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									             Course Completion Report: Groundwater Management within River Basins
                       Orion Devonshire Hotel, Johannesburg, South Africa.
                                       18 – 22 July 2011.

                                  Submitted to WaterNet and Cap-Net

                                                Submitted by
                                             Dr. M S Magombeyi

Name of the Course           Groundwater Management within River Basins
Course Funding               WaterNet / Cap-Net
Date / Venue                 18 – 22 July 2011. University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
Host Institution             Name          Department of Civil Engineering, University of Witwatersrand.
                             Country       South Africa.
Local Organizers             Prof A.E Taigbenu and Dr Manuel Magombeyi.


WaterNet and AGW-Net are both affiliates of CapNet, and have been promoting sustainable regional and
international development through course trainings and carrying out other capacity building activities in context of
CapNet objectives and guidelines. WaterNet is the lead organization in SADC that delivers training in Integrated
Water Resources Management (IWRM), while AGW-Net focuses specifically on developing capacity in
Groundwater Management. The University of Witwatersrand is one of the leading universities in Africa, and the
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering has a strong focus on water resources engineering and
management. As one of the joint efforts by the above institutions towards groundwater management within basins,
they conducted the first regional training course in Groundwater management within river basins in Johannesburg
from 18 to 22 July 2011. The training course was attended by seventeen participants from African countries,
coming from central and local governments, catchment councils and private sector. These countries include
Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Among the
seventeen participants, four were female (see the group photo, Figure 1).

This report is the output of the five-day training on Groundwater management within river basins. The touches on
the following: (1) record all processes and tools used in the training and record new experiences gained during the
training, (2) collect suggestions and recommendations from the participants so that the package can be improved
for future trainings and (3) assess the effectiveness of the course training based on the responses and learning level
evaluation of the participants.

Figure 1. Group photo in the field       During the presentations             One of the group discussions

Course Background
The management of water resources worldwide is considered most appropriate at catchment and sub catchment
scale because these form the natural boundaries for the physical resource and for the water balance. River Basin
Organizations (RBOs) are being formed as a response to this new management paradigm, especially in

 transboundary / trans-border settings. Groundwater management is often under-represented in RBO’s, both
 because the resource is not well quantified and because aquifer basins may extend beyond the boundaries of the
 surface catchment. The result is that groundwater that makes up 95% of available global fresh water resources is
 often either mismanaged or more frequently not managed at all, especially in developing countries. This
 management approach undermines the very core of the catchment management philosophy and its practice that
 insists on system level management of the hydrological cycle. The integration of groundwater management into
 surface water management structures is considered key in the optimum water resources management and
 successful application of IWRM principles in practice. Without such integration, it is anticipated that groundwater
 will lie outside any formal management structures and thus be subject to over abstraction, pollution and other
 detrimental impacts without any legal protection.

 Aim of the Course
 Hence, the new course, “Groundwater Management within River Basins” aimed to provide capacity building in
 understanding some basic tools for assessing the role of groundwater within a river basin and the nature, volume
 and timing of the fluxes between surface water and groundwater. Furthermore, the course explored and sensitized
 participants from RBOs of the benefits, management opportunities and challenges of integrating groundwater
 management into the river basin management paradigm. To achieve these aims, the course objectives set were: (a)
 to provide a platform for sharing best practices for knowledge transfer, skill development and learning from
 country experiences among the participants; (b) to identify key interaction points where groundwater and surface
 water management intersect; (c) identify the benefits of conjunctive use and unitary management of catchment
 water resources; (d) to provide specific tools and skills for integrated water management within catchments; and
 (e) to maximize learning potential gained on sustainable regional development by being located in South Africa.

 Teaching Approach, Module Contents and Lessons Learned
 Teaching Approach
 The course was presented by regional and international facilitators (Dr Richard Owen from AgNET, Prof T Abiye
 and Dr M Magombeyi from University of the Witwatersrand, Dr J-M Kileshe-Onema and Ms R Chioreso from
 Waternet) with a strong focus on participant exercises and interactive learning. There was a combination of short
 lectures, practical exercises, country case studies, group work, discussion and feedback, role-play, presentations by
 participants and field trip. Training materials developed by Cap-Net, WaterNet and the Africa Groundwater
 Network were distributed to participants (see Annex1, Table 2).

 Course Content
 The new course was structured around the thirteen modules as well as field visit to sites of surface water /
 groundwater interaction to provide insights into South Africa's experience on acid mine drainage from disused
 mines. This course drew its course materials from two existing CapNet courses: Groundwater Management in
 IWRM and IWRM for River Basin Organizations. Existing modules were specifically modified to identify and
 focus on groundwater management factors within the river basin setting and to highlight issues that will be helpful
 for water managers working in River Basin Organizations. The training course modules are shown in Table 1.

 Table 1. Course modules, contents and lessons learned
Module           Title                      Contents                                   Lessons learned
  1        Groundwater      Introduces the strategies and tools for       Huge opportunities exist with
           Management in    integration of groundwater                    groundwater resource, as it is many times
           IWRM             management into management                    the size of surface water resource.
                            structures of River Basin Authorities;        However, its quality can be a time bomb
                            the need for groundwater management,          since it manifests after sometime
                            groundwater status quo
  2        Groundwater      Common geological formations;                 Understood key properties of aquifers
           Occurrence and   hydrological units; aquifer                   and aquifer characterization (from
           Trans-boundary hydrogeological unit; use of maps to            investigation & monitoring) for
           Aquifers in      show aquifer characteristics and its          groundwater management; aquifer
           Africa           vulnerability; transboundary aquifers in      overexploitation consequences; many
                            Africa                                        African countries sit on/ share one
                                                                          aquifer system
   3       The Nature of       Groundwater occurrence and                 Occurrence and movement of water in
           Groundwater         assessment in aquifers with examples       different types of aquifers; well yields
           and Resource

Module         Title                      Contents                                  Lessons learned
  4      Surface Water –   Introduced key issues of interactions:      Substantial differences between
         Groundwater       physical / chemical interaction, water      transboundary river basins and
         Interactions      balance, quality implications, system       groundwater basins; entire water cycle
                           dimensions, river basin / aquifer           should be managed in an integrated way,
                           boundaries, allocation, legislation         with all inflows and outflows accounted
                           concordance, institutional interactions     for in water balance; conjunctive use of
                           and practical management / monitoring       surface water and groundwater to cope
                           issues.                                     with seasonal variability; signs of
                                                                       surface/groundwater interactions that
                                                                       include wetland generation, appearance
                                                                       of springs, change in groundwater
                                                                       quality, etc.
  5      Groundwater       Introduces need for groundwater             Groundwater contaminants persist for
         Quality           protection, causes of water quality         long time. Hence, prevention is better
         Management        degradation, quality standards,             and cheaper than remediation.
                           protection against contamination
                           (including zoning, early warning,
                           penalties, awareness raising, etc).
  6      Groundwater       Starts by defining groundwater              Monitoring is done for both planning and
         Monitoring for    monitoring, what to monitor,                compliance purposes and it is
         Resource          consequences of over-abstraction, cost      meaningless if the results are not
         Management        effective monitoring, sampling and          managed, used and disseminated back to
                           laboratory analysis quality control         the stakeholders.
  7      Practical         Introduces groundwater allocation           Awareness of the benefits and challenges
         Groundwater       practical issues and objectives, purpose    of groundwater rights system, understood
         Allocation and    and benefits of water groundwater           the need to link a groundwater rights
         Licensing         rights, allocation criteria and             system to a surface water rights system;
                           administration of rights for renewable      allocation should be supported by
                           and non-renewable groundwater               monitoring of water levels, quality
                                                                       compliance; stakeholder participation
                                                                       and transparency required for better
  8      Stakeholder       Introduces stakeholder participation        Identify, categorise stakeholders and
         Participation     drawing from the Dublin Principles for      maintain stakeholder participation over
                           IWRM; need stakeholder participation;       time; stakeholder participation is a
                           components, instruments and                 challenging process to implement and
                           incentives of participation; A rural well   needs action at different levels of society,
                           development role-play case study to         but helps the community to adapt.
                           give participants experience in             “Powerful” stakeholders in decision
                           stakeholder participation in the            making dominate and set the agenda.
                           planning of water resources
  9      Economic and      Introduced the financial and economic       Appreciated how to apply financial and
         Financial Tools   instruments or behavioural change,          economic instruments for better
         for effective     their difference, importance and            groundwater management, e.g., cost
         Groundwater       application in groundwater                  recovery; behaviour change; address
         management        management e.g., in water allocation,       equity and the poor; environmental
                           pollution control, monitoring water         protection.
                           use, etc.
  10     Groundwater       Introduced components of water              Appreciated need for groundwater
         Legislation and   legislation and institutional               legislation and its integration with
         Regulation        arrangements for groundwater                surface water legislation for better
                           management; why groundwater was             management; the practical aspects of
                           neglected; levels of legislation in         enforcement; institutional challenges
                           countries; Discussion of the
                           groundwater legislation in participants’

Module           Title                         Contents                                Lessons learned
  11       Groundwater        Climate change and variability (due to       Understood impacts of climate change on
           and Climate        earth tilting relative to the earth plane,   rainfall, runoff, water quality, sea level,
           Change             changing ocean oscillations and human        ecosystem and groundwater.
                              activities); risk management and             Opportunities to use groundwater under
                              resilience to climate change                 climate change
  12       Communication Defines the resource setting                      Aware of the limited investment in
           and Information (hydrogeological and socio-economic             groundwater management, though it is
           Management         conditions), management instruments          the largest water reservoir, use clear
                              and measures, and                            messages and cartoons to draw attention
                              action/implementation plan, oral,            when communicating groundwater issues
                              written and non-verbal communication         to stakeholders
  13       Ground-Water       Highlights the merits and demerits of        Groundwater and surface water are
           Management         groundwater use, resource knowledge          linked together in the hydrological cycle
           Functions at       base of groundwater, legislation,            and must be managed together;
           Catchment          institutions, investments stages and         Groundwater is hidden and it’s quantity
           Scale              concludes by a groundwater                   and quality and rate of replenishment are
                              monitoring cycle                             complex to measure
 Key training course references include:
 Groundwater Management in IWRM (CapNet / UNDP);
 IWRM for River Basin Organizations (CapNet / UNDP);
 GWMate Briefing Notes and Case Histories (World Bank)

 Field trip
 Through the field trip to West Rand/Randfontein acid mine drainage decant sites and
 Krugersdorp river, participants acknowledged the importance of calibrating water quality
 instruments prior to taking measurements, collection of samples and their transportation to
 laboratory for analysis. Most of the participants had a chance to take measurements of
 temperature, pH, electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids. Figures 2 shows the sites
 visited during the field trip. In addition, the participants appreciated the graveness of mining
 impacts long after their closure to water resources, as the acid mine drainage is coming from
 the rise in water table from disused mines (closed in early 1980s).

 The participants appreciated the need for the government to request the water quality
 monitoring to be put in place at mine approval stage for the mines to monitor their activities. A
 certain percent of the mine profits can be set aside for future water treatment after the mine
 closure. This fee can be deposited with the government. The participants also appreciated that
 surface water and groundwater is a single resource that needs decisions to be made collectively.
 The field trip helped to deepen participants’ understanding of ground/surface interactions and
 impacts of anthropogenic activities (mining) on water quality.

Figure 2. Pictures from the fieldtrip

Release of learning material
The participants were given hard copies of groundwater manual from Cap-Net, together with a soft copy on the
CD that contained all presentations for the course. The manual can also be downloaded from the Cap-Net website.
Some of the participants who are involved with the dissemination of water management knowledge were given
Water Management in Motion DVDs (containing six thematic DVDs including 60 videos, tutorials and key
references) for further dissemination in their institutions and to university students.

Evaluation of the course
On the last day of the course, the evaluation of the training programme was done using a questionnaire with which
the participants assessed their learning, overall impression of the course and provided suggestions on how the
course could be improved in future. The majority of participants were in agreement that all of the above set aims
and objectives were achieved, as shown in Figure 3. Besides the questionnaire, participants’ reactions and
facilitators’ were also captured during the closing remarks that emphasised the importance of this training in
enhancing the capacity of the African water professional to put groundwater and surface management into

Figure 3. Result of course evaluation questionnaire

Certificates awarded to participants
The participants were awarded certificates of the 40 hours effective learning on groundwater management within
river basin at the closing of the course.

  Figure 4. Presentation of course completion certificates to participants

Concluding remarks
The objectivities of the course were achieved. The level of participation was very high and participants were free
and open to share their experiences and ideas during the course. They fulfilled the assignments given to them as
group work. Most of the African countries do not have groundwater explicitly stated in their Water acts and
devolving power to lower structures is challenging in groundwater management. Hence, the participants
considered the training very appropriate. The training course created a common understanding among the
participants regarding the importance of transboundary aquifers, especially in the face of climate shocks and
change. Transboundary aquifer commonly implies a body of groundwater intersected by a political border. The
challenge is that the extend of these transboundary aquifers is not known, necessitating open dialogue and
levelling the playing field among countries sitting on the same aquifer. Hence, regional effort is required to
establish the aquifer extend, through use of seismic methods or gravity method or airborne surveys. Groundwater
basin is always bigger than surface water basin because of geological features. In some cases made-made shafts
and plate tectonic can connect groundwater basins that were not connected. Hence, water managers in one basin
cannot ignore pollution occurring in another basin. For instance, Lesotho is a water tower to South Africa. If there
is pollution in Lesotho it will flow to South Africa because of its position. In addition, with groundwater, a country

downstream can pollute groundwater water resources of an upstream country if there is hydraulic reversal as a
result of huge pumping by an upstream country. This is unlikely in case of surface water.

Adaptive management of groundwater is the only way to understand the behaviour of aquifers. However,
boreholes are usually not numbered by a concrete stone or on the casing to identify them. Effort needs to be made
to identify the boreholes and mark their coordinates using global positioning system (GPS). We expect the trained
participants, equipped with improved knowledge and learning materials of groundwater management will apply
this knowledge in their institutions and educate their colleagues, thereby fostering the creation of a regional
Community of Practice in Groundwater Management within River Basins. Follow up: the facilitators are open to
give any technical assistance to participants to support their groundwater action plan implementation.

The knowledge level of participants was adequate and this helped the facilitators to run the course smoothly in a
learning atmosphere. Hence, the present criteria for selecting participants should be enhanced by emphasis on
gender balance and participant application or dissemination of knowledge gained from the course to a wide

Closing of the course
The closing ceremony took place on the last day with the awarding of certificates to the participants. The
participants were thanked for their participation and were encouraged to apply the knowledge and skills gained
from the course in the field and to disseminate it to a wider audience.

Annex 1.

Table 2. List of participants

Table 3. Training course programme

Table 4. Finance

Evaluation of the short course.

Table 2. Details of participants and facilitators of the groundwater management course and materials
NAME             COUNTRY        GENDER     ADDRESS                 EMAIL ADDRESS                 Materials

1.   Dlamini     Swaziland      Male       Department of Water     Groundwater
     Tom Titus                             Affairs P.O.Box B32                                   management in
                                           Sandla, Mbabane,                                      IWRM training
                                           H102, Swaziland                                       Manual
2.   Ngwenya     South Africa   Female     Driekoppies Dam,   Groundwater
     Prudence                              Malelane, 1320,                                       management in
                                           South Africa                                          IWRM training
3.   Mulenga     Zambia         Male       Department of Water       Groundwater
     Fred                                  Affairs, Box 80982,                                   management in
                                           Kabwe, Zambia                                         IWRM training
4.   Sawunyama   South Africa   Male       IWR Water        Groundwater
     Tendai                                Resources Pty Ltd,                                    Manual
                                           Cedrella Building, 39
                                           Murray Street,
                                           Nelspruit, 1200,
                                           South Africa
5.   Tlali       Lesotho        Female     Department of Water      Groundwater
     Mahlalele                             Affairs, P.O. Box                                     management in
                                           772, Maseru, 100,                                     IWRM training
                                           Lesotho                                               Manual
6.   Rosen       Zimbabwe       Male       ZINWA, Box 2880,            To receive
     Tommy                                 Bulawayo,                                             Groundwater
                                           Zimbabwe                                              management in
                                                                                                 IWRM training
                                                                                                 Manual from
                                                                                                 Richard in
7.   MogaMi      Botswana       Female     P.O. Box 21592,             Groundwater
     Kneilwe                               Gaborone, Botswana                                    management in
                                                                                                 IWRM training
8.   Hlatywayo   Zimbabwe       Female     13 Working Drive,;         To receive
     Chipo                                 MT Pleasant, Harare            Groundwater
                                                                                                 management in
                                                                                                 IWRM training
                                                                                                 Manual from
                                                                                                 Richard in
9.   Masaka      Botswana       Male       P. O. Box 1398,;    Groundwater
     Tebogo                                Gaborone, Botswana         management in
                                                                                                 IWRM training
10. Katambara    Tanzania       Male       P.O. Box 6201,         Groundwater
    Zacharia                               Mbeya, Tanzania                                       management in
                                                                                                 IWRM training
11. Nameduma     Mozambique     Male       Administracao           Groundwater
    Tarcisio                               Regional de Agun do                                   management in
                                           cent ro-Moza nua.                                     IWRM training
                                           Sancho de toar                                        Manual
                                           number 67, Porita-
                                           ges- Beira
12. Jean         South Africa   Male       P.O. Box 311,       Groundwater
    Simmonis                               Mtuzini, 3867;          +27729773994                  management in
                                           University of                                         IWRM training
                                           Zululand, Dept of                                     Manual + DVD-
                                           Hydrology P. Bag X                                    water

NAME              COUNTRY        GENDER   ADDRESS                 EMAIL ADDRESS                   Materials
                                          1001Rwadlangezwa                                        management in
                                          3886                                                    motion
13. Mlambo        South Africa   Male     Schoeman &    ;          Groundwater
    Douglas                               Partners Consulting,           management in
                                          P.O. Box 2471,                                          IWRM training
                                          BRITS 0250                                              Manual + DVD-
                                                                                                  management in
14. Masalla       Tanzania       Male     Geita Gold Mine,;   Groundwater
    Jones                                 P.O. Box 532, Geita-            management in
                                          Mwanza                                                  IWRM training
15. Omwenga       Kenya          Male     Ministry of Water;           Groundwater
    Joe                                   and Irrigation, Box     +254722162151                   management in
                                          49720, Nairobi                                          IWRM training
16. Micah         South Africa   Male     University of the;               Groundwater
    Christopher                           Western Cape,       management in
    Dominick                              Modderdam Road,                                         IWRM training
                                          Bellville, South                                        Manual
17. Dr Richard    Zimbabwe       Male     Africa Groundwater              DVD-water
    Owen                                  Network, 11 Hazel                                       management in
                                          Rd Mandara, Harare,                                     motion

18. Prof Tamiru   South Africa   Male     Wits University, Bag         DVD-water
    Abiye                                 X3, Johannesburg,                                       management in
                                          2050; School of                                         motion

19. Dr Manuel     South Africa   Male     Wits University, Bag            Groundwater
    Magombeyi                             X3, Johannesburg,                                       management in
                                          2050; School of Civil                                   IWRM training
                                          & Environmental                                         Manual + DVD-
                                          Engineering                                             water
                                                                                                  management in
20. Dr Jean-      Zimbabwe       Male     Waternet, WaterNet      jmkileshye-
    Marie                                 Secretariat, Box MP
    Kileshye                              600, Mount Pleasant,
                                          Harare, Zimbabwe

21. Ms Rennie     Zimbabwe       Female   Waternet Programme
    Chioreso                              Officer, WaterNet
                                          Secretariat, Box MP
                                          600, Mount Pleasant,
                                          Harare, Zimbabwe

Table 3. Groundwater management within river basins training course programme. Date: 18 – 22 July, 2011. Venue: Johannesburg
     Time                        18 July 2011                        19 July, 2011                    20 July, 2011              21 July, 2011                   22 July, 2011
                                   Monday                              Tuesday                         Wednesday                   Thursday                          Friday
08:00-08:45       Registration                            Module 4: Surface water /                 Field visit        Module 8: Stakeholder              Module 12:
                                                          Groundwater interactions. Tamiru                             Participation. Rennie              Communication & Information
                                                                                                  Tamiru                                                  Management Richard
O8:45-9:00        Introduction & Greetings. Manuel        Activity 4 & 7. Discussion: Role                             Activity 8. Role play.
                                                          Play: Conflict over groundwater         To West Rand /       Community & farmers meet           Activity: Role play on
9.00-9.30         Course introduction – Groundwater       abstraction in a fully committed        Randfontein to AMD   water manager and discuss          information management
                  Management within River Basins          basin. Major users, catchment           decant site and      community responsibilities for     impact / needs.
                  Richard                                 managers, community, environment        Krugersdorp river.   aquifer management.
                                                          etc. Participants                                            Participants

10:00-10:15       Coffee Break                            Coffee Break                                                 Coffee Break
                  Module 1: Groundwater and               Module 5: Groundwater Quality                                Module 9: Economic and             Module 13: Groundwater
10:15-11:15       Integrated Water Resources              Management. Tamiru                                           Financial Instruments. Rennie      management functions at
                  Management: Framework. Richard                                                                                                          catchment scale. Richard
                                                          Activity 5: Case histories with                              Activity 6. Discuss how to apply
11:15 – 12:30     Activity 1. Develop a basin plan with   groundwater quality problems. Or                             financial and economic             Discussion.
                  GW & Dublin principles – report         Role play – urban waste                                      instruments to GW management.
                  back. Participants                      management to improve water                                  Participants
                                                          quality Participants
12:30-13:30       Lunch Break                             Lunch Break                                                  Lunch Break                        Lunch Break
                  Module 2: Groundwater Occurrence        Module 6: Groundwater Monitoring                             Module 10: Groundwater             Case Histories
13:30-14:15       and Transboundary Aquifers in Africa    for Resource Management. Tamiru                              Legislation and Regulation         Participants
                  Manuel                                                                                               Manuel
                                                          Activity 6: Design a Groundwater
                  Activity 2: Discussion: Management      Monitoring system: Scale / type of                           Discussion: what are the most
14.15-15.15       strategies for transboundary aquifers   monitoring. What is monitored?                               important practical aspects for
                  in Africa. Participants                 Who should pay? Frequency of                                 groundwater legislation and
                                                          monitoring? Use of data?                                     implementation.
15:15-15:30       Coffee Break                            Coffee Break                                                 Coffee Break                       Coffee Break
15:30-16:15       Module 3: The nature of Groundwater     Module 7: Groundwater Allocation                             Module11: Groundwater and          Summary: Key Issues and
                  and Resource Assessment. Jean           and Licensing. Richard                                       Climate Change. Jean Marie         Participants Feedback:
                                                          Activity 7 & 4: Role play: Allocation                        Activity 1: Discussion. How        (All facilitators)
16.15-17.00       Activity 3. Examples of Groundwater     of groundwater in a heavily                                  can GW and SW management
                  Resources Assessment Participants       committed basin. Participants                                reduce CC impacts?
           Facilitators: Richard Owen (AGW-Net); Tamiru Abiye (AGW-Net / Wits); Rennie Chioreso (WaterNet); Manuel Magombeyi (Wits), Jean-Marie Kileshye-Onema

Table 4. Finance

 Items                                                           Amount (Rand)

 Income received                                                              71213.20


 Conference package + accommodation at Orion                                 70,120.02

 Excursion (Transport)                                                         2,280.00

 Excursion (Refreshment)                                                           125.85

 Transport to Pretoria to collect Manuals from CapNet                              500.00

 Transport for participants back to Airport                                     900.00
 Total expenses                                                              73,925.87

 Shortfall                                                                     2,712.67

                                     Evaluation report
                            WaterNet / AGWNet / Wits University
                 Short Course: Groundwater Management within River Basins
1.   Relevance of the course to your current work or function.

                     None            Low          Medium           High            Very high
                                                   13%             60%               27%

2.   Extent to which you have acquired information / content that is new to you.

                     None            Low          Medium           High       Very high
                                                   37%             38%            25%

3.   Relevance of the information / content that you have acquired for your work.

                     None            Low          Medium           High       Very high
                                                   7%              47%            47%

4.   Did the course reach your expectations and objectives?

                No               Little          Just enough      More than enough        Completely
                                                      6%                50%                 44%

5.   As a regional course participant, has the course prepared you to lead a follow up course in your own
     country / organization?

                     None            Low          Medium           High       Very high
                                     7%            14%             47%            33%

6.   Considering the course, the sessions were:

                                  Fully relevant                         64%
                                  Most of them relevant                  36%
                                  Only some were relevant
                                  They were not relevant

7.   The presentation of the different sessions was:

                                  Excellent                              53%
                                  Very good                              47%

8.   Participation possibilities during the course were:

                                  Excellent                              67%
                                  Very good                              33%

9.   The length of the course was:

                                  Excessive                              27%
                                  Adequate                               67%
                                  Insufficient                            7%

10. Supporting materials for the different sessions were:

                                  Excellent                              39%
                                  Very good                              39%
                                  Good                                   23%

11. The presentation of case studies and experiences enabled you to appreciate the applicability of the
    issues discussed:

                                  Completely                             100%
                                  Sufficiently but without
                                  covering all issues

Positive comments: Field trip; very relevant (x3); regional nature of participants; excellent interaction; well
presented and easy to follow; educating; great experience; networking positive;
Negative comments: too many exercises; more time for sightseeing / shopping; need more varied participants;
improve networking possibilities; more time needed for lectures; hotel setting too inner city without access to
gardens, shops or safe walking.


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