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LInuc reference


									dpkg -I pkg.deb dpkg -c pkg.deb dpkg -S filename dpkg -i pkg.deb debsums dpkg-divert [options] file dpkg --compareversions v1 gt v2 dpkg-query -W --showformat=format dpkg --get-selections > file dpkg --set-selections < file

Dpkg Show package information. List contents of package file. Show which package a file belongs to. Install package files. Audit check sums of installed packages, needs debsums. Override a package's version of a file. Compare version numbers, check with echo $?. Query installed packages, format e.g. '${Package} ${Version} ${Installed-Size}\n'. Write package selections to file. Set package selections from file.

Debian GNU/Linux Reference Card
Version 5.0.1 2008-08-01
Getting Help Read online help for every man page or man command and many bash configuration files. command Brief help for most [--help, -h] commands. Find all documentation /usr/share/ here, optional file doc/ README.Debian contains package-name/ specifics. Reference, manuals, Web FAQs, HOWTOs, etc. at documentation Mailing lists at The community is always http://lists.helpful, search for users. The Wiki at Contains all kind of useful http://wiki.dinformation.

The Network Network interface configuration. Start, stop network ifup, ifdown interfaces according to [device] files above. Show and manipulate /sbin/ip network interfaces and routing, needs iproute. ssh -X user@host Login at other machine. scp files Copy files to other user@host:path machine (and vice versa). /etc/network/ interfaces


CD images

boot: expert

Installation All information about it at Download from E.g. to set up the network w/o DHCP or using LILO instead of GRUB.

Web Server (Apache2) /etc/apache2/ Configuration files. Contains virtual hosts. To /etc/apache2/ enable a virtual host, use sites-available/ a2ensite. Contains available /etc/apache2/ modules files. To enable a mods-available/ module, use a2enmod.

Legal Notice

This document may be used under the terms the GNU General Public License version 3 or higher. Conditions for copying and translations can be found at, where you can always get the latest version of the reference card.
Copyright © 2004, 2008 W. Martin Borgert Made by:

Bug Tracking at Package specific reportbug

All about existing and fixed bugs. See, use wnpp to ask for new packages. Report a bug by e-mail.


Bugs Instructions at

Configuration All system configuration /etc/ files are under directory /etc/. Default text editor. May editor files be nano, emacs, vi, joe. CUPS at http:/- Browser interface to /hostname:631 printing system. Reconfigure a package, dpkg-reconfigure e.g. console-common package-name (keyboard), locales (localisation). updateManage command alternatives alternatives. options After changing update-grub /boot/grub/menu.lst. make-kpkg --initrd -Build a kernel packages revision=2:my.1.0 from sources, if a --rootcmd customised kernel is fakeroot --uc really needed, needs --us kernel-package. kernel_image Create and install m-a a-i module third-party modules kernel_image (gspca, ...), needs module-assistant.

Important cd directory cp files dest echo string gzip, bzip2 [-d] files pager files ls [files] mkdir directory-names mv file1 file2 rm files rmdir dirs tar [c][x][t][z][j] -f file.tar [files] find directories expressions grep search-string files kill [-9] number ln -s file link ps [options] su - [username] sudo command command > file

Shell Commands Change to directory. Copy files and directories. Echo string to screen. Compress, uncompress files. Show contents of files. List files. Create directories. Move, rename files. Remove files. Remove empty directories. Create, eXtract, list Table of archive file, z, j for .gz, .bz2. Find files like -name name or -size +1000, etc. Find search-string in files. Send signal to process (e.g. terminate it). Create a symbolic link to a file. Show current processes. Become another user, e.g. root. Execute a command as root as normal user, see /etc/sudoers Overwrite file with output of command. Append output of command to file. Use output of command 1 as input of command 2. Use file as input for command.

apt-cache search search-string apt-cache policy package-names apt-cache show package-names apt-cache showpkg package-names apt-get install package-names apt-get upgrade apt-get dist-upgrade apt-get remove package-names apt-get autoremove apt-cache depends package-names apt-cache rdepends package-names apt-file update apt-file search file-name apt-file list package-name auto-apt

APT Search packages and descriptions for search-string. Show versions and priorities of available packages. Show package information incl. description. Show package dependencies (needed packages). Install packages from repositories with all dependencies. Install newest versions of all packages currently installed. Like apt-get upgrade, but with advanced conflict resolution. Remove packages with all needed packages. Remove packages that no other packages depend on. List all packages needed by the one given. List all packages that need the one given. Update content listings from package repositories, see apt-get update Search packages for file. List contents of a package. Installs packages automatically if needed, can replace apt-file, needs auto-apt. Console interface to APT, needs aptitude. GUI interface to APT, needs synaptic.

Daemons and System /etc/init.d/ Restart a service, system file restart daemon. /etc/init.d/ Stop a service, system file stop daemon. /etc/init.d/ Start a service, system file start daemon. halt, reboot, Halts, reboots, shuts poweroff down system. All log files are under this /var/log/ directory. Default values for many /etc/default/ daemons and services.

command >> file cmd1 | cmd2 command < file

apt-get update

Important Shell Commands cat files Print files to screen.

APT Update packages listings from package repositories as listed in /etc/apt/sources.list. Required whenever that file or the contents of the repositories change.

aptitude synaptic

dpkg -l [names]

Dpkg List packages.

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