylhla we;s úg fnkaiSka ye,ck iu. ^Cl2 fyda Br2& m%;sl%shd
lsÍfuka fnkaiSka j,hg ye,ck ldKavhla wdfoaY fõ' fuys oS ye,ck
jdylh u.ska ye,ck wKqj O%eùlrKh lrk neúka ye,ck wKqjg
bf,lafg%d*hs,hla f,ig l%shd l< yels fõ'

                                                    Br
                      ks¾c,Sh FeBr3/Br2




                                          114
               s
           TlailrKh
                       jeks idudkH Tlaisldrl u.ska fnkaiSka TlaislrKh fkdfõ'
           tfia jqj;a fnkaiSka j,hg we,als,a ldKavhla wdfoaYs; fnkaiSka ixfhda.
                       u.ska TlaislrKh ù fnkafidhsla wï,h idohs' ^fuu l%shdjg
           K2Cr2O7 Ndú;d l< yel'
                           CH 3                        COOH

                                  H +/KMnO 4
                                               H + /KMnO 4



         ² m%d:ñl iy oaú;shsl we,alhs,a ldKav TlaislrKh jk ;;a;aj hgf;a ;D;shsl
           we,alhs,a ldKav TlaislrKh fkdfõ'
           by< m%;sl%shd ;;a;aj hgf;a ;D;shsl we,alhs,a ldKav TlaislrKh ù
           fnkafidhsla wï,h muKla fkdj fjk;a ydhk M, ,nd osh yel'
           bf,lafg%d*s,sl wdl,k m%;sl%shd
           we,alSk myiqfjka bf,lafg%d*s,sl wdl,k m%;sl%shdj,g Ndckh jQj;a"
                 S                              =                s          s s%
           fnkaika j,fha iqúfYaIS ia:dhs;dj fya;fjka bf,lafg%d*s,l wdl,k m%;lhd
           flfrys t;rï keUqre;djla fkdolajhs' kuq;a f¾ks ksl,a W;afma%rlh yuqfõ
           150 0C ys § muK fnkaiSka yhsv%cka jdhqj iu. m%;sls%hd lr ihslaf,da
           fylafiaka idohs'
fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
  ² fnkaiSkaj, ,dlaIKsl m%;sls%hd fln÷ fõ oehs fya;= iys;j m%ldY lsÍug isiqka
     fhduq lrkak'
  ² isiqka lKavdhï ;=klg fnod my; i|yka tla hka;%Khla ms<sn| úia;r lsÍulaa
    mka;sh bÈßfha isÿ lrkakg mjrkak'
     • khsfg%dlrKh yd tys hka;%Kh
     • we,als,alrKh yd tys hka;%Kh
     •     FeX3 yuqfõ ye,ckSlrK yd tys hka;%Kh

                                               115
ksmqK;dj 7'0              ( yhsfv%dldnkj, jHqyh yd .=K w;r iïnkaO;d úu¾Ykh
                              lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 7'5          ( tal wdfoaYs; fnkaiSkaj, wdfoaYs; ldKavfha osYdNsuqL
                              lsrSfï yelshdj úYaf,aIKh lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                   ( 02 hs'

bf.kqï M,                 (
       ² tal wdfoaYs; fnkaiSkaj, wdfoaYs; ldKav ´f;d" merd fyda fugd ÈYdNsuqL
          ldKav f,i y÷kd .kshs'
       ² tal wdfoaYs; fnkaiSkaj,g fojk wdfoaYs; ldKavhla iïnkaO jk ia:dkh
          m<uq wdfoaYs; ldKavfha ÈYdNsuqL lsÍfï .=Kh wkqj m%ldY lrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² tla l%shdldÍ ldKavhla wdfoaYs; fnkaiSka" fojk bf,lafg%d*s,sl wdfoaY
          m%;sl%shdjlg Ndckh jqjfyd;a" fojk wdfoaYs; ldKavh iïnkaOjk ia:dkh
          ;SrKh jkafka m<uq wdfoaYs; ldKavfha .=K wkqjhs'
       ² wdfoaYs; ldKavhla u.ska fnkaiSka j,h fj; uQ,sl wdprK wdldr 2 la we;s
          l< yelshs'
       ² fuysoS fojk wdfoaYs; ldKavh iïnkaO jkqfha m<uq wdfoaYs; ldKavhg
          idfmalaIj j,fha ´f;da iy merd ia:dkj,g kï m<uq wdfoaYs; ldKavh
          ´f;d" merd fhduqldrl ldKavhla f,i y÷kajhs'

          ´f;d" merd fhduqldrl ldKavj,g ksoiqka
                                             H

                                                                  " ye,ck

                CH3                              CH3              CH3
                       id' HNO3/ id' H2SO4             NO 2
       Wod (                                                  +
                                0
                              50 C


                                                                  NO 2

       ² fnkaiSka j,hg wdfoaYs; bf,lafg%dak wdl¾Yl ldKav u.ska j,h úl%Sh
          lrhs' fï fya;=fjka fojk wdfoaYùu isÿ jkafka" m<uq wdfoaY ldKavhg
          idfmalaIj j,fha fugd ia:dkfha oS h' tu ksid bf,lafg%dak wdl¾Yl
          ldKavhla fugd kshdul ldKav f,ig y÷kajhs'

          fugd kshdul ldKavj,g ksoiqka

                -NO2, -CHO, -COR, -COOH, -COR


                                                  116
         Wod (
                       NO 2                              NO 2
                           CH3Cl $ ks¾c,Sh AlCl3


                                                                CH 3

fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
  ² mka;sfha isiqka lKavdhï follg fnokak'
  ² wdfoaY ldKav ,ehsia;=jla oS tla lKavdhulg ´f;da" merd fhduqldrl ldKavj,g;a"
    wfkla lKavdhug fugd fhduqldrl ldKavj,g;a iqúfYaIS jQ ,CIK u;= lr
    .ekSug fhduq lrkak'




                                                   117
ksmqK;dj 8'0             ( we,al,a fya,hsvj, jHQyh yd .=K w;r iïnkaO;d úu¾Ykh
                                s
                              lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 8'1         ( we,als,a fya,hsvj, jHQyh" C - X nkaOkfha O%eùh iajNdjh
                              iy m%;sls%hd úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                  ( 11 hs'
bf.kqï M,                ( ² we,als,a fya,hsv" m%d:ñl" oaú;Shsl yd ;D;Shsl f,i j¾.
                                lrhs'
                              ² ksoiqka olajñka C - X nkaOkfha O%eùh iajNdjh iu.
                                we,als,a fya,hsvj, kshqla,sfhd*s,sl wdfoaY m%;sls%hd
                                flfrys olajk keUqre;dj iïnkaO lr olajhs'
                                       s             q a s   s           s s%
                              ² we,al,a fya,hsv kshl,fhd*s,l wdfoaY m%;lhd isÿ lrk
                                ;;a;aj hgf;a oS laf,dafrdfnkaiSka yd úsks,a laf,darhsâ
                                tu m%;sl%shd fkd oelaùug fya;= meyeos,s lrhs'
                              ² .S%kdâ m%;sldrlh ms<sfh, lrk wkaou iy th olajk
                                m%;sls%hd meyeos,s lrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² ixfhda.hl oS hï ldnka mrudKqjlg iïnkaO ù mj;sk ldnka mrudKq
          .Kk wkqj th m%d:ñl" oaú;Sshsl fyda ;D;Shsl jYfhka kï flf¾' ye,cka
                                                             s
          mrudKqj ord isák ldnka mrudKqfõ iajNdjh wkqj we,al,a fya,hsv" m%d:ñl"
          oaú;Sshsl fyda ;D;Sshsl f,i kï flf¾'
                 H                              R                         R
          R      C   X                      R   C   X                 R   C   X
                     m%d:ñl                         oaú;Shl
                                                         s s                      s s
                                                                              ;D;Shl
                 H we,al,a fya,hsv
                        s                       H   we,al,a fya,hsv
                                                           s              R           s
                                                                              we,al,a fya,hsv

       ² we,als,a fya,hsv O%eùh ixfhda. fõ'
       ² we,als,a fya,hsvj, c,fha ødjH;dj b;d wvq h' fuhg tla fya;=jla jkafka
         tajd c,h iu`. yhsârcka nkaOk fkd iEoSuhs'
       ² ldnkaj,g idfmalaI j ye,cka mrudKqfõ wêl úoHq;a RK;dj fya;=fjka
                                           =
         C - X nkaOkh O%eùlrKh fõ' fï fya;fjka tu ldnka mrudKqfõ bf,lafg%dka
         W!k;djla mj;S' t neúka kshqla,sfhd*hs, u`.ska tu ia:dkhg myr fohs'
         ^ldnka kHIaáj,g myr oSug keUqre;djla olajk" Ndiañl" bf,lafg%dakj,ska
         fmdfydi;a m%;sldrl kshqla,sfhd*hs, f,i y÷kajkak'&

          kso(

       ² we,als,a fya,hsvj,g ,dlaIKsl jkafka kshqla,sfhd*s,sl wdfoaY m%;sl%shd hs'
         fuys oS ldnka mrudKqj kshqla,sfhd*hs,h iu`. kj nkaOkhla idok w;r                       δ
         ye,cka mrudKqj fya,hsv whkhla f,i bj;a fjhs'
         kso(
                       OH- +                     OH + X
                                                       -


                                      118
        ² ´kEu kshqla,sfhd*hs,hlg Niauhla f,i o l%shd l< yels h'       t neúka
           wdï,sl yhsârcka mrudKqjla bj;a lrñka we,als,a fya,hsvh bj;a ùfï
              s s%                              s
           m%;lhdjlg ,la lsÍfï yelshdjla o mj;sh' ye,cka mrudKqj iïnkaO ldnka
           u; msysá yhsârcka mrudKq wdï,sl núka jeä jqj;a tajd bj;a ùfuka ia:dhS
           M,hla ,nd fkd foa' t neúka hdno ldnka mrudKq u; msysá u| jYfhka
           wdï,sl yhsârcka mrudKq bj;a ùfï m%;sl%shd i|yd iyNd.s fõ'


                       H
             OH-   +       C     C        X     C=C   + H2O + X-

        ² laf,dafrdfnkaiSka yd úks,a laf,darhsâ" we,als,a fya,hsv kshqla,fhd*s,sl
          wdfoaY m%;sl%shdj,g iyNd.s jk ;;a;aj hgf;a tu m%;sl%shd isÿ fkd lrhs' ta
          i|yd fya;= f,i fuu ixfhda.j, oS C - X nkaOkh oaú;aj nkaOk iajrEmhla
          we;s lr .ekSu;a" ldnka mrudKqj sp2 uqyqïlrK wjia:dfõ mj;sk neúka
          nkaOk os. wvqùu;a i|yka lrkak'
                s                                       s s%      s%      s
        ² we,al,a fya,hsv úh,s B;¾ udOHfha § Mg iu`. m%;lhd lr .Skdâ m%;ldrlh
                               úh<s B;r
                           →
           idohs' RX + Mg ⎯⎯ RMgX
        ² RMgX j, nkaOk O%eùlrKh fya;=fjka ue.akSishï yd ne÷kq ldnka m%n,
           kshqla,sfhd*hs,hla f,i yd b;d m%n, Niauhla f,i l%shdlrhs' tneúka
           c,h u`.ska fm%dfgdak odhl lr we,aflak iEoSu je<elaùu i|yd úh<s B;¾
           udOHhla fhdod .efka'
                             →
             R M gX +H 2 O ⎯ ⎯ X-M g-O H +R H
        ² my; i|yka m%;sl%shd u`.ska .S%skdâ      m%;sldrlfha m%n, kshqla,sfhda*s,sl
           ,laIKj,ska fmkakqï l< yels h'
           Wod ( RMgX + CH3COOH ⎯⎯ RH + Mg ( CH3COO) X
                                 →

                   RMgX + CH3OH ⎯⎯ RH + Mg ( OCH3 ) X
                                 →
                   RMgX + RNH2 ⎯⎯ RH + Mg ( RNH ) X
                                →
                   RMgX + H-C ≡ CR → RH + MgX(C ≡ CR)
                   R-MgX + NH3 → RH + Mg(NH2 )R


fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
 ²    C 4 H 9 Cl wKql iQ;%h i|yd ;sìh yels ish¨ u we,als,a fya,hsvj, jHQy isiqka ,jd
      wkaojkak'
  •   taajd m%d:ñl" oaú;Sshsl" ;D;Sshsl jYfhka j¾. lr oelaùug isiqka fhduq lrkak'
  •   tla tla iudjhúlh idok .S%kdâ m%;sldrlh yd tajd wï," we,afldfyd, yd weók
      yuqfõ idok M,j, jHQy ,sùug fhduq lrkak'




                                          119
ksmqK;dj 8'0            ( we,al,a fya,hsvj, jHQyh yd .=K w;r iïnkaO;d úu¾Ykh
                               s
                            lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 8'2        ( nkaOk we;s ùu yd nkaOk ì£u isÿ jk ld,dka;rh weiqfrka
                            we,a l s , a fya , hs v j, ks h q l a , s f hd*s , s l wdfoa Y m% ; s l s % h d
                            úYaf,aIKh lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                 ( 04 hs'

bf.kqï M,               (
       ² nkaOk ì£u yd iEoSu tla jr isÿ jk ;ks mshjr m%;sls%hdjla f,i we,als,a
         fya,hsvj, kshqla,sfhd*s,sl wdfoaY m%;sls%hdj úia;r lrhs'
       ² nkaOkh ì£fuka wk;=re j kj nkaOkh iEoSu mshjr follska isÿ jk
         m%;sls%hdjla f,i we,als,a fya,hsvj, kshqla,sfhda*s,sl wdfoaY m%;sls%hdj úia;r
         lrhs'
       ² ;ks mshjrlska fyda mshjr follska isÿ ùu flfrys we,als,a fya,hsvfha
         iajNdjh n,mdk wkaou úia;r lrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² we,als,a fya,hsvj, kshqla,sfhd*s,sl wdfoaY m%;sl%shd meyeos,s lsÍug nkaOk
         ì|Sfï yd nkaOk ieoSfï mshjr i|yd .;jk ld,dka;rh ie,ls,a,g .;
         yels h'
                                                                        s
       ² nkaOkh ì|Su yd kj nkaOkh iEoSu tl jr isÿ jk úfgl we,al,a fya,hsvj,
         kshqla,sfhd*s,sl wdfoaY m%;sl%shdj ;ks mshjr m%;sl%shdjla f,i i,lkq ,efí'
       ² fï wkqj ;ks mshjr m%;sl%shdj my; wdldrhg bosßm;a l< yels h'




                                -
                              OH
                                                                 OH



       ² nkaOkh ì|Sfuka wk;=re j kj nkaOkh iEoSu isÿ jk úfgl we,als,a
                      q a s    s            s s%                       s s%
         fya,hsvj, kshl,fhd*s,l wdfoaY m%;lhdj mshjr follska isÿ jk m%;lhdjla
         f,i i,lkq ,efí'
       ² fï wkqj mshjr folska isÿjk m%;sl%shdj my; wdldrhg bosßm;a l< yels h'
         1 mshjr


                                                                   -
                                Br                               Br




                                    120
         2 mshjr


                              -                   OH
                               OH



  ² mshjr follska isÿ jk m%;sl%shdj w;rueos ldfndlegdhkhla yryd isÿ fõ' fuys
    oS we;s jk ldfndlegdhkfha ia:dhS;dj ie,lSfï oS" jvd;a ia:dhS ;D;Sshsl
    ldfndlegdhkhla iEoSug yelshdj we;s ;D;Shsl we,als,a fya,hsv mshjr follska
    kshqla,sfhd*s,sl wdfoaY isÿ lrhs' m%d:ñl we,als,a fya,hsv ia:dhS w;rueos
    ldfndlegdhkhla iEoSug wiu;a neúka kshqla,sfhd*s,sl wdfoaYh ;ks mshjra
    m%;sl%shdjla f,i isÿ lrhs'
                 s                  s                             s s%
  ² oaú;shl we,al,a fya,hsv l=uk ms<fj< wkq.ukh lrkafka o hkak m%;lhd udOHfha
    iajNdjh yd imhkq ,nk m%;sl%shd ;;a;aj u; ;SrKh fõ'


fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
  ² lKavdhï ls%hdldrlï u.ska we,als,a fya,hsvj, kshqla,sfhd*s,sl wdfoaYh mshjr
    tllska yd follska jk wdldr meyeÈ,s lsÍug WÑ; wdlD;s ilia lsÍug isiqka
    fhduq lrkak'




                              121
   q
ksmK;dj 9                 (       Tlaiscka wvx.= ldnksl ixfhda.j, jHQyh yd .=K w;r
                                  iïnkaO;d úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 9'1          (       we,afldfyd,j, jHQyh" tys ldnka-Tlaiscka nkaOkfha
                                  O%eùh iajNdjh" Tlaiscka-yhsârcka nkaOkfha O%eùh
                                  iajNdjh iy m%;sl%shd úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                   (       08 hs'

bf.kqï M,                 (
       ² we,afldfyd, m%d:ñl" oaú;Sshsl yd ;D;Sshsl we,afldfyd, f,i j¾.SlrKh
           lrhs'
       ²   úoHq;aRK;d fjki iïnkaO lr .ksñka we,afldfyd,j, O - H nkaOkfha
           O%eùh iajNdjh úia;r lrhs'
       ²   we,afldfyd,j, we;s wka;¾-wKql n, iu`. tajdfha fN!;sl .=K iïnkaO
           lrhs'
       ²   we,afldfyd,j, O - H nkaOkh ì£u" C - O nkaOkh ì£u" bj;a ùu iy
           TlaislrK m%;sls%hd jHQyh iu`. iïnkaO lr olajhs'
       ²   we,afldfyd,j, .=K mßlaId lr jd¾;d lrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² fudfkdyhsâßl we,afldfyd," m%d:ñl" oaú;Sshsl yd ;D;Sshsl jYfhka wdldr
           ;=klg j¾.SlrKh l< yels h' ^we,als,a fya,hsvj, oS fuks&


              H                             R                               R
       R      C   OH                 R      C     OH                R       C      OH
                  m%d:ñl                          oaú;Shl
                                                       s s                          s s
                                                                                ;D;Shl
              H   we,afldfyd,               H     we,afldfyd,               R   we,afldfyd,


       ² fN!;sl .=K
           we,afldfyd,j, -OH nkaOkh R - O δ - -H δ + f,i O%eùlrKh fõ' ta wkqj
           we,afldfyd, wKq w;r we;s jk wka;¾- wKql yhsârcka nkaOk ksid tajdfha
           ;dmdxl wkqrEm idfmaCI wKql ialkaOh iys; we,aflak yd B;rj,g idfmaCI
           j by< w.hka .kshs' we,afldfyd, fYa%Ksfha my<g h;a u ;dmdxlh jeä
           fõ'
           t;fkda,aj, wka;¾-wKql yhsârcka nkaOk mj;akd wdldrh my; rEmfha
           oelafõ'
                       C2H3                      C2H5
                              O       H     O
                         H                        H
                                                        O       H       O
                                                 C2H5                       C2H5



                                           122
     we,afldfyd, c,fha ødjH fõ' O%eùh ødjlhla jk c,fhys we,afldfyd,j,
     øjH;djg bjy,a jkafka -OH ldKavh hs' we,afldfyd, wKqfõ ks¾O%eùh
     we,als,a lKavh c,fha øjH;djg ndOdjls' we,afldfyd, ioDY fYa%Ksfha
                                                     s
     my<g hEfï § -OH ldKavhg idfmaCI j ks¾O%eùh we,al,a ldKavfha úYd,;ajh
     l%ufhka jeä fõ' ta wkqj c,fhys ødjH;dj l%ufhka wvq fõ'


jHjydßl kduh                 iQ;%h           ;dmdxlh$ oC     c,fha øjH;dj$g
                                                           ^c,h 100 g l ødjH jk
                                                            we,afldfyd, ialkaOh&

fu;s,a we,afldfyd,a                  CH3OH       64.5
t;s,a we,afldfyd,a               CH3CH2OH        78.3
n - fm%dmhs,a ""             CH3CH2CH2OH         97
n - ìhqghs,a ""             CH3(CH2)2CH2OH      118           7.9
n - fmkaghs,a ""            CH3(CH2)3CH2OH      123.8         2.3
n - fylaihs,a ""            CH3(CH2)4CH2OH      136.5         0.6
n - fymaghs,a ""            CH3(CH2)5CH2OH      176           0.2
n - Tlaghs,a ""             CH3(CH2)6CH2OH      195          0.05

                                                    - ´kEu wkqmd;hlg ñY% fõ'

  ² O - H nkaOkh ìf|ñka isÿ jk m%;sls%hd
     ^i& fidaähï iu`. m%;sls%hdj

            R-   -   + Na            R - O-Na+ + 1/2 H2

     we,afldfyd, ÿn, wï,hla f,i yeisfrñka fidaähï iu`. m%;sl%shd fldg
     yhsârcka jdhqj msg lrñka fidaähï we,afldlaihsâ idohs' we,afldlaihsâ
     whkh m%n, kshqla,sfhd*hs,hla yd m%n, Niauhla o fõ'

     ^ii&    ldfndlais,sla wï, iu. m%;sls%hdj ^we,afldfyd, weis,alrKh&

                               idkaø H2SO4




    ldfndlais,sla wï, iu`. we,afldfyd, m%;sls%hd lr tiagr iEfoa' fuu
    tiagÍlrK m%;sl%shdj i|yd idkaø H2SO4 wï,h W;afma%rlhla f,i ls%hd
    lrhs'
  ² we,afldfyd,j,g C-O nkaOkh ì|Sfuka isÿ jk kshqla,sfhd*s,sl wdfoaY
    m%;sl%shd
    ^i& we,afldfyd, PCl3 fyda PCl5 fyda iu`. m%;sls%hdfjka we,als,a laf,darhsâ
        ,efí'
         3R - OH + PCl3     3RCl + H3PO3
         R - OH + PCl5    RCl + POCl3 + HCl


                                     123
(ii) we,als,a fya,hsv iu`. m%;sls%hdj
     kso -
                     HBr
            R-OH             R-Br + H2O

   we,afldfyd, HBr iu`. m%;sls%hd lr wkqrEm we,als,a fn%dauhsvh ,nd
   fohs'
   HBr j,ska ,efnk Br- whkh fuys kshqla,sfhda*s,sl m%;sldrlh hs'
                 HI
    R-OH                   R-I + H2O


^iii& ZnCl2 yd idkaø HCl wï,h iu. m%;sls%hdj ^Ælia mÍCIdj&
   fuys oS ZnCl2 W;afm%arlhla f,i l%shd lrhs' M,h f,i ,efnk we,als,a
   fya,hsvh ksid m%;sl%shd udOHfha wdú,;djla we;sfõ' wdú,;dj we;s ùug
   .; jk ld,h weiqfrka m%d:ñl" oaú;Shsl yd ;D;Shsl we,als,a fya,hsv
   Ælia m%;sldrlh iu`. isÿ lrk m%;sl%shdfõ YS>%;dj iei|sh yels h'
   c,fha ødjH m%d:ñl" oaú;Shsl yd ;D;Shsl we,afldfyd,j,g muKla fuu
   mÍlaIdj iSud fõ'
            R/              ks¾c,Sh ZnCl2 /          R/
                            idkaø HCl
        R - C - OH +                              R - C - Cl + H2O

           R//                         R//
Ælia m%;sldrh iu. we,afldfyd,j, m%;sl%shd YSs>%;dj my; oelafõ'

;D;Sshsl
we,afldfyd,           >      oaú;Shsl
                           we,afldfyd,         >          m%d:ñl
                                                          we,afldfyd,

imhk ,o ;;a;aj hgf;a by; m%;sl%shdj isÿ jkafka mshjr follsks' tys oS
;D;Shsl we,afldfyd,h jvd;a ia:dhS w;rueoshla idok neúka ;D;Shsl
we,afldy,h Ælia m%;sldrlh yuqfõ b;d u flá ld,hl oS wdú,;djla we;s
lrhs'
² we,afldfyd, idkaø H2SO4 wï,h iu`. bj;aùfï m%;sls%hdj;g Ndck
  fõ' ^we,afldfyd, úc,kh&
  we,afldfyd,hlska c, wKqjla bj;a ùfï m%;s%ls%hdj we,afldfyd,j,
  úc,kh hs' fuys oS m%;sls%hdfõ M,h f,i we,alSkhla ,efí'



                             ks¾c,Sh Al2O3 $
             C        C                                   C= C
                             fyda idkaø H2SO4 $
             H        OH
           we,afldfyd,                                    we,alSk




                                 124
    ²   we,afldfyd, TlaislrK
          TlaislrKfhka ,efnk M,h we,afldfyd,fha m%d:ñl fyda oaú;Sshsl fyda
          ;D;Sshsl fyda iajNdjh u; r|d mj;S'

        i) m%d:ñl we,afldfyd,
                                                      O       [O]                 O
                                  [O]
              R   CH2 OH                R         C                       R   C
                                                      H                           OH
                                                                        ldfndlais,sla wï,h
        ii) oaú;Shsl we,afldfyd,
                                                                    O
                                            [O]
                    R    CH OH                            R   C
                                                                    R/
                              /
                          R
                                                              lSfgdak
            m%d:ñl yd oaú;Sshsl we,afldfyd, TlaislrKh jk ;;a;aj yuqfõ idudkHfhka
            ;D;Sshsl we,afldfyd, TlaislrKh fkd fõ' thg fya;=j jkqfha ;D;Shsl
            we,afldfyd,j, Tlaiscka iïnkaO ldnka u; yhsârcka fkdue;s ksid
            ldnka-ldnka nkaOkh ì|sh hq;= ùu hs'

            we,afldfyd, TlaislrKh H+/KMnO4 fyda H+/K2Cr2O7 fyda H+/CrO3 fyda
            iu`. isÿlrkq ,efí' we,aäyhsv jvd;a myiqfjka by; m%;sldrl yuqfõ
            ;jÿrg;a TlaislrKh fõ' t neúka tu m%;sldrl fhdod we,aäyhsv ,nd
            .ekSu myiq ke;' we,aäyhsv ,nd .ekSug wjYH úfgl ta i|yd msßãkshï
            laf,dafrdfl%dafïÜ [C5H5NH+CrO3Cl- ] fhdod .; yels h'

            m%d:ñl we,afldfyd, msßãkshï laf,dafrdfl%dafïÜ yuqfõ TlaislrKh
            lsÍfï § M,h f,i wkqrEm we,aäyhsvh ,efí' tys oS th ;j ÿrg;a
            ldfndlais,sla wï,h olajd TlaislrKh fkd fõ'

fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
        ²    C4H9OH wKql iQ;%hg ,súh yels ish¨ u we,afldfyd,j, jHQy bÈßm;a lr
            tajd m%d:ñl" oaú;Sshsl yd ;D;Sshsl we,afldfyd, f,i j¾.SlrKh lsÍug
            isiqkag Wmfoia fokak'

        ² we,afldfyd,j, mj;akd wka;¾-wKql wdl¾IKj, iajNdjh y÷kdf.k ta
            wkqj ysñ jk fN!;sl .=K ms<sn| j idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak'

        ² we,afldfyd,j, øjdxl" ;dmdxl yd c,fha ødjH;dj ms<sn| idlÉPd lsÍug
            isiqka fhduq lrkak'

        ² we,afldfyd,j, O-H nkaOkh ì§fuka isÿjk m%;sls%hd" C-O nkaOkh
            ì£fuka isÿjk m%;sls%hd" bj;a ùfï m%;sls%hd yd TlaislrK m%;sl%shd WodyrK
            u.ska bÈßm;a lsÍug yd wdo¾Ykh lr fmkaùug isiqkag wjia:dj i,id
            fokak'


                                              125
   q
ksmK;dj 9              (     Tlaiscka wvx.= ldnksl ixfhda.j, jHQyh yd .=K w;r
                             iïnkaO;d úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 9'2       (     ldnka-Tlaiscka nkaOkh yd Tlaiscka-yhsârcka
                             nkaOkh weiqfrka *Sfkda,aj, .=K yd m%;sl%shdj,
                             iajNdjh ms<sn| j úuid n,hs'

ld,Éfþo                (    04 hs'

bf.kqï M,              (
       ² we,afldfyd,j,g jvd *Sfkd,aj, wdï,sl;dj jeä nj tys jHQyh weiqfrka
         u;=lr fmkajhs'
                                 a                                  q a s
       ² we,afldfyd,j,g idfmalI j *Sfkda,j, by< wdï,sl;dj yd kshl,fhd*s,l    s
         m%;sls%hd flfrys olajk wvq leue;a; WÑ; m%;sls%hd bÈßm;a lr fmkajd fohs'
       ² *Sfkda,j, .=K mÍlaId lr jd¾;d lrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² wefrdaueál ixfhda.j, fnkaiSka j,fha ldnka mrudKqjlg yhsârcka
          mrudKqjla fjkqjg -OH ldKavhla ne£ we;s ixfhda. *Sfkda, f,i y÷kajkq
          ,efí' we,afldfyd, yd *Sfkda, c,Sh ødjKj, § my; olajd we;s f,i
          ú>gkh fõ'
             ROH + H2O F RO- + H3O+
             C6H5OH + H2O F C6H5O- + H3O+
          *Sfkda, we,afldfyd,j,g idfmalaI j wdï,sl núka jeä h' bka woyia
          jkafka by; olajd we;s *Sfkda,ays iu;=,s; ,laIHh jvd;a ol=Kq mig nr j
          msysgk nj hs' fuhg fya;=j jkafka *Sfkda,aj,g idfmalaI j *Sfkdlaiaihsâ
          whkfha ia:dhS;dj" we,afldfyd,hg idfmalaI j we,afldlaihsâ whkfha
          ia:dhS;djg jvd jeä ùu hs' *Sfkdlaihsâ whkh jvd;a ia:dhS jkqfha tys we;s
          RK wdfrdamKh iïm%hqla;;dj u`.ska úiqrejd yeÍu fya;=fjks' t jeks
          wdfrdamK úiqrejd yeÍula we,afldlaihsâ whkfha isÿ fkd fõ'

                a                               s
       ² *Sfkda,j, by< wdï,sl;dj my; ksoiqka u`.ka o ;yjqre fõ' we,afldfyd,hla
          fidaähï iu. m%;sl%shd l<;a NaOH iu. m%;sls%hd fkdlrhs' kuq;a *Sfkda,a
          fidaähï iu. fukau NaOH iu`. o m%;sl%shd lrhs'

          2C6H5OH + 2Na → 2C6H5O-Na+ + H2
          C6H5OH + NaOH → C6H5O-Na+ + H2O

       ² *Sfkda,aj, ldnka mrudKq sp2 uqyqïlrK wjia:dfõ mj;sk neúka yd fnkaiSka
          j,fha     bf,lafg%dak j,dj iu`. Tlaiscka we;s lr .kakd iïm%hqla;;dj
          yg.kakd oaú;aj nkaOk iajNdjh ksid *Sfkda,aj, ldnka-Tlaiscka nkaOkh"
          we,a f ldfyd,hl ldnka - Tla i s c ka nka O khg jvd flá h' t neúka
                                              q a s    s        s s%
          we,afldfyd, fuka fkdj" *Sfkda, kshl,fhd*s,l wdfoaY m%;lhdj,g iyNd.s
          fkd fõ'


                                     126
fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (

  ² my; mÍCIKj,g isiqka fhduq lrjkak' *Sfkda,a iaj,amh ne.ska mÍCId k<j,g
    f.k my; oelafjk mÍlaId isÿ lrkak'

      ² c,h 1 cm3 muK tl;= lr fyd¢ka fid,jd thg pH lvodis lene,a,laa
         oukak'

      ² fidaähï yhâfrdlaihsâ ødjKh 1 cm3 muK tl;= lr fyd¢ka fid,jd
         fojkqj ;kql HCl wï,h 1 cm3 muK tl;= lrkak'

      ² ksÍlaIK igyka lr .kak'

  ² by; mÍCIKj, § ,;a ksÍCIK wkqj *Sfkda,a ms<sn| j t<eôh yels ks.uk
    idlÉPd lrkak'




                                 127
   q
ksmK;dj 9               ( Tlaiscka wvx.= ldnksl ixfhda.j, jHQyh yd .=K w;r
                             iïnkaO;d úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 9'3        ( *Sfkda,aj, -OH ldKavh Bg iïnkaO fnkaiSka j,fhys
                             m%;sl%sh;dj flfrys we;s lrk n,mEu úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                 ( 02 hs'

bf.kqï M,               (
       ² *Sfkda,aj, wdfoaY m%;sl%shdj, oS OH ldKavhg idfmalaI j wdfoaYlh ´f;d
          ^2"6& yd merd ^4& ia:dkj,g iïnkaO jk nj m%ldY lrhs'
       ² *Ssfkd,ayS fnkaiSka j,h" fnkaiSkaj,g idfmalaI j bf,lafg%d*hs, flfrys
          jvd;a il%sh nj meyeos,s lrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² *Sfkda,aj, Tlaiscka mrudKqj u; jQ tlir bf,lafg%dk hq.,a fnkaiSka
          j,fha úia:dk.; ùu ksid tys j,h b,lafg%d*s,sl m%;sldrl flfrys
          fnfyúka il%sh ù we;' *Sfkda,aj, -OH ldKavh ´f;da" merd fhduqldrl
          fõ' ^OH ldKavh ´f;da" merd fhduqldrl jkafka ukaoe hs meyeos,s lsÍu
          wkjYH h'&

       ² *Sfkda,aj, bf,lafg%da*s,sl wdfoaY m%;sls%hd fnkaiSkays wkqrEm m%;sl%shdj,g
          wdod< ;;a;aj iu`. iei|Sfuka *Sfkda,ays fnkaiSka j,h bf,lafg%d*hs,
          flfrys jvd;a il%sh ù we;s nj meyeos,s fõ' my; ksoiqka i,lkak'

          ^i& fn%daóka Èhr iu`. laIKsl j m%;sl%shd lr 2"4"6-g%hsfn%dafuda*Sfkda,a iqÿ
              wjlafIamh ,nd foa'
                      OH                               OH
                                              Br              Br
                            + 3 Br2                                 + 3HBr

                                                        Br
                                                   2"4"6-g%hsfn%dafud*Sfkda,a

          ^ii& *Sfkda,a khsÜfrdlrKh i|yd ;kql HNO3 muKla jqjo m%udKj;a fõ'
                 OH                                  OH               OH
                                                             NO 2
                             ;kql HNO3                        +

                                20 0C
                                                                      NO 2
 fhdað; bf.kqï - b.ekaùï ls%hdldrlï (
  ²    *Sfkda,a iu. my; mrSlaId isÿ lr ksÍCIK ,nd.ekSug isiqka fhduq lrkak'
       ² fn%daóka Èhr 1 cm3 la muK mÍCId k,hlg f.k thg *Sfkda,a iaMálhla
          ^fyda ìxÿ folla muK& tl;= lsÍu'
                                        128
   q
ksmK;dj 9                   ( Tlaiscka wvx.= ldnksl ixfhda.j, jHQyh yd .=K w;r
                                 iïnkaO;d úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ksmqK;dj uÜgu 9'4           ( we,aäyhsv iy lSfgdakj, m%;sl%shd u.ska fmkakqï flfrk
                                  >C=O nkaOkfha O%eùh iajNdjh iy wix;Dma; iajNdjh
                                 úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                     ( 08 hs'

bf.kqï M,                   (
       ² ldnks,a ldKavfha O%eùh iajNdjh iy wix;Dma; iajNdjh ksid we,aäyhsvj,g
         iy lSfgdakj,g ,dlaIKsl jkafka kshqla,sfhd*s,sl wdl,k m%;sl%shd nj
         meyeos,s lrhs'
       ² kshqla,sfhd*s,sl wdl,k m%;sl%shdj,g ksoiqka jk m%;sl%shd lsysmhl hka;%K
         bosßm;a lrhs'
       ² lSfgdakj,g idfmalaI j we,aäyhsv b;d myiqfjka TlaislrKh ùfï .=Kh
         tajd tlsfkl fjka lr y÷kd .ekSug fhdod .kshs'
       ² we,aäyhsv iy lSfgdakj, .=K mÍCId lr jd¾;d lrhs'
úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² we,aäyhsv yd lSfgdakj,g HCN wdl,kfha hka;%Kh
          fuu m%;sl%shdj isÿ lrkq ,nkafka ldnks,a ixfhda.h yd c,Sh fidaähï
          ihkhâ ødjK ñY%Khlg ;kql Lksc wï,hla tl;= lsÍfuks'
          fuys § CN- whkh kshqla,sfhd*hs,h f,i m%;sls%hd lrhs'

                                     O                        OH
                                             HCN
                      R          C                     R      C    CN
                                         R
                                                              R
                  H                                     H     O-                      OH
                                 O                                       +
             H    C         C                      H    C     C    H H        CH 3    C      H
                                     H
                  H                                                                   CN
                                CN -                   H      CN                               %
                                                                                      ihfkdyhsäka
                                                                                      Cyanohydrin

       ² .S%kdâ m%;sldrlh ^RMgX& iu. m%;sls%hdfõ hka;%Kh

                      O                                            OH
                                 (i) RMgBr úh<s B;r
          CH 3    C                                         CH3    C        CH3
                                 ^ii& H+/H2O
                          CH 3                                     R
                                                   OMgBr                      OH
                      O
                                                             H+/H2O
          CH3    C                       CH3       C   CH3            CH3     C      CH3
                      CH 3
                                                   R                          R
                 R - MgBr


                                               129
² fí%ä m%;sldrlh ^2"4-DNP) iu`. m%;sl%shdfõ hka;%Kh
       (i)    kshqla,sfhd*s,sl wdl,kh
                                           ..           ..
                                                NH - NH2
                                                       NO 2                    OH              NO 2
                      R
                              C =O +                                   R       C       N   N             NO 2
                      R                                                        R       H   H
                                                NO 2
                    lSfgdak        2"4-vhskhsÜfrd*Skhs,ayhsâriska
                                   ^2"4-DNP&
             (ii)    úc,kh
                     by; w;rueos M,h iEÿKq ú.i u úc,kh ù wjika M,h jk
                     2"4-vhskhsÜfrd*Skhs,ayhsârfidak ,efí'

                              OH                NO 2                                   R
                                                                                               C = N NH
                        R     C      N     N                   NO 2
                                                                                       R                     NO 2
                               R     H     H


                                                                                                      NO 2
                                                                                                   a
                                                                               2"4-vhskhsÜfrd*Skhs,yhsârfidak
                                                                               ^;o ly fyda ;eô,s mdg wjlafIamhla&

fuu m%;s%ls%hdj we,aäyhsv iy lSfgdak fjk;a ixfhda.j,ska fjka lr y÷kd
.ekSfï mÍlaIdjla f,i fhdod .efka'

      s
² TlaiyrKh
       (i) LiAlH4 fyda NaBH4 u.ska   TlaisyrKh
               fuys oS we,aäyhsv yd lSfgdak we,afldfyd, njg TlaisyrKh fõ'
                                                                               H
               R                    (i) LiAlH4/úh<s          B;r
                       C=O                                         R           C    OH
                                                   +
                                     (ii) H2O/ H
               R                                                               R

                                                                               H
               R                    NaBH4 /fu;fkda,a
                       C=O                                         R           C    OH
               R                                                               R
(ii)                      u.ska TlaisyrKh ^laf,ukaika TlaisyrKh&
             Zn(Hg) $id'HCl
             fuys § we,aäyhsv iy lSfgdak wkqrEm yhsâfrdldnk njg TlaisyrKh
             l< yels h'
                                                                           H
               R                         Zn(Hg) $id'HCl
                        C=O                                    R           C       R
               R
                                                                       H

                                                       130
      ² we,aäyhsv TlaislrKh
      ^i& fgd,ka m%;sldrlh u.ska TlaislrKh
                  a
          c,Sh is,j¾ khsÜf¾Ü ødjKhlg ;kql fidaähï yhsâfrdlaihsâ ìxÿ lsymhla  s
          tla lsÍfuka ,efnk is,aj¾ yhsâfrdlaihsâ wjlafCIamhg ;kql wefudakshï
          yhsâfrdlaihsâ tla lsÍfuka fgd,ka m%;sldrlh- [ Ag (NH3) 2]+ idokq ,nhs'
                                                                       O
        R                                    -
                                       +
                  C = O + 2[ Ag (NH3) 2] + 3OH             R       C      + 2Ag + 4NH3 + 2H2O
                                                                          -
                                                                         O ßoS
       H                                                                    legm;
           fgd,ka m%;sldrlh u.ska TlaislrKh fyj;a ߧ legm;a mÍlaIdj we,aäyhsv
           yd lSfgdak tlsfklska fjka lr y÷kd .ekSu i|yd fhdod .efka'

      ^ii& f*a,sx ødjKh u`.ska TlaislrKh
          Ndiañl lshqmaßla gdgf¾Ü ødjKhla f*a,sx m%;sldrlh f,i ye|skafõ' fuh
                                                              s           s
          ;o ks,a meye;s c,Sh ødjKhls' we,aäyhsvhlska ìkaÿ lsymhla fuu m%;ldrlhg
          tl;= lr r;a lsÍfï oS ødjKfha ks,a meyeh l%ufhka ke;s ù .fvd,a r;= mdg
          lshqmaria Tlaihsâ wjfCIamh we;s fõ'
              R                                                                     O
                    C = O + f*a,sx ødjKh               Cu 2O           +R       C           + 3H2O
                                                       .fvd,a r;=                       -
              H                                                                     O
                                                       wjfCIamh

      f*a,sx ødjKh u`.ska o we,aäyhsv yd lSfgdak tlsfkl fjkalr y÷kd.; yels h'

      (iii)       wdï,sl fmdgeishï vhsfl%dfïÜ ke;fyd;a wdï,sl fyda Ndiañl fmdgEishï
                  m'uex.fkaÜ hk Tlaisldrl u`.ska we,aäyhsv ldfndlais,sla wï, njg
                  TlaislrKh fõ'
                     R                                         O
                                    H+/KMnO4
                         C=O                       R   C               + Mn2+
                                                               OH
                     H

                     R                                         O
                                    H+/K2Cr2O7                         + Cr3+
                          C=O                      R    C
                                                               OH
                     H
            we,aäyhsv yuqfõ H+/KMnO4 ødjKfha oï meyeh wj¾K fõ' H+/K2Cr2O7 øjKfha
            ;eô,s meyeh fld< meyehg yef¾' fuu m%;sldrl u`.ska o we,aäyhsv yd
            lSfgdak tlsfklska fjka lr y÷kd.; yels h'

fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
      ² úúO we,aäyhsv yd lSfgdak isiq lKavdhïj,g mjrd tajd úIh ks¾foaYfha
        i|yka m%;sldrl iu. m%;sl%shd lr idok ldnksl ixfhda.j, jHQy ,shd
        oelaùug fhduq lrkak'
      ² we,aäyhsv TlaislrKh jk ;;a;aj yuqfõ lSfgdak TlaislrKh fkdjk nj
        ixikaokd;aul j fmkajd fokak'
      ² we,aäyhsv iy lSfgdak tlsfkl fjka lr y÷kd .ekSfï mßCId isÿ lrkak'

                                             131
   q
ksmK;dj 9                          ( Tlaiscka wvx.= ldnksl ixfhda.j, jHQyh yd .=K w;r
                                           iïnkaO;d úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 9'5                   ( iajhx ix>kk m%;sls% hd u.ska fmkakqï flfrk mrsÈ
                                           we,aäyhsv yd lSfgdakj,         ia:dkfhys m%;sls%h;dj y÷kd
                                           .ksh's

ld,Éfþo                            (       04 hs'

bf.kqï M,                          (
       ² ldnks,a ixfhda.j,      ia:dkfha m%;sls%hdYS,s;ajh WÑ; WodyrK weiqfrka
         fmkajd fohs'
       ² fidaähï yhsâfrdlaihsâ" weisge,aäyhsâ yd weisfgdaka isÿlrk ix>kk
         m%;sls%hd bÈßm;a lrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² we,aäyhsv yd lSfgdakj, C = O ldKavfha O%eùlrKh ksid thg hdno
         ldnka mrudKqj, we;s C - H nkaOk ÿn, f,i O%eùlrKh fjhs' tksid tu
           yhsârcka mrudKq ÿn, wdï,sl iajNdjhla w;alr .kshs' ta wkqj laIdr yuqfõ
           we,a*d yhsârcka bj; ù ldíwekdhk iE§ug keUqre fõ'
                               H           H                          H       H
                               >




                          R    C       >             + OH- Â R        C   >             + H2O
                               >




                               H
          by; ldíwekdhkh" whkSlrKh fkdjQ we,aäyhsv wKqjl ldnks,a ldnka
          mrudKqjg kshqla,sfhd*hs,hla f,i myr fohs' ta wkqj   yhsârcka iys;
          we,aäyhsv yd lSfgdak iajhx ix>kk m%;sl%shdjg Ndck fõ'
       ksoiqk-
            weisge,aäyhsâ c,Sh NaOH yuqfõ m%;sls%hdj
                          H    H                                H     H

                H         C    C = O                        H   C     C = O + H2 O
              .. '
            HO'
             ..           H

                                                     H                            O-            H
                          O
       CH 3          C         +               CH2   C =O                 CH3     CH     CH2    C = O
                           H

           O-                  H                                       OH                 H

     CH3   CH            CH2   C = O + H2O                      CH3    CH         CH2     C = O + OH
                                                                                                       -
                                                                    we,afvda,a

                                                     132
                                                                                        by; oS ,enqKq wdl,k M, myiqfj


      weisfgdaka ix>kkh
                         CH 3                                   OH               CH 3
                                       NaOH(aq)
            2CH3        C = O                           CH3     C      CH2       C = O

                                                                CH 3

      by; oS ,o wdl,k M, myiqfjka úc,khg ,la fõ'
      ksoiqka (-

            OH                  H                                                 H
                                           H $
                                            +

      CH3       CH      CH2     C = O                    CH3    CH      CH        C = O     + H2O


                OH              CH 3                                             CH3
                                            H+ $
      CH3       C       CH2     C = O                    CH3    C       CH       C = O + H2O
                CH 3                                            CH3


fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
      ²     yhsârcka we;s we,aäyhsv iy lSfgdak my; tajdhska f;aÍug isiqka fhduq
          lrkak' ta wkqj iajhx ix>kkhg iyNd.sjk we,aäyhsv iy lSfgdak fudkjd
          oehs f;aÍug;a" ix>kk M, ,shd oelaùug;a isiqka fhduq lrkak'

                H       H                                                    CH3 H
                                                       H
       CH3 C            C = O ,        CH3 CH2         C = O,        CH3     C        C = O ,
                CH 3                                                         CH3



                    H                  H                                                    O

            H       C = O,             C = O ,                 C = O,        CH3 CH2        C




                                                 133
   q
ksmK;dj 9                ( Tlaiscka wvx.= ldnksl ixfhda.j, jHQyh yd .=K w;r
                             iïnkaO;d úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 9'6         ( Tlaicka wvx.= fjk;a ldnksl ixfhda. iu`. ldfndlai,la
                               s                                           s s
                             wï,j, jHQyh iy .=K ixikaokh lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                  (   06 hs'

bf.kqï M,                (
       ² ldfndlais,sla wï,j, jHQyh wkqj mj;sk wka;¾-wKql nkaOk yd tajdfha
            fN!;sl .=K w;r we;s iïnkaO;d bÈßm;a lrhs'
       ²    ldfndlais,sla ldKavfha ^-COOH& m%;sls%hd rgdj ldfndks,a ixfhda.j,
           C Oiy *Ssfkda,a iy we,afldfyd,j, -OH ldKavh iu`. ixikaokh lrhs'
       ²    Na, NaOH, NaHCO3 iy Na2CO3 iu`. olajk m%;sl%shd weiqfrka ldfndlais,sla
            wï," we,afldfyd, iy *sfkda,aj, wdï,sl .=K ixikaokh lrhs'"
       ²   O-H nkaOkh iy C-O nkaOkh ì£u isÿ jk m%;sls%hd i|yd WodyrK bÈßm;a
            lrhs'
       ²   ldfndlais,sla wï,j, .=K yd m%;sl%shd mÍlaId lr jd¾;d lrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
                 s s         %                    s                     s
       ² ldfndlai,la wï,j, lshdldÍ ldKavh ldfndlai,a ldKavh fõ' ldfndlai,a
                                                                              s
           ldKavfhys ldnks,a ldKavhl=;a tu ldnka mrudKqjg iïnkaO jQ yhsâfrdlai,a
           ldKavhl=;a we;'


                                          R



       ² ldfndlais,a ldKavh O%eùh ls%hdldÍ ldKavhla fõ' C = O yd O - H ldKavj,
           O%eùlrKh fya;=fjka wka;¾-wKql yhsârcka nkaOk idohs' iudk idfmaCI
           wKql ialkaO iys; we,aäyhsvj,g yd lSfgdakj,g idfmaCI j ldfndlais,sla
           wï,j, ;dmdxl by< fõ'

           ldfndlais,sla wï, wKq hq.,a f,i yhsârcka nkaOkj,ska ne£ oaúwjhjl
           iE§fï yelshdj o ldfndlais,sla wï,j, ;dmdxl by< w.hla .ekSug fya;=
           fõ' ldfndlais,sla wï, oaúwjhjl jHQy f,i yhsârcka nkaOkj,ska ne£
           mj;sk wdldrh my; rEmfha oelafõ'

                                      O       H   O
                        R     C                       C   R
                                      O       H   O




                                          134
    ² ldfndlais,sla wï,j, m%;sl%shd

      ² O - H nkaOkh ì£fuka isÿjk m%;sls%hd
                                              -
          RCOOH + Na                   R - COO Na+ + 1/2 H2
                                                -
          RCOOH + NaOH                     RCOO Na+ + H2O
                                                  -
          RCOOH + NaHCO3                    RCOO Na+ + CO2 + H2O

          we,afldfyd," *Sfkda, yd ldfndlais,sla wï, fidaähï" fidaähï
          yhsâfrdlaihsâ yd fidaähï nhsldnfkaÜ iu`. olajk m%;sl%shd
          ixikaokd;aul j my; j.=fõ oelafõ'

    ixfhda.h         Na f,dayh iu`.              NaOH ødjKh          NaHCO3
                                                 iu`.                ødjKh iu`.
                     m%;sls%hd lr
                                                                     m%;sls%hdjla
                     R -O Na+ idoñka H2 m%;sl%shdjla ke;'
    R - OH                -
                                                                     ke;'
                     msg lrhs'
        OH                               m%;sls%hd lr                m%;sls%hdjla
                     m%;sls%hd lr
                                         fidaähï *SfkaÜ              ke;'
                     fidaähï *SfkaÜ
                     idoñka H2 msg lrhs' idoñka NaOH
                                         ødjKh ;=< Èh fõ'

          O                                   m%;sls%hd lr           m%;sls%hd lr
                     m%;sls%hd lr                         -               -
R     C                   -                   RCOO Na           +    RCOO Na +
                     RCOO Na +
          O -H                                idoñka NaOH            idoñka CO2
                     idoñka H2 msg lrhs'
                                              ødjKh ;=< Èh fõ'       jdhqj uqod yßhs'

    ² by; ixfhda. NaHCO3 iu`. m%;sl%shd lrk     wdldrhgu Na2CO3 iu`. o
      m%;sls%hd lrhs'
                                      s s
      we,afldfyd," *Sfkda, yd ldfndlai,la wï,j, wdï,sl m%n,;d my; i|yka
      mßÈ úp,kh fõ'
      we,afldfyd, < *Sfkda, < ldfndlais,sla wï,
      ldfndlais,sla wï, c,Sh ødjKhl oS my; iu;=,s;;djg t<efò'

                           O                      O
                 R    C                 R    C                + H+
                                                      -
                           OH                     O
      by; iu;=,s;fha iu;=,s;;d ,laIHh *Sfkda, we;s lr .kakd wkqrEm
      iu;=,s;;djg idfmalaI j jvd;a ol=Kq mig nr j msysghs' fuhg fya;=j
                          s s                    a           s
      jkafka ldfndlai,la wï,j,g idfmalI j ldfndlaif,aÜ whkfha ia:dhS;dj"
      *S f kda , a j ,g idfma l a I j *S f ka Ü whkfha ia : dhS ; djg jvd jeäùuhs '
      ldfndlaisf,aÜ whkh my; oelafjk jHQyj, iïm%hqla; uqyquls'
                                                      -
                           O                      O
                 R     C                 R    C
                                   -                  O
                               O

                                       135
     ldfndlais,sla whkh jvd;a ia:dhS jkqfha tys iïm%hqla; jHQy *SfkaÜ whkfha
     iïm%hqla;j,g jvd ia:dhS jk neúks' fuu ia:dhS;djg fya;=jkqfha ldfndlaisf,aÜ
     whkfha iïm%hqla; jHqyj, RK wdfrdamKh by< úoHq;a RK;djlska hq;= Tlaiscka
     mrudKq u; mej;Suhs'

     ² C - O nkaOkh ì£fuka isÿjk m%;sls%hd
         ² PCl3/ PCl5 iu`.


                O            OH                 O          Cl
                        C                             C

                                 PCl3
                                             3               + H3PO3


                O           OH                  O          Cl
                        C                            C

                                 PCl5
                                             3               + POCl3 + HCl



        ² we,afldfyd, iu`.


                        O                                              O
                                                 H+
          CH3       C            + C2H5OH                 CH3                      + H2O
                                                                   C
                            OH                                          O-C 2H 5

     ² ldfndlais,sla wï, LiAlH4 u`.ska TlaisyrKh
        ldfndlais,sla wï, b;d m%n, Tlaisydrlhla jk LiAlH4 u.ska TlaisyrKfhka
        we,afldfyd, ,nd fok w;r NaBH4 u`.ska TlaisyrKh fkdfõ'
                                            O
                                                    LiAlH4
                CH3 CH2                 C                    CH3       CH2 CH2       OH
                                            O-H


fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (

       ² ldfndlais,sla ldKavfha nkaOk iajNdjh meyeÈ,s lr t u.ska ldfndlais,sla
         wï,j, fN!;sl .=K wkdjrKh lsÍu i|yd idlÉPdjla fufyhjkak'




                                                     136
   q
ksmK;dj 9                             ( Tlaiscka wvx.= ldnksl ixfhda.j, jHqyh yd .=K w;r
                                           iïnkaO;d úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 9'7                      ( wï, jHq;amkakj, ,dlaIKsl m%;sl%shd úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                               (     03 hs'

bf.kqï M,                             (
       ² wï, jHq;amkakj, ,dlaIKsl m%;sl%shd jkafka kshqla,sfhd*s,sl wdfoaY m%;sl%shd
         nj m%ldY lrhs'
       ² wï, laf,darhsvj, ,dlaIKsl m%;sls%hd i|yd ksoiqka ,shd olajhs'
       ² tiagrj, ,dlaIKsl m%;sls%hd i|yd ksoiqka ,shd olajhs'
       ² tauhsvj, ,dlaIKsl m%;sl%shd i|yd ksoiqka ,shd olajhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la
  ²   wï, laf,darhsâj, m%;sls%hd
       ^i& fidaähï yhsâfrdlaihsâ iu`. m%;sls%hdj
           wï, laf,darhsâ NaOH iu`. m%;sl%shd jQ úg wkqrEm ldfndlais,sla wï,h
           iEfoa' fuh m%;sl%shd udOHfha oS ldfndlaisf,aÜ ,jkh jYfhka mj;S'

                         O                                        O                           O
                                          NaOH                         NaOH
            R       C                                R    C                       R   C
                            Cl                                     OH                          -
                                                                                              O Na+
       ² m%;sl%shdfõ hka;%Kh
                                                             O-
                             O                                                                O
                                          NaOH
            R           C                            R    C           Cl          R       C        + Cl-
                                 Cl                                                           OH
                        -OH                                  OH                           OH-
                                                                                              O
                                                                                  R       C
                                                                                              O-
       ^ii& c,h iu`. m%;sls%hdj
          wï, laf,darhsâ c,h iu`. m%;sl%shdlr wkqrEm ldfndlais,sla wï,h idohs'
                                 O                             O
                                          H 2O
                R        C                       R       C
                                  Cl                              OH

       ^iii& m%d:ñl weók iu. m%;sls%hdj
                                                     H                        O       H
                                 O
                R           C             + H        N   R             R      C       N       R
                                  Cl




                                                         137
       ^iv& we,afldfyd, iu`. m%;sl%shdj
               wï, laf,darhsv" we,afldfyd, iu`. m%;sl%shd lr tiagr idohs'

                               O                                                      O
                   R       C           + C2H5-OH                      R           C
                                Cl                                                        O-C 2H 5
       ^v& *Sfkda,a iu`. m%;sl%shdj
                                   OH
                         O                                                            O
                  R C        +                                       R        C
                          Cl                                                              O

       ^vi & NH3 iu`. m%;sl%shdj
           wï, laf,darhsv" wefudakshd iu`. m%;sls%hdlr tauhsv idohs'
                                               O                              O
                                                   NH 3
                                   R       C                    R        C
                                                Cl                            NH 2
                                                                    tauhsv
  ²   tiagrj, m%;sls%hd
       ^i& tiagr ;kql wï, u.ska c,úÉfþokh ù wkqrEm ldfndlais,sla wï,h iy
           we,afldfyd,h ,nd fohs'
                                           O                                                  O
                                                          H20
                           R         C                                    R           C           + C2H5OH
                                           OC 2H 5                                        OH

                                    s %s                                     s s
       ^ii& tiagr c,Sh NaOH iu`. m%;lhd jQ úg we,afldfyd,h iy wkqrEm ldfndlai,la
           wï,fha fidaähï ,jKh idohs'
                                           O                                                  O
                                                     NaOH
                               R       C                                 CH 3             C     + C2H5OH
                                           OC 2H 5                                                -
                                                                                              O Na +

  ²   tauhsvj, m%;sls%hdj
       ^i& NaOH iu`.
           tauhsv c,Sh NaOH ødjKhla iu`. WKqiqï l<úg NH3 msg lrñka wkqrEm
           ldfndlais,sla wï,fha fidaähï ,jKh idohs'
                               O                                              O
                                         c,Sh   NaOH
                       R   C                                R         C           + NH3
                               NH 2                                           O -Na+


fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
       ² wï, laf,darhsv" tiagr yd tauhsvj, ,dlaIKsl m%;sl%shd isiq lKavdhïj,g
           mjrd tajd wOHhkh lsÍug fhduq lrkak'




                                                     138
   q
ksmK;dj 10               ( khsÜrcka wvx.= ldnksl ixfhda.j, jHQyh yd .=K w;r
                              iïnkaO;d úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ksmqK;dj uÜgu 10'1       ( ,dlaIKsl m%;lhd iy .=K weiqrka weók iy weks,ka ms<n|
                                       s %s            s               S     s
                              úYaf,aIKfha fhfohs'

ld,Éfþo                  ( 06 hs'

bf.kqï M,                (
       ² we,als,a weókj, m%fNao y÷kd .kshs'
       ² m%d:ñl weókj, m%;sls%hd yodrhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
       ² wefudakshdj, yhsârcka mrudKq fjkqjg we,als,a fyda weß,a ldKav iïnkaO
           ù we;s ixfhda. weók jYfhkaa ye|skaúh yels h' weók" m%d:ñl" oaú;Shsl yd
           ;D;Shsl jYfhka j¾. lrkq ,efí' we,als,a fya,hsv yd we,afldfyd, fuka
           fkdj" weók j¾.SlrKh flfrkqfha khsÜrcka mrudKqjg iïnkaO ù we;s
           we,als,a fyda weß,a ldKav ixLHdj wkqjhs' wefudakshdj, yhsârcka mrudKq
           ;=fkka tlla fjkqjg we,als,a fyda weß,a ldKavhla iïnkaO ù we;s ixfhda.
                                    a         s
           m%d:ñl weók f,i ye|skfõ' wefudakhdj, yhsârcka mrudKq folla fjkqjg
           we,als,a fyda weß,a ldKav folla iïnkaO ù we;s ixfhda. oaú;sShsl weók
           f,i o yhsârcka mrudKq ;=k fjkqjg we,als,a fyda weß,a ldKav ;=kla
           iïnkaO ù we;s ixfhda. ;D;Shsl weók f,i o ye|skafõ'
           ksoiqka (
                 CH3NH2        CH3 N CH3            CH3 N CH3
                                     H                              CH3
               m%d:ñl weók      oaú;Shsl weók                 ;D;Shsl weók


       ²   khsÜrcka mrudKqjg wju jYfhka tla weß,a ldKavhlaj;a iïnkaO ù we;s
           ixfhda. weß,a weók f,i ye|skafõ'
                                        NH2

                                                    S
                                               weks,ka
       ² weókj, khsÜrcka mrudKqj u; we;s tlir bf,lafg%dak hq.auh fya;=fldg
           f.k weók kshqla,sfhda*hs, f,i l%shd lrhs' m%d:ñl weók kshqla,sfhd*hs,
           f,i úúO m%;sldrl iu`. olajk m%;s%lshd lsysmhla my; oelafõ'
            i& wï, laf,darhsv iu`.                   O
              R    NH2 + R/         COCl                 R/     C    NH      R

           ii& we,aäyhsv yd lSfgdak iu.
                                   O                                         R/
               R   NH2       + R/   C      H                    R   N        C    H + H2O

                                     139
            by; oelafjk m%;sl%shdj fí%ä m%;sldrlh iu`. we,aäyhsv yd lSfgdak
             olajk m%;sl%shdjg wkqrEm fõ'
         (iii& we,alhs,a fya,hsv iu`.




            fufia iEfok oaú;Shsl weók we,als,a fya,hsv iu`. m%;sl%shd lrñka
            ;D;Shsl weók yd pd;=¾:; we,als,a wefudakshï ,jK ,nd fohs'




                fï wkqj by; m%;sl%shdfõ oS M, ñY%Khla ,efí'
         (iv)                ^khsÜria wï,& iu`.
                    R-NH2
                                         we,als,a
                                         vhfidakshï
                                          laf,darhsâ

                we,als,a vhfidakshï laf,darhsâ wia:dhS neúka we,afldfyd,h
                njg myiqfjka m;afõ'




fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
  ² fok ,o wKql iQ;%hla i|yd mej;sh yels we,als,a weókj, jHQy bÈßm;a
    lsÍug isiqkag mjrkak'
  ² m%d:ñl weókj, m%;sls%hd idlÉPd lrkak'




                                  140
   q
ksmK;dj 10              ( khsÜrcka wvx.= ldnksl ixfhda.j, jHQyh yd .=K w;r
                            iïnkaO;d úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 10'2       ( fjk;a ldnksl ixfhda. iu`. weókj, Ndiañl;dj ii|hs'


ld,Éfþo                 ( 05 hs'

bf.kqï M,               (

       ² we,s*eál weókj, iy weks,Skaj, Ndiañl;dj ii|hs'
       ² tauhsvj, iy weókj, Ndiañl;dj ii|hs'



úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (

       ² ;kql LKsc wï, u`.ska weók tajdfha ,jK njg mßj¾;kh lrhs' fuu
          ,jK c,Sh yhsâfrdlais,a whk iu`. m%;sl%shd lr kej;;a weókh ksoyia fõ'
          t neúka weók c,hg jvd Ndiañl jk w;r" yhsâfrdlais,a whkhg jvd wvq
          Ndiañl;djlska hqla; nj meyeos,s fõ'

                                    →
                    RNH 2 +H 3 O + ⎯⎯ RNH 3 + +H 2 O
                                   →
                    RNH 3 + +OH - ⎯⎯ RNH 2 +H 2 O

       ² weók" we,afldfyd,j,g jvd Ndiañl fõ'
                    R-OH + H+ Â ROH2+ we,als,a Tlafidakshï whkh
                    R-NH2 + H+ Â RNH3+ we,als,a wefudakshï whkh
          Tlaisckaj,g jvd khsÜrckays úoHq;aRK;dj wvq neúka tlir bf,lafg%dak
          hq.,la m%odkh lsÍug jeä keUqrejla olajhs' t kï weókhlg idfmalaI j
                s            s                                        a
          we,al,a wefudakhï whkfha ia:dhS;dj" we,afldfyd,hlg idfmalI j we,al,a    s
          Tla f ida k s h ï whkfha ia : dhS ; djg jvd jeä h' fuhg fya ; = j jkq f ha
          úoHq;aRK;dfjka wvq mrudKqjlg Ok wdfrdamKhla jvd myiqfjka oeßh
          yelsùu hs'


        ² weks,Skaj,g jvd m%d:ñl we,s*eál weókj, Ndiañl;dj jeä h'
          weks,Skays khsÜrcka u; jQ tlir bf,lafg%dak hq.,h iïm%hqla;;dj u`.ska
          wefrdaueál j,h iu`. úia:dk.; ù we;s neúka fm%dafgdakhlg ,nd oSu
          myiqfjka isÿ fkdùu weks,Skaj, wvq Ndiañl;djg fya;=fõ'




                                   141
       ² weókj,g jvd weuhsvj, Ndiañl;dj wvq h' ukaoh;a" weuhsv ldKavfha
                                   a           q a      s
         khsÜrcka u; we;s bf,lafg%dk hq., iïm%hl;;dj u`.ka ldfndkhs,a ldKavh
         iu`. úia:dk.; ù mej;Suhs'



                      O                     O-
                R C                   R C
                      NH2                   N+H2



              s             a
         Tlaickaj, wêl úoHq;RK;dj ksid wefrdaueál weókj,g o jvd weuhsvj,
         Ndiañl;dj wvq h'



fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
  ² we,afldfyd," weók" weks,Ska yd weuhsvj, Tlaiscka yd khsÜrcka mrudKqj, u;
                       a    a
    we;s tlir bf,lafg%dk hq.u odhl lsÍug we;s yelshdj wkqidrfhka tu ixfhda.j,
    Ndiañl;dj ixikaokd;aul j meyeos,s lrkak'




                                142
   q
ksmK;dj 10                 ( khsÜrcka wvx.= ldnksl ixfhda.j, jHQyh yd .=K w;r
                                iïnkaO;d úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ksmqK;d uÜgu 10'3          ( vhfidakshï ,jKj, m%;sl%shd úu¾Ykh lrhs'

ld,Éfþo                    ( 05 hs'

bf.kqï M,             (
      ² vhfidakshï ,jKh ksmojd .kakd wdldrh úia;r lrhs'
      ² vhfidakshï ldKavh c,h" H3PO2, CuCl, CuCN, CuBr yd KI iu`. isÿlrk
        m%;sia:dmk m%;sls%hd ,shd olajhs'
      ² vhfidakshï ,jKh bf,laÜfrd*hs,hla f,i yeisfrk m%;sls%hd i|yd
        ksoiqka ,shd olajhs'

úIh lreKq meyeos,s lr oSug w;aje,la (
      ² weks,Ska khsÜria wï,h iu`. m%;sl%shd lr *Sfkda,a ,nd foa'

             NH2                                              OH
                   NaNO2 /HCl                                      + N2 + HCl

          wefrdaueál vhfidakshï ,jKh we,s*eál vhfidakshï ,jKhg jvd ia:dhS
          fõ'
                         s s%                                                 s
          t neúka fuu m%;lhdj my< WIaK;ajhkays oS isÿ l< úg wefrdaueál vhfidakhï
           ,jKh *Sfkda,h njg m;aùu j<ld,sh yels h'

                    NH2
                          NaNO2 /HCl
                          (0 - 5) 0C

       ² vhfidakshï ldKavh isÿ lrk m%;sia:dmk m%;sl%shd
          - c,h iu`.
                                                  OH
                                   H2O/Δ
                                                       + N2 + HCl

        - CuCl iu`.                               Cl
                                   CuCl/ HCl
                                                       + N2

       - CuBr iu`.          N + Cl -
                              2                   Br
                                       CuBr/HBr
                                                       + N2



                                           143
                                           I
       - KI iu`.
                               KI
                                               + N2


       - CuCN iu`.
                                          CN
                          CuCN/KCN             + N2



       - yhsfmdfmdiamria wï,h iu`.

                               H3PO2
                                               + N2 + H3PO3 + H+
                               H2 O




         ² vhfidakshï ,jKh bf,lafg%d*hs,hla f,i m%;sls%hd lrkq ,nk
             m%;sls%hd
             vhfidakshï ,jKh *Sfkda,a iu`. r;= j¾Khlska hqla; jk ixfhda.hla
             o β -kemaf;da,a iu`. ;eô,s j¾Khlska hqla; ixfhda.hla o ,nd foa'
                          OH


                               / NaOH
                                          HO            N=N


                                                                r;=


                               OH
                                                      HO
                               / NaOH
                                                  N=N



                                                        ;eô,s


fhdað; bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï (
  ² weók" we,afldfyd," weks,Ska yd weuhsvj, ir, jHQy we|Sug isiqkag Wmfoia
    fokak'
   ² tu ixfhda.j, khsÜrcka mrudKq i;= tlir bf,lafg%dak hq.au odhl lsÍug we;s
    yelshdj wkqidrfhka fï ixfhda.j, Ndiañl;dj ixikaokd;aul j meyeos,s lrkak'


                                    144
              mdi, mokï lr.;a ;lafiarelrKh - ye|skaùu
bf.kqu-b.ekaùu iy we.hSu wOHdmk l%shdj,sfha jeo.;a ixrpl ;=kla nj;a bf.kqfuys
iy b.ekaùfuys m%.;sh oek.ekSu msKsi we.hSu fhdod .;hq;= nj;a iEu .=rejrhl= úiska
u o; hq;= meyeos,s lreKls' tajd wfkHdakH n,mEfuka hq;= j l%shd lrk nj;a tfiau
tlsfkflys ixj¾Okh flfrys tu ixrpl n,mdk nj;a tfia u tlsfkflys ixj¾Okh
flfrys tu ixrpl n,mdk nj;a .=rejre oks;s' ika;;sl ^ksrka;rfhka isÿjk& we.hSï
uq,O¾u wkqj we.hSu isÿúh hq;af;a bf.kSu yd b.ekaùu flfrk w;r;=r oSh' fuh
bf.kqï-b.ekaúï l%shdj,sh wdrïNfha oS fyda ueo oS fyda w. oS fyda hk ´kEu wjia:djl
oS isÿúh yels nj f;areï .ekSu .=rejrhl=g wjYH h' tf,i ;u isiqkaf.a bf.kqï m%.;sh
we.hSug wfmalaId lrk .=rejrhl= bf.kqu" b.ekaùu iy we.hSu ms<sn| ixúOdkd;aul
ie,eiaula fhdod.; hq;= fjhs'

mdi, mokï lr.;a we.hSï jevms<sfj, yqÿ úNd. l%uhla fyda mÍlaIK meje;aùula fyda
fkdfõ' th y÷kajkq ,nkafka isiqkaf.a bf.kSu;a" .=rejrekaf.a b.ekaùu;a jeä oshqKq
lsÍu i|yd fhdod.kq ,nk ueosy;a ùula jYfhks' fuh isiqkag móm j isáñka Tjqkaf.a
m%n,;d iy ÿn,;d y÷kdf.k tajdg ms<shï fhdoñka isiqkaf.a Wmßu j¾Okh <Õd lr
.ekSug fhdod.; yels jevms<sfj,ls'

bf.kqï-b.ekaùï l%shdldrlï ;=<ska wkdjrK l%shdj,shlg isiqka fhduq flfrk w;r"
            q
.=rejrhd isika w;r .ejfiñka Tjqka bgqlrk ld¾h ksÍlaIKh lrñka ud¾f.damfoaYl;ajh
                                                    s     s
imhñka lghq;= lsÍu mdi, mokï lr.;a we.hSï jevms<fj, l%hd;aul lsÍfï oS wfmalIda
flf¾' fuys oS YsIHhd ksr;=re j we.hSug ,laúh hq;= w;r" YsIH yelshd ixj¾Okh
wfmalaIs; wkaoñka isÿjkafka oehs .=rejrhd úiska ;yjqre lrkq ,eìh hq;= fjhs'

bf.kSu iy b.ekaùu u.ska isÿúh hq;af;a isiqkag ksis w;aoelSï ,nd foñka tajd isiqka
úiska ksis mßos w;am;a lr f.k ;sfí oehs ;yjqre lr .ekSu h' ta i|yd ksis ud¾f.damfoaYh
iemhSu h' we.hSfï ^;lafiare lsÍfï& fhoS isák .=rejrekag ;u isiqka i|yd fohdldrhl
ud¾f.damfoaYl;ajh ,nd osh yels h' tu ud¾f.damfoaY fmdÿfõ y÷kajkafka m%;sfmdaIKh
^Feedback& yd bosß fmdaIKh ^Feed Forward& hkqfjks' isiqkaf.a ÿn,;d yd fkdyelshd
wkdjrKh lr.;a úg Tjqkaf.a bf.kqï .eg¨ u.yrjd .ekSug m%;sfmdaIKh;a isiq
yelshd iy m%n,;d y÷kd .;a úg tu olaI;d jeä oshqKq lsÍug bosß fmdaIKh;a ,nd oSu
.=re ld¾hh fjhs'

                q  s
bf.kqï-b.ekakï l%hdj,sfhaa id¾:l;ajh i|yd mdGud,dfõ wruqKq w;frka ljr wruqKq
ljr uÜgñka idlaid;a l< yels jQfha oehs y÷kd .ekSu isiqkag wjYH fjhs' we.hSï
       s             q                            a
jevms<fj, Tiafia isika <.d lr .;a m%ùK;d uÜgï ksYph lsÍu fï wkqj .=rejrekaf.ka
n,dfmdfrd;a;= jk w;r isiqka yd fouõmshka we;=¿ fjk;a wod< md¾Yjj,g isiq m%.;sh
ms<sn| f;dr;=re ikaksfõokh lsÍug .=rejreka fhduqúh hq;= h' fï i|yd fhdod.; yels
fyd| u l%uh jkafka ika;;sl j isiqka we.hSug md;% lsÍug bv m%ia:d i,ik mdi,
mokï lr.;a we.hSï l%uhhs'

hf:dala; wruqK iys; j l%shd lrk .=rejreka úiska ;u b.ekakqï l%shdj,sh;a isiqkaf.a

                                          145
                                      x
bf.kqï l%shdj,sh;a jvd;a ld¾hlaIu lsÍu msKsi jvd fyd| ld¾hlaIu;dfjka hqla;
bf.kqï" b.ekakqï iy we.hSï l%u fhdod .; hq;= fjhs' fï iïnkaOfhka isiqkag iy
.=rejrekag fhdod .; yels m%fõY ms<sn| m%fNao lsysmhla u;= oelafjhs' fïjd fndfyda
l,l isg .=rejreka fj; úNd. fomd¾;fïka;=j úiska o cd;sl wOHdmk wdh;kh úiska
o f;dr;=re iïmdokh lrk ,o l%ufõo fjhs' tfyhska tajd iïnkaOfhka mdi,a moaO;sfha
.=rejreka fyd|ska oekqj;a ù we;ehs wfmalaId flf¾' tu m%fNao fufiah(
        01' mejreï                           02' jHdmD;s
        03' iólaIK                           04' .fõIK
        05' ksÍlaIK                          06' m%o¾Yk$ bosßm;a lsÍu
        07' lafIa;% pdßld                    08' flá ,sÅ; mÍlaIK
        09' jHQy.; rpkd                      10' újD; .%ka: mÍlaIK
        11' ks¾udKd;aul l%shdldrlï           12' Y%jK mÍlaIK
        13' m%dfhda.sl l%shdldrlï            14' l:kh
        15' iaj ks¾udK                       16' lKavdhï l%shdldrï
        17' ixl,am is;shu                    18' oaú;aj c¾k,
        19' ì;a;s mqj;am;a                   20' m%Yak úpdrd;aul jevigyka
        21' m%Yak yd ms<s;=re fmd;a          22' újdo
        23' idlÉPd uKav,                     24' iïuka;K %
        25' laIKsl l:d                       26' N+ñld rx.k

y÷kajd oS we;s fuu bf.kqï" b.ekakqï iy we.hSï l%u iEu tllau iEu úIhhla
iïnkaOfhka ieu úIhh tallhgu fhdod .; hq;= hehs wfmalaId fkdflfrhs' ;u
úIhhg" úIh tallhg .e<fmk m%fNaohla f;dard .ekSug .=rejreka oekqj;a úh hq;=h; j.
n,d .; hq;= h'

fuu .=re ud¾f.damfoaY ix.%yj, .=rejrekag ;u isiqkaf.a bf.kqï m%.;sh ;lafiare lsÍu
i|yd fhdod .; yels bf.kqï-b.ekakqï yd we.hSï m%fNao ms<sn| i|ykla ;sfí' tajd
.=rejreka úiska iqÿiq mßos ;u mka;sfha isiqkaf.a m%.;sh ;lafiare lsÍu msKsi fhdod .;
hq;= fjhs' tajd Ndú; fkdfldg u. yeÍu isiqkag ;u Ydia;%sh yelshd fuka u wdfõoksl
.;s ,laIK;a ufkdapd,l olaI;d;a ms<sn| j¾Okhla <.d lr .ekSu;a m%o¾Ykh lsÍu;a
ms<sn| wvqmdvq we;s lrjhs'




                                     xi 146
                     bf.kqï b.ekaùï ls%hdj,sh §¾> lsÍu

1'0 we.hSï wjia:dj              (    jdrh 1" WmlrKh 01

2'0 wdjrKh lrk ksmqK;d uÜgï (        1'1 isg 1'5 olajd

3'0 wdjrKh lrk ikaOdrh          (    Wm mrudKql wxY= wkdjrKh lr .ekSfï
fyda                                 uQ,øjH j¾.SlrKfha fyda b;sydih

4'0 WmlrKfha iajNdjh            (    idys;H úu¾Ykh

5'0 WmlrKfha wruqKq            ( • úúO ikaksfõok udOH Ndú;fhka bf.kqï
                                   b.ekaùu i|yd yqrej ,nd §u'
                                 • úoHd{hskaf.a ld¾h Ndrh meiiqug
                                   ,lalsÍug fhduq lsÍu'

1'0 we.hSï wjia:dj              (    jdrh 1" WmlrKh 02

2'0 wdjrKh lrk ksmqK;d uÜgï (        1'4

3'0 wdjrKh lrk ikaOdrh          (    úIh ks¾foaYfha wod< ikaOdrh

4'0 WmlrKfha iajNdjh            (    m%Yak yd ms<s;=re fmd;a

5'0 WmlrKfha wruqKq            ( • úúO ikaksfõok udOH Ndú;fhka bf.kqï
                                   b.ekaùu i|yd yqrej ,nd §u'
                                 • ksmqK;d uÜgug wod< ikaOdrh ms<sn| oekqu"
                                   wjfndaOh yd Ndú;h by< kexùu'


1'0 we.hSï wjia:dj              (    jdrh 1" WmlrKh 03

2'0 wdjrKh lrk ksmqK;d uÜgï (        1'6

3'0 wdjrKh lrk ikaOdrh          (    úIh ks¾foaYfha wod< ikaOdrh

4'0 WmlrKfha iajNdjh            (    ixl,am is;shï

5'0 WmlrKfha wruqKq            ( • m%d:ñl wdl¾IK n, j¾.SlrKh ms<sn|
                                   oekqu yd wjfndaOh jeä ÈhqKq lsÍu'




                                    147
1'0 we.hSï wjia:dj          (    jdrh 1" WmlrKh 04

2'0 wdjrKh lrk ksmqK;d uÜgï (    1'7

3'0 wdjrKh lrk ikaOdrh      (    úIh ks¾foaYfha wod< ikaOdrh

4'0 WmlrKfha iajNdjh        (    isiq ks¾udK m%o¾Ykh

5'0 WmlrKfha wruqKq         ( • ¨úia jHQy yd ixhqc;d ljp bf,lafg%dak
                                hq.,a úl¾IKjdoh weiqfrka wKqj, yev
                                mqfrdal:kh lr iqÿiq øjH f;dard .ksñka
                                tajdfha wdlD;s ks¾udKh lsÍu'

1'0 we.hSï wjia:dj          (    jdrh 1" WmlrKh 05

2'0 wdjrKh lrk ksmqK;d uÜgï (    2'1 isg 2'5 olajd

3'0 wdjrKh lrk ikaOdrh      (    úIh ks¾foaYfha wod< ikaOdrh

4'0 WmlrKfha iajNdjh        (    ridhksl .Kkh lsÍu

5'0 WmlrKfha wruqKq        ( • wKq yd mrudKq iïnkaO fN!;sl rdYs fhdod
                               .ksñka ridhksl iq;% f.dv kexùu'
                             • ñY%Kj, ixhq;s úúO wdldrj,ska m%ldY lsÍu'
                             • wod< ksh; fhdod .ksñka rdidhksl
                               .Kkhka isÿ lssÍu'
                             • ;=,s; ridhksl iólrK wdYS%; .Kkhka isÿ
                               lsÍu

1'0 we.hSï wjia:dj          (    jdrh 2 WmlrKh 01

2'0 wdjrKh lrk ksmqK;d uÜgï (    3'1 isg 3'5 olajd

3'0 wdjrKh lrk ikaOdrh      (    úIh ks¾foaYhg wod< ikaOdrh

4'0 WmlrKfha iajNdjh        (    m%Yak úpdrd;aul jevigyk

5'0 WmlrKfha wruqKq         ( • mod¾:fha wjia:d ms<sn|j yd úfYaIfhka u
                                jdhq ms<sn| oekqu yd wjfndaOh jeä ÈhqKq
                                lsÍu'
                              • wNsfhda.d;aul m%Yak ilia lsÍfï l=i,;d
                                ,nd §u'
                              • m%Yak úpdrd;aul jevigykla fufyhùfï
                                yelshdj ixj¾Okh lsÍu'


                                148
1'0 we.hSï wjia:dj         ( jdrh 2" WmlrKh 02

2'0 wdjrKh lrk ksmqK;d uÜgï (    3'2 isg 3'3 olajd

3'0 wdjrKh lrk ikaOdrh      (    úIh ks¾foaYfha wod< ikaOdrh

4'0 WmlrKfha iajNdjh        (    m%YAK iy ms<s;=re fmd;a

5'0 WmlrKfha wruqKq         ( • mrsmQ¾K jdhq iólrKh weiqfrka jdhq ms<sn|
                                .Kkhla isÿ lsÍfï l=i,;d jeä ÈhqKq lsÍu'


1'0 we.hSï wjia:dj         ( jdrh 2" WmlrKh 03

2'0 wdjrKh lrk ksmqK;d uÜgï (    4'2 isg 4'3 olajd

3'0 wdjrKh lrk ikaOdrh      (    úIh ks¾foaYfha wod< ikaOdrh

4'0 WmlrKfha iajNdjh        (    .Kkh lsÍï

5'0 WmlrKfha wruqKq         ( • tka;e,ams rEm igyka yd ;dm ridhksl pl%
                                Ndú;fhka úúO ls%hdj,s wdYS%; tka;e,ams
                                úm¾hdi .Kkh lsÍfï yelshdj jeä ÈhqKq
                                lsÍu'
                              • fndaka - ydn¾ pl%h wdOdrfhka whksl
                                ixfhda.hl iïu; W;amdok tka;e,amsh
                                .Kkh lsßfï yelshdj jeä ÈhqKq lsÍu


1'0 we.hSï wjia:dj         ( jdrh 2" WmlrKh 04

2'0 wdjrKh lrk ksmqK;d uÜgï (    5'2 isg 5'3 olajd

3'0 wdjrKh lrk ikaOdrh      (    úIh ks¾foaYfha wod< ikaOdrh

4'0 WmlrKfha iajNdjh        (    m%dfhda.sl mÍCIK

5'0 WmlrKfha wruqKq         ( • s yd p f.dkqj,g wh;a uQ,øjHj, ridhksl
                                m%;sls%hd" ixfhda.j, ;dm ia:dhSs;dj yd c,fha
                                øjH;dj ms<sn| mÍCId lsÍfï yelshdj ,nd§u'
                              • ridhk øjH yd ridhkd.dr WmlrK Ndú;h
                                ms<sn| l=i,;d ixj¾Okh lsÍu'




                                149
1'0 we.hSï wjia:dj          (    jdrh 2" WmlrKh 05

2'0 wdjrKh lrk ksmqK;d uÜgï (    5'6 isg 5'7 olajd

3'0 wdjrKh lrk ikaOdrh      (    úIh ks¾foaYfha wod< ikaOdrh

4'0 WmlrKfha iajNdjh        (    m%dfhda.sl mÍCIK

5'0 WmlrKfha wruqKq        ( • CrO42-, Cr2O72- yd MnO4-hk Tlais
                               wekdhkj, Tlaisldrl f,i yeisÍfï
                               yelshdj mÍCId lsÍu'
                             • ixlS¾K ixfhda.j, j¾Kh flfrys n,mdk
                               idOl ks¾Kh lsÍu'


1'0 we.hSï wjia:dj          (    jdrh 3" WmlrKh 01

2'0 wdjrKh lrk ksmqK;d uÜgï (    6'1

3'0 wdjrKh lrk ikaOdrh      (    úIh ks¾foaYfha wod< ikaOdrh

4'0 WmlrKfha iajNdjh        (    idlÉPd uKav,

5'0 WmlrKfha wruqKq        ( • úúO fCIa;%j,ska ksoiqka f.k yer olajñka
                               ffoksl ðú;fha § ldnksl ridhkh jeo.;a
                               jk wkaou u;= lr,Su'
                             • idlÉPdjlg iïnkaO ù woyia m<lsÍfï
                               yelshdj m%.=K lsÍu'

1'0 we.hSï wjia:dj          (    jdrh 3" WmlrKh 02

2'0 wdjrKh lrk ksmqK;d uÜgï (    6'4

3'0 wdjrKh lrk ikaOdrh      (    úIh ks¾foaYhg wod< ikaOdrh

4'0 WmlrKfha iajNdjh        (    ixl,am is;shu

5'0 WmlrKfha wruqKq        ( • ldnksl ridhk úoHdfõ ks¾foaYhg wod<
                               iudjhúl;dj ms<sn| wjfndaOh m%.=K lsÍu'
                             • iudjhúl jHQy w;r mj;akd úúO;ajh y÷kd
                               .ekSug fhduq lsÍu'




                                150
1'0 we.hSï wjia:dj          (    jdrh 3" WmlrKh 03

2'0 wdjrKh lrk ksmqK;d uÜgï (    7'3" 7'4" 8'1" 8'2" 9'1 yd 9'4

3'0 wdjrKh lrk ikaOdrh      (    úIh ks¾foaYfha wod< ikaOdrh

4'0 WmlrKfha iajNdjh        (    ixl,am is;shu

5'0 WmlrKfha wruqKq        ( • ldnksl ridhk úoHdfõ we;s m%;sls%hd j¾.
                               y\qkd .ekSu
                             • m%;sls%hd j¾. .ek wjfndaOhla ,nd f.k tajd
                               ms<sn| ikaikaokd;aulj úuid ne,Su'



1'0 we.hSï wjia:dj          (    jdrh 3" WmlrKh 04

2'0 wdjrKh lrk ksmqK;d uÜgï (    9'1" 9'2" 9'4 yd 9'6

3'0 wdjrKh lrk ikaOdrh      (    úIh ks¾foaYhg wod< ikaOdrh

4'0 WmlrK iajNdjh           (    m%o¾Yk

5'0 WmlrKfha wruqKq        ( • ldnksl ixfhda.j, úúO;ajh m%o¾Ykhla
                               weiqßka bÈßm;a lsÍu'
                             • ;ud ,o oekqu úúO l%uYs,am Tiafia wka whg
                               ,nd§ug fhduq lsÍu'


1'0 we.hSï wjia:dj          (    jdrh 3" WmlrKh 05

2'0 wdjrKh lrk ksmqK;d uÜgï (    10'1" 10'2 yd 10'3

3'0 wdjrKh lrk ikaOdrh      (    fjkalr y÷kd .ekSfï mÍCId Ndiañl;d
                                 iei£u'

4'0 WmlrK iajNdjh           (    m%Yak úpdrd;aul jev igyk

5'0 WmlrKfha wruqKq        ( • m%;sls%hd ms<sn| wjfndaOh weiqfrka ixfhda.
                               fjkalr y÷kd .ekSu ms<sn| oekqu yd
                               wjfndaOh jeä ÈhqKq lsÍu'
                             • m%Yak úpdrd;aul jev igyklg iyNd.sùfï
                               yd fufyhùfï yelshdj ixj¾Okh lsÍu'




                                151

				
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Description: Teacher instructional guide Chemistry Grade 12 GCE AL