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					INTED2007. International Technology, Education and Development Conference              3



Wednesday, 7th March 2007.                                       Room No.1
Technological Issues: e-learning & m-learning
        Chair: Matthias Tomczak

10:00   INTERNET-BASED STUDIES IN THE FACULTY OF COMPUTER SCIENCES
        Jerzy Paweł Nowacki, Lech Banachowski
10:15   BEYOND “E-CONTENT”: UNRESOLVED ISSUES IN REUSE
        Nick Kearney
10:30   THE TUNISIAN E-LEARNING EXPERIENCE: A FOCUS ON THE MAIN ACTORS’
        PERCEPTIONS
        Abdelfattah Triki, Ouerghi Ouejden
10:45   INNOVATIVE LEARNING FOR WATER EDUCATION – TAIWAN EXPERIENCE
        Hsin-yu Shan, Jen-Gaw Lee
11:00   E/M-LEARNING IN CONTINUOUS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT. A MIXED
        UNIVERSITY/INDUSTRY EXPERIENCE TOWARDS EMPLOYABILITY
        J. Izquierdo, P.A. López, G. López, F.J. Izquierdo
11:15   TEN YEARS OF ONLINE OCEANOGRAPHY, A REVIEW OF MOTIVATION AND
        OUTCOMES
        Matthias Tomczak
11:30   M-LEARNING FROM A CELL PHONE: A STUDY IN CAMPUS-WIDE ENVIRONMENT
        Ahmad I. Z. Abidin, Nurfatin H. Ahmad, Anang H. M. Amin, Mizeeana A Rahman, Ahmad
        K. Mahmood
11:45   RELUCTANT TEACHERS AND TRADITIONAL LEARNING METHODS: THE
        MULTIMEDIA TEACHING AS A CROSS- ROADS BETWEEN THE OLD AND THE NEW
        Marina Cino Pagliarello
12:00   USE OF THE MOODLE PLATFORM TO IMPROVE THE RESULTS OF THE STUDENTS
        Javier Bilbao, Miguel Rodríguez, Eugenio Bravo, Olatz García, Concepción Varela,
        Purificación González, Verónica Valdenebro


Wednesday, 7th March 2007.                                       Room No.1
Technological Issues: Blended Learning
        Chair: Richard Windle

12:30   DOES A COMMUNITY OF PRACTICE APPROACH TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF
        LEARNING OBJECTS SUPPORT REUSE OF E-LEARNING MATERIALS IN HEALTH
        SCIENCE EDUCATION?
        Richard Windle, Heather Wharrad, Damion McCormick, Jennifer Dandrea, Fiona Bath-
        Hextall, Briony Leighton, Julia Lacey, Elaine Bentley, John Cook, Debbie Holley
12:45   MATHEMATICAL STANDARD COMPLIANT CONTENTS AND AUTHORING TOOLS FOR
        E-LEARNING
        I. Lausuch-Sales, F.J. Muñoz-Almaraz , A. Pons-Puig, L. Hilario-Pérez
13:00   COURSEWARE TOOLS AND SOCIAL SOFTWARE IN A HYBRID UNIVERSITY
        COURSE: A CASE STUDY WITH AN EVALUATION OF THE ONLINE COMPONENTS
        Goran Bubas, Dragutin Kermek
13:15   HIDDING INFORMATION INSIDE EXERCISES
        J. V. Noguera, L. Tortosa
4              INTED2007. International Technology, Education and Development Conference



Wednesday, 7th March 2007.                                          Room No.1
Technological Issues: Blended Learning
        Chair: Franc Lobnik

14:30   CAN BLENDING FACE-TO-FACE TEACHING WITH E-LEARNING SUPPORT THE
        DEVELOPMENT OF APPRENTICES IN MATHEMATICS?
        Peter Hinch
14:45   UTRECHT NETWORK INTERNATIONAL SUMMER SCHOOL ”ENVIRONMENTAL AND
        RESOURCE MANAGEMENT”. MODEL FOR INTEGRATING E-LEARNING AND
        CLASSROOM
        Franc Lobnik, Matjaž Lobnik, Tomaž Lobnik, Ales Škofic
15:00   TELE-TEACHING AND E-LEARNING IN INTERPRETER TRAINING – A PILOT
        EXPERIENCE
        Sylvie Schoch, Gabriele Mack
15:15   GUIDED VIRTUAL LEARNING IN BLENDED ENVIRONMENTS
        Antonio Grandío Botella
15:30   HOW TO USE THE HUMAN CAPITAL OF DELINQUENTS
        Thomas Kretschmer
15:45   A MULTIMEDIA CHEMISTRY LESSON, FOR AN E-LEARNING PLATFORM.
        João Luís de Morais de Oliveira Belo, Leonardo Opitz


Wednesday, 7th March 2007.                                          Room No.1
Educational Software: Educational Games & Educational Multimedia and
Hypermedia
        Chair: Patrick Felicia

16:30   TEACHING CHEMISTRY HAS TO BE TEDIOUS, BORING AND MONOTONOUS?
        Laureano Jiménez, Pere Estupinyà, Claudi Mans
16:45   HOW TO DO EASY VIDEO-PRESENTATIONS USING OPEN SOURCE TOOLS
        Juan R. Rico-Juan, Rafael C. Carrasco
17:00   THE PLEASE MODEL: AN EMOTIONAL AND COGNITIVE APPROACH TO LEARNING
        IN VIDEO GAMES
        Patrick Felicia, Ian Pitt
17:15   AUDIOVISUAL ACCESSIBILITY IN MULTIMEDIA ENVIRONMENT            T




        Francisco Utray Delgado, Lourdes Moreno, Belén Ruiz
17:30   COMPUTER ROLE-PLAYING GAME INTEGRATED IN A LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
        Ellen Brox, Gunn Judit Evertsen, Audun Heggelund, Merja Bertling, Tapani Mokko, Kaisu
        Tapiovaara, Pia-Maria Lausas,
17:45   CREATING FLOW IN GAME-BASED LEARNING: THREEFOLD CONCEPTION OF
        CHALLENGES AND SKILLS
        Stephanie Linek
18:00   DESIGNING THE NON-PLAYER CHARACTER OF AN EDUCATIONAL ADVENTURE-
        GAME: THE ROLE OF PERSONALITY, NATURALISM, AND COLOR
        Stephanie B. Linek, Daniel Schwarz, Ganit Hirschberg, Michael Kickmeier-Rust, Dietrich
        Albert
18:15   AN ASSESSMENT OF INFORMATION DELIVERY SYSTEMS WITHIN MODIFIED VIDEO
        GAMES
        Andrew Moshirnia
 COMPUTER ROLE-PLAYING GAME INTEGRATED IN A LEARNING
                    ENVIRONMENT


                                            Ellen Brox
                                    Norut Information Technology
                                           Tromsø, Norway
                                      Ellen.Brox@itek.norut.no

                                      Gunn Judit Evertsen
                                    Norut Information Technology
                                           Tromsø, Norway
                                    gunn.evertsen@itek.norut.no

                                       Audun Heggelund
                                    Norut Information Technology
                                           Tromsø, Norway
                                   audun.heggelund@itek.norut.no

                                          Merja Bertling
                    Palmenia centre for continuing education/University of Helsinki
                                           Kotka, Finland
                                      merja.bertling@helsinki.fi

                                          Tapani Mokko
                                             Mokko Media
                                            Espoo, Finland
                                           tapani@mokko.fi

                                        Kaisu Tapiovaara
                    Palmenia centre for continuing education/University of Helsinki
                                          Kouvola, Finland
                                    ktapiova@kouvola.helsinki.fi

                                        Pia-Maria Lausas
                              Kemi-Tornio University of applied sciences
                                           Tornio, Finland
                                    Pia-Maria.Lausas@tokem.fi


                                             Abstract
Computer games are engaging for children and youth, and it is becoming increasingly accepted that
playing games also includes learning. However, if games are going to be used in school, it is important
that what is learnt is relevant to the curriculum. Teachers also want to keep some control and to be
able to assess what the pupils learn. Instead of using entertainment games in education, we see more
and more educational game made for the purpose. We have set out to make a computer role-playing
game for children learning Finnish as a second or foreign language, and this game will be integrated in
a learning environment, an LMS (Learning Management System) or CMS (Course Management
System). Exercises solved in the game are saved and both teacher and pupils can follow the progress
from the management system. Open source platforms are used both for the game engine and the
LMS, and we have built a user interface on top.

This paper describes the game and the technology behind it. We also look at how we met the initial
requirements and the first trial results.

Keywords
Multiple user Role-playing games, educational games, computer games, open source, LMS, web


1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

Children and youth of Finnish descent in Northern Norway and Sweden are learning Finnish as a
second or foreign language. Good learning material is scarce, and in Norway most of it is even in
Swedish. Finnish is often taught in small rural schools where the teachers maybe only teach a few
hours a week, and they both lack a network and inspiration to use new teaching methods. For this
reason a multi-disciplinary team from Norway, Sweden and Finland sent an application to Minerva to
do something about it.

We applied for funding to make a web centre with learning material and the possibility for the teachers
to communicate. We also wanted to make a simple computer role-playing game that could be used in
Finnish education. The project team is multi-disciplinary, consisting of Finnish language expertise,
pedagogues, narrators, experienced game players, illustrators, teachers and computer scientists. A lot
of joint effort has been going into making the game. Each of the partners has had their specific
responsibilities, such as manuscript, illustrations, user interface, technical implementation, etc., and all
results have been discussed in the group.

The partners are Norut Information technology (N), The county governor of Troms (N), University of
Umeå, modern languages, Finnish (S), Palmenia centre for continuing education, university of Helsinki
(FI) and the Kemi-Tornio university of applied sciences (FI). In addition a group of teachers in Norway
and Sweden have been engaged in a pilot group.

1.2 Why a game?
There are several reasons why we wanted to make a game, and one is simply that is an engaging way
to learn. We also thought that a game could serve as an inspiration for teachers with limited ICT
experience. Good games provide learning by doing without having to read a lot of instructions up front,
and it is easy to get started. A relatively simple educational game can be a good way for teachers
without computer playing experience to learn something about the digital culture many of their pupils
take for granted. Since many of the Finnish classes are small, we think that a role-playing game may
provide the means to interact with pupils in other schools and classes.

Role-playing games also give the players a possibility to be somebody else and to enter situations
where they may learn easier without being afraid of making a fool out of themselves. In our game they
learn language via pre-defined dialogues with different types of characters.

When you play, you struggle to solve the game, and when you do this, you repeat and repeat a lot of
steps in the game until you master them and can go further. A Norwegian study shows that when
these repeating steps contains subjects in the curriculum the young player actually learns faster and
have more fun compared with old fashion drill [9].

A lot of parents are concerned because they think that their children spend far too much time in front
of the PC playing games, believing that it is a waste of the time, not to mention the body, of their
children. Others see that their children actually are learning from game playing, and want educational
games in schools as well, as mentioned in the Report on the educational use of games by McFarlane,
Sparrowhawk and Heald [1]. No matter what the parents’ views are, we are now seeing several
initiatives using computer games in education, both commercial entertainment games and educational
games. To play a game is learning in itself, proponents say, amongst them Sandford and Williamson
in the Futurelab handbook on games and learning [2] and Gee [3]. The mentioned handbook also
states that assessment of what has been learnt can be a challenge ([2], page 10). We are convinced
that games will be one of many teaching aids of the future school, and are experimenting with ways to
include games in a digital learning environment.
Games can be divided into entertainment games and educational games. Entertainment games can
also be used for educational purposes, but it will normally be a bigger challenge for the teacher to
adapt the game playing to the curriculum. Maybe playing some of these games also can be too
engaging, making it hard for the children to stop?

We are making a small educational game that certainly cannot compete with the large online role-
playing games with budgets the size of Hollywood films. On the other hand we are competing with
textbooks, and hope that we can give a new tool for language learning.


2. OUR REQUIRMENTS
We had some requirements connected to our game before we started. First of all we wanted to make
an educational game suitable for the curriculum. The game would have to be non-violent and suitable
for both girls and boys in the age range of 10-15. The topic of the game should somehow have to do
with local culture. We also wanted a game that should be playable either alone or together with others.

We also had a clear idea that the teachers’ role would have to be important, both the competence and
involvement in the classroom.

Of course we wanted to make a game that the pupils would like to play. There are several other
considerations that should be taken when making computer games. The Futurelab handbook on
games and learning games [2] is a good reference for characteristics that should be present in games
played both in and out of school. Several of them are also requirement that we want our game to
satisfy. Keywords for a few of the characteristics for games played out of schools are:
• Challenging – difficult, “on the edge of the players’ competence”
• Absorbing and immersive
• Practice-based – i.e. the rules are learnt while playing
• Feedback such as scores, cues and notifications

In addition we find characteristics for games played in school. Keywords for three are:
• Progressively complex challenges which are clear and finite and can be repeated
• Meaningful activities whose aims and goals they clearly understand
• Games to be used in classrooms should promote dialogue

They also list other considerations when using games in school, and some are:
• Age appropriateness
• Save and exit points
• Teacher expertise
• Formative assessment
• Cultural representation – gender, nationality and race

We can then add our own requirements to complete the list:
• Suitable for the curriculum
• Alone or together
• Non-violent
• A good story based on local culture

In the next chapter we discuss the game and how we have tried to satisfy the requirements mentioned
above.


3. SANATON – OUR GAME

3.1 The game itself
The game starts with an intro giving us some ideas about the story of the game. The player gets a
letter from his grandfather in a small Finnish town, and he is summoned to go there and help
grandfather solve a mystery. When the player arrives in grandfather’s town, the old man is gone, and
the player has to find out what has happened and try to get help from several characters in the town.

The game consists of 10 scenes. Some scenes are open from the start of the game, others will only
be open for the player after some achievements. This can for instance be that the player gets a key
from a non-playing character (NPC – a character that is predefined in the game and not played by a
person), solves an exercise, gets important information from an NPC, etc.




                    Fig. 1 – one of the scenes of the game with dialogue and chat.

Most scenes contain “something”. In many scenes there are language exercises, but one can also find
puzzles, doors or entrances to other scenes or non-playing characters that provide important
information. In a couple of scenes, it is also possible to see other players who are in the same scene
simultaneously.

The user interface is in Finnish, and all the dialogues are in Finnish only. This means that a basic
knowledge of Finnish is required to be able to play the game. It is possible both to read and listen to
the dialogues. A dictionary is available. In the dictionary the player will find the words as they are used
in the game. They are translated into Swedish, Norwegian and (hopefully) English.

Information and help is also available in four languages: Finnish, Swedish, Norwegian and English.

It is always possible to see which other characters are playing the game (you can see their
nicknames), and it is possible to chat with them. The chat can be in any language since there is no
control.
                  Fig 2. Exercise about sauna found in a sauna in one of the scenes.

3.2 LMS integration

Before the development started, we decided to integrate the game into an LMS. Reasons were to
better assess the pupils and make it easier for the pupils to follow their own progress and to combine
the game with other learning material and results. The login will thus always be through the LMS. No
matter which nickname and playing character the player chooses, all results will be stored in the
player’s folder.

In Norway and Sweden the use of an LMS has become more and more integrated into the teaching of
all subjects. For the teacher it is thus better to have the game results in an LMS than in a separate
interface within the game itself. Now the pupils’ game results can be compared with other learning
material and results. The biggest drawback of this approach is that it is never straightforward to start
the game, you will first have to open and log into the LMS and go the correct virtual classroom.


3.3 Approach to meet the requirements
Starting with our own initial requirements, we will go through the selected list of requirements and
game characteristics and tell how we have tried to meet them.

•   Suitable for the curriculum
    This requirement has been the main focus of the language work group. The game interface would
    have to be in Finnish, so some basic knowledge was required, and level A2 of the European
    Language Portfolio was chosen. All texts have been controlled by the language experts to make
    sure that they are suitable for the chosen level, both when it comes to vocabulary and grammar.

•   Playable alone or with others
    As the game is now, there are not many multiplayer features, and you can play the whole game
    without being dependant on cooperation with others. In two scenes, where it is natural to see
    others, you will be able to see other players who are in the same scene. You will also be able to
    chat with other players all the time.

•   Non-violent
    No characters are being hurt in the game.
•   Local culture
    The game is about old lore set in a modern Finnish town. In this way the player both learns
    about a modern Finnish society and old beliefs. Also some of the exercises are about Finnish
    culture. Before we started writing the manuscript, we made a survey amongst teachers and their
    pupils about setting, activities, etc., and the game is partly based on the results.

•   Challenging – difficult, “on the edge of the players’ competence”
    This is a difficult point. When it comes to the game, the player will have to look around for clues,
    and it is not always obvious what the next step is. It gets gradually more difficult to take the next
    step, and entering the last scene also requires a minimum of points. A lot of help is in the Finnish
    dialogues, and how well the player understands them will of course differ. The language exercises
    are in three levels, and the level is chosen on entering the game.

•   Absorbing and immersive
    The player will have to solve two mysteries where the final solution is in the last scene. There are
    also hidden exercises in several scenes, so hopefully the game will be fun to play.

•   Practice-based – i.e. the rules are learnt while playing
    There are no instructions up front, just an intro animation. Hints and instructions are given in
    dialogues with non-playing characters. There is also a help function that can be used to learn the
    basic functionalities of the game.

•   Feedback such as scores, cues and notifications
    Each player gets scores, and scores are earned both in the dialogues, solving exercises and
    solving game tasks. Some places the player will get a notification, for instance “the door is locked”
    should tell the player that a key is required. Each player also has a backpack with all the items he
    has collected (and that he might need later in the game).

•   Progressively complex challenges which are clear and finite and can be repeated
    It does get more difficult to enter the last scenes than the first, so the game itself gets more
    difficult. The exercises come in three levels, and the player chooses level at the start. All dialogues
    and exercises can be repeated, but on some places the exercises will vary.

•   Meaningful activities whose aims and goals they clearly understand
    All activities are meaningful for solving the game. Some exercises give items that are needed, all
    of them give points.

•   Games to be used in classrooms should promote dialogue
    The teacher has an important role here, and there are several elements that are suitable for
    further discussion. The language itself gives a lot of openings. Then it is possible to discuss the
    old lore, the clues of the story (building new factories in an old forest, how we take care of our
    environment) etc.

•   Age appropriateness
    This point has been a real challenge in the project, due to a difference in the system between
    Norway and Sweden. In Sweden, those who have the right to learn Finnish must have previous
    knowledge of the language, while this is not the case in Norway. Thus the Swedish pupils reach
    the language level of the game at a much lower age than in Norway. The span of the main target
    group will thus be between 10 and 15.

•   Save and exit points
    When a player leaves the game, the status is saved. When re-entering using the same nick, the
    player will enter the game where he left it with the same point status and contents in the backpack.

•   Teacher expertise
    In the project, we have an ICT course for the teachers in the pilot group. The course is about ICT
    in language learning, and the game is one important resource. We will also get useful feedback on
    our first prototype when the teachers try out the game in the classrooms.
•   Formative assessment
    The teachers want to be able to assess what the pupils learn by playing the game, and for this
    reason the game is integrated in an the LMS that provides for en easy way to log what is done and
    exercise results. Everything that is done can be logged, and we still have not decided just what we
    are going to log.

•   Cultural representation
    The game shall not only be suitable for both girls and boys – it must also represent sexes,
    nationalities and race in a non-discriminating way. Since we are in Finland, most characters are
    Finnish, but the headmaster is a woman with a father from Peru. The player can choose gender
    on starting the game.


4. TECHNICAL SOLUTION

The game and its environment are mainly based on open source software. There are several reasons
for this; our development resources in the project are limited, and using open source software is a nice
way to share resources and built upon others’ work. It gives the possibility to focus on the needed
functionality for the progress monitoring and follow-up. One of the technical goals of the project was to
create a solution with only as much recoding as necessary to the individual products that make up the
game. For example we use Moodle [4] to manage the learning process. In Moodle we have made a
new module (through Moodle’s open plug-in interface) that communicates with the game. Through that
interface the game can log student activity and progress. This also gives the game a possibility to use
exercises from Moodle.

The game engine itself is implemented in an open source multiplayer platform called Dimensione-X
[5]. At the time we started, this was one of the most complete platforms we found offering all the
functionality needed for a web-based multiplayer game. However, we did not find the interface
satisfactory since it reminded us of a very early web interface, so we decided to do a more
conventional, up to date, interface. There is no distinct separation between the functionality and the
HTML output from Dimensione-X, it is all mixed together in one code. Instead of rewriting the complete
platform to produce new HTML output, we gave it a new XML output interface. This gave us the
possibility to write the complete presentation and input layer of the game as an Ajax [6] program that is
run entirely in the player’s web browser.

By keeping the individual components in the game and its environment as standalone programs with
only a loose integration, we get a modularity that can be used for other games too. It is easy to make
changes both to the game and all of its language components (exercises, dialogues and game
interface). If you want to dig deeper in to the scripting language of Dimensione-X you can even
change the story of the game. The modularity gives the technical skilled a possibility to change LMS
platform or game engine.

For exercises we are mainly using Hot potatoes [7]. This is not open source but is free for use by
individuals working for state-funded educational institutions which are non-profit making. It is relatively
easy to use and it is very commonly used in language exercises. It offers a set of standard types of
exercises and integrates nicely with Moodle that comes with a hot potato module. To solve the
exercises you use a web browser.

To make the game look and feel more like the games the pupil might be used to, we have added
introduction and end animations made in flash. To broaden the entertainment factor some “mini-
games” from Miniclip [8] are included at certain points of the game.


5. RESULTS FROM TRIALS
The trials have just started, so we can only tell about the first reactions. We cannot yet tell how the
pupils learn from the game, but our test group is very eager to try the game in their classrooms. During
the in-service training web course they have practised how to combine teaching in the classroom with
learning with ICT. They have made teaching projects, which have different themes from sustainable
development to aspects of Finnish culture, like sauna. We will create separate web courses, where
they can use the game and add their own materials like Hot Potatoes exercises or discussion areas.
Evaluation with pupils is done during these projects. Teachers will evaluate how their students learn in
the game while students evaluate how learning feels when it’s done in this new way. Unfortunately this
has not yet started.

The first classroom trial was with 14-15 students accessing the game on a server in Tromsø, Norway
from Tornio, Finland. These were Finnish youth, and we wanted feedback on the game itself. The
response time was very slow with so many simultaneous users, and that of course ruined some of the
player experience. Still we got a lot of useful comments on the idea and story, the user interface and
playability, the graphics, the dialogues and the exercises. Many of them are easy to do something
about, like non-player characters that are placed in corners and an insufficient indication of active
areas in the scenes. They also found some errors that we were not aware of.

The biggest criticism was that it is not intuitive to understand the idea of the game, although we got the
feedback that it was OK to solve the problems in the game. At the time they had this first trial, the end
was not finished, so it was indeed impossible to get the final clue, but we will add more information
about the story during the course of the game.

These first players liked the fact that it is possible to chat with other players, and they used it
extensively during the trial.

Also other tests have shown that not all players manage to find exercises and active areas, so we will
have to make them more visible. Now you have to move the cursor around the scenes on the look for
active areas.


6. WISHES FOR FURTHER DEVELOPMENT
We have made a first test version of a game, and we know that it needs some modifications to be a quick and
robust game. However, we think that we are on to something, and that this is a method that should be further
developed and tested. We both have a wish list for further development of the current game and some ideas
about other applications.


6.1 Improvements of the game
First of all we would like to gather results from the first evaluation, both from the teachers and pupils,
and make necessary adjustments to make the game more playable. We are also arranging a project
seminar where we expect useful feedback.

There are also several things that we would have liked to do if we had more resources. Some of them
are:

    •   We would like more multiplayer features, preferably also tasks that are better solved in
        cooperation
    •   We would like to have different types of roles and thus slightly different playing experiences
        dependant on the chosen type
    •   We would like to extend the game with more scenes and possibly also more mysteries to
        solve. Maybe different role types could get a slightly different version of the game, for instance
        their clues can be in different scenes (shops, cafes, inside the sauna, etc).
    •   Exercise interface could be more integrated with the game interface.
    •   There should be some funny mini-games in Finnish that also have a meaning for the game
        story.
    •   We would like an improved user interface and a much better response time
    •   We planned some cut-scene animations but have none now. We think it would improve the
        game.

6.2 Other applications for the method
For many small languages it is difficult to find relevant digital teaching aids that the learners find
exiting and that at the same time satisfies the teacher’s wish that both teacher and pupil should be
able to follow the learning progress using portfolio assessment. At least this is the case for the
teachers of Finnish as a second or foreign language that we know in Northern Norway and Sweden.
The game platform and concept could be used or other small languages as well. With small alterations
the game could be used for the Sami languages, since the old lore also is a part of Sami traditions.

A role-playing game can also be used for adults. The scenes could envisage typical situations that you
will find when you come to a country, for instance public offices, shops, the doctor, etc. For labour
immigrants the game could be used to prepare for vocabulary and situations typical for the future
workplace.


                                               References
[1]   McFarlane A., Sparrowhawk, A., Heald Y., 2002, Report on the educational use of games, an
      exploration by TEEM on the contribution which games can make to the ecucational process,
      [online] TEEM, http://www.teem.org.uk/
[2]   Sandford, R., Williamson, B, 2005:2, Games and Leaning, A handbook from Futurelab. [online]
      Bristol, United Kingdom, http://www.futurelab.org.uk/
[3]   Gee, James Paul, 2005, The Classroom of Popular Culture. What video games can teach us
      about making students want to learn, [online] Harvard Educational letter, http://www.edletter.org/

[4]   http://moodle.com/

[5]   http://www.dimensionex.net/

[6]   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AJAX

[7]   http://hotpot.uvic.ca/

[8]   http://www.miniclip.com/

[9]   Fakta om GREI-prosjektet: http://www.tekstlab.uio.no/grei/om-grei/om-grei.html

				
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