The early history of popular music in the USA.ppt

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Popular Music

 Music with a broad
 Music recorded for
 Often oriented towards
  a youth market
 Often intended to
  encourage dancing
Early Pop Music
 Mass distribution needed
  to be considered pop
 1st way music distributed
  to a wide audience?
 Sheet music- many
  Americans sang and
  played music in own
 Most sheet music sold in
  19th century- opera,
                               Now playing:
  classical music, marches,
  minstrel music               Esprit du Corps
                              John Phillip Sousa
Minstrel Music
 White singers in blackface
   exaggerating the styles of
   African-American song and
 Had existed in US almost since
   Europeans encountered Africans
 Made most popular form of
   mass entertainment in 19th
   century by Thomas Rice, who
   saw a crippled black stable hand
   named Jim Crow doing a song
   and dance called Jumping Jim
 Rice bought the man's clothes
   and learned the song and dance
   and made it a stage routine
Changing technology-
The phonograph
 Thomas Edison the father
    of recording industry
   Invented the phonograph
    (musical cylinder) in 1877
   Music recorded on wax and
    later plastic cylinders
   Dominant form of mass
    production from 1880s-
   Brought professional
    musicians into homes for
    first time
Changing technology-
The gramophone (record player)
 1887- Emile Berliner
  invents the
 Played a flat record-
  cheaper to mass
  produce, easier to
 Gramophone was in
  millions of homes by     Now playing:

  the early 20th century   Red Red Robin
                             Al Jolson
Pop Music in early 1900s
tended to be:
 Mostly European in
  style (USA still looked
  to Europe for approval)
 Enjoyed by old and
  young alike
  (phonograph /
  gramophone sat in
  centre of home               Now playing:
  controlled by head of
                            California Here I Come
  household)                       Al Jolson
The Lost Generation

 Young men disillusioned
  by the horrors of WW1
  began to reject the
  values of the elder
 Young women fought
  stereotypical gender
  roles and adopted the
  “flapper” lifestyle
 Known as the “Lost
  Generation”, youth in the
  1920s began to rebel
  against the values of the
  Victorian era
The Generation Gap
 A disconnect between
   members of one generation
   and members of the next
   based on the later generation
   developing habits, attitudes,
   and preferences inconsistent
   with the experience of the
 Before the 1920s, culturally
   there was not a significant
   generation gap
 During the Roaring 1920s, the
   musical tastes of the young
   and old began to diverge-
   generation gap in music has
   been significant since then
The Jazz Age
 Nickname for the 1920s
 Jazz music was developed
  by African Americans in the
  Jim Crow south (New
  Orleans was the centre of
  the jazz music scene)
 Came North as Black
  musicians tried to escape
  Southern oppression,
  particularly during the
  Great Migration- Chicago &
  New York became centres       Now playing:
  for Jazz music
                                St. Louis Blues
                                Louis Armstrong
Jazz- Music of Rebellion
Young, white, Americans
  embraced jazz music as
  form of rebellion because:
 Roots in Black culture
 Loud, fast, wild,
  improvised sound much
  different than traditional
  pop music
 Dance that accompanied it
  seen as too sexual
 Played at illegal
  speakeasies during
                                Now playing:
                                 Hotter than ‘Ell
                               Fletcher Henderson

 Name given to the
  practice of affluent,
  whites going to black
  neighbourhoods, like
  Harlem, to go to jazz
 Went to find authentic
  “jungle music” and for
  the thrill of doing
  something                Now playing:

  disreputable             Jumpin’ Jive
                           Cab Calloway
Tin Pan Alley & the White
Washing of Jazz
 Tin Pan Alley- the New
  York City-centered music
  industry that dominated
  the popular music of the
  United States in the late
  19th century and early
  20th century
 Saw the popularity of
  jazz music and wanted to
  make it more acceptable
  to wider society to
  increase sales
Symphonic Jazz
 Effort to get rid of
  elements of jazz that
  offended older
 Music was more
  arranged & orderly,
  played in concert halls
  instead of speakeasies,
  played by classically         Now playing:
  trained white
  musicians.                Paul Whiteman Orchestra
Stock Market Crash = Jazz Crash

 During the early 1930s,
  popularity of jazz waned due
  to unpopularity of
  symphononic jazz; some
  blamed jazz age for
 “Crooners” singing sad songs
  most popular music in these
 Record sales, attendance at
                                      Now playing:
  clubs falls dramatically during
  the early years of Depression     Pennies from Heaven
                                         Mel Torme
Swing Music

 During mid-1930s, new
  form of jazz, “Swing”,
  became popular.
 Mixed improvisation, up-
  tempo beat, danceability
  of hot jazz; and big bands
  and organization (led by a
  band leader) of symphonic
 Swing became mainstream      Now playing:
  pop music- most popular      Sing Sing Sing
  genre of its time            Benny Goodman
Black Musicians During
Swing Era
 Many Black musicians
  enjoyed considerable
  popularity during Swing Era (
  e.g. Duke Ellington, Count
 However, the white musicians
  were the most marketable
  and highest paid swing artists
  (Benny Goodman, Glen
  Miller, Artie Shaw)
                                       Now playing:
 Faced racism or were not
  allowed to perform at            Jumpin at the Woodside
  Southern venues                        Count Basie
Bop or Bebop Jazz
 Genre created in 1940s
 Some believe it was
  created for musical
  reasons- gave musicians
  more freedom to
  improvise, be creative
  than swing
 Others believe black
  musicians created to
  protest that they were       Now playing:
  not being compensated
                               Groovin’ High
  as well as white swing    Charlie Parker & Dizzy
  artists                          Gilespie
Avant-Garde Jazz

 Eventually, jazz became
  even less of a dance or
  pop music, more of a
  musicians music
 Avant-garde jazz did not
  fit style or structure of
  more popular forms of
 End of jazz as a popular     Now playing:
  form of music (1950s)-      A Love Supreme
  replaced by R&B and Rock     John Coltrane
Overall Impact of Jazz
 Initiated the Generation
  Gap in Pop Culture
 First music of American
  origin to become popular
  world wide- US becomes
  leader in world pop
 Cultural product with
  African-American origins
  and played widely by
  Black musicians became       Now playing:
  popular in white society-
                              Take the A Train
  breaking down of racial      Duke Ellington

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