Docstoc

DCW report _patiala_ - DhillonguyZ

Document Sample
DCW report _patiala_ - DhillonguyZ Powered By Docstoc
					               ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

            God gives us life to decorate it with knowledge. Life without
knowledge is like river without water.
            “An Engineer without a technical training is like a soldier
without a weapon.”
              It is my pleasant privilege to acknowledge my profound
gratitude & indebtedness towards my respected & learned teachers for their
inspiration, constructive criticism & valuable suggestions. Their precious
guidance & unrelenting support kept me on track       throughout my till now
training.
               I want to thank particularly Mr. G.P.Singh (CWI) TTC, and
our training coordinator for me an opportunity to work with such a
prestigious organization.
                At last but not the least, I express my wholehearted thanks to
Er. Gautam Kochher Mechanical Engg. Deptt. & Head training &
Placement Deptt. for their sagacious efforts in accomplishment of this
task.
               In the end, I hope all of these venerable people will help us in
the similar manner as till now.
                                                         (VISHAL ARORA)
                                                       ROLL No: 64/ME/06
                                             UNIV. ROLL No: 7083111326




                                       1
                         INTRODUCTION
                             TO
                        INDIAN RAILWAYS

        Indian railway is an industry engaged in the movement of persons and
things from one place to another. It comes into existence after independence
and presently, it constitutes the second largest railway network in the world,
it has four gauges of track:-
     1. Broad Gauge (5’-6”)(1.676m)
     2. Meter Gauge (1 meter)
     3. Narrow Gauge (2’-6”)
     4. Narrow Gauge (2’)

ZONES – Indian railways is divided into sixteen zones.
S.NO.                       ZONE                           HEAD OFFICE
01                      Central railways                       Mumbai
02                      Eastern railways                        Kolkata
03                      Northern railways                      New Delhi
04                      Southern railways                       Chennai
05                      Western railways                        Mumbai
06                      South central railways                 Secunderabad
07                      South eastern railways                  Kolkata
08                      North eastern frontier railways         Guwahati
09                      North east railways                     Gorakhpur
10                     East central railway                     Hajipur
11                     East coast Railway                     Bhubaneshwar
12                     North central Railway                   Allahabad
13                     North western railway                      Jaipur

                                       2
14                      South western railway                 Hubli
15                     South east central railway            Bilaspur
16                     West central railway                  Jabalpur


                FACTS ABOUT INDIAN RAILWAYS
     1. Indian railway has about 62660KM of track.
     2. Indian railway runs about 12500 trains daily.
     3. The longest journey on the Indian railway is from JAMMU to
        KANYAKUMARI, a distance of about 3751KM, covered by Him
        Sagar express in about 66 hours.
     4. Indian railways first electric train runs on Feb 3, 1925 from Bombay
        VT to Kuala.
     5. Computerized reservation system started at Delhi in 1986.
     6. Indian railway has about 7800 locomotive, 40000 coaches, and
        338000 wagons.
     7. The manufacturing of steam loco in the country was stopped in 1972.




                                       3
           INDIAN RAILWAYS AT A GLANCE

  First train moved on                   April 16, 1853
  First locomotive named                 Lord Falkland
  First train runs between               Bombay to Thane (34) KM


                         PRODUCTION UNITS


S.NO. NAME OF THE PRODUCTION UNITS DESTINATION
  01   Chittaranjan Locomotive Works                 Chittaranjan
  02   Diesel loco modernization works                    Patiala
  03   Integral Coach Factory                             Madras
  04   Diesel Locomotive Works                        Varanasi
  05   Rail Wheel Factory                            Bangalore
  06   Rail Coach Factory                            Kapurthala




                                  4
STRUCTURE OF INDIAN RAILWAY

       MINISTRY OF RAILWAYS


   MINISTER OF STATE FOR RAILWAYS


  CHAIRMAN OF RAILWAY BOARD (CRB)


      MEMBER RAILWAY BOARD


CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER RAILWAY


        HEAD OF DEPARTMENT


    DEPUTY HEAD OF DEPARTMENT


       SENIOR SCALE OFFICERS


         ASSISTANT OFFICERS


         CLASS III STAFF


         CLASS IV STAFF




                5
      INTRODUCTION TO D.M.W. PATIALA

    D.M.W was conceived goal of manufacturing sophisticated processed
components to meet the maintenance need of diesel traction fleet of Indian
railway. Skepticism had been rife and expert opinion were widely divergent
on the viability and such a captive production unit of railways when Indian
industries together with diesel locomotive works.
    In spite of such spectrums, there had been compulsions to complete this
project with utmost speed, viability or utility of this product not
withstanding. As the D.M.W project progressed the indispensability of its
services slowly started drawing and expectation started mounting faster then
the project pass. Many more activities over and above those originally
visualized got added on along the way.
Taking a smile in RAILWAY TERMINOLOGY.


             “What started perhaps as a shunting train?

               Steadily took the form of a jumbo rake.”




                                     6
       DIESEL LOCO MODERNISATION WORKS
                    LAYOUT
The workshops in the Diesel Loco Modernization Works are designed and
planned by keeping various 14 factors in mind. The road from the middle of
the shops is made in North-South direction. This particular direction is
planned because the wind flows in North-South direction, which will
circulate the air in all the shops as well as it will clear the environment
outside the shops. Proper ventilation occurs due to this.
                The shops are planned on both sides of the road. The shops
on the east side of the road are called East-Wing shops and the shops on the
west side are called West-Wing shops. The shops on the east side get
benefit from the sunlight during evening and afternoon. This idea conserves
the electrical energy resources of the DMW.
                The various shops are designed in such a way so that the job
gets transferred from one shop to another easily. No extra heavy cranes or
labour need to be employed to move the jobs. For smooth flow of jobs, the
rails are provided between the shops. The shops specific for a particular
type of operations are located nearby for easy transfer of material.
                 A railway line is also provided near the assembly shops so
that the material, tools or machines from other places or states can very
easily be transported to the railway station and back from it. It facilitates
raw material to be imported to the assembly shops and final job to be
exported to the station.




                                       7
8
T.T.C. (Technical Training Centre)
L.R.S. (Loco Rebuilding Shop)
P.P.S. (Power Pack Shop)
L.M.S. (Light Machine Shop)
H.M.S. (Heavy Machine Shop)
C.L.S. (Cylinder Liner Shop)
C.B.S. (Carbon Brush Shop)
B.S. (Bogie Shop)
S.S.S. (Super Structure shop)
P.M.S. (Plant Maintenance Shop)
H.T.S. (Heat Treatment Shop)
Coil shop
E.R.S. (Electrical Repair Shop)
T.R.S. (Transmission Repair Shop)
L.T.S (Loco Test Shop)
A.B.S. (Air Brake Shop)
T.M.S. (Traction Machine Shop)




                                     9
                    PROFILE OF D.M.W.

D.M.W. PATIALA

D.M.W was conceived goal of manufacturing sophisticated processed
components to meet the maintenance need of diesel traction fleet of Indian
railway. Skepticism had been rife and expert opinion were widely divergent
on the viability and such a captive production unit of railways when Indian
industries together with diesel locomotive works.
          In spite of such spectrums, there had been compulsions to
complete this project with utmost speed, viability or utility of this product
not withstanding. As the D.M.W project progressed the indispensability of
its services slowly started drawing and expectation started mounting faster
then the project pass. Many more activities over and above those originally
visualized got added on along the way.
Salient Features:
      Workshop area (Sq m)                         837936
      Covered area in shops (Sq m)                 87578
      Township area (Sq m)                         1416800
      Electrical Energy Consumption                161.01
       (Lakhs of units/year)
    Diesel Loco Modernization Works (DMW) was conceived goal of
manufacturing sophisticated proceeds components to meet the maintenance
need of diesel traction fleet of Indian Railways. Skeptics had been rife and
expert experience was widely divergent on the viability and the need of such
a captive production units of railways when the Indian industry together with



                                      10
diesel locomotive works, Varanasi had already been providing the
needed logistical support for diesel loco maintenance.
         In spite of such scientism, there had been compulsions to complete
this project with utmost speed, viability or utility of its products
notwithstanding. As the DMW project progressed the indispensability of its
services slowly started drawing and expectations started mounting faster
than the project pace. Many more activities over and above those originally
visualized got added on along the way. Taking a smile in RAILWAYS
TERMINOLOGY what started perhaps as a shunting train steadily took the
form of a jumbo rake.
        Diversity of technologies involved under one roof at DMW is
unmatched not only on Indian Railways but also in industrial set-ups around
the globe. Manufacture of carbon brushes on one-hand and traction gears on
the other: remanufacture of traction generators to matching of engine block
stretches the imagination of even well experienced engineers. To manage
such a plant of diverse activities and to maintain the healthy and rhythmic
throb of such a complex system calls for paramount professional skills.
These skills are imparted in the form of service by the skilled & professional
staff. Labour here is devoted to its job & tries to perform its task with full
efforts to increase its productivity. For a company to exist in the present
scenario of great competitions, its workers must be properly skilled & must
be competent. To achieve these very properties in its workers DMW has a
training cell.
                 Unlike other production units, DMW has to complete with other
private and public sectors enterprises that have been supplying these items to
zonal railways for decades.          It is the superb product quality and


                                        11
responsiveness to costumer needs that gives a distinct edge to DMW.
With quality as its strength factor, DMW is surely and steadily
notching up its market share.

                         DMW AS A PROJECT

       Diesel Loco modernization Works was conceived with a view to
provide maintenance supports to zonal railways for the maintenance of over
3500 diesels locomotive, which are in services. It was realized that DLW,
Varanasi that is primarily engaged in manufacture of new locomotive would
not be able to meet the large demand of new spares and remanufactured
components to service this large fleet of locomotive.
     This project for setting up facilities to undertake these activities
consulting PHASE – I was approved in Feb. 1981 and estimate was
sanctioned in May 1982. PHASE – II of the project comprising of rebuilding
POWER PACKS and LOCOMOTIVE was sanctioned in June 1986.
    The project was approved by WORLD BANK, who provided aid funds
to extent of $30 million. Production started in the first shop i.e. Carbon
Brush Shop (CBS) in Jan 1986 and the full range of PHASE – I activities
and capacity were attained in April 1989. As part of PHASE – II, power
packs rebuilding started in June 1989 and the first locomotive was
dispatched in Nov 1989.
                                 PHASE 1:
For phase 1 group of shops covering an area of 47,000 Sq.m. has been
provided, in which 734 items of different machinery & plants have been
installed. Including essential staff amenities, so far rupees 114.76 crore have
been spent on this part of project.


                                      12
Phase-1 is distributed in following shops:
 CARBON BRUSH SHOP: Manufacture of brushes for traction
   machine.
 LIGHT MACHINE SHOP:               Manufacture of spare parts of diesel
   locomotives.
 HEAVY MACHINE SHOP:                  Remanufacture of engine blocks and
   traction motors.
 TRACTION MACHINE SHOP:                    Remanufacture of traction machine
   including manufacturing of coils.
 CYLINDER LINER SHOP: Remanufacture of cylinder liner by chrome
   plating.
 HEAT TREATMENT SHOP: Heat treatment of components.
 PLANT MAINTENANCE SHOP:                     Installation and maintenance of
   machine tools and facilities including material handling.
 CENTRAL            MAINTENANCE         SHOP:      Material   handling   and
   transportation.
 TOOL ROOM: Maintenance and manufacture of jigs and fixtures.
                                PHASE 2:
          Construction of Phase 2 group of shops, where rebuilding of diesel
per annual is to be undertaken, was taken up in 1986-87 at an estimated cost
of 46.63 crores. For this purpose covered area of 25,000 Sq.m. and 298
different items of machinery and 7 plants have been provided. Facilities for
rebuilding of power packs & diesel locomotives are distributed in the
following shops:
      POWER PACKS SHOP: Stripping, assembly and testing of diesel
        power packs

                                       13
      BOGIE SHOP: Stripping, reconditioning and assembly of
        locomotive bogies.
      TRACTION REPAIR SHOP: Rebuilding and testing of auxiliary
        machines and electrical equipments.
      LOCO REBUILDING SHOP:                  Stripping and rebuilding of
        locomotives.


      AIR BRAKE SHOP: Reconditioning testing and assembly

        of air brake equipments


                       PROJECT OBJECTIVE

        The Diesel Loco Modernization Works was set up raise
significantly the life of diesel locomotive on Indian Railways. This was
required to be DMW through:
    Manufacturing and supply of high quality components and spares.
    Remanufacture of critical assemblies for unit exchange system of
      diesel locomotive maintenance regime of the railways.
    Rebuilding locomotives and power packs incorporating the latest
      technological developments.
    For higher performance and improved fuel efficiency.
    Manufacture of components either imported for import substitution
           and timely availability.
                     PROJECT INVESTMENT
     The investment plans as formulated in the various estimates are
indicated below.

                                      14
                            PHASE – I            PHASE – II
Abstract Estimate           Rs 46.5crore            Rs 46.63crore
Sanctioned on               May, 1982               July, 1986
Revised Estimated           Rs 87.52crore           Rs 118.16crore
Second Revision             Rs 117.62crore


                    QUIPMENT CONFIGURATION

The position of supply and buildup of M&P is as below.
                                  PHASE – I                PHASE – II

No. of machines required                   734                       298
No. of machines received                   734                       291
No. of machines installed                  734                       265
No. of machines commissioned               731                      280

                            SCOPE OF D.M.W.

     The experts have declared the age of every locomotive as 18 – 20 years
i.e. after every 20 years locomotive is brought to the Diesel Loco
Modernization Works, Patiala and the following operations are done on it
where it is required.
    1. Rebuilding
    2. Remanufacturing
    3. Reclaiming
     Rebuilding:-When due to sudden non alignment there is excessive
       wear of any component, and then this operation is performed to make
       it working properly. In this operation the size of any component is

                                        15
      enlarged with the help of machining or the size of the
      component is made oversize. After that size of the component
      is shorten by filling welding or the component is made undersize with
      the help of welding. This whole operation of oversize is called
      Rebuilding
    Remanufacturing: - After rebuilding or the component is made
      undersize, this operation is performed. The operation of obtaining
      required size of the component by machining, from the undersize
      component, as the result of rebuilding is known as Remanufacturing.
    Reclaiming: When after 20 years few parts of the loco are damaged

      and are not in the condition of working, then this operation is
      performed. The operation of replacement of damaged component
      with new components is called Reclaiming

                            PRODUCTION
    Production, Remanufacturing and Locomotive Rebuilding activities
have picked up momentum and are accelerating to attain full installed
capacity of Workshop. Diesel Loco modernization Works (Patiala) and
Diesel Locomotive Works (Varanasi) are working hand in hand to achieve
more efficiency and to meet the requirements of Indian Railways.




                                    16
ORGANIZATION CHART OF MECHANICAL
       DEPARTMENT IN D.C.W


         Chief Administrative
               Officer


          Chief Mechanical
              Engineer


         Dy. Chief Mechanical
              Engineer


             WM/AWM


             Sr.Sec.Engg.


              Sec. Engg.


                  JE


             Artisan Staff




                    17
                            FACILITIES
        The manufacturing activities are based on the most modern
machine tool technology available in the world incorporating CNC and logic
control systems. The machine shop has been laid out on group technology
principles to improve productivity and reduce material handling.
        For machining of Engine Blocks, a special purpose eight-axis CNC
boring and milling machine is available. Heat treatment facilities include a
microprocessor based sealed quench furnace and induction hardening
machines besides conventional equipment.
     Rewinding and rebuilding of Traction Machines are undertaken with
state-of-the-art equipment for washing and vacuum drying, shell blasting,
vacuum pressure impregnation, TIG welding and multi-cycle commentator
seasoning.
     The rebuilding facilities incorporate separate shops for stripping and
washing of incoming locomotives, bogies and power packs. The power pack
shop has a uniflow type assembly line with special purpose manipulators and
power tools for high productivity. A two-station engine test bed is equipped
with remote monitoring and automatic data acquisition and recording
facilities.
     Locomotive rebuilding facilities include repair and painting areas for
the under frame and remanufacturing facilities for auxiliary electrical areas
and electronic control harness. Air brake systems and piping layout
constitute the supporting activity areas for locomotive rebuilding.
     Separate shops have been set up for locomotive painting and for final
full load testing of locomotive performance.



                                      18
     The stores depot facilities are laid out separately for each shop to
reduce and streamline material flow. Material stacking and handling
facilities have been designed with the twin objective of saving space and
labour.
                   PERSONNEL AND WELFARE

          DMW lays great stress on a satisfied and motivated work force. For
effective participation and to promote a sense of belonging, major decisions
affecting the employees are discussed with the staff council consisting of
worker’s representatives. A residential township spread over 350 acres has
been developed adjacent to the workshop. This is self sufficient in all basic
amenities such as Hospitals, Schools, Shopping Centers, Bank, Post Office,
Recreational and Sports facilities. A women’s organization is active in
promoting social and cultural values and activities among the family
members. This organization is running a Crèche, Nursery and Primary
School and a sewing training center. DMW Bharat Scouts and Guides are
also active in organizing social services like tree plantation, sanitation,
drinking water services at public places and various vocational training.
     The residential colony is well separated from the workshop and has an
open and spacious layout. Conservation of the environment has been given
its due importance by providing for effluent and sewage treatment plants,
improving the green cover by widespread tree plantation, proper landscaping
and development of parks and gardens.




                                      19
                     QUALITY ASSURANCE

     DMW believes that product quality has to be built-in, during
manufacture. In accordance with thus belief, the Quality Assurance System
forms an integral part of the workshop activities.
    All incoming material is thoroughly inspected for material composition,
hardness, microstructure and other physical properties as well as for
dimensions. There is full-fledged laboratory equipped with physical,
chemical, metallurgical and spectrographic facilities to the quality program.
     Automatic gauging systems on many of the machines supplement the
QUALITY ASSURANCE SYSTEM during manufacturing operations.
Testing of electrical equipments at various stages of manufacture include
high potential tests, current injection test and resistance and insulation tests.
Running in and vibration tests also form part of the system before the
machines are accepted.
     Load testing at power packs and locomotive stages ensures that the
final product satisfies all the performance indices specified. The Quality
Assurance Program, while integrated with the workshop activities, is
separately controlled and monitored for full customer satisfaction.
     Diversity of technologies involved under one roof at D.M.W is
unmatched not only on Indian Railways but also in the industrial setups
around the globe. Manufacture of carbon brushes on one hand and the
traction gears on the other, remanufacture of traction generators to
machining of engine blocks stretches the imagination of even well
experienced engineers. To manage such a plant of diverse activities and to
maintain the healthy and rhythmic throb of such complex systems calls for
paramount skills.

                                       20
     Unlike other production units, DMW does not have an assured
captive market for the products. For most of its products, DMW has to
compete with other private and public sectors enterprises that have been
supplying these items to zonal railways for decades. It is the superb product
quality and responsiveness to customer needs that gives a distinct edge to
DMW.
     With quality as its strength factor, DMW is surely and steadily notching
up its market share.


     STRATEGY FOLLOWED IN PLANNING OF DMW:
 Each workshop has a major area functioning under middle management
   level officers, who are totally answerable for their performance.
 Layout of workshops is such that there is a smooth flow of jobs from one
   workshop to another.


 Fully integrated with CNC, NC and NON-CNC machines to
   overcome the demand.
 Layout of machines is such that there is smooth flow of job from one
   machine to another according to the operations.
 Machines are placed according to group technology so that final job
   comes out as single.
 Inspection and testing is done 100 percent with very accurate instruments
   for good quality.




                                     21
                            EXPORTS
DMW is exporting spares of Diesel Locomotives. Export to Malaysia
is done through M/s IRCON and to Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Bangladesh, Peru,
Tanzania & Myanmar is done through M/s RITES.
Some of important items exported to various countries are detailed below:
    Armature shaft
    Valve lever shaft
    Gear (lube oil pump)
    Pinion 19 teeth
    Gear (water pump)
    Extension shaft
    Gear Extension shaft
    Camshaft
    Cylinder liner (chrome plated)
    Carbon brush
    Axle box housing
    Equalizer beam
                          General Locomotive Data

                         SPECIFICATION (WDM2)
Model no.                              WDM2
Type                                   CO – CO
Horse Power                            2400 BHP
Increased Horse Power                  3100 BHP
Maximum Speed                          120 Km / hr
Gear Ratio                             65 / 18
Maximum Radius of Curvature            73.2 m
                                      22
WHEELBASE
Total locomotive                12833 mm
Each truck (right)              3810 mm
Wheel diameter                  1092 mm
Journal size                150 mm
Traction motor              BHEL-165
Track gauge                 1676 mm
Brake equipment             Vacuum/ Air system
                            28 LAV-1 Twin pipe


               MAXIMUM OVER ALL DIMENSIONS

      Height                              4185 mm
      Width                               3010 mm
      Length (over all)                   17120 mm


                            CAPACITY

      Fuel                                  5000 Lt
      Cooling water                         1210 Lt
      Lubrication oil                       910 Lt
      Water expansion                       155 Lt
      Sand                                  0.40 Cu.m


       AUXILIARY HORSE POWER REQUIREMENTS
      Auxiliary generator max                           17 H.P.


                                    23
Blower(2) at full speed              62 H.P.
Radiator fan (1000 rpm)              80 H.P.
Expresser unloaded at 1000 rpm       13 H.P.
Exciters fan                          12 H.P.

         APPROXIMATE WEIGHTS IN KG.
Locomotive with supplies            112795
Locomotive light                     105853
Truck, Complete                      23162
Truck with–out motor                 13015
Traction motor (with pinion)         13340
Traction motor pinion                 22.7
Wheel and axle assy with gear        1946
Wheel motor truck equalizer           483
Equalizer                             113.4
Traction motor blower                 81.6
Hood over engine                      2019
Expresser 6CD x 4UC                  1089
Radiator (I)                         708
Radiator fan, right angle
Box and eddy current clutch           380
Radiator fan                         53.5




                                24
               SALIENT FEATURES
                    ENGINE DATA
Bore & stroke                            9” & 10.5”
No. of cylinder                          16
Cubic displacement in inches             10688
Compression ratio

1. Concave crown shape                     12.5 : 1
2. Flat crown shape                       11.5 : 1

Valve (no. per cylinder)
1. Intake                                 2
2. Exhaust                               2

Firing order                         1R-1L-4R-4L-7R
                                      7L-6R-6L8R-8L-
                                     5R-5L-2R-2L-3R-
                                     3L

Crank pin diameter                       6”
Main bearing journal diameter           8.5”
No of main bearing                      9
Tappet clearance                        0.034
Lubrication oil                         910 LITRES




                                25
                         SHOPS IN D.M.W.


 Plant Maintenance Shop
This is the shop where all the worn out and damaged tools and Machine
parts are repaired and maintained. It handles the errors in the tools and finds
the solution to correct the error.


 Tool Room
Tool room is a room where different types of tools are manufactured.
Different operations done in tool room are:-
    Manufacturing of jigs & fixtures, dies and templates.
    Preventive maintenance of tools.
    Repair of different tools and equipments.
    Cutting and re-sharpening of tools.
    Repair of chucks.
    Repair and preventive maintenance of punching chucks.
    Lapping tool for cylinder liner.
    Boring head large end of connecting rods.


 Light Machine Shop
This shop concerned with the manufacturing of over 200 components for the
diesel engine. The main function of this shop is to make spare parts for the
loco rebuild in DMW or for other sheds on demand. The main products of
this shop are:
            Bull gear
            Spider

                                        26
            Pinion gear
            Cam shaft
            Connecting rod
            Studs
            Seats
            Cam shaft gear, crank shaft gear
            Drive gear Lop, compeller follower Lop, Face plate Lop
            Frame bearing.


 Heat treatment Shop
In the heat treatment shop, the job is given heat treatment to improve the
strength, elasticity and other mechanical properties of the job.


 Central Maintenance Shop
It is the main shop in the DMW. It collects the raw material from outside,
make a report of it and distribute the required material I the various shops. It
also keeps the track of the job done and finalized. Actually, it is the shop
where all the data about materials, jobs, workers and other matters is stored
and transported to the different shops.


 Main Receiving Station
This is the main resource of electrical energy to all the shops in the DMW.
It is responsible for the power distribution to the shops.


    Traction Machine Shop



                                       27
The traction machine shop concerns with the manufacturing,
maintenance and testing of traction machines. It also undertakes the
manufacturing of coils


 Heavy Machine Shop
This is the shop where the cylinder block of LOCO POWER PACK and the
magnet frames or traction motor casing is reclaimed. The various defects,
which creep in the cylinder block due to highly loaded conditions, are
repaired in this shop like cracks, damaged holes, damaged tapping, cam and
crack bore wear.


 Power Pack shop
In this shop the power pack is wholly dismantled and rebuilt, tested and then
sent to LRS for fitment on the LOCO. The main functions of this shop are:
    Dismantling, Reconditioning and assembly of power pack.
    Load testing, specific fuel consumption testing and other types


 Bogie Shop
This shop is concerned with the manufacturing, remanufacturing and testing
of bogie. Bogie is the lower part of the locomotive, which supports the
engine. It is a unit where the main power of the Locomotive is utilized.


 Loco Rebuilding Shop
The main function of loco rebuilding shop is to assemble the different sub-
assemblies, which are conditioned in different alloyed shops.              The
performance and working of LRS depend upon its helping shops.


                                     28
HEAVY MACHINE SHOP




        29
                HEAVY MACHINE SHOP

          Heavy machine shop or HMS is located in the phase-II of DMW.
This shop is remanufacturing shop unlike the LMS, is a production shop. In
this shop the cylinder bock of the loco power pack and the magnet frames or
traction motor casing are reclaimed from the power pack shop, where they
are stripped in the stripping section and section and various shops receive
the components they are capable of remanufacturing. In this case it is heavy-
duty engine block.
        The various defects which creep in the cylinder block due to highly
loaded working conditions are repaired in this shop, like cracks, damaged
holes, damaged tapping, cam and crank bore wear. These heavy-duty
components of the diesel engine undergo heavy damage due to the bearing
and wearing surfaces. Hence there is an utmost need of rebuild them. A step-
by-step procedure is followed to reclaim the engine block from PPS.


        Operation done on the engine block in HMS
                 Receipt
                 Stripping
                 Washing-I
                 Checking height, length and square ness
                 Inspection of DPT.
                 Welding-I STD. Welding
                 Welding-II welding repair
                 Welding-III RDSO modification


                                     30
 Welding-IV cam bore welding
 DPT. Repair EB.
 Hydraulic test
 Cam bore sleeve removing
 Stress relieving
 Cleaning of burnt material and fire clay
 Washing
 Dressing of top deck, middle deck and faces.
 Retapping
 Inspection of tapped holes
 Enlarged
 Plug pressing
 Welding
 Dressing
 Drilling and tapping
 Machining on PAMA.
 DPT of welding serrations pads of engine block and MB
   caps
 Enlarging of cam bores
 Welding of L-9 & R-9 bores of retro modified EB.
 Dressing of cam bores faces
 Sleeve pressing in cam bores
 Sleeve tacking of L-1 & R-1 welding
 MB cap assembly and stretching
 Fixture setting and torquing boring loading


                     31
                Boring of cam and crank bores
                Removal of tools boring bars and fixtures
                Checking of size of bores for ovality unclear and block
                  spots
                Welded crank face dressing
                Honing
                Deburring and targeting of crank and cam bores
                Radial distance checking
                Alignment
                Rectification of bores
                Disassembly of number caps and number punching
                Shell lock cutting
                Shell lock deburring and shell fitment and inspection
                Top deck fitting work
                Final inspection
                Attending deviations
                Washing-III
                Painting
                Final dispatch
             Various operations done in this shop are:-
1. Engine block stripping
Mostly disassembled power pack comprising of engine block comes from
PPS. In HMS following parts are removed:-
  1. MB caps
  2. Cam bore sleeves
  3. Various studs around cylinder
                                      32
The welded cam sleeves are removed by Gourging. In place of this
removed metal we can fill new metal by welding. Bent portions of
engine block beyond repair are removed by the same process and new metal
is placed by welding. Cam sleeves are finally removed by a hydraulic press.
2. Washing
The engine blocks which are dirty with grease, dirt and other impediments
are cleaned thoroughly in a proceco plant. This plant consists of a cleaning
tank, one boiler and cleaning solution.
First the big end plate at free end and generator end sides are fitted. The
overhead crane loads the engine block in the prececo plant. Time set for
rolling is 4 hours

The lid is closed and the steam wall is opened inside the tank to maintain the
temperature of cleansing solution at 1800degF. Then the engine block is
cooled for 4 hours.
Additives: - detergent orian (2-4%)
Pressure (80-125) psi
Operating temperature –1800f
Boiler: - fire tube boiler, nozzle type
Fuel used: - Light diesel oil.
The main feature of processed cleaning machine, which we use during
cleaning or washing are as follows:
Voltage used               59 VOLT.
Electricity                2 PHASE.
Cycle                     50 HZ.




                                          33
3.Pre inspection
The pre inspection starts with the naked eye inspection of the engine
block. But there are cracks that can’t be seen by the naked eye and so to
highlight those cracks dye penetrate test is conducted. The various solutions
in its applications are:
Cleaner {to clean the most crack prone area}
Red dye {a red chemical which collects itself near the crack}
Developer {a white chemical that helps to highlight the accumulated red
dye}
        First of all surface is cleaned by cleaner then the red dye is sprayed.
Thinner is once again sprayed to wash away excess dye. The developer that
is sprayed afterwards takes out the dye from cracks and highlights the
cracked portions. Orange paint is then used to mark these cracks. Welding
report is prepared and engine block is send to the welding section.
       Before going to the welding section the various holes in the engine
block are filled with fire clay to prevent their damage during welding and
stress relieving that takes place afterwards.
This is done to:-
   1. Prevent the spatter from damaging the internal portion of the holes.
   2. To avoid distortion of EB plates while welding.
Note: - If the spline of EB damaged then it is out rightly rejected.
4. Welding
Two types of welding are done in the HMS.
   1. Electric arc welding
   2. Metal inert gas welding ( MIG welding)
The main portions where welding is done are


                                       34
         i.   Crank bore
        ii.   Middle deck
       iii.   Cam bore
       iv.    Top deck collar
        v.    Top deck bore
       vi.    Cracks (as per records)
         MIG welding is preferred over electric arc welding because in MIG
welding the welding is continuous, deeply penetrating and relatively clean
(than electric arc) and hence used accordingly. A continuous feeding system
feeds the copper coated MS electrode. Copper coating prevents the filler
material from rusting. It also reduces resistance and hence increases
conductivity during welding. Carbon dioxide is used as the inert gas. MIG is
used for welding of serration pads, axle box and plug welding.
       In electric arc flux coated electrodes are used. The flux forms the
slag with the impurities that are generated during the welding. This slag is
removed after wards by chipping handle. MS plates are sometimes welded to
give strength.
If the job is heavy then:
Holder: -ve          Work piece: +ve
This is because +ve end generates more heat, which is required by the work
piece. Sometimes electrodes hinder the choice of polarity. Current range is
lessened for overhead welding. Reverse polarity used for high precision
welding. If are length is more, more is the spatter. Slag inclusions including
if are length is less. Efficiency of welding 60%.




                                        35
                     ROBOTIC WELDING




Robotic Welding Automation
Rectilinear robots move in line in any of three axes (X, Y, and Z). In
addition to linear movement of the robot along axes there is a wrist attached


                                     36
to the robot to allow rotational movement. This creates a robotic
working zone that is box shaped.

Articulating robots utilize arms and rotating joints. These robots move like a
human arm with a revolving wrist at the end. This creates an irregularly
shaped robotic working zone known as the work arc.

There are many factors that need to be considered when setting up a robotic
welding facility. Robotic welding needs to be engineered differently than
manual welding. Some of the considerations for a robotic welding facility
are listed below:

      Accuracy and repeatability
      Number of axes
      Reliability
      Fixtures
      Programming
      Seam tracking systems
      Maintenance
      Controls
      Weld monitors
      Arc welding equipment
      Positioners
      Part transfer

Welding that is performed and controlled by robotic equipment is called
robotic welding. Automatic arc welding equipment is designed differently
than equipment used for manual arc welding. Normally, automatic arc
welding involves high duty cycles, and the welding equipment must be able
to function under those conditions. The equipment mechanisms must have
the required features and controls to interact with the main control system.

A unique type of electrical power is required to make an arc weld. The
exclusive type of power is provided by a welding machine, also known as
the power source. All arc welding processes use an arc welding gun or torch
to convey welding current from a welding cable to the electrode. Shielding
the weld area from the atmosphere is also provided for.

The nozzle of the torch is near the arc and will increasingly pick up spatter.
A torch cleaner (normally automatic) is frequently used in robotic welding

                                     37
systems to remove the spatter. All of the continuous electrode wire arc
processes necessitate an electrode feeder to feed the consumable
electrode wire into the arc.

Holding and positioning parts to guarantee precise welding by the robot is
done by welding fixtures and work piece manipulators. The productivity of
the robotic welding cell is increased by having an automatically rotating or
switching fixture, so the operator can be preparing one set of parts while the
robot is welding another.

To guarantee that the electrode tip and the tool frame are correctly known
with respect to each other, the calibration process of the Tool Center Point is
imperative. An automatic tool center point calibration device aides in this
time consuming task.

Welding of magnet frame
Welding is done on the all bearing seats of the magnet frame. The following
procedure is followed in welding of main points (resurfacing of main bore,
axle bore, armature face, lug bore) of magnet frame.
Equipment used in process
Welding sets, oxy acetylene gas cutting set.
Procedure
   1. Position the magnet frame and clean the axle bore P/E and C/E to
      remove scaling.
   2. Check the axle bore with the set up for out of soundness.
   3. First fill up the notches/cavities positions with welding.
   4. Weld the axle in 8” length axle face at P/e and C/E after selecting
      proper electrode and current.
   5. Weld armature bore (if mention in pre inspection report). Provide
      proper space for machining reference at four places at 90 0 angle in
      each bore and meld armature face at P/E in double pass.


                                      38
  6. Weld upper and lower lug faces after removing old brush and
     plug the lughole by MIG welding if holes are oval/oversize.
  7. Inspect the magnet frames for any damage/cracks and repair by
     welding the damaged/ cracks position.
  8. Open the axle cap and weld position
  9. Remove keys and magnet frames by oxy-acetylene gas cutting set.
  10.Mark the axle cap wick pad pocket with a template.
  11.Oxy cut wick pad pocket by oxy acetylene gas cutting set.


BORING OF CAM LH, RH & CRANK BORES
Boring of cam and crank is done on HMT boring machines.
Procedure followed:
   Clean boring fixture including bronze bushes.
   Set all the tools for rough, semi finish & finish sizes for crank and
     cam boring operations.
   Check that cutting edges of tool are not blunt or worn out.
   Clean the crank and clean cam boring bars including their pockets.
   Load the fixtures on the engine block and see that the fixtures arms do
     not hit the engine block. Finally nut firmly.
   Insert crank and cam boring bars into fixture and engine block.
   Load the engine block on the machine bed. Align the engine block
     from GE side by dialing across faces. It should be perpendicular to the
     machine from the faces i.e. left side & right side of the engine block.
   Dial the boring bar individually and load correct size present tool for
     roughing/ semi-finishing/ finishing operation.
   Measure bore size finally.


                                     39
      Method of stress relieving
This is applicable for removing the welding stresses of engine block:-
    Load engine block with foundations rails down on the fixture mounted
      on furnace trolley
    Push the trolley inside furnace.
    Switch on pre heater to avoid freezing of air
    Set the temperature at about 6500C
    Pre heat oil fired burners with oil dipped jute
    Open compressed air valve and start motor for fuel supply
    Start the burners and close the door
    Adjust the burners and close the door
    Adjust the burner fuel so as to increase the temperature @ 700-800C
      per hour
    Switch on cooling fans to distribute equal heat inside the furnace
    Open the water pipe line valve to supply water for cooling the bearing
      of cooling fan soak the engine block for 4 hours once the temperature
      is attained at about 6500C stop the burners after 4 hours.
    Switch off the cooling fan once temperature reaches 4000C
    Open the door when the furnace temperature reaches 2000C
    Push out the engine block loaded trolley when furnace temperature
      reaches 1500C
    Close the water pipeline valve


SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS
       To ensure safety of the worker various measures are taken like
provision of fire extinguishers, hand gloves made from aluminum alloy etc.
                                        40
Certain safety items like welding screen, colored glasses, chipping
handle, wire brush, chisel, hammer had been provided to the workers to
avert the accidents miss happenings.
5. Inspection
It is again done after welding if any modifications are required then those are
done here else sent to stress relieving furnace for stress relieving.
6. Stress relieving
            After welding, various areas of stress concentration are produced
due to uneven cooling of the welded portion. So the whole EB is relieved by
uniformly heating it to certain temperature and then cooling it slowly but
uniformly to get no stress concentration areas.
            First the pre heater is switched on to ensure the furnace is
preheated for one hour in winters to avoid freezing of light diesel oil (LDO).
Temperature is set at 6400-6500C. the furnace is preheated with oil-dipped
jute. Then compressed air valve is opened to let fuel supply in and burner is
started after closing the door. Both the cooling fans were switched on for
equal heating in the furnace. Then the engine block is soaked for 4 hours
once temperature of 6500C is reached. Burner is then stopped and cooling
fans are stopped after 4000C the doors of the furnace are opened at 2000C.
the EB is pushed out when furnace temperature is at 1500C.
7. Hole repair
           The holes that are damaged due to any reason are drilled again
oversize and the dummy plug is forged fit into these freshly drilled holes.
The whole periphery and a plug outer periphery are welded together with
MIG welding and then the whole portion is ground to flush with the plate



                                       41
surface. New holes are then drilled according to size and tapping is
done. EB is sent to CNC room.
8. CNC room
            PAMA horizontal boring milling centre has got three
substations of which only one is in use. This machine is used for the
operations given in their order:




Operation 1- Foundation rail machining
Operation 2- Saddle pad facing
Operation 3- Top deck boring (semi finished)
Operation 4- Middle deck boring (semi finished)
Operation 5- Serration cutting
Operation 6- Radius of 5/8 inches is made near serration pad.
Operation 7- Serration relief cut is given on serration pad so that there
is no difficulty during fixing of MB caps.
Operation 8 Finish boring of top deck bore and middle deck bore.

                                       42
Operation 9 Chamfering of 30 given on top deck collar
After all the machining done on the PAMA machine the engine block
from the trunion fixture is unloaded and end plates are removed.
9. Main bearing cap fitting
         The MB caps are fitted section. Now the block is ready to be
machined on the boring machine.
10. Finish boring
        HMT horizontal boring machine is used for the boring of the crank
bore and the cam bores. Long spindle arms on which the DAVIS boring
block is fixed has got two single point cutting tools are here as boring tools.
After boring operation is complete the fixture is removed and the EB
unloaded.
Feature of this machine are:-
Auto feeding and travel
Horizontal boring type
Then the SLEEVE FITTING is done. The sleeves are fitting with
hammering action into the bores. The periphery of the sleeves is then welded
at four points with the block by MIG weld.
11. Honing
The honing of crank and camshaft bore is done to reduce them to correct
size; therefore, it is used for finishing.
The honing tool consists of 4 sticks-2 wipers and 2 stones (i.e. abrasive
stick). The stones remove the material & the wipers wipe the removed
material off the tools is mounted on a long shaft connected to compressed air
driven rotor (six sticks are used for crank shaft at bore honing).



                                         43
12. Final inspection
The block is then inspected finally for hole sizes, bore sizes and
threads. If some bores are not in size then they are sent to respective
machines for remedy/ correction. In the final inspection of the cam and
crank bores, AUTOCOLLIMATOR ALIGNMENT TEST is then performed.
A misalignment of 2 thou (0.002) are permissible.
In this test two target lenses and one telescope is used. First of all the two
targets are made in line with each other and the telescope by adjusting the
screws on auto collimator. Then with the second target fixed, the first target
is moved to second bore. Misalignment may be either in the vertical or in the
horizontal direction, is depicted the crosswire present in the two targets.
Then the first target is moved to the next bore and so on.




                                      44
PROCECO AUTO CLEANING PLANT
Works dia of end discs 6’ min and 7’ max.
Max work length               18”
Max works weight              1800 Lbs
Tank capacity                 4900 gallons
Solution pump capacity        1286 GPM
Pressure                      70 Psi
Exhaust capacity              6000 CFM @ 1” W.C
Stream consumption            509 Kg/hr 80 Psi
Pressure                      80-125 Psi
Additives
Detergent                     Oakite (2-4 %)
Foam control                  Oakite odd.
Rust inhibitor                Oakite




                                    45
WELDING OF MAGNETIC FRAME




             46
WELDING OF ENGINE BLOCK




            47
BOGIE SHOP




    48
                          BOGIE SHOP
INTRODUCTION:
             Bogie is a main assembly of a diesel engine carrying in it a
frame, wheel and axle assembly, levers, various springs; traction motor etc.
bogie frame is dispatched from the loco rebuilding shop to the bogie shop
stripping section. Two bogies in all combine to form one loco. In a single
bogie three traction motors are there, i.e. making six traction motors in a
loco. There is also a traction generator in it, which supplies power to the
traction motors.
       It has a three mode bogie with 60% of the weight is distributed
equally on the central pivot pan. There are pans each having a distribution of
weight in the ratio of 30%, 20% and 20% respectively.
       In the bogie shop, the bogie is dismantled and all its parts are
checked for their correct working and dimensions. The correct ones are re
used whereas the worn out one’s discarded as scrap. Then all the parts are
collected in one section for final assembly and the new components that are
added to this after inspection work is completed.
Various parts of a bogie:
   Frame
    Traction motor: 3 in one bogie
    Levers
    Air brake cylinder: 4 per bogie
    Brake shoe: C.I
    Brake block: M.S
    Wheel and axle with axle boxes

                                       49
      Springs
      Equalizer
PROCEDURE FOLLOWED FOR OPERATIONSON BOGIE:
                   BOGIE STRIPPING SECTION:
From the loco rebuilding shop the bogie frame is brought to bogie stripping
section on the rail tracks. Here the bogie is for all its levers, springs, traction
motors, frame, oil, wheel and axle assembly, bearing etc. are dismantled and
send to the various respective sections for further inspection and repair etc.
the procedure followed for dismantling is as follows:
a)     Open pedestal plates and lift them up to put on stand.
b)     Lift the equalizer beam assembly and spring assembly.
c)     Dismantling spring seat and beam assembly.
d)     Drain oil of motor cap in a tray. This is a cardium compound for
lubrication purposes.
e)     Lift traction motor and open its bolts, its gear case and wheel
assembly with help of crane and mark a no. to them.
f)     Dismantle suspension bearing.
g)     Assemble the motor caps.
h)     Open the lever and pipes of bogie frame and the reusable one’s to
lever section after cleaning.
i)     Scrap bogie frame and then after cleaning with brush, put it in
cleaning tank for three days. Wash it then on high jet pressure machine.
After the process of dismantling, the dismantled parts are sent to various
sections, which are as follows:
a)     FRAME SECTION
b)     WHEEL AND ASSEMBLY SECTION

                                        50
c)     TRACTION MOTOR SECTION
d)     LEVER SECTION
By studying these processes one by one we have:
FRAME DISMANTLING:
      After the frame has been dismantled it is thoroughly cleaned in three
stages. These are as follows, first of all the mud from the frame is scraped
off with the help of brush and a scrapper. Then this frame is taken to the jet
pressure water chamber. The frame is scrapped thoroughly till the red color
is seen. Then the frame is taken to the water cleaning where the frame is put
inside the tank in which water is maintained at a temperature of 80 deg – 90
deg c and up to the outlet level of tank. In the tank caustic soda is put in the
correct ratio and the frame is kept in this tank for cleaning for about 48
hours. Then after the cleaning the frame is dispatched to the frame section.
In the frame section first of all inspection of frame takes place for the cracks
etc. first of all visual inspection is done, and as mentioned in the text
supplied, the testing of the frame is done. For the trammeling i.e. the
alignment holes is checked and the various bend places are checked. Then
with the help of magna flux check is carried in which at various places the
wire of magna check is wounded under which magnetic material is
sprinkled. Then all the connections are made and on passing the current the
magnetic material gets collected in the place of the crack with the magnetic
field developed. Silver line appears at the place of crack. Then the die
penetrate test is carried out. In this test the first of all the frame is thoroughly
cleaned off then the white solution is sprayed on the top of it, then the pink
die penetrates is sprayed on it. After some time at the place of cracks a pink
line is formed.

                                        51
        After these checks are made the frame is made free i.e.
discarded off if there is major crack present and if not the various
cracks are filled up with welding.
        Then after this all the bushes of the frame are changed or replaced
and the entire worm off plates is changed. Then after this the leave are
assembled with the frame i.e. the fitment of levers of leaves etc. After all the
operations are over it is dispatched for the final assembly section.
WHEEL AND AXLE BOX ASSEMBLY:
After dismantling of the wheel and the axle assembly from the bogie the
assembly is supplied to the cutting section in which the full assembly is
dispatched in two different sections. The wheel and axle assembly is freed
from the roller bearing and the races on the axle are cut away with the arc
cutting. The removed roller bearing is checked and dispatched to roller
bearing section. For further operation on the wheel and axle they are sending
to depressing section.




                                      52
DEPRESSURING OR PRESSURING OF WHEEL DISC,
AXLE COLLAR, AND BULL GEARS:
In this section first of all inspection of wheel set is done visually. Then the
assembly is sent for the depressing of wheel disk, axle collar and bull gear.
Then all diameter of wheel assembly are checked. Then axle collar for its
axle steps made, these should not be worn off or with any other problem.
Then the bull gear is checked for in the presence of scandium compound on
its surface, it is cleaned and then it’s checked thoroughly for any broken
tooth, cracks or on root hub if any steps are made. The width of teeth is
checked for less than 1/8 inch or more make it scrap. Then after this wheel
seat is inspected for, collar seat is inspected, suspension seat is inspected and
end holes on the axle are checked. On the Gemini lathe the races are
prepared, axle are made and turned. Then on the wheel profiling and axle
turning lathe axle size is maintained in steps of 9” standard, these are
   1/32”, 1/16”, 1/8”.
       The distance between the two wheels are kept 1596.4mm and the
diameter of the wheel is 1092mm. The wheel is very scientifically designed.
Its outer surface is tapered for turning purposes.
        When train is turning the inner wheel moves closest to the front face
and the outer wheel farthest side of the front face and hence accommodating
the turns of the train in an efficient manner. A paste of white led and boiled
linseed oil is used during pressing in a ratio of 5:4.5 in lubrication.
       Then the pressing of new wheel disc, collar and bull gear is done.
Then assembly is sent to the profiling section. Then this whole assembly is
sent to the roller bearing section.



                                        53
IN PRESSING:
S.No.     COMPONENT           INTERFERENCE PRESSURE OF
1.         WHEEL DISC         0.009-0.011”         105-145STONS
2.          COLLARS            0.002-0.004”        8-10 TONS
3.          BULL GEAR          0.008-0.010”         55-90 TONS
# 1 SHORT TON= 907 KG
# 1 TON =1000KG
# 1 TONNES=1016 KG
ROLLER BEARING SECTION:
Roller bearings are checked thoroughly for their working and if any roller is
worn out or rounded on corners it is disposed off. For the reuse of rollers
three stag cleaning is carried out:
a)      clean with brush
b)      soaking in tank
c)      ultrasonic cleaning
d)      inspection(visual as well as mechanical)
a) CLEANING WITH BRUSH:
First of all bearing is cleaned thoroughly with brush then soaked in kerosene,
diesel and move oil for 24 hours and clean with brush.
b) ULTRASONIC CLEANING:
Then put it in the primary cleaning chamber for 1 hour. Triethylene solution
is sprayed for 1 hour in the ultrasonic chamber. Then transfer this to the
second chamber and clean it there for 1 hour. Then the bearing is put in third
tank for some time.
c) INSPECTION OF ROLLER BEARING:



                                      54
Put these bearings on a test table after removing from ultrasonic
chamber. Outer race, rivet and cage are thoroughly checked for various
defects like is marked with green paint for selection and with red for
rejection.
        After thorough inspection of roller bearing the inner race is mounted
onto the wheel axle assembly. Then the axle boxes are assembled with roller
bearings and a lot of grease is put in it. Then the axle boxes are mounted on
it. Then this assembly is checked for end play. Afterwards it is dispatched to
final assembly section.
There are mainly two types of bearings these are:
1) Wider horn roller bearing
2) Narrow horn roller bearing
TRACTION MOTOR SECTION:
After dismantling traction motors are send to traction motor shop for further
checking and inspection purposes. After this it is send back to bogie shop in
the final assembly section.
BEAM SECTION:
In the beam section long beams are straightened and their diameter is
maintained on the grinder and then dispatched to the final assembly.
SPRING TESTING SECTION:
In this section the springs are tested for their tensions by applying various
amounts of loads. After testing the spring is grit blasted for removing any
blunt edges etc. Then it sends to final assembly section in groups of three.
There are mainly three types of springs assembled together to be seated in
the bogie. These are:
             1. Outer spring


                                     55
          2. Inner spring
          3. Sniveler spring
In one bogie there are 8 springs i.e. 4 inner and 4 snivelers.
FINAL ASSEMBLY SECTION:
In the final assembly section key fitment of the traction motor is done and
then its inspection is done. Then the motoring of wheel assembly is done.
Then the lowering of traction motor is done.
The various rectifications are done in the assembly section. Then the motor
nose suspension pad fitment and testing is done. Then the final assembly
bogie is dispatched to the loco rebuilding shop.
The parameters checked in this section are:-
    Temperature of suspension bearing, traction bearing, axle bearing
      {temperatures are measured by pyrometers}
    Check any kind of dirt, pieces of metal; check spring action and oil
      delivery.
    Check oil level.




                                       56
POWER PACK SHOP




        57
     FLOW PROCESS CHART OF POWER PACK



  POWER
  PACK FROM
  LRS




STRIPPING      ENGINE              POWER        POWER      POWER
SECTION        BLOCK ON             PACK        PACK      PACK TO
               MANUPUL              ASSY.       TESTING     LRS
               ATOR                             ON TEST
                                                BED




TG      ENGINE            ENGINE
        BLOCK             BLOCK




TRACTION
MACHINE SHOP                       HEAVY MACHINE SHOP




                                       58
              POWER PACK SHOP (P.P.S.)

    In this shop the power pack is wholly dismantled and built, then set to
L.R.S. for fitment on the Loco. When the locomotive completes 24 lakhs km
on the track or run for the 18 years then it is necessary to rebuild the
locomotive. A normal life span of the locomotive is 36 years after 6 years of
service or running 8 lakh kms an overhaul can be given to the engine. So
after 18 years of service rebuilding of the locomotive is required. The
function of the shop can be broadly classified into following types :-
    Dismantling, Reconditioning and Assembling of power pack.
    Load testing, specified fuel consumption testing and other type of

      testing.
For this purpose there are many Sections in the Power Pack
Shop. These are given below:-
    Stripping section
    Reconditioning section
    Turbo super charger section
    Valve lever assembly section
    Fuel injection pump room
    Governor room
    Piston and head section
    Block Assembly section
    Assembly section
    Lube oil pump section
    Sub assembly section
    Power pack testing section


                                      59
STRIPPING SECTION:
Power pack comes from the loco stripping section. Stripping of power
pack done in a sequence. Firstly exhaust pipe, water, lube oil are removed.
Then covers of fuel pump & fuel pump support, cylinder head, then fuel
pump, fuel pump support are removed. Control shaft, cylinder head, turbo
super charger, turbo charger support, governor, CC motor, camshaft gear,
crank shaft gear, vibration damper & upper cover are removed. Then
extension shaft, bearing caps, crankshaft, piston-connecting rod assembly
are removed. Then the engine block is removed from the sump. All these
parts are sent to the concerning section. Check visually all these parts for
any damage & clean all these parts. Usable parts are used again & damaged
parts are sent to condom section. Engine block is send to H.M.S. for re-
matching. Such parts like crankshaft camshaft, piston, turbo charger, gear &
fuel pump injector all these are replace with new parts.


PISTON SECTION
In this section pistons are checked & prepared for use. pistons are made into
two parts i.e. upper & lower part. Upper part is steel cap. In the case of any
damage of the piston may save the other part of the piston i.e. lower part
because this lower part is easily changed. Piston rings are different types.
Compression rings, oil pressure rings, are used to maintain the pressure in
the chamber & control leakage.


CAMSHAFT SECTION.
In cam shaft section are checked & prepared for use. In 2600hp loco a single
piece camshaft is used but in 3300hp loco the stiffer camshaft is used. Stiffer
camshaft means not a single piece but into small 8 pieces. These 8 pieces are

                                      60
joined together by small nut bolts. It is easy to fit & remove from the
engine block. In case of any damage it is easy to change one piece than
the whole shaft.


CYLINDER HEAD SECTION
In this section cylinder heads are repaired & re-build. The outer frame of the
cylinder head is same but inner parts like operating valve are replaced with
new. Studs, springs, rocker arm is new. Cylinder head cover is painted after
cleaning.


CONNECTING ROD SECTION
Connection rod is used to join the piston & crankshaft. Connecting rod is
manufactured in the L.M.S. shop. These are magnetized during
manufacturing. In this section these are demagnetized with the machine.


CYLINDER LINER SECTION
Cylinder liner are also manufactured in D.M.W. & prepared to use in
cylinder liner shop. Cylinder liner is fitted in the bores of the engine block.


ENGINE BLOCK & SUMP SECTION
From H.M.S. the engine block comes in this section. The block is checked
again by D.P.T. testing. After that all the parts are fitted on the block & put
it on the sump.




CRANKSHAFT SECTION
Crankshaft is important from ALCO company. In this section it is cleaned
with diesel & checked by dye penetration test. After that it is used in LOCO.
                                       61
The cost of crankshaft is about 20 to 23 lakhs. In case of any damage it
is not accepted.


TURBO CHARGER SECTION
There are two type of turbo super charger. One is GE twin pipe i.e. two
outlets are given to the system. With this cooling is effective good & heat
looses are reduced. Second is that which has single outlet. The turbo super
chargers are imported from other companies. Both types of turbo chargers
are used.


GOVERNOR SECTION
Governor is the controlling part of the power pack. Function of the governor
is control the speed w.r.t. changing load & fuel supply to the system
according to speed of the LOCO. The setting of the firing order is also
depending on the governor. There are two types of the governors. One is
mechanical & other is electrical governor.


FUEL PUMP SECTION
Fuel pump is main part of the fuel supply. Fuel pump consist of different
parts like, fuel injector, nozzle, outer casing, nozzle cap, rack, shims etc. all
these parts are use to control fuel supply in the chamber. It plays an
important role to supply fuel.


PIPE SECTION
There are different types of pipes used in power pack. Exhaust pipe, water
outlets, fuel pipes, lubricating oil pipes, air inlets & outlets. Like exhaust
pipe it is made in small different parts & joined by nuts & bolts. On the
exhaust pipe there are elbows are made, because during exhaust the gases


                                       62
are very hot, the exhaust pipe will get expanded & size may be
changed. So for that reason elbows are made on the exhaust pipe.


CONTROL SHAFT SECTION
Control shaft is to control the fuel supply in the system. It is made into two
parts with the help of coupling. It is easy to remove from the block during in
the shed under service in any case of the damage. Function of the control
shaft to control the supply in injection pump.


MAIN ASSEMBLY SECTION
In the main assembly section all the parts of the power pack after re-pairing
testing or checking they are send to the assembly section. Here all these
parts are fitted according to the procedure of fitting. From small parts (nuts,
bolts, washers, etc) to larger parts (governor, turbo charger etc.) all these are
fitted. After that it is send to testing section.


TESTING SECTION
After assembly of the power pack it is send to the testing section. In this
section there are two test beds. Two power packs are tested simultaneously.
There are three excited motors are connected to the alternator side. The
electrical supply is given to these exciters & they start the alternator. Firstly
they start the power pack without load for some time on the idle speed i.e.
350 r.m.p. After that they put load on the power pack with two rods dipped
into the water. On increasing speed load will increase by dipping rods in
thee water at more depth. Leakage is checked & performance of the power
pack is checked on the idle speed i.e. it shut down or not. Any type of
leakage & heating of power pack is tested. After complete inspected it is
send to the L.R.S. shop.




                                         63
DIFFERENT SUB ASSEMBLIES ARE AS FOLLOWS :
    Fuel Injection Assembly
    Valve lever assembly
    Yoke assembly
    Control shaft
    Lube oil pump assembly
    Extension shaft assembly
    Crank shaft
    Crankshaft vibration damper
    Cam shaft
    Cam shaft vibration damper
    Crank case exhauster

    Traction generation

Brief description of selected machines used in the whole of the shop:
1) HYDRAULIC MANIPULATOR:
A hydraulic manipulator is installed in the shop. Manipulation of engine
block is done on it.
2) M.B. ELONGATOR:
A hydraulic tool is used for elongation of main bearing studs.
3) WOOD WORD GOVERNOR TESTING STAND:
A suitable of governor testing is being used. This facility is particularly
designed, for wood word governors. Old governors are reconditioned and
rechecked over there.
4) F.I.P CALIBRATING MACHINE:




                                     64
This machine is used for calibration of fuel injection pump. As the fuel
injection is one of the precision and importance therefore this activity
is carried out carefully and meticulously.
5) INJECTOR TESTING STAND:
Injector is thoroughly examined and tested over here. Different aspects of
testing i.e. supply, spray pattern, leakage, nozzle etc. of injector are tested
here.
6) GEAR TESTING MACHINE:
On this machine various gears are tested for outer dia., pitch dia., profile,
addendum, dedendum.
7) PROCESS CLEANING PLANT


REASSEMBLY OF THE POWER PACK FROM ABNITIO
1. Fitment at the free end of the cylinder block from H.M.S.
   a. extension shaft and crankshaft and vibration damper
   b. LOP & WP.
   c. TSC support/AC.
   d. Free end oil seal/water fiping
   e. TSC fitting.
   f. Fuel filter, primary and secondary.
   g. Lube oil pump
2. TOP END
   a. Cylinder head stud.
   b. Cylinder head
   c. Air filter
   d. Exhaust pipe


                                       65
   e. Water outlet flange
   f. Valve lever assembly
   g. Water jumper
   h. Tappet facing
3. SIDE
   a. cam bush
   b. Camshaft/cam gear fit/TDC transfer.
   c. Cam gear backlash
   d. FP support and lifter
   e. Balance FP support
   f. Fuel feeding calibration
   g. Fuel injection pump installed
   h. HP tubing
   i. Cam shaft techogenerator
   j. Governor
4. BOTTOM
   a. lube oil feeder system
   b. filter
   c. shaft to test bed


           BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE MAIN
        COMPONENTS USED IN POWER PACK:

1) PISTON:
Piston used is of positive flow, oil cooled, trunk type made of aluminum.
Lubricating oil is delivered to the piston cooling grooves from the crankshaft

                                      66
by means of a hole through the connecting rod and piston pin. Escorts
Mahle supplies the pistons. A steel cap is fitted on the piston.
2) PISTON PIN:
The piston pin has a floating fit in the piston and running fit in the steel
backed, bronze lined connecting rod bushing. A rolled sleeve is installed in
the pin bore to seal in the cooling oil. Special snap rings are provided at each
end of the pin to hold it in place
4) PISTON RINGS:
The rings are wholly replaced. They maintain the compression in the
cylinder piston enclosure. Various types of rings are square, taper, and
conformable and scarper. Square and taper rings are cast.
a full groove for lubrication; the upper one has a partial one. Joining both
ends of the rod is a drilled passage for pressure fed lubrication. The rod cap
is aligned to the rod by a short and long dowel and is secured by four bolts
and nuts.6
5) CONNECTING ROD The connecting rod is a high strength alloy steel




                                       67
forging with the conventional rod cap. Pressed into the piston end of
the rod is a steel backed, bronze lined, spilt piston pin bushing. The
crank shaft end of the rod is provided with upper and lower precision-type
coated bearing shells which are held in position by locking tabs. The lower
shell has
5) CYLINDER LINER:
They fit in the cylinder block with a metal to metal fit. Each liner has a
collar on its upper end which seats in the cylinder block. One seal ring in a
groove near the top of the line and two seal rings in the groove near the
bottom of the liner seal the fits between the liner and cylinder block. Metal
to metal joints of the flat type from the compression seal between the liner
and cylinder heads.
6) HEADER, WATER OUTLET AND ELBOWS
Individual water outlet elbows are attached to each cylinder head. The water
outlet header is attached to the water outlet by means of “U” straps. A
gasket is used between the header and water outlet elbow. A gasket is also
used between the water outlet elbow and cylinder head.
7) CYLINDER HEAD
The cylinder head is secured to the cylinder block by seven studs. Individual
water jumpers from the cylinder block to each cylinder head, conduct water
from the cylinder block to water cooling passages in the cylinder heads. The
cooling water discharge from each head is carried to the water outlet header
by individual elbow connections.
Cored passages permit the admission of scavenging air and expulsion of
exhaust gases.



                                     68
Metal-to-metal joints to the flat lap type form the gas seal between the
cylinder heads and cylinder liners and prevent the escape of gases from
the cylinders. No gasket is required between cylinder head and liner.
Each head has suitable chambers from two air inlet valves, two exhaust
valves and a fuel injection nozzle.
The valve lever bracket assembly, consisting of a bracket and two valve
levers mounted on a valve lever shaft, is applied to the top of the cylinder
head along with the equalizing yokes. The valve mechanism assembly and
fuel injection nozzle on top of the head are enclosed by Aluminum cover.


CYLINDER HEAD
MODEL 251 ENGINES
CONVERSION TO/USE OF VALVE ROTATORS
DLW has introduced “Valve-rotators” to improve the engine performance
and, air and exhaust valve life. These “Valve-rotators” are now standard on
all new production engines. “Valve-rotators” provide circumferential
movement off the valves, thus helping to prevent the build up of deposits on
the valve faces and seats.
8) LUBE OIL PUMP:
It is a positive displacement helical gear pump. It is mounted on the free end
of the base and is derived by diesel engine crankshaft extension gear. The
pump discharge into external piping through a flange on the pump casing.
9) FUEL OIL INLET: The fuel oil inlet header supplies to the injection
pumps and is located in the control shaft compartment of the cylinder block.
Fuel is drawn from the supply tank by a fuel booster pump filtered and
discharged under pressure through a secondary filter into the header at free


                                      69
end. From the header the fuel is distributed to the individual FIP’s.
Excess fuel drains to the supply tank.
10) FUEL PUMP CONTROL SHAFT AND CROSSOVER LINKAGE
The fuel pump control shaft is located in a compartment extending the full
length of the cylinder block. (Two are required on Vee type engines). It is
made up of sections of shafting on which are mounted spring levers, bearing
brackets and section coupling.
Located at the power take-off end of the shaft is an oil seal, oil seal retainer
with a special nut and governor link (right side shaft VEE engine).
Located at the free end of the shaft are shaft thrust collars with spirol pins to
lock the collars to the shaft and a control shaft compartment cover bushing
and gasket between the cover and cylinder block.
Rotation of the shaft controls the fuel pump rack settings through spring
loaded controls levers mounted on the shaft. Individual levers permit any
fuel pump to be manually cut out without affecting the control of the
governor over the remaining fuel pumps. They also permit the engine to be
shut down with one pump rack stuck in the open position.
Crossover linkage between the right and left side pump control shaft is
required on Vee type engines.
11) VALVE LEVER MECHANISM WITHOUT VALVE ROTATORS
The air inlet and exhaust valves are operated from the camshaft by means of
the lifter, pushrod and valve lever assemblies. Each cylinder unit has a lifter
assembly which consists of two pushrod lifters having a common shaft as a
fulcrum. The shaft is supported by a bracket which is attached to the
cylinder block. The lifters have rollers which are forced to follow the
profiles of the cams by the valve and equalizing yoke springs.


                                         70
The pushrod ends of the lifter are fitted with hardened steel seats into
which the lower ends of the valve levers carry hardened steel adjusting
screws which, having a spherical head, ride in hardened seats fixed in the
upper ends of the pushrods. These screws are used to adjust valve clearance.
The other end of the valve lever bears against the equalizing yokes through a
ball and socket joint. Each yoke operates two air or two exhaust valves, each
pair of valves being operated from a single cam, pushrod and valve lever.
The equalizing yoke slides up and down on a guide rod. A valve clearance
adjustment is provided at one end of the yoke to compensate for differences
in valve stem lengths.
Pressure lubrication is provided for the valve lever mechanism. Individual
lines conduct the oil from a common header to the cylinder head. The oil
then flows through drilled passages in the cylinder heads and valve lever
brackets to the valve lever shafts and bushings. The shaft and bracket are
designed to keep the lube oil passage aligned.
Drilled holes through the valve lever lead the oil from the bushing to the
thrust ball joint; a drilled passage in the ball-joint and yoke lubricate the
yoke guide and valve stems. In the other direction the oil passes to the ball
seat of the adjusting screw. All excess oil follows down the pushrods,
lubricating the push rod lifter rollers and camshaft lobes.




12) FILTER, PANELBATH, ENGINE AIR INTAKE
The panel bath filter makes use of the adhesive and viscous properties of oil
to remove dirt particles from engine intake air. By using these properties, the



                                       71
panel bath filter method of cleaning air reduces engine parts wear and
lubricating oil contamination.
It is all welded construction and consists of a panel with as attached sumps
and cover assembly.
The filter incorporates an air stream to engine oil in a reservoir, carrying the
oil to the filtering media. After wetting the media, the oil drains from the
media carrying with it impinged dirt particles to a collecting sump. The oil
circulation is continuous, providing an efficient self-cleaning action.
13) CRANKCASE EXHAUSTER
The crankcase exhauster, driven by an electric motor, is a centrifugal blower
which exhausts crankcase vapours to the atmosphere. The entire assembly is
mounted on top of the cylinder block at the power take off end of the engine.
14) OIL CATCHER, POWER TAKE-OFF END
A cast aluminum oil catcher is mounted on the cylinder block and base and
surrounds the periphery of the cranks shaft flange oil slinger at the power
take-off end of the engine. Centrifugal force throws the lubricating oil away
from the crank-shaft flange and into the oil collecting grooves in the oil
catcher, thereby preventing it from escaping. The oil then drains from the
grooves to the engine base.
15) NOZZLES, GEAR SPRAY
WDM2LOCO
The gear train at the power take-off end of the engine is lubricated through
two (2) spray nozzles. They were located over the right and left side
camshaft gears. The left side nozzle is located in the cylinder block while the
nozzle on the right side located in the camshaft gear cover. Oil is piped to
the nozzles from the right and left side lube oil header.


                                       72
16) TRACTION GENERATOR
The traction generator, driven by the diesel engine, furnishes power to
the locomotive traction motors.
The generator fans are dynamically balanced and may or may not have
weights welded in place. Under no circumstances should welded weights be
removed.
17) AFTERCOOLER
The engine is equipped with an after cooler to cool inlet air to the engine
after it is discharged from the turbo supercharger. The cooler consists of a
tube bundle mounted in the air intake passage of the turbo supercharger
support. The top header contains the inlet and outlet cooler connections.
The tube bundle consists of a series of fines tubes. A water connection at the
base of the after cooler cavity assures complete draining of the tubes. A tell-
tale pipe is provided to indicate after cooler tube water leaks
18) ENGINE OVERSPEED TRIP
The engine is equipped with an automatic over speed stopping device
consisting of a spring loaded device which, during normal operation, is held
within the carrier. However, when the centrifugal force is great enough to
overcome the spring force (an over speed condition) the plunger is instantly
thrown outward.
In the outward position, the plunger strikes a trip level, releasing the spring
loaded reset shaft. This shaft is directly coupled to the fuel pump control
shaft. As the spring unwinds, it causes rotation of the fuel pump control shaft
which moves the fuel pump racks to shut-off position. An over travel
mechanism off the governor end allows the over speed device to return the
racks to “Off” even through the governor may remain at full fuel.


                                       73
Accessories such as the vibration damper or flywheel may be attached
between the carrier assembly and camshaft to help eliminate camshaft
vibrations.
In some applications a micro switch is mounted on a plate attached to the
over speed tripupper housing. This switch is operated by a cam attached to
the reset shaft and gives either an audible or a visual indication that over
speed has tripped.
To reset, pull the reset handle until it latches. This rewinds the torsion spring
and resets the trip lever.
To trip manually, pull the emergency shutdown handle in the direction of the
arrow shown on the lower housing cover.
19) ENGINE BASE
The engine base is a welded steel structure which provides the following: a
mounting surface for the cylinder block, lubricating oil pump, water pump
and four engine mounting pads: in addition it acts as a lubricating oil
reservoir.
Screens are fitted across the base at each cylinder location.
Openings on each side of the base give access to the connecting rod
bearings, crankshaft and main bearings; provides means for inspecting oil
lines, piston skirts and cylinder liners. Removable doors enclose these
openings. Also explosion doors are mounted on the right and left side of the
base at the power take-off end.
Lubricating oil is carried in the base below the base screens. A lubricating
oil drain plug, bayonet gauge with high and low level markings and a filler
pipe are located in the base.
A crankcase exhauster is used to vent the base.


                                       74
20) CRANKCASE EXPLOSION DOOR
In the event of a crankcase explosion, a spring loaded cover plate on
the explosion door will blow out relieving the pressure. With the pressure
reduced the plate will snap shut.
21) SUPPORT, TURBOSUPERCHARGER
The turbo supercharger support of welded steel construction encloses the
free end of the cylinder block and base and provides a mounting surface for
the turbo supercharger, after cooler and oil catcher.
22) MAIN BEARING AND CAPS
The main bearings for crankshaft consist of two steel-backed, precision
fitted shells with well bonded linings. The upper one fits into a saddle on the
cylinder block; the lower, into a forged steel bearing cap. No Shims are
used.
The number of main bearings for the 6, 12 and 16 cylinder engines are 7, 7,
9 respectively. Crank end thrust is restricted either by the use of thrust
collers installed in each side of the centre main bearing saddle; or by an
upper thrust bearing shell at the crankshaft journal nearest the power take-off
end (all locomotive engines). In stationery or marine applications, thrust
bearing shell are used in both upper and lower positions.
23.CRANKSHAFT SPLIT GEAR
The crankshaft gear for the 251 type engine is mounted at the power take-off
end of the shaft and meshes with camshaft gears. It is made in two halves of
hardened steel and is accurately fitted and keyed to the shaft. The gear is
held in place by four bolt and has locating dowels to position the halves as
they are assembled. Depending on the style used, the gear is either a 4-pitch
straight spur, or a 6-pitch helical type.


                                        75
24) CRANKSHAFT
The crank shaft for the 12 and 16 cylinder “V” type engines is made of
one piece of forged steel alloy, with its main bearing journals and crankpins
machined to a high degree of smoothness. The shaft is slung under the
cylinder block and rotates on the main bearings (shells). It is supported by
bearings caps that are mounted to saddles in the block with stud bolts and
nuts. The shaft’s main bearings and crankpins are joined by a series of
crankshaft webs, to which counterbalances are welded at intermittent
locations for balancing purposes. Two rods (right and left bank of the same
cylinder number) are mounted side by side on each of the shaft’s crankpins.
The shaft is designed so that every two symmetrically opposite pins have the
same radial throw position.
A crankshaft gear, which drives the left and right camshaft gears,
is applied to the power take-off end of the shaft. The free end of the
shaft provides the drive for the engine’s cooling water and lubricating oil
pumps. The crankshaft forms an integral part of the engine’s lubricating
system. A continuous flow of oil passes under pressure from the main
lubricating header in the engine’s base to the bearing caps and bearings;
through drilled passages in the shaft to the crankpins; and on the connecting
rod bearings. Oil slingers and catchers are provided at both ends of the shaft
to prevent oil leakage.




                                      76
             Number of Location  Number of Lift                     Support
             Main      of Center Crankpins Crankshaft               Crankshaft
             Bearing   Journal             at                       at   Main
                                           Crankpins                Journals

16           9             5             8            2&7           3&7
Cylinder

The crankshaft end thrust is restricted by the use of either: (a) individual
trust collars, installed in both sides of the center main bearings saddle or (b)
an upper main thrust bearing shell or upper and lower main bearing thrust
shells located at the journal nearest to the power take-off end of the shaft.
                                      77
All shells, thrust or otherwise, are of the lead-tin overlay type and are
suitably strengthened by a steel backing


25) CAMSHAFT
The camshaft on ‘V’ type engines is located on either side of the
cylinder block and extends the entire length of the engine. The camshaft




is divided into sections- one for every two cylinders – and is joined at
the section flanges by studs or stud bolts and nuts. A locating dowel is
used to position each section.




                                      78
      CAM SHAFT                                      UNIT CAM SHAFT
26) CAMSHAFT OUTBOARD BEARING (IF USED) POWER TAKE-
OFF END
The left and right camshaft outboard bearings consist of bearing housings
mounted on the power take-off end of the cylinder block and containing
pressed-in bushings. This arrangement provides additional bearing support
to the left and right side camshafts.
Lubrication, of the bushings is provided through oil passages in the ends of
the camshafts. Passages in the bearing housings permit oil to drain to the
engine base.
27) CRANKSHAFT DRIVE ASSEMBLY-FREE END
The extension shaft assembly is located at free end of the engine crankshaft
and is used for an auxiliary power take-off. Its major components consist of
an extension shaft, an oil seal, a drive gear and a vibration damper.



                                        79
a.   EXTENSION SHAFT
There are two styles of extension shaft. Style is 1 has oil passenger drilled in
it to supply oil to the vibration damper; whereas style 2 does not. Both styles
can be shorten in length, depending upon their power take-off application.
However, on certain engine applications, the extension shaft is not required.
In these cases, the drive gear and vibration damper are mounded with
through cap screws on crankshaft and a spacer ( or adapter ) is substituted
for extension shaft. A cover plate is applied at the end.
b.   OIL SEAL
The oil seal portion of the assembly consists of a slinger (grooves and
peaks), machined into the extension shaft, and an oil catcher, which fits
closely around the shaft to collect the oil flowing out of the free end of the
engine and return it to the crankcase. In the style 1 assembly, the seal is used
to supply oil to the vibration damper. The crankshaft oil hole is plugged and
pressurized oil flows from an inlet oil hole in the catcher, through a floating
bushing, into oil passages in the extension shaft, and into the cylinder in the
centre of the vibration damper. In style 2, seal just performs an oil catching
function.
c. DRIVE GEAR
The drive gear is used to rotate the engine’s lubricating oil and water pump.
The gear is of spur type, pressed on the extension shaft (or adaptor) and held
in place by cap screws extending through the vibration damper into the
crankshaft flange




                                       80
d. VIBRATION DAMPER
The vibration damper is of the hydraulic, paddle wheel in which some
of the vibration energy is absorbed by the work done in forcing engine
lubrication through narrow passage. A continuous circulation of oil is
provided to the damper, either by passages through the oil seal and extension
shaft, or through an oil passage in the crankshaft.
The damper consists of a spider, with external spur teeth and an intermediate
ring with internal spur gear teeth. Two outer rings (side plates) secure the
parts with bolts and nuts.
Oil flows from the chamber in the centre of the damper through radial holes,
beginning in the spider hub is much smaller than the remainder: thus
providing an oil flow restriction. The spider is designed so that each tooth is
directly supplied with oil. An auxiliary circumferential oil groove is
machined into each side face of the spider to supply oil for the rubbing
surfaces between the spider oil for the rubbing surfaces between the spider
and outer ring. These grooves are supplied by means of passages connecting
the grooves of the radial holes.
Two identical outer rings (side plates) are secured to the intermediate ring by
means of through bolts. These rings have been made fairly thick in order to
add considerable flywheel effect. The inner faces of the rings (adjacent to
the spider) are covered with oil which is continuously flowing through the
clearance and escaping to the crankcase.
28) CYLINDER BLOCK
The cylinder block, constructed from steel weldments, houses and supports
the major components of the engine: crankshaft and main bearings,
camshaft, pushrods and lifters, connecting rods and pistons, cylinder liners,


                                      81
cylinder heads, crankcase exhauster, fuel pump crossheads and levers
and governor. It also provides mounting surfaces for the turbo
supercharger support, exhaust manifold, air intake elbows, water elbows,
and generator.
A replacement liner sleeve is fitted into the lower liner bore of the cylinder
block. It provides a wear surface for the lower fit of the liner. On salvaged
blocks, a replaceable upper liner sleeve, with an “O” ring (the same type
used in the upper portion of the cylinder liner itself), is also fitted into the re-
bores upper liner bore.
The crankshaft main loading saddles, camshaft bearing supports, and the air
intake manifold are integral parts of the block.
Cooling water, circulated by the water pump, flows through the oil cooler,
into a passage in the cylinder block. There, it circulates around the cylinder
liners. Water from the block is conducted to the cylinder heads by water
jumper.
29) GOVERNOR DRIVE
There are two models of governor drives used. One governor is supported by
the bearing housing, while the other is supported by a separate bearing
casing that fits into the bearing housing. Both models are mounted on the
engine block over the camshaft gear. The governor is driven by camshaft
gear through a governor drive gear, a pinion gear and shaft and a bevel gear.
The camshaft gear meshes with a governor drive gear mounted on the pinion
gear and shaft. The pinion gear meshes with a bevel gear which is pressed
onto the vertical drive shaft.
Governor action is transmitted to the individual fuel pump racks through a
fuel pump control shaft and a system of control linkages.


                                        82
30) AIR ELBOW
Individual air elbow conduct air from the air passage in the cylinder block to
the cylinder heads. A gasket, reinforced by a metal liner around the inside
opening. An assemble consisting of a “flexitallic” ring as sealing element
and held in a place by a steal locating plate, is used for the elbow to head
applications.
This type of arrangement not only insures a positive seal at elbow
connections but also eliminates the possibility of the gaskets working out of
palace.
31) EXHAUST MANIFOLD (SINGLEPIPE)
The single pipe exhaust manifold is made entirely of stainless steal tubing
and bellows joints. It consists of a numbers of identical sections, any single
one of which may be removed or replaced by unbolting the associated parts.
No sliding joints are used. Instead, a bellows connector is placed between
each section which joins a pair of cylinders. This arrangement eliminates
wear and galling caused by sliding motion of the parts.
The manifolds are not encased in an insulated box. However, a heat shield is
provided.
32) ACCELRATION CONTROL DEVICE LINKAGE
An acceleration control device controls the rates at which delivery of fuel is
increased. This is done to allow all time for the tuber charger to develop an
air manifold pressure which will efficiently burn the fuel being injected.
Fuel delivery is increased slowly from “idle” until an air manifold pressure
of about ½ psi is obtained. After this, the fuel delivery is increased more
rapidly.


                                     83
The device consists of an air cylinder connected through linkage to a
cam. Air from the engine air manifold is connected to the bottom of the
air cylinders. A cam stop, connected to the governor linkage through a
collapsible link, limits a predetermined amount of fuel available to the
nozzles when the throttle is opened. It is not until air manifold pressure
builds up and the air cylinder operates that additional fuel flows to the
nozzles.
33) LINKAGE, GOVERNER CONTROL
The governor is located on the right hand side of the power take-off
(generator) end of the engine. The PG type governors are gear driven from
the engine camshaft.
Governor action is transmitted to the individual fuel pump rack through a
fuel pump control shaft and a system of control linkage. A lever connects the
governor power piston (Pg type), to a pre-loaded torsion springs. This spring
transmits torque to a shaft that is connected to the a fuel pump control shaft
through two lever and an adjustable link. This over travel mechanism is
needed to allow the engine over speed device to return the rack to “off” even
through the governor may remain at full fuel.
34) FUEL INJECTION PUMP
MICO fuel injection pumps of single acting, constant stroke and plunger
type with the effective working stroke, however, being adjustable. The pump
consist of a housing, delivery valve and springs, delivery valve holder,
element (plunger and barrel assembly), plunger spring, a geared control
sleeve and control rack (rod) assembly. The barrel and a plunger, which are
match assembled to a very close tolerance.
The fuel injection pump has three functions:


                                     84
    To raise the fuel oil pressure to a valve this will efficiently
      atomise the fuel.
    To supply the correct quantity of fuel to the injection nozzle
      commensurate with the power and speed requirement of the engine.
    To accurately time the delivery of the fuel for efficient and
      economical operation of engine
Fuel oil enters pump from oil header and the sump surrounding the plunger
barrel. When the plunger is at the bottom of its stroke (position 1), fuel flows
through the barrel ports, filling the space above the plunger and cut away
area of the helix.
As the plunger moves upward, fuel is pumped back into sump until barrel
ports are closed. Further upward movement of plunger (position 2) raises the
pressure of the trapped fuel. When pressure is sufficient to over come the
force exerted on delivery valve by valve springs, delivery valve opens and
fuel is discharged into high pressure pipe, leading to injector. Further
upward movement of the plunger increases fuel pressure to enable the
injection to occur. Delivery of fuel ceases when plunger helix opens the
barrel ports (position 3). During the remaining movement of the plunger,
fuel spills into sump. This termination of fuel delivery by helix controls the
quantity of fuel delivered per stroke. The angular position of plunger, with
respect to barrel ports, determines the effective stroke and, therefore, the
quantity of fuel injected. The total length of plunger stroke remains constant
regardless of engine speed or load.
When the plunger is rotated to a position (6)where the vertical groove is
aligned with the control ports, no pressure can builds up and consequently,
no fuel will be delivered.


                                      85
The angular position of plunger, with respect to barrel, is altered by
control sleeve, the lower end of the sleeve being slotted to engage the
flange (vane) of the plunger gear ring, which engages the control rack.
Movement of control rack by engine governor rotates plunger, thereby
varying the quantity of fuel delivered by pump.
The delivery valve prevents excess draining of fuel discharge line. As
plunger uncovers the barrel ports, there is a sudden pressure drop in barrel
resulting in the closure of due to higher pressure in delivery pipe and
delivery valve spring force. As the valve snaps into its seat, the pressure is
reduced in the injection tubing below the opening pressure of nozzle. This
action of valve eliminates the possibility of secondary injection (after
dribble) from nozzle.
The sudden drop in pressure in the injection tubing is achieved by providing
an accurate relief piston at the upper end of delivery valve pin.
When plunger helix first uncovers the barrel ports the lower edge of the
relief piston slides into valve body and traps all fuel in injection tube.
Further movement of valve to its seat increases the space available for fuel
in tube and therefore reduces the fuel pressure.
The delivery valve also acts as a cheek valve to prevent combustion gases
from blowing back into pump, if nozzle valve is stuck in open position. The
metered quantity of fuel from injection pump passes through snubber valve
and high-pressure line, entering the nozzle holder at the pressure tube inlet
connection. Drilled passage in the nozzle holder conduct fuel to pressure
chamber adjacent to the different section of valve.
When the pressure of fuel action on the different section exceeds the spring
pressure, the nozzle valve is forced from its seat. Fuel flows through the


                                      86
nozzle spray holes until fuel pump ceases to deliver fuel. Fuel flow is
then instantaneously and positively cut off, as the spring snaps the
valve shut.


35) SNUBBER VALVE
A snubber valve assembly is fitted on the fuel injection pump at the top of
the delivery valve holder using a tubing union sleeve and nut.
It is basically a cheek valve which restricts fuel flow in the reserve direction
through a small orifice. Its function is to dampen shock waves traveling
through the high pressure line resulting from sudden closure of the delivery
valve and the nozzle valve.
35) NOZZLE HOLDER
The fuel injection nozzle holder conducts fuel from pump, snubber valve
and high pressure discharge tubing to fuel injection nozzle and provides a
means of adjusting the nozzle valve opening pressure. The nozzle atomizes
the fuel and directs it, in a definite spray pattern into the engine combustion
chamber. The major components of the holder body, pressure adjusting
spring, shims (compensating washers), guide bush, intermediate disc and
nozzle cap nut.
To adjust nozzle opening pressure shims are between nozzle holder body
and guide bush (spring cap), above the spring. The lower end of nozzle
holder is ground and lapped to provide leak proof and pressure fight seal
with the lapped upper surface of intermediate disc. The lower surface of
intermediate disc is also lapped to provide a pressure tight sealing with the
lapped surface of nozzle body. (Nozzle holder and nozzle assembly will
hereafter be referred as injector).


                                      87
36) NOZZLE
The fuel injection nozzles are the closed, hydraulically operated,
differential type, consisting of two parts- nozzle body and nozzle valve (pin).
Both these parts are made out of special heat treated alloy steel to minimize
wear.
The nozzle valve and nozzle body are matched to form an assembly. These
parts should not be exchanged individually but replaced only as an
assembly.
At the tip of nozzle body are 9 spray holes through which fuel passes into
the combustion chamber. The spring loaded nozzle valve controls the flow
Multi hole nozzle is used in order to mix the fuel properly. The holes are
drilled non-symmetrically or symmetrically (in the case being discussed) to
meet certain specific requirements of the combustion.
37) STRAINER, LUBRICATION OIL
The lube oil strainer is of basket type with oil entering the strainer at the
bottom shell connection. The oil flows up through a hollow tube and flows
over the top into the space between the tube and strainer screen. The oil then
passes through the fine mesh screen and out of the strainer shell. The strainer
screen is “star strainer” to provide maximum straining area.
38) FILTER LUBRICATING OIL
The filter tank contains multiple elements. Each filter element may consist
of a metal cage with a paper filter with no cage and the baffle, contained in
the filter sock are 6-1/2 pounds of long strand cotton waste.
Two drains valves are provided in the filter tank as well as a vent line to
eliminate any formation of air pockets
39) COOLER, LUBRICATING OIL


                                      88
RECTANGULAR SHELL TYPE
The lubricating oil cooler is a heat exchanger of the vertical shell and
tube type consisting of the bundle of tubes rolled into tube sheets and closed
in a shell. Both tube sheets are fixed.
Cooling water from the radiator flows into the top end cover of the units.
Down through the tubes and out at the bottom end cover. The lubricating oil
enters the cooler at the top of the shell. During this process, heat is removed
from the oil due to its contact with the tubes through which the cooling
water is flowing. Baffles are provided inside the shell to channel the oil flow
in the most efficient manner.
40) SYSTEM, LUBRICATING OIL-GENERAL DATA
All locomotive with the model 251diesel engine have a serious system with
filter by-pass protection.
The system consists of following: circulating pump, regulating valves, filter
assembly, heat exchanger (cooler), strainer and associated piping.
The lubricating oil pump, mounted on the free end of the engine, draws the
lubricating oil from the engine sump and discharges it into the system. A
relief valve at the discharge side of the pump protects the pump from high
pressure and controls the discharge pressure at 105-110 psi by-passing a
portion of the oil back to the sump. The reminder of the oil flows through
the filter, which is equipped with a differential pressure by-pass valve to
hold a relatively constant pressure across the filter. From the filter the oil
flows on through the cooler, or heat exchanger; next, through the lubricating
oil strainer and then into the main lubricating oil header of the engine to
provide pressure lubrication to the bearing surfaces. A pressure regulating



                                          89
valve, located at the cooler discharge and set at 55-60 psi, regulates the
oil flow through the cooler and the lube oil pressure in the system.
Lubricating oil is delivered to the main lubricating oil header in the engine at
pressure ranging from 40 psi to 60 psi. the delivery pressure is a function of
the lube oil temperature, engine rpm and setting of the regulating valves.
The normal operating pressure at full engine out put will be approximately
55-60 psi. The lube oil is distributed from the main header to the main
hearings. Two branch lines leading from the main header supply lubricating
oil to the turbo supercharger and camshaft bearings. Two secondary headers
supply oil to each bank of the cylinder head valve mechanisms, fuel pump
lifter and camshaft gears. The pump drives, at the free end, are provided
with lubricating oil by a spray nozzle.
The oil supplied to the main bearing flows through passage in the crankshaft
to the connecting rod bearings. The oil passage through the rifle drilled
connecting rods to hollow full floating piston pins, the oil then flows from
the pin through passages in the piston crown. The oil eventually discharges
from a hole inside the skirt of the piston to the engine sump.
A small line leads before the main header to the pressure gauge and the low
oil pressure switch.
41) FILTER, FUEL OIL, PRIMARY AND SECONDARY
Primary and secondary filters basically of same construction except in size
and fitting and filtering element.
The primary filter is located between fuel oil tank and suction side of booster
pump. The secondary filter is located between engine and discharges side of
booster pump.



                                      90
When there is gradual drop in fuel oil pressure, check both primary and
secondary filters. Replace the element in the fuel filter.

42) GOVERNOR OIL

Servo prime 57
Diesel engine crankcase in areas with sulfur in fuel upto 0.5%.
Servo PR 408. Cylinder piston, servo gem- 3 (according to IOC
specification)




43) FUEL OIL SYSTEM:
Fuel used is high speed diesel of IS1460-1974 specification. Cetane number
is equal to 42. Total sulphur percentage by mass maximum is equal to 1%.
Low atmospheric pressure and engines operating at high altitudes may
require the use of fuels with higher Cetane number
All locomotive units have individual fuel oil system. Each locomotive has a
fuel supply tank located beneath the under frame between the trucks.
A fuel oil booster pump draws fuel from the tank and then distributes it
throughout the system.
The suction side is between the tank and the booster pump. All oil drawn
from the tank must pass through primary filter used.
The pressure side is between the booster pump and the pressure regulating
valve. As the oil flows through the system, it first passes by a pressure relief
valve set for 75 psi, the purpose of which is to protect the booster pump,
motor and system from overload. Oil then passes through the primary and
secondary filters into the right bank fuel header which feed the fuel injection


                                       91
pumps on the right side of the engine. Fuel crosses over at the
generator end into the left bank header which feed the left back fuel
injection pumps. The 35 psi pressure regulating valve, located at the
discharge end of the left bank header, controls the fuel oil pressure in both
headers. Near this valve is the line connecting to the fuel oil pressure gauge.
44) SWITCH, LOW WATER LEVEL
In addition to a hot engine alarm switch a low water level switch may be
used. The float switch is mounted in the expansion tank and when the water
drops to a predetermined level, the alarm will sound and the engine will shut
down.
Heavy duty sylphon bellows eliminates all packing. Designed as a balanced,
centre-pivoted until, the action of the float is transmitted through knife-edge
stainless steel bearings.
45) RADIATORS
Radiators panels are vertically mounted on each side of the rear of the
locomotives. Each of these panels consists of two or more cores. The cores
are bolted together through flanges at the ends. No filler pieces or centre
tanks are used on the two core radiators.
46) SYSTEM, COOLINGWATER – GENERAL DATA
The engine in each locomotive unit has an individual cooling water system.
In which the water is circulated by a centrifugal pump, gear driven from the
crankshaft. Water flows from the pump from headers into the right and left-
banks of the engine block where the water circulates around the cylinder
liners. Water also flows from the pump to the turbo super charger and the
after cooler.



                                      92
Cooling water from the engine block rises into the cylinders heads and
flows out through risers which are connected to two water outlets
headers running along the top of the engine. Water then flows to the
radiators, and expansion tank. Cooled water from the radiators flows through
the oil cooler and finally returns to the water pump. The cooling system is a
closed one with the expansion tank vented to atmosphere through an
overflow pipe. To rid the system of air and gases on all locomotives units
vent pipes are connected to air collecting domes and lead to the expansion
tank. The radiators also vented.
The water temperature into the engine is maintained between 145 0 -1550 F
by switch controlling (Eddy current clutch).
The engine is protected against high water temperature by a switch which
sounds an alarm and on some locomotives returns the engine to idle when
the water outlet temperature reaches 1850F.
47) GOVERNOR:
Governor used are GE Electro-Mechanical or Woodward mechanical
governor. There are two coils, speed coil & stabilizing. The stabilizing coil
has 475 mA constant current supplied to it. Speed coil gets its feeding
current from Techno generator. Depending upon the increase or decrease in
the speed the piston moves up or down under the varying magnetic effect of
coil. The valve system moves the slave piston up or down. This is further
meshing with piston which is further connected to a lever of the control
shaft. Thus the control shaft control the FIP rack and hence the fuel inlet.
8 TURBO SUPER CHARGER
The charger is a self-contained unit, composed of a gas turbine and a
centrifugal blower mounted on a common shaft with the necessary


                                       93
surrounding casing. The exhaust gas from the cylinders of the diesel
engine is conveyed through the exhaust manifold to the turbine, which
utilized some of the velocity energy in the exhaust gas, otherwise wasted.
This energy in the gas is used to drive the blower, which furnishes all the air
required by the engine, through the air intake manifold at a pressure above
atmospheric.
The turbocharger unit is used in conjunction with a multiple pipe or a single
pipe exhaust manifold. In this system the compressed air deliver by the
turbocharger accomplishes two ends: first, it scavenges the hot residual
gases otherwise left in the cylinder at the end of the exhaust stroke, and
replace with cooler fresh air; second, it fills the cylinder with an air charger
of higher density during the suction stroke. The provision of a greater
amount of fuel and consequently a higher output from a turbocharger engine
than from one not so equipped.
The valve timing of an engine arranged for pressure charging differs
primarily from that of the same engine normally aspired in that the exhaust
valve of the pressure charged engine close later and the inlet valves open
earlier. Thus, the valve overlap or period when both valve are open
simultaneously is considerably greater, permitting effective scavenging of
the cylinder. Timing of the valves and dimensions of the exhaust manifold
are determined so that timed pressure fluctuations are propagated in the
exhaust manifold. Both valves are open when the fluctuating pressure in the
exhaust manifold is at a minimum, thus permitting scavenging with lower
blower pressure than would otherwise be possible.
Scavenging the combustion space with cool air effects a considerable degree
of cooling of the cylinder heads, cylinder walls, valve and pistons. For this


                                      94
reason, a greater amount of fuel can be burned and greater power
develop by a turbocharged engine without harmful effects to the engine
parts due to excessive heat.
No control over the turbocharger is necessary as the correlated action of the
turbine and blower is entirely automatic. The speed and output of the
turbocharger vary automatically and rapidly with variations in engine load
and/or speed.


DETAILS OF CONSTRUCTION OF TURBOCHARGER:
It consists of a single stage turbine wheel and a single stag centrifugal
blower impeller on a common shaft with necessary surrounding castings.
The turbocharger rotor is entirely independent of rotating engine parts.
Engine exhaust gases are conducted to the gas inlet casing by the exhaust
manifold. The turbine nozzle ring is attached to the center of the gas inlet
casing the veins of the nozzle ring directing the exhaust gases to the rotor
disk blades at the proper angle.




                                     95
FUEL EFFICIENCY DESIGN OF ENGINES

Power pack shop of D.M.W patiala are rebuilding WDM2 locomotive
engine and upgrading these to make them fuel-efficient by incorporation
latest technology. For this purpose certain modifications are to be carried
out. Due to these modifications specific fuel consumption is improved over
6%. The exhaust gases temperature is also reduced by over 100 deg
centigrade. Doing reduction in exhaust gases temperature, the life of
thermally loaded components like cylinder heads, valves, valve seat inserts,
pistons and piston rings, injector nozzle, exhaust manifolds etc. is enhanced


                                     96
and also reduction in lube oil consumption. The engine with all the six
modifications incorporated is termed as the fuel-efficient 16-cylinder
engine.

The following modifications are being carried out on fuel-efficient engines:-


1. Modified water pipe connection to after-cooler:
To provide water at the minimum possible temperature into the after cooler
in the modified water connection, water inlet of the after cooler is fed
directly from one radiator and the water outlet of the after cooler is
connected to the inlet of water pump


2. 17 mm fuel injection pump with fuel pump support having wider fuel
cam roller:
To have sharper fuel injection the existing fuel 15 mm fuel injection pump
are to be replaced by 17 mm fuel injection pump. For this existing fuel pump
support is also replaced by wider fuel cam roller support
3.Modified camshaft with 140-degree overlap:
The camshaft of the fuel efficient engines is also modified to increase the
overlap period between air inlet valve opening and exhaust valve closing
from 123-degree to 140-degree to improve scavenging (Flushing of exhaust
gases with the fresh air pressure).
4.Application of large after cooler
A large after cooler with higher effectiveness for cooling intake air is being
fitted for fuel-efficient engines.


5.Steel cap pistons
With these modifications peak firing pressure are likely to exceed 1800 psi
and to withstand such a high a high-pressure steel cap pistons are used.
                                       97
6.High-efficient turbo-charger:
The last modification for fuel-efficient engines to use higher efficiency
by giving more intake air with more pressure. Napier, ABB and GE turbo-
charger are being used for fuel-efficient engines.
OBJECTIVES OF FUEL EFFICIENCY KIT
1. Increased fuel efficiency
Specific fuel consumption improved by over 6%
SFC conventional PP 162-169 gm/bhp-hr
SFC FE PP 156+_1 gm/bhp-hr
2.Reduction in exhaust gas temperature by over 100o C
Resulting in increased life of the thermally loaded components like cylinder
heads, valves, valve seat inserts, pistons and piston rings, injector nozzle,
exhaust manifolds etc.
3.To make existing power pack fit for 3100 BHP locomotive with the
same basic design
Max power developed =PmLAN
Pm increased by 14 %.
N=RPM= increased by 5 %.

Increase in HP= (3100-2600/2600) x 100 = 19 %.




                                      98
LOCO REBUIDING SHOP




         99
FLOW PROCESS CHART OF LOCO REMAUFACTURING


                                                       INCOMING
 TRANSMISSION       AIR BRAKE                          LOCMOTIVE
 SHOP               SHOP


                                LOCO REBUILDING SHOP

                                                              LOCO
                                       FUEL                   STRIPPING
    POWER PACK LOWERING                TESTING                SHOP
                                       TESTING




                             STRUCT        UNDER
 LOCO           BOGIE        URAL          FRAME ON                POWER
 CRANKING       LOWERING     MODIFI        MANUPUL                 PACK
                             CATION        ATOR
                             STAGE



                                                           BOGIES


                           SUPER
   LOCO TEST SHOP          STRUCTURE
                           SHOP             BOGIES         BOGIE
                                                           SHOP

  LOCO PAINT SHOP



                                  POWER PACK           POWER PACK SHOP
  LOCO ROAD TRIAL



   LOCO DISPATCH
                                 100
LOCO REBUILDING SHOP (L.R.S.)

INTRODUCTION :-

     LOCO REBUILDING SHOP (LRS) is situated in phase – II of the
Diesel Locomodernisation Works. The main function of LRS is to assemble
the different subassemblies, which are reconditioned in the different allied
shops. The performance and working of LRS depends upon its helping shops.
In this shop, engine is first of all disassembled and its various parts like bogie
frame, traction motor, traction generator, power pack assembly, lubricant oil
sump etc are removed and send to respective shops for rebuilding. After
rehabilitation, these assemblies are again sent to LRS.
Major activities undertaken in LRS:

Fuel tank cutting and cleaning
Renewal of buffers and center buffer cleaning
Water test of air dust cleaner
Renewal of air filter housing and oil bath filter
Radiators, radiator and radiator fan bearing
Replacement of all gauges
Renewal of water strips & rubber hoses
Complete removal of paint to bar metal and repairing
All walls of lube oil and fuel system




                                        101
                     VARIOUS SECTIONS
                             IN THE
                LOCO REBUILDING SHOP


 HSD Storage Tanks
 Decanting of Fuel Oil, Lubricant Oil and Cooling Water from incoming
  Locomotive Stage.
 Loco Stripping Stage
 Loco Under Frame Dip Tank
 Hood over Engine Dip Tank
 Loco Washing Pit
 Loco Components Dip Tanks
 Hood over Engine Storage Area
 Relief and Regulating Valves Testing Room
 Hood over Engine Repair Section
 Hood over Engine Painting Booth
 Reconditioning Section
 Radiator Testing Area
 Loco Turning Manipulator
 Fuel Tank Testing Stage
 Alignment Section
 Under Frame Section
 Modified Engine Sump Storage Area
 D.C.O.S Storage Area

                               102
    Pipe Section
    Rail cum Road Vehicle Section
    Engine Sump Modification Section
    Loco Driver’s Cabin Section
    Loco Fabrication Activities Stage
    Loco Main Assembly Stage
    Loco Lowering on Bogie Stage
    Loco Cranking Stage
    Loco Testing Shop
    Loco Paint Shop
    Final Inspection of Loco
    Time Office
    Carpentry and Crane Section
    Stores and Offices
    Store no. 4
    Store no. 5
    Loco Dispatch Section
    Tool Stores
    PMS Section
    Loco Commissioning Room

   Allied shops

Air brake section
Super structure shop
Loco test shop




                                   103
STRIPPING SECTION
Major activities under stripping section

Fuel & lube oil operation
Safety stop dismantling
Dismantling of safety pins
Bogie out
Long hood dismantling
Both sides of radiators & dismantling
Inside components dismantling
Lube oil filter drum
ECC, handstand shallow shaft of propeller radiator fan & gauds.
Dismantling of expressor
Dismantling of power pack
Dismantling of upper pipes.
Buffer of both sides
Glow rod
Direction generator
Oil container of capacity-5000 Lt
Tank no-2 (long hood)
Size –30’ * 9 * 11’
Capacity – 70,000 Lt
Tank no-1
Size- 60’ * 6’ * 13’
Capacity – 13,4000 Lt


                                    104
VARIOUS          SECTIONS          OF      THE       SHOP       LOCO
STRIPPING SECTION (LSS)
     In this section, dismantling and cleaning of the loco is done. Various
steps are:-
 Bogie connection is opened and sent to bogie shop.
 Power Pack is removed and sent to Power Pack Shop.
 Radiator Guards and radiator and its inside components are removed.
 Long Hood removed from the loco.
 Decanting of fuel oil, lubricating oil and cooling water from incoming
   locomotive is done. Fuel tank has a capacity of 5000 lt and lubricant oil
   has a capacity of 910 lt.
 Under frame of the loco is dipped in a tank containing caustic in water (2 –
   5 %) with air supply.
 Hood over engine is also dipped in a similar tank.
 The whole locomotive is then washed with a pressurized stream of water.
 Various components that are detached from the loco like the cattle guard,
   plates and caps are also dipped in a tank with air supply.
 Hood over engine is stored in a separate area and is also repaired for any

   cracks or any breakage by welding. Hood is also painted in this section.
WORKING OF STRIPPING SECTION
RECEIVING THE LOCO :
     When the shed management feels that a particular loco under its auspices
can do with rebuilding they are marked and send to D.M.W Patiala.
Otherwise any loco, which has reached an operation age of 18-20 years, is
sent for rebuilding. This is received at the Patiala Railway Station by the


                                     105
ASM. The ASM informs the DCW about the arrival of the loco. When
the loco comes to the DCW, the following information about it is
recorded.
   1. LOCO NUMBER
   2. RAILWAY ZONE
   3. DATE OF RECEIVING
   4. FUEL QUANTITY WHEN RECEIVED
   5. LUBE OIL QUANTITY WHEN RECEIVED
   6. LIST OF COMPONENTS THAT ARE ABSENT
Stripping of loco
The stripping is done in stripping section before stripping the locomotive the:
Fuel is drained
Water drained
Lube oil drained

Bogie are disconnected
In this section the locomotive is dismantled and the various assemblies are
sent to their respective shops for rebuilding where old damaged components
are repaired or replaced and rebuilding the assembly are sent back to L.R.S.


                LOCO UNDER FRAME SECTION
     As clear from the name of the section that in this section, all the
accessories, which are under the frame of the loco, is considered like :-
1. The fuel tanks are tested against any leakage by filling the tank with water
   and welding repairs if any leakage is found.
2. There is a Loco Turning Manipulator, which is used for turning of under
   frame of the loco for easy workability. For example, welding of fuel tank
                                      106
   is to be done and certainly down head welding is easier than
   overhead welding. Then there is a wear plate which weighs
   approximately 0.5 tones and which has to be fixed which is very difficult
   without turning the loco.
3. Fuel oil gauges are mounted by removing the old ones.
4. Load pads and central pivot are also repaired. There are two load pads and
   one central pivot on each side (front and rear). These load pads and central
   pivot take whole load of the engine. Each load pad takes 10 % of the load
   (10*4 = 40 %) and each central pivot takes 30 % of the load (2*30 = 60
   %).
5. There are cables truffs in which different electric cables rest are also
   mounted on this section.


   The various Other Tasks which are performed by this
   Section are:-

    To provide Cattle Guard
    To provide Load Pad
    Sealing of the Fuel Tank with Gaskets and Seals
    To provide Drain Plug
    Oil Pan Assembly




                                     107
                       ALIGNMENT SECTION

     As clear from the name of the section that the purpose of this section is
to align the various assemblies on the chassis of the locomotive like power
pack assembly, traction generator, etc by certain procedure.
Power Pack Assembly
     For alignment of the Power Pack Assembly, the central line of the Power
Pack and the Chassis of the Engine are matched. And then the power pack
assembly is placed on the body of loco and suitable pads are welded to the

                                     108
body to avoid the movement of power pack assembly & fastened with
the help of 4 foundation bolts.
             Dia of bolts               Number
             2 inches                       2
             1.5 inches                     2
Alignment of the Expressor
     The expressor is aligned with power pack after placing the power pack
on the loco and the expressor is aligned and fastened with 4 foundation bolts.
    RTTMB: – Rear Track Traction Motor Blower is used for the purpose
      of cooling traction motors installed on rear bogies. It is placed in the
      radiator room and properly aligned and fastened with bolts.
    FTTMB: – Front Track Traction Motor Blower is used for the purpose
      of cooling traction motors installed on front bogies. It is placed in the
      radiator room and properly aligned and fastened with bolts.
    ECC: – Eddy Current Clutch, which is also called right angle gearbox,
      is aligned with respect to the horizontal shaft.
    There is an exhaust fan mounted at the top of a vertical universal shaft,
      which is to be aligned with respect to the eddy current clutch.


                    RECONDITIONING SECTION
In this section, various parts are tested for leakage and cracks etc.
    Lubricant oil cooler is checked for a pressure of 14Kg/cm2. Water
      tubes are also tested for any cracks.
    Lubricant oil filter is also tested under a pressure of 14Kg/cm2 for any
      leakage. In case, the filter chokes, bypass valve opens and transfers
      lubricant oil directly to different parts of the engine.

                                      109
    Assembly of central buffer coupler (CBC) and side buffer (to
      absorb shocks) is also done in this section. Two springs are used
      in one buffer (one right handed and other left handed). They are also
      replaced if damaged.
    Radiator is also tested for pressures of about 3Kg/cm2 for leakage.


  RELIEF AND REGULATING VALVES TESTING ROOM
      In this room, lubricant oil relief valve, regulating valve and bypass
valve are checked for accurate operating pressures. For Lubricant Oil :-
               Relief Valve                   8.8 – 9.1 Kg / cm2
               Regulating valve               5.8 – 6.1 Kg / cm2
               Bypass valve                   1.4 Kg / cm2
            To increase the pressure, a washer is added which increases tension
and so the pressure is increased. Similarly, a washer is removed to reduce the
pressure.
For Fuel Oil:-
               Relief Valve                   5.2 Kg / cm2
               Regulating Valve               3.6 Kg / cm2
     These valves are provided with a nut, which can be tightened or loosened
to increase or decrease the tension, which in turn increases or decreases the
pressure.



                       LOCO CABIN SECTION

     The purpose of the loco cabin section is to provide all the facilities to the
driver for his efficient functioning. Here the pressure gauges for the lube oil,

                                      110
fuel oil air pressure gauge are provided. Look out glasses are provided
and buffer are repaired and fitted on the loco.


                            PIPE SECTION
     All the piping arrangement for the lube oil, water, vacuum line and
airline are made by this shop where pipes are maintained at proper sizes and
fitted on their appropriate positions. The various machines employed here are
    Bend saw cutting machine
    Threading machine
    Pipe bending machine
    Lathe machine
    Hydraulic press
    Grinding machine
Pneumatic Bending Machine: -
      This machine as the name suggests can bend the pipe in any direction.
We have got various diameter pipes. The pipe is inserted in the die. At the
place of die fixing the pipe is bent. The portion of the pipe outside the die is
held by the machine and dies along with the held moves under pneumatic
pressure of 25 tones to the required angle and we get a bent pipe at the same.
Cutting Machine:-
      The machine can cut any diameter pipes, rods, and bars at definite
angles and at given length. This is a numerically controlled machine and the
unique feature is that we can feed the length of the pipe/bar required after
cutting from the longer member and it automatically cuts the pipes of the
required size.



                                      111
                      AIR BRAKE SECTION
Air break system is for replacing the vacuum break system. New air
break wagons are introduced in the Indian railways, resulting in need to
design locomotive break system, which can operate the order vacuum braked
wagons as well as nearly introduce air braked ones. This has led to the
design of the 28 LAV-1 dual Break system which is adopted by the Indian
railway for indigenously build diesel locomotive WDM2c for hauling both
graduated release air braked stock as well as standard vacuum braked train.
Different Sections in Air Brake Shop are as follows :-
 Pipe section
 Valve Repair Section
 Expressor Section
 Store
 Pipe Section :- In this section, copper pipes of small diameter are bend to
   the required angle by Jig and Fixture. The pipes which are larger in
   diameter and are not possible to bend are cut on the hydraulic hacksaw at
   different angles and then are welded. These pipes are used for cooling
   and lubrication.
 Valve Repair Section :- In this section, all the valves are repaired and
   which can not be repaired are replaced by the new ones.
 Expressor Section :- Expressor consists of six cylinders. Four cylinders
   are used to create pressure and the two cylinders are used to create
   vacuum. This Expressor is driven by belts. In pressure creating cylinders,
   two cylinders are low pressure cylinders from where air goes to the high
   pressure cylinders by passing through air after cooler. The compressed
   air from high pressure cylinder is stored in the storage tanks at a pressure

                                     112
   of 8 to 10 kgf/cm2. Other two cylinders are used to create vacuum.
   In this also two low pressure cylinders suck the air from the system
   and these cylinders are connected to the high vacuum cylinder.
   Capacity of Expressor
   Expressor     – 13.00 m3 / min } at 1000 rpm
   Compressor – 08.68 m3 / min } at 1000 rpm
CLASSIFICATION OF BRAKES IN 28 LAV-1 BRAKE SYS:-
   1. A9 brake
   2. SA 9 brake
SA9 braking system is used only for loco and is purely air brake. It is used
when loco is run ideally without train.
A9 braking system is used for train as well as loco. It may be air brake or
vacuum brake according to the type of train attached to loco.
These braking systems are used on loco model 28LA V dual brake system.
L- Loco, A- air, V- vacuum.
The compressed air or vacuum needed for a device called expressor mounted
on engine extension shaft produces braking.
Expressor: --- exhauster + compressor
The expressor contains 6 cylinders, 3 of which produced compressed air and
3 of them are used for creating vacuum. These are 2 low-pressure cylinders
and one high-pressure cylinder.
The low-pressure cylinder produces air at 3.5 Kg/cm2. This air is
transferred to left hand side main reservoir.
SALIENT FEATURES
The salient features of 28 LAV-1 dual brake system are as under



                                      113
1. Locomotive brake may be applied with any desired pressure
   between    the   maximum      and     minimum    and    this   pressure
   automatically maintained in the locomotive brake cylinder against normal
   leakage from then until released by the driver brake value.
2. To locomotive brakes can be applied to any level between release and
   full application with either the automatic or independent brake values.
3. Emergency brake application to vent directly brake pipe and vacuum
   drain pipe simultaneously is possible.
4. It is always possible to release the locomotive brakes with the train
   brakes remained applied.
5. Dynamic brake interlock to prevent simultaneously application of
   automatic air brakes and dynamic brakes on loco.
6. Visual indication in drives lab through airflow indicator device during
   train parting or low parting or guards emergency valve operation during
   heavily of air brake stock.
7. In the event of emergency brake app” by the driver, train parting or loco
   parting , the traction power shall be automatically cut off.
8. In case of parting between the locomotives, the trailing between the
   locomotive and trailing stock, automatic app” of locomotive brakes take
   place respective of air or vacuum braked trailing stock.
9. Multiple unit operation enables brake equipments if train loco to be
   controlled by those of lead locos.
10.In case of very heavy leakage in the feed pipe or failure of feed pipe inter
   coupling equipment, Levin pipe brake system on trailing stock cab be
   worked as single pipe system by simply isolating the feed pipe of trailing
   stock from locomotive.


                                        114
MAIN PAILS OF BRAKINGS SYSTEM.
   1. Expresser
   2. Different valves
   3. Filers
EXPRESSOR:
In braking system exhauster and compressor are combined into one unit.
And is known as expressor. In create 56 mm of vacuum in train pipe and 14-
psi air pressure in control system etc. The expressor is located at the free and
of the engine block and driver through the extension shaft attached to the
engine crank shaft. The two are coupled together by splined flexible
coupling. Naturally the exepressor shaft has eight spreads like crankshaft
and rims between 100-1000 rpm. The expressor has three numbers of
exhaust cylinder and 2 LP cylinders and 1 HP cylinder
WORKING OF EXHAUSTER: -
Air from the vacuum train pipe is drawn into the exhauster cylinders through
the open inlet value in cylinders head during its suction storks. Each of
cylinders has two inlet valves and discharge valves in the cylinder head. The
pressure deferent between the pipes and inside the exhauster cylinder opened
the inlet valve air is drawn into the cylinder from train pipe the next stroke
of the piston the air is compressed and forced out through the discharge
valve while the inlet valve remains closed. The differential air pressures also
automatically open and close the discharge valves.


COMPRESSOR
The compressor is a two-stage compressor with two low pressure cylinder
and one high pressure cylinder. During the first stage is first compressed in


                                      115
LP cylinder where suction is through a wire mesh filter. After
compression in the LP cylinder air is delivered into the discharge
manifold 30PSI working of inlet and outlet is similar so that of exhauster,
which automatically open or closed under differenced as pressure. For inter
cooling air passed through a radiator called intercooler.
ADVANTAGE OF AIR BRAKING SYSTEM OR VACUUM
BRAKING SYSTEM
In AB system the application of breaks the required air pressure is build
quickly and hence the brake can be applied again in almost no time but in
VB system after the vacuum has been destroyed during braking it takes a
little time foe again generating the vacuum. So the brakes if needed to apply
after very less time can’t be activated.
In AB system the whole of the pressure generated for application of brakes
is not used during braking. Only a portion of the applied pressure is used.
Hence its quick action.
Any kind of accident can rip open vacuum pipe hence destroying the
vacuum and instant application of brakes is there. But in case of AB system
as we work on pressurize air even if it is due to above mentioned reason
accidental braking does not take place.
DYNAMIC BRAKES
One of the most interesting system for braking is the dynamic braking
system. In this system we don’t use any mechanical is apply the brakes. In it
we cuts off main supply from the generator to0 the traction motors in the
bogie. Is the motors now with cut off supply can work as generator
themselves therefore they starts producing DC supply. Now this supply is
given to this resistance plates present in hood and whole of the ENC\F

                                      116
generator is dropped across these air cooped resistance plates. The ENF
generated is converted in from of heat and dissipated. This load on
traction motors tends to apply a reverse torque on the wheels shafts and
hence a reverse torque on the wheels. So brakes are applied. This bind of
braking system is used for sudden stoppage of the train experienced driver’s
often use this as a braking system while stopping on some stations.
 In Air Braking system other the application of the required air pressure is
   build quickly and hence the brakes can be applied in almost no time hut
   in vacuum braking, it takes a little time for again generation the vacuum.
   So the brakes if needed to apply often very less can’t be activated.
 In AB system the whole of the pressure generated for application of
   brakes is not used during braking. Only a piston if the applied pressure is
   used. Hence its quick action.
 Any kind of accident can lip open the vacuum pipe hence destroying the
   vacuum and unfunctioning of brakes is there. But in case of AB system
   as we work on pressuring air even if it is due to above mentioned
   accident braking does not take place.
                 MISCELLANEOUS SECTION
    In this section, the various operations performed are :-
    Hydraulic testing of radiator, here the radiator is filled with water at a
      pressure of about 3 kg / cm2 and the leakage is detected.
    Hydraulic testing of the lube oil valves.
    Repairing of fan bearing housing.




                                     117
     BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DIFFERENT PARTS
                             RADIATOR
     Radiator is a compartment which helps in dissipating heat from the
circulating water to air current. The radiator provides a large amount of
cooling surface to the air stream, so that the circulating water is cooled down
efficiently.
     Tabular type radiator is used in diesel engine when the upper and the
lower tank of the radiator are connected by a series of tubes and it is known as
tubular radiator. The tubes are provided with external fine grills to provide
additional cooling surface. The main disadvantage of this type is that if any
tube is damaged then the cooling effect produced by that particular tube is
completely lost.
RADIATOR COMPARTMENT

    Horizontal shaft
    Rear Track Traction Motor Blower (RTTMB)
    Rear Track Traction Motor Blower Pulley (RTTMB Pulley)
    Lube Oil Cooler
    Eddy Current Clutch (ECC) Cover
    Outer Drum
    Eddy Current Clutch (ECC) Carbon Brush
    Slip Rings
    Door of Radiator Room
    Sand Boxes
    Expansion Tank for Cooling Water
    Auxiliary Expansion Tank


                                     118
    Head Light
    Eddy Current Clutch (ECC) Guard Stand
    Radiator Fan
    Radiator fan gaurd
BUFFER
     It contains two springs in a housing separated by a plate. One spring is
right handed and the other is left-handed. Its main function is to absorb shock.
GRID
     It is used for dissipation of heat generated by traction motor produced at
the time of application of brakes. Traction motor acts as a generator when the
supply is cut off i.e. dynamic braking

EDDY CURRENT CLUTCH
     It is also known as right angle gearbox. It is housed in the radiator cabin.
Eddy current clutch gets its movement from expressor shaft and is connected
to it through horizontal shaft. It consists of three switches called Engine
Temperature Switches (1, 2 and 3). When temperature of water in the radiator
becomes about 650 C, engine temperature switches (ETS1) due to which a
magnetic field is set up between magnetic coils and outer drum and they come
in contact with each other. Because of this, the outer drum, which is
stationary before also starts rotating which further rotates the fan, mounted on
a vertical universal shaft and it sucks in air from the atmosphere and pushes it
out thereby cooling the water. Similarly, when the temperature further rises to
about 75 C second switch opens and at 900 C, third switch (ETS3) opens
thereby increasing the speed of the fan and cooling more rapidly. Before the
water could reach its boiling point, the engine is automatically shut down.


                                      119
TURBO SUPERCHARGER
     The turbo super charger is a self-contained unit composed of a gas
turbine and a centrifugal blower mounted on a common shaft with the
necessary surrounding casings. The exhaust gas from the cylinder of the
diesel engine is conveyed to the exhaust manifold and then to the turbine,
which utilizes some of the velocity energy of the exhaust gas, otherwise
wasted. This energy in the gas is used to drive the blower. This blower
furnishes all the air required by the engine, through the air intake manifold at
a pressure above atmosphere. The turbo charger unit is used in conjunction
with a multiple pipe or single pipe exhaust manifold. In this system, the
compressed air delivered by the turbo charger accomplishes two goals:-
 It scavenges the hot residual gases otherwise left in the cylinder at the end
   of the exhaust stroke and replaces it with cooler fresh air.
 It fills the cylinder with an air charge of higher density during the suction
   stroke. The provision of greater amount of fresh air permits the
   combustion of a correspondingly greater amount of fuel and consequently
   a higher power output from a turbo charger engine is obtained as
   compared to an engine, which is not so equipped.
EXPRESSOR
     The Expressor is to be used in the diesel locomotive for various
purposes. Exhauster, which develops high vacuum in the vacuum tank, is
used for the application of brakes in the compartment of wagons. The
compressed air developed by the compressor is used for the application of
brakes, horns and windscreen wipers in loco. It has got six cylinders – 3 air
cylinders and 3 vacuum cylinders.



                                      120
LUBE OIL FILTER
Lube oil filter is fitted in radiator room and is used to filter the lube oil. It is
fitted with lube oil pump by pass valve. It has following.
   1. Casing
   2. Eight filter elements
   3. Inlet and outlet ports
   4. Cover
Oil is forced from inlet and after passing through filters it rotates at the
bottom and from they’re transferred to L.O cooler. On old casing hydraulic
testing is done to detect any leakage. Outlet passage is dummied and water
under 14 Kg/cm pressure is forced through inlet to check leakage.

LUBE OIL SYSTEM:
      Lube oil system consist of following parts:

                                       121
     Lube oil pump
     Pressure relief valve
     By pass valve
     Lube oil filter
     Lube oil cooler
     Pressure regulating valve
     Lube oil strainer
     Lube oil gauge
       Compressed air through a piping circuit which give connection to
        each wheel.
AXLE GENERATOR:
Axle generator is mounted on one of the axle and gets its drive from it. It is
used to produce small amount of electricity for speedometer and other
purpose in driver’s room.
HORIZONTAL SHAFT ASSEMBLY:

This is shall which transfer motion from expressor to ECC. It also has a
pulley, which is used to transfer motion to rear blower through belts.


PERPENDICULAR GEARBOX:
Perpendicular gearbox is installed with ECC and it changes the voltage
horizontal motion of ECC to vertical motion, which is used to revolve the fan
for cooling. The fan is mounted on the top of radiator room.


TRACTION MOTOR BLOWERS
There are two such blowers on loco for supplying air for cooling of traction
motors. One blower is on the front side and other on the rear. The front

                                     122
blower gets its motion from generator end gear and pushes air for
cooling in to the front motors through air passage and rubber hoses.
The rear blower gets its motion from horizontal shaft pulley by belts and
blows air to rear motors.
SAND BOX:
Sand box is also fitted on the loco, which contains sand. This sand is used to
increase friction between the line and loco wheel when slippery occurs due to
some reason as when climbing up a altitude. The driver blows sand between
rail and wheel by application of

FAN:
Fan is in radiator room to draw air from radiator room to cool the cooling
water, it is driven by perpendicular gearbox through a shaft and fitted with
help of bearing housing.

RADIATORS:
There are two radiators on the loco for cooling of water. These are fitted on
the two sides of the radiator room. The pump forces hot water from bottom
and cold water from top of radiators is transferred to tend on top of radiator
room.
WATER TANKS:
There are two water tanks on top of radiator room of the loco. These preserve
cooling water. An equalizing pipe is fitted between these tanks to maintain
equal level between the two tanks.
           FRONT TO REAR OF THE WHOLE LOCO :-

                   Nose Compartment
                   Driver’s Cabin (All Controls)


                                     123
              Generator Room
          Front Track Traction Motor Blower (FTTMB)
          Generator
                     Power Pack
                     Expressor
                     Radiator Cabin
       Rear Track Traction Motor Blower (RTTMB)
       Eddy Current Clutch
       Horizontal Shaft
       Vertical Universal Shaft
       Lubricant Oil Cooler
       Lubricant Oil Filter
       Radiator Fan

EQUIPMENT USED FOR WELDING

       Metal Inert Gas (MIG) Welding Set.
       Gas welding section
       Arc Welding Set.
       Electric Oven.
       Portable Electric Oven.
       Oxygen cylinder.
       Acetylene cylinder.
       Welding torch.
       Pressure regulators




                                  124
   REMANUFACTURING OF DIFFERENT PARTS:-
 Lube Oil Cooler: - Function of Lube Oil Cooler is to cool the lubricant. It
   has 240 water tubes. In these tubes water circulates which cools the
   lubricant.
 Filter Drum: - Function of filter drum is to filter the lubricant of whole

   loco. Lubricant of whole loco firstly passes through the filter drum. It has
   eight filter elements. Cleaning of filter drum is carried out after six months
   then the extra particles which remain on the base of the filter drum are
   cleaned.
 Radiator :- Function of radiator is to cool down the water flowing through
   the different parts of the loco. Two radiators are used in a single loco,
   having capacity from 10 – 12 liters.
 Eddy Current Clutch (E.C.C.):- Function of eddy current clutch is to

   rotate the fan, when the cooling water becomes hot. When the fan starts
   hot air goes outside cold air comes in and water in the radiators cool down.
 Expressor: - It is very important part of loco. It is used for compressing

   air into pipes and for creating vacuum in the pipe, done to which brakes
   are applied.
 Brake Pipes :- Different types of pipes used in loco are :-
          Lube Oil Pipes
          Water pipes
          Vacuum Pipes




                                      125
PROJECT



   126
           SEQUENCE OF ENGINE BLOCK
                        MANUFACTURING

       INTRODUCTION TO HEAVY MACHINE SHOP

         Heavy machine shop or HMS is located in the phase-II of DMW.
This shop is remanufacturing shop unlike the LMS, which is a production
shop. In this shop the cylinder block of the LOCO POWER PACK and
magnet frames or traction motor casing are reclaimed from the Power Pack
Shop, where they are stripped in the stripping section and various shops
receive the components they are capable of remanufacturing. In this case it is
the heavy duty Engine Block.

         The various defects which creep in the cylinder block due to highly
loaded working conditions are repaired in this shop, like cracks, damaged
holes, damaged tapping, cam and crank bore wear.

Shop Output:

Engine block       - 10/month

                   - 11/month for incentives

Magnet frames      - 40/month




         These heavy-duty components of the diesel undergo heavy damage
due to the bearing and wearing surfaces. Hence there is an ut most need to

                                     127
rebuild them. A step-by-step procedure is followed to reclaim the
Engine Block from PPS.

The various operations done in this shop are:

   1. Engine block stripping

      Mostly disassembled power packs comprising of engine lock comes
   from PPS. In HMS following parts are removed:-

      o MB caps

      o Cam Bore sleeves

      o Various Studs Around Cylinder

   2. Washings

      The engine block which is dirty are dirty with the grease, dirt and
   other impediment are cleaned thoroughly in a Proceco Plant. This plant
   consists of cleaning tank, one boiler and the cleansing solution.




      o Cleaning of engine block in proceco cleaning plant of HMS.

      a) Fit big size end plates at free end sides and tighten the end plates
         bolts.

      b) Head engine block in proceco plant using over head crane.

      c) Let the washing cycle timer of proceco plant for six hours in
         rolling position.

                                     128
      d) Close the lid and open stam to maintain the cleaning solution
         Temp. between 160-180 F.

      e) Start wash cycle for washing the engine block after completion of
         the wash cycle for four hours.

      f) Open the lid cooling the engine block after completion of the wash
         cycle for four hours.

Unload the engine block and remove both side plates.




   o The proceco Auto Cleaning Plant

         Work diameter of end discs        6’min. and7’max.

         Max work length                   18’

         Max work weight                   1800 Lbs.

         Tank capacity                     4900 GALLONS.

         Tank                              1286 GPM.

         Pressure                          70 Psi.

         Exhaust capacity                  6000 CFM @ 1” W.C.

         Steam consumption                 509 kg/hr 80 Psi

         Operating Temperature             180 F



                                    129
         Boiler used                        Fire Tube Boiler, Nozzle
         type

         Fuel used                          Light Diesel oil




    Additives

         Detergent:                         Oakite (2%-4%)

         Foam control:                      Oakite

         Rust inhibitor:                    Oakite




   3. Pre Inspection

      The Pre inspection starts with the naked eye inspection of the engine
block. But there are cracks that can’t be seen by naked eye so to highlight
these cracks Dye Penetration Test is conducted. The various solutions in this
chemical are:-

         o Clearer (To clean the most crack prone areas)

         o Red Dye (A red chemical which collects itself near the crack)

         o Developer (A white chemical which helps to highlight the
            accumulated red dye)




                                    130
      First of all the entire surface to be checked are cleaned by the
cleaner and then the red dye is sprayed. Thinner is once again sprayed
to wash away excess dye. The developer which is sprayed after wards takes
out the dye from the cracks and highlights the cracked portions. Orange
paint is used to mark these cracks. Welding report is prepared and engine
block is sent to the welding section.

      Before going to the welding section the various holes in the engine
block are filled with fire clay to prevent their damage during welding and
stress relieving that takes place after wards.

This is done to-

      o Prevent the spatter from damaging the internal portion of the holes.

      o To avoid distortion of EB plates while welding.

      Note: If the splines of EB are damaged then it is out rightly rejected.

   4. Welding

The two types of welding is done in HMS :

   o Electric Arc Welding

   o Metal Insert Gas Welding (MIG Welding)

   The main portions where welding is done are

      o Crank bore

      o Middle deck

                                        131
      o Cam bore

      o Top deck collar

      o Top deck bore

      o Cracks(as per report)




      MIG welding is preferred over Electric Arc Welding because in MIG
welding the weld ment is continuous, deeply penetrating and relatively clean
(then electric arc welding) and hence used accordingly. A continuous
feeding system feeds the copper coated MS electrode. Copper coating
prevents the filler material from rusting. It also reduces resistance and hence
increases conductivity during welding. Carbon dioxide is used as the inert
gas. MIG is used for welding of serration pads, axle box and plug welding.

      In electric arc welding flux coated electrodes are used. The flux forms
the slag with the impurities that are generated during the welding. This slag
is removed after wards by chipping handle. MS plates are sometimes welded
to give strength.

          o If the job is heavy then:

                  Holder: negative

                  Work piece: positive

      This is because positive end generates more heat which is required by
the work piece.


                                         132
      o Sometimes electrode hinders the choice of polarity.

      o Current range is lessen for overhead welding.

      o Reverse polarity used for high precision welding.

      o If arc length is more, more is spatter.

      o Slag inclusions inducing if arc length is less.




Welding of Magnet Frame

   Welding is done on the all bearing seats of the magnet frame. The
following procedure is followed in welding of main points(resurfacing of
main bore, axle bore, armature face) of magnet frame.

   Equipment Used In Process

   Welding set, Oxy acetylene set.

   Procedure:-

   a) Position the magnet frame and clean the axle bore P/E and C/E.

   b) To remove scaling

   c) Check the axle bore with the set for out of soundness.

   d) First fill up the notches/cavities positions with welding.

   e) Weld the axle bore in 8” length axle face at P/E and C/E after
      selecting proper current and electrode and current.



                                  133
   f) Weld armature bore (if mention in pre inspection report).
      Provide proper space for machining reference at four places
      at 90º. In each bore and meld armature face at P/ in double pass.

   g) Weld upper and lower lug faces after removing old brush and plug
      the lughole by MIG welding if holes are oval/oversize.

   h) Inspect the magnet frames for any damage/cracks and repair by
      welding the damaged/cracks position.

   i) Open the axle cap and weld spline position.

   j) Remove keys and magnet frames by oxy acetylene gas cutting set.

5. Inspection

   It is again done after welding and if any modifications are required
   then those are done here else sent to stress relieving furnaces for stress
   relieving.

6. Hydraulic test

   Hydraulic test for air gallery & water gasket is done to check for any
   cracks or leakage.

Method

a) Fit the end plates at both the ends of engine block.

b) Load the air gallery block on hydro testing fixture.

c) Clean the air gallery inside and outside the water chamber on left &
   right side.


                                  134
   d) Grind the top deck surfaces on serration pad side of the engine
      block.

   e) Fit all ‘O’ rings and rubber gasket on TD plate, MD plate and
      chamber plates between TD & MD.

   f) Fit the cover plates proper to ensure fitting of pressure gauge on the
      cover.

   g) Re lap ½’ uncut thread of water jumper if necessary.

   h) Fit the water jumper rubber gasket and hange with ‘r’ bolt.

   i) Fit the pressure gauge no. 8 water jumper hole.

   j) Fit the water pipe line flange on free end side.

   k) Test the leakage TDB, MDB & all side water jumper gaskets to
      ensure no leakage from gasket.

   l) Fill up water compartment.

   m) Check the pressure & ensure it to be 7 kg/cm2.apply this pneumatic
      pressure on water compartment. Maintain pressure of or half an hour

   n) Check the engine block thoroughly with the help of light for leakage
      of water when the pressure is applied.

   o) In case no leakage unload the engine block.

   p) In case of leakage repair engine block by welding.

   7. Boring of Cam LHS, RHS & Crank Bores

      The cam and crank holes are bored on Horizontal Boring Machine.
There are 9 holes in the RHS and LHS.

                                      135
    Procedure

       a) Clean the boring fixture including bronze bushes.

       b) Set all the tools for rough, semi finish & finish sizes for crank
          and cam boring operations.

       c) Check that cutting edges of tools are not blunt or worn out.

       d) Clean the crank and cam boring bars including their pockets.

       e) Load the fixture on the engine block and see that the fixture
          arms do not hit the engine block.

       f) Insert crank and cam boring bars into fixture and engine block.

       g) Load the fixture on the engine block on the machine bed. Align
          the engine block from GE side by dialing across faces. It should
          be perpendicular to the machine from the faces i.e. left side and
          right side of the engine block.

       h) Dial the boring bar individually and load correct size present
          tool for roughing / semi-finishing / finishing operation.

       i) Measure bore size finally.

    Safety considerations

       To ensure safety of the worker various measures are taken like
    provision of fire extinguishers, hand gloves made from aluminum
    alloy etc. certain safety items like welding screen, colored glasses,
    chipping handle, wire brush, chisel and hammer have been provided
    to the workers to avert the accidents and misshapenness.


                                   136
 8. Stress Relieving

        After welding, various areas of stress concentration are produced
due to uneven cooling of the welded portion. So the whole EB is stress
relieved by uniformly heating it to a certain temp. and them cooling it
slowly but uniformly to get no stress concentration areas.

        First the pre heater is switched on to ensure the furnace is pre
heated for one hour in winters to avoid freezing of light diesel oil. Temp. is
set at 640º C -650º C. the furnace is pre heated with oil dipped jute. Then
compressed air valve is opened to let fuel supply in and burner is started
after closing the door. Both the cooling fans are switched on for equal
heating in the furnace. Then engine block is soaked for 4 hours once temp.
of 650º C is reached. Burner is then stopped and cooling fans are stopped
after 400º C temp. the doors of the furnace are opened at 200º C. the EB is
pushed out when furnace temp. is at 150º C.

    Method of stress relieving

      This is applicable for removing the welding stresses of engine block:

        a) Load engine block with foundations rails down on the fixture
           mounted on furnace trolley.

        b) Push the trolley inside the furnace.

        c) Switch on pre heater to avoid freezing of air.

        d) Set the temp. at about 650º C.

        e) Pre heat oil fired burners with oil dipped jute.

                                    137
      f) Open compressed air valve and start motor for fuel supply.

      g) Start the burners and close the doors.

      h) Adjust the burner fuel so as to increase the temp. @ 70-80º C
         /hour.

      i) Switch on cooling fan to distribute equal heat inside the
         furnace.

      j) Open the water pipe line valve to supply water for cooling the
         bearing of cooling fan so the engines block for 4 hours once the
         temp. is attained at about 650º C.

      k) Stop the burners after 4 hours.

      l) Switch of the cooling fan once the temp. reaches 400º C.

      m) Open the door when the furnace tempo. reaches 200º C.

      n) Push out the engine block loaded trolley when furnace temp.
         reaches 150º C.

      o) Close the water pipeline valve.

9. Hole repair

      The holes that are damaged due to any reason are drilled again
oversize and the dummy plug is forged fit into these freshly drilled holes.
The whole periphery and a plug outer periphery are welded together with
MIG welding and then the whole portion is ground to flush with the plate
surface. New holed are then drilled according to size and tapping is done.
EB is sent to CNC room.



                                  138
10. CNC Room

      PAMA Horizontal Boring and Milling Centre has got three
substations of which only one is in use. PAMA Machine has 7 axis:

      W        -      Vertical table movement

      X        -      Horizontal table movement

      Y        -      Vertical head stock movement

      Z        -      Spindle movement

      V        -      Table crosswise

      B        -      Rotary movement of table

      A        -      Trunion movement




      This machine is used for the operations given below in their order:

      Operation-1 Foundation rail machining.

      Operation-2 Saddle pad facing.

      Operation-3 Top deck boring (semi finished)


                                 139
         Operation-4 Middle deck boring (semi finished)

         Operation-5 Serration cutting.

         Operation-6 Radius of 5/8 inches is made near serration pad.

         Operation-7 Serration relief cut is given on serration pad so that
                       there is no difficulty during fixing of MB caps.

         Operation-8 Finish boring of top deck and middle deck bore.

         Operation-9 Chamfering of 30º given on Top Deck Collar.




   11. Main bearing Cap Fitting

      The MB Caps are fitted in the fitting section. Now the block is ready
to be machined on the boring machine.

   12. Finish Boring

      HMT Horizontal Boring Machine is used for the boring of crank bore
and the Cam bores .Long spindle arms on which the DAVIS boring block is
fixed has got two single point cutting tools are here used as boring tool.
After boring operation is complete the fixture is removed and the EB
unloaded.

      Feature of this machine are:

            o Auto feeding and travel.

                                     140
           o Horizontal boring type.

       Then the SLEEVE FITTING is done. The sleeves are fitting with
hammering action into the bores. The periphery of the sleeve is then welded
at four points with the block by MIG Weld.

   13. Honing

       The honing of crank and cam shaft bore is done to reduce them to
correct sizes, therefore, it is used for finishing.

       The honing tool consists of 4 sticks-2 wipers and 2 stones (i.e.
abrasive stick). The stones remove the material &the wiper wipe the
removed material off the tool is mounted on a long shaft connected to the
compressed air driven rotor (six sticks are used for crank shaft at bore
honing).

   14. Final Inspection

       The block is then inspected finally for hole sizes, bore sizes and
threads. If some bores are not in size then they are sent to respective
machines for remedy/ correction. In the final inspection of the Cam and
Cranks bores, AUTOCOLLIMATOR ALIGNMENT TEST is then
performed.

In this test two target lenses and one telescope is used. First of all two targets
are made in line with each other and the telescope by adjusting the screws on
Auto collimator. Then with the second target fixed, the first target is move to
second bore. Misalignment may be either in the vertical or in the horizontal


                                        141
direction, is depicted by the crosswire present in the two targets. Then
the first target is moved to next bore and so on.




                                      142
                 BIBLIOGRAPHY


WWW.RAILMUESUM.COM

WWW.DMWPATIALA.COM

WWW.IRFCA.ORG

WWW.DIESELLOCOWORKS.COM

WWW.EFUNDA.COM

WWW.STEELLINKS.COM

WWW.INFOSTORM.COM

MANUAL FROM DMW BY HMT

MANUAL FROM DMW BY SS TOLS




                         143

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:5
posted:12/25/2012
language:English
pages:143