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Chapter 19 Drifting Towards Disunion

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					Chapter 19 Drifting Towards
         Disunion
A House Divided Against Itself Cannot
  Stand. I Believe This Government
Cannot Endure Permanently Half Slave
       And Half Free AL 1858
  Stowe and Helper: Literary incendiaries

• Harriet Beecher Stowe’s
  Uncle Tom’s Cabin rocks
  the Union. Bestseller
  and “Tom Shows”.
• Hinton R. Helper’s The
  Impending Crisis of the
  South. Thesis stated
  slavery kept poor
  whites down (worried
  slavocracy)
                 Bleeding Kansas
• After the Kansas Nebraska
  Act many abolitionists and
  slaveocrats rush into
  Kansas.
• One group was the New
  England Emigrant Aid
  Society and their “Beecher
  Bibles”
• Two different territorial
  governments (slave and
  free) were set up in Kansas
                Bleeding Kansas
• Abolitionist John Brown led
  an attack at Pottawatomie
  Creek that killed 5
  presumed proslaveryites.
• Lecompton Constitution of
  Kansas fraudulently
  included slavery in the
  Constitution of Kansas.
  (Democrat Stephen Douglas
  worked against this, cost
  him Southern support)
             “Bully” Brooks and His Bludgen

• Massachusetts Senator Charles
  Sumner in a scathing speech
  entitled “ The Crime Against
  Kansas” lambasts the slavocrats
  moving to Kansas and the
  Southern Senator Andrew Butler
• South Carolina Congressman
  Preston Brooks beats Sumner
  almost to death
• Brooks was reelected with the
  slogan “Use Knockdown
  Arguments”
      1856 Presidential Election
• Democrat James
  Buchanan (popular
  sovereignty platform).
• Republican John C.
  Fremont (non-extension
  of slavery platform)
• American or Know
  Nothing Party Millard
  Fillmore (“Americans
  Most Rule America
  platform”)
              The Dred Scott Bombshell
•   Scott and his lawyers appeal the case to the
    U.S. Supreme Court. In Scott v. Sanford the
    Court states that Scott should remain a slave,
    that as a slave he is not a citizen of the U.S.
    and thus not eligible to bring suit in a federal
    court, and that as a slave he is personal
    property and thus has never been free. The
    court further declares unconstitutional the
    provision in the Missouri Compromise that
    permitted Congress to prohibit slavery in the
    territories. In fact, the compromise is already
    under assault as a coalition of political
    leaders-some slaveholders, others
    westerners who resent the federal
    government's ability to dictate the terms of
    statehood-claim that territorial residents
    should be able to determine on what terms
    they enter the union. The decision in Scott v.
    Sanford greatly alarms the antislavery
    movement and intensifies the growing
    division of opinion within the United State.
    The newly-formed Republican Party, which
    opposes the expansion of slavery, vigorously
    criticizes the decision and the court.
                  1857 -1858
• Panic of 1857            • Abraham Lincoln from
• High unemployment,         Springfield Illinois
  depressed grain prices
• Calls for Homesteads,
  higher tariff rates
           Lincoln Douglas Debates
• In 7 debates for the United States
  Senate Lincoln and Douglas
  argued over the extension of
  slavery question.
• Douglas’s Freeport Doctrine…
  Douglas said even with Dred Scott
  decision if territory did not pass
  laws to enforce slavery, slavery
  would naturally die out…Douglas
  wins reelection to Illinois Senate
  but Southern Democrats will
  never accept him as a
  Presidential candidate
• Lincoln emerges as a Republican
  leader
Harper’s Ferry
                          John Brown’s Raid
                           at Harper’s Ferry
•   On October 16, 1859 Brown led a group of      •   The state of Virginia charged Brown with
    twenty-one men on a raid of Harper's              treason. During this time, slave states
    Ferry, Virginia (modern-day West Virginia).       commonly accused people who
    A federal arsenal was in the town, and            encouraged or led slave rebellions of
    Brown hoped to capture the buildings and          treason against the state. The court found
    the weapons stored inside of them. He             Brown guilty and sentenced him to death.
    then intended to distribute the guns and          On December 2, 1859, Brown was hanged.
    ammunition to slaves in the region,               He became a martyr for many
    creating an army of African Americans             Northerners. Some of these people feared
    that would march through the South and            that the United States had become a
    force slaveholders to release their slaves.       government dominated by Southern slave
    Brown and his men succeeded in                    owners. Many white Southerners became
    capturing the arsenal, but local residents        convinced that all abolitionists shared
    surrounded the buildings, trapping the            Brown's views and his willingness to utilize
    abolitionists inside. A detachment of             violence. Brown's Harper's Ferry raid
    United States Marines arrived and                 raised issues for the presidential election
    stormed the arsenal on October 18,                of 1860. It was also one of the events that
    capturing seven men, including Brown.             led to the eventual dissolution of the
                                                      United States and the civil war that
                                                      followed.
        1860 Presidential Election
• Northern Democrats select    • Republicans nominate
  Stephen Douglas (platform      Abe Lincoln
  popular sovereignty).
• Southern Democrats select
                               • Platform…non-
  John C. Breckinridge           extension of slavery,
  (platform was extension of     protective tariff,
  slavery / annex Cuba for       immigrant rights, Pacific
  slave land)                    Railroad, internal
• Constitutional Union Party     improvements,
  nominate John Bell….status     Homesteads for farmers
  quo on slavery (former
  Whig party)
1860 Presidential Election Results
Secession After Lincoln’s 1860 Election
     Confederate States of America
• Richmond Virginia was the capital
• Jefferson Davis was President,
  Alexander Stephens was Vice-
  President




                                      Confederate Capital




   Jefferson Davis
         The Collapse of Compromise
•   Senator Crittenden wanted to re-
    establish the Missouri Compromise
    line of 36-30’ in all the territories that
    now belonged or might in the future
    belong to the United States. Slavery
    would be permitted south of the line,
    forbidden north of the line. Southern
    members indicated they would
    accept this compromise if the
    Republicans agreed as well.
    President-elect Lincoln was
    consulted, and he said no. First of all,
    in his view, it would encourage slave
    states to embark on imperialistic
    ventures in Latin America where they
    could acquire more slave states; and,
    furthermore, it abandoned the basic
    Republican Party principle of no
    expansion of slavery into the
    territories. Thus, this compromise
    was rejected.                                Senator Crittenden
The End of Compromise

				
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