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					                  Frequently Asked Questions
Gift Catalogue
  1. Can I find out more about the family who will get livestock paid for by my
     donation?
   Let me explain how the gift catalogue works. The gift catalogue is designed so
     that people who want to make a donation to our work can see what their donation
     could buy / how their donation could make a difference.
   All proceeds raised through the catalogue are spent on our livestock and training
     programmes in Africa.
   If we were to match donations to gifts it would significantly increase
     administration costs, so less of your donation would go to the families you want
     to help (for breakdown of costs see q. 3).
   And, our staff in Africa wouldn't have the time or the resources to provide
     feedback on individual cases.
   However, Send a Cow does keep in contact with all the families we help through
     our African offices. All beneficiaries get regular visits from extension workers and
     other staff.
   We tell our supporters how their donations have helped farmers through stories
     and photos in our regular newsletter, Lifeline.
   Do you already get Lifeline? Would you like a copy?

  2. Can my donation go to a country I choose/ I’d like my donation to go to
     Uganda/ Rwanda etc. Is this possible?
   You can choose to make a donation to a country of your choice. However, you
     cannot choose a specific gift for a given country. The donation will be earmarked
     for our programme in that country and spent on the gifts most suitable to the
     need of the farmers we are working with.
   You may, however, want to choose a particular country because there are certain
     gifts provided there. For instance:
     - Lesotho: Primarily training in organic farming practices (with a few goats and
  rabbits)
     - Kenya: Primarily cows and dairy goats
     - Ethiopia: The only country where we currently run fruit tree programmes
     - Cameroon: The only country where we currently run grasscutter programmes
     - Rwanda: The only country where we currently provide bee hives
    Also, if you make a donation over £3,600 you can talk to our grants team about
     the possibility of it being allocated to a specific project.

  3. How much do you spend on administration costs? What percentage of my
  donation goes to recipients?
      Seventy-four per cent of our total income was spent on our charitable
        objectives. That is: 69% of livestock and agricultural projects, and five per
        cent on development education.
      It cost us 24 pence in every pound to raise our income last year.
      We spent 1p in every pound on governance costs.
      Our income for the financial year 2008-9 was £3.9m.
4. Will my donation be spent on the gift I have chosen / I don't want to buy
livestock, so can I be sure my money will be spent on fruit trees?
 Let me explain how the gift catalogue works. The gift catalogue is designed so
    that people that want to make a donation to our work can see what their donation
    could buy / how their donation could make a difference.
 All proceeds from the catalogue are spent on our livestock and training
    programmes in Africa.
  That means it will buy animals or other gifts, training, and ongoing help from our
     extension workers. It will also pay for programme staff in Africa and the UK, as
     these are an essential part of our service to poor farmers.
  We always ensure that we give families the gifts that are most suited to them and
     to their local terrain.
  All gifts are carefully designed to help poor farmers work their way out of poverty,
     so your donation will make a real difference as it will be spent where the need is
     greatest and on gifts best suited to the associated farmers.
  You may, however, want to choose to make a donation to a particular country
     because there are certain gifts provided there (see answer 2c above)

5. Other charities have similar gift catalogues to Send a Cow, and their prices
   are lower. Why are yours so expensive?
 We cannot comment on why other charities might offer cheaper animals in their
   catalogues than we do. However, we can tell you why our animals cost what
   they do.
 Our costs don’t just cover the animal – they cover the whole Send a Cow
   ‘package’. That includes training, low-cost vet services, and regular visits by
   extension workers to give the beneficiaries advice and check that their livestock
   is doing well.
 A majority of our dairy cows and dairy goats are provided ‘in calf’ or ‘in kid’ which
   adds to the cost – but provides the family ‘two for the price of one’ and an
   immediate impact in terms of milk. If the first born is a female it is passed on to
   another needy member of the group.
 To make a real impact on a family’s life we always buy good quality animals
   (pure breeds or pure breed crosses). Unfortunately there is often a shortage of
   good quality animals, resulting in high prices. Our staff are knowledgeable, and
   ensure that we get the best value for our money.
 Good quality animals produce much higher yields of milk or eggs etc. Their
   offspring are also of a superior quality and fetch more money at market – the
   offspring of meat goats, for instance, are much heavier than their local
   counterparts.
 Less good quality animals create almost as much extra work as better quality
   ones – but with far less return.
 In many villages we place good quality bulls, to breed with local cows. This
   improves the genetic stock of animals for an entire area.
 Other animals may seem comparable to other charities. This is because the
   local markets for these animals are more buoyant.

6. I would like to buy a ‘farmyard’, as featured in your gift catalogue. Who will
   get it?
 We don’t give a whole farmyard to any single beneficiary. The farmyard gift is a
   symbolic one – it’s designed to show what £2,000 can do for several poor
   families.
  If you donate a symbolic farmyard, we spend your donation on gifts for families in
   the various countries where we work.
 We can’t give you details of all those individuals who receive your gift. But we will
   send you a photo of a farming family who’ve recently been helped by Send a
   Cow, along with the story of how their lives have changed.
 We also tell our supporters how their donations have helped farmers through
   stories and photos in our regular newsletter, Lifeline.
 Do you already get Lifeline? Would you like a copy?

7. Can I name the cow/ goats/ sheep I have bought?
 No, I’m afraid this isn’t possible.
 The donation you made will be spent where the need is greatest. To match
   donations to livestock gifts would significantly increase administration costs, so
   less of your donation would go to the families you want to help.
 However, recipients treat their donated animals like a new family member, so
   they are usually very keen to pick some wonderful names for their animals.
 They often choose names that translate as things like Hope, Comfort or Loved
   One, which demonstrates how important your donation is to their lives.

8. Can I visit my recipient / group?
 No, I’m afraid this isn’t possible.
 The donation you made will be spent where the need is greatest. To match
   donations to recipients would significantly increase administration costs, so less
   of your donation would go to the families you want to help.
 Our staff in Africa wouldn’t have the time or the resources to manage such a trip
   – it would distract from the work they do with the poor families we are working
   with.
 However, Send a Cow does keep in contact with all the families we help through
   our African offices. All beneficiaries get regular visits from extension workers and
   other staff.
 We print stories and photos about many of them in our regular newsletter,
   Lifeline. Do you already get Lifeline? Would you like a copy?
 I’m afraid we don’t need volunteers from the UK on our projects. We employ
   people with specialist skills in animal husbandry, sustainable organic farming or
   social development, and it is best if they come from the relevant communities
   themselves and speak the local language.
 If you would like to volunteer in a developing country, have you tried approaching
   Voluntary Service Overseas? They specialise in such volunteer placements. Go
   to their website http://www.vso.org.uk/ or phone them on (0)20 8780 7500.
 We are always looking for volunteers in the UK to help raise funds for us. These
   volunteers have the opportunity to pay to go on a study tour to develop their skills
   and knowledge about our work. Would be interested in finding out more?

9. Can I send one of my own cows?
 Send a Cow was started by farmers each donating a cow from their own herds,
   so we can appreciate why you would want to make such a generous offer.
 However, we currently purchase all livestock within Africa and to deliver a single
   cow from the UK would be cost prohibitive.
 What we have suggested in the past, is that people who want to donate a cow to
    Send a Cow, sell a cow at market and donate the money to us. Does this sound
    of interest?

10. Why do you no longer provide fish / pigs?
 We do provide fish and pigs, but only in small quantities.
 Our fish project is currently a small pilot scheme in Tanzania, and we currently
    have sufficient funds to manage it.
 When the fish project becomes part of the full country programme, or when we
    start to provide fish in other countries, we will put the gift of fish back into the
    catalogue.
 Pigs could potentially compete with very poor families for food. So we only
    donate them in areas where we are sure this won’t happen.
 Pigs are also susceptible to African Swine Fever.
 Because of these problems, we give very few pigs, so we do not currently feature
    them in the catalogue.

11. Why are you featuring poultry in your Catalogue? What about bird flu?
   We did stop giving poultry for a time due to fears about bird flu.
   However, to date there have been only isolated cases, and not the large-scale
    outbreaks that had been feared.
   Of course, we are still monitoring the bird flu situation very carefully, and
    following guidelines from the relevant authorities in each country where we work.
   Many poor families in Africa continue to rely on poultry to help them make a living
    – just as farmers in the UK and elsewhere are continuing to keep chickens, and
    consumers are still eating chicken meat and eggs.
   Many poor families in Africa are continuing to ask us for chickens, and we always
    prefer to give families the animals they ask for, unless there are good reasons
    not to.
   Poultry are useful for farmers with little land, and are easy to care for. So they are
    great gifts for very poor families, such as orphan households.
   We have looked at the situation carefully, and decided that the benefits to the
    family – such as better nutrition and an income – currently outweigh the risks of
    bird flu.
   When we give animals, we also give training in how to spot signs of illness, and
    in good hygiene.
   Furthermore, farmers will pass this training on to their friends and neighbours
    who already own poultry. So we believe that our poultry programme can go some
    way to reducing the risk of a large-scale outbreak of bird flu or other disease,
    rather than exacerbating it.

15. I’m a vegetarian. Can you guarantee that my donation won’t be spent on
    livestock?
 We cannot restrict your donation to a type of gift – only to a specific country.
    However, all our country programmes involve livestock in some way.
 Our programme in Lesotho has a particular emphasis on the development of
    organic vegetable gardens, but we do still provide smaller livestock such as dairy
    goats there.
 This is because the manure they provide is key to enabling farmers to grow
    organically.
 Livestock is extremely useful to poor farmers across Africa. It enables them to
      develop integrated livestock systems, where manure is used to enrich poor
      quality soils so they can grow crops.
     I am sorry we cannot earmark your donation for non-livestock gifts, but I hope
      you understand that it would be very difficult for us to administer your gift in this
      way.
     [For more on vegetarian issues, click here]

Gift Aid Questions
  1. What is Gift Aid
   Gift Aid allows a charity to claim from the Inland Revenue the basic rate of
     income tax on a donation made by a tax-paying donor.
   This means that we can claim an extra 28p for every £1 you give.
   As long as you are a UK taxpayer, all you have to do is give a simple Gift Aid
     declaration.

  2. Why do I need to give a declaration?
   The declaration is our authority to reclaim tax from the Inland Revenue on your
     gift. By giving the declaration, you are confirming that you understand this.

  3. What are the benefits?
   Gift Aid is a great way of boosting donations whatever their size, at no extra cost
     to you, the donor, and with minimal extra administration for Send a Cow. A single
     Gift Aid declaration covers any number of donations made since 6 April 2000.

  4. Who is eligible?
   For a donation to qualify for Gift Aid, you must be a UK taxpayer. You must pay
     enough income tax or capital gains tax to at least equal the amount of tax Send a
     Cow will claim on your donations made in that tax year.
   A Tax year runs from 6 April; to the following 5 April. Send a Cow will claim from
     the Inland Revenue 28p for every £1 given. So, if you give £100 in a tax year,
     you must have paid at least £25 in tax (following the reduction in income tax from
     22 to 20%), the amount Send a Cow can claim from the Inland Revenue.

  5. Which donations are NOT eligible for Gift Aid?

  The Inland Revenue does not allow us to reclaim Gift Aid on your donation if you told
  us that:

     The donation was on behalf of someone else or a group of people.
       You can only make a Gift Aid declaration on your own donation.
       You cannot make a Gift Aid declaration on behalf of someone else, even if
         they are themselves a UK taxpayer.
       The only way around this is to ask each person to complete a declaration on
         the amount they have donated. We can supply collection envelopes, which
         do make provision for Gift Aid. See Question 9.

    The donation was made on behalf of a company.
       If you are making a donation on behalf of a company, or using a company
        credit card, the donation is not eligible.
       However, the company is entitled to claim tax relief on the donation, this
        needs to be performed at the end of each tax year.

If the charity holds a valid declaration, they will automatically go ahead and claim all
eligible donations unless the donor informs the charity that a particular donation is
not eligible.

6. How do I make a declaration?
    In writing, orally, or when making an online donation.
    You can download a donation form, fill it in and post it to us with your
      donation. You will find a Gift Aid declaration at the bottom of the form.
    And don't worry if you've already donated to us and forgotten to Gift Aid your
      donation. Simply download a giftaid form, fill it in and send it to us and we'll
      do the rest.
    Declarations are also found on the order form section of our Gift Catalogues.
    You can also make a declaration orally. In this case we are obligated to send
      you a written record and all you need do is check that the details are correct.

7. Does a gift I make jointly with someone else qualify for Gift Aid?
    Yes, but you must tell us how much is from each of you. You will both need
      to give declarations if the whole amount is to qualify.

8. Can Gift Aid be applied to sponsorship?
    Yes - Gift Aid can apply to your sponsorship donations. You simply need to
      indicate this on the sponsorship form.
    However, remember to include details of your full name, your home address
      (including postcode) & tick the Gift Aid box. We need this information to
      certify that you are a taxpayer to enable us to reclaim 28% extra.
    If you are being sponsored for an event please request a sponsorship form
      from us or download one and this will enable your sponsors to Gift Aid their
      contributions.

9. Can I use Gift Aid to donate the proceeds of a fundraising event?
    We cannot normally claim the gift aid portion of this type of donation, as the
      collection will be made up from many individuals, some of whom may not pay
      tax.
    To claim on the whole amount we would require a valid declaration from
      each of the individuals who donated.
    We can supply you with collection envelopes, which do make provision for
      gift aid and ensures that we make the most from the donation.
    If you have been sponsored for an event, and each sponsor has signed a
      Gift Aid declaration, then we can recover the tax on the amounts covered by
      declarations.

10. Can I cancel my Gift Aid Declaration?
     If you wish you can cancel your declaration at any time. Please let us know
       if you no longer pay sufficient tax to cover the tax that we reclaim. The
       cancellation will take effect from the time we receive your letter.
  11. How can I find out the amount Gift Aid will add to my donation?
        You can find out how much your donation is worth on the following website
         http://www.itforcharities.co.uk/gaidcalc/hightax.htm
        You can use the calculator here to see just how much more your donation to
         Send a Cow will be worth if you sign up to Gift Aid.

  12. Can my gift aid portion go towards a specific gift
       No

  13. How is gift aid affected by the lower income tax rate that begins in the
      financial year 2008/09?
       Send a Cow, along with all other charities, had feared that the new lower
          income tax rate would lead to a substantial drop in income, as we would not
          be able to claim as much back in Gift Aid.
       However, it was announced in the Budget in March 2008 that the changes
          will not affect Gift Aid for the next three years, despite the new lower income
          tax rate.
       So we can continue to claim 28p for every pound you donate, if you gift aid
          your donation.
       However, from 2011 onwards, we will be able to claim back only 25p in every
          pound.

Animal welfare answers
  1. Do you really ‘send cows’? Are the animals you donate transported
     humanely?
   When we first started, we sent cows from the UK to Africa. Then there was a ban
     on importing European animals into Africa after the BSE outbreak of 1996. So we
     now source our animals within Africa.
   This also supports local markets and reduces transport costs.
   The majority of animals we buy are not transported long distances, although we
     have recently imported a few very good quality goats and cows into Uganda and
     Rwanda from South Africa.
   We always do our best to ensure they are well cared for in transit. They are
     transported in vehicles that provide enough space for them to stand normally,
     and they are given adequate food and water.
   There are more details in our Animal Wellbeing Policy. Would you like me to
     send you a copy?

  2.    Will you need to return to exporting livestock from the UK to maintain
       quality? / Couldn’t AI work?
      Good quality livestock can be difficult to find in Africa. Plus, there are currently
       import restrictions in place between some neighbouring African countries to
       prevent spread of animal diseases.
      We are currently fulfilling some of our requirements by importing livestock from
       South Africa.
      In the longer term, it is likely that African countries will soon allow imports of UK
       cattle again. In this case, we may look into sending a few shipments of dairy
       cattle from the UK. These would mainly be used for breeding purposes, to
    improve the genetic stock of animals in an area.
   It is unlikely we would be able to improve the genetic quality of stock fast enough
    through the use of AI alone. AI services in Africa are not widely available and AI
    takes significantly longer to achieve the same results.
   The provision of a pregnant heifer will result in two quality livestock for a family,
    and access to milk, within just a few months of its arrival.
   We always do our best to ensure they are well cared for in transit. They are
    transported in vehicles that provide enough space for them to stand normally,
    and they are given adequate food and water.
   Maintaining animal wellbeing at all times, not just during transit, is a core
    objective of Send a Cow.
   There are more details in our Animal Wellbeing Policy. Would you like me to
    send you a copy?

3. How do you make sure the animals are not treated cruelly?
 It is in families’ interests to treat their animals well as they benefit enormously
   from them.
 All beneficiaries learn animal husbandry in their training courses before they are
   given livestock.
 They also sign a contract with their Send a Cow group, which outlines their
   responsibilities.
 We also employ extension workers, who monitor animals’ health and wellbeing
   after they have been given to a family.
 All families given livestock are part of a community group, which will also monitor
   the wellbeing of animals received by its members. It is rare, but it has been
   known for groups to remove animals from those that are not caring for them
   properly and place them with a more caring member of the group.
 Our beneficiaries only have small land holdings, so it is easy for extension
   workers and other group member to check animals are living in a good
   environment.
 Our stall feeding policy means that farmers owning as little as 1 ½ acres have
   enough room to build a light and airy shed, sufficient to house their animal and
   provide it with a spacious exercise yard.
 The average life expectancy of a cow donated by Send a Cow is much greater
   than that of a cow in the UK.
 We also recommend that small livestock, such as rabbits and cane rats, have
   spacious, light and airy shelters and that the same preparation and ongoing care
   applies.
 Would you like us to send you a copy of our Animal Wellbeing Policy?

4. Can cows give milk without having to give birth to a calf? Isn’t it cruel to
   keep them in calf so they keep lactating?
 Cows, like other mammals, only begin producing milk to feed their young.
 It is natural for cows to have a succession of calves, and to continue producing
   milk when pregnant. Send a Cow animals do not have any more calves than they
   would naturally.
 We train recipients in how to manage the cows’ natural breeding and lactation
   cycles in the best interests of the cow and calves.
 That includes allowing the cow a “dry period” (ie not milking the cow) for two
   months before her next calf is born, so she can produce a lot of good quality milk
    for a long time afterwards.
   It is always in families’ interests to ensure the health and wellbeing of the cow
    and calves.
   Would you like a copy of our Animal Wellbeing policy?

5. How can poor families feed their animals? Is there competition between
   animals and humans for food? Why are pigs no longer in the gift
   catalogue?

   Before giving any animals, we spend a long time working with Send a Cow
    groups on deciding what livestock is best in that area and for different families.
   We only donate animals to families with enough land to provide fodder for their
    animals, and enough time to care for them. We also train beneficiaries in how to
    grow fodder and all the other skills necessary to care for their animals.
   If necessary, we give them a packet of fodder seeds to get them started.
   Most of the animals we provide are ruminants, which eat grass and other fodder
    plants. So they do not eat the same food as humans.
   Chickens are only placed in areas where there are lots of affordable sources of
    chicken feed. They do not eat much, however, and can forage for food, so have
    never proved a problem.
   Pigs could potentially compete with very poor families for food. So we only
    donate them in areas where we are sure this won’t happen.
   Pigs are also susceptible to African Swine Fever.
   Because of these problems, we give very few pigs, so we do not currently feature
    them in the catalogue.

6. I’m a vegetarian. Why do you give livestock and not just crops and
   training?
 Mixed livestock and crop farming is a traditional and extremely widespread way
   of life in Africa. People tend to have at least a basic grasp of the necessary skills.
   Most very poor people aspire to own livestock, and it is what they ask us for.
 Livestock eat grass and farm by-products that cannot be used directly by people.
   They convert such fodder into milk, eggs or meat – a valuable source of protein
   for humans.
 Dairy products are a very effective way of restoring malnourished people to
   health, fast.
 Furthermore, animal manure is an excellent way of enriching the soil. This means
   that farmers can grow much higher yields of crops, as well as more varieties.
   These crops form the bulk of their diets.
 They can also use animal urine as a pesticide. This means they don’t need to
   buy commercial brands, and can instead farm organically.
 Farmers are able to sell milk, eggs or meat from their livestock. This income can
   help them lift themselves out of poverty.
 By keeping animals as well as crops, farmers spread their risks.
 Large animals can also be used to transport goods to market, or plough fields.
 Would you like a copy of our Animal Wellbeing Policy?

7. Are the animals you donate ever eaten? Are they slaughtered humanely?
 Beneficiaries invest a great deal of their own time, love and effort in their gifts.
   Most female animals are seen as far too precious to be eaten, because of the
    eggs or milk they produce. Their manure is used to enrich the soil too.
   They might be killed for meat once their productive life has ended. However,
    many families keep them on for the manure they produce.
   Families are likely to eat the male offspring of their animals, or sell them for meat.
    And we do give some animals primarily for their meat: rabbits and grasscutters,
    for example.
   Our staff in Africa manage all projects very carefully to make sure that all animals
    are treated well – and provide veterinary assistance to ensure that, where
    possible, animals remain disease free.
   Families would not eat an animal that has died of a disease.
   Animals are generally killed on the farm, so are spared the stress associated with
    being transported to an abattoir.
   Would you like a copy of our Animal Wellbeing policy?

8. What happens if the animal dies?
 We do our best to replace any animal that dies, although our staff in Africa will
   check first that it did not die due to maltreatment or neglect. This has never been
   the case.
 We also sometimes replace animals if their milk yield is not high enough.
 We give beneficiaries thorough training in looking after their animal and spotting
   problems. We also employ extension workers to keep an eye on them. So our gift
   animals usually live long and healthy lives.
 Would you like a copy of our Animal Wellbeing policy?

9. The oxen in the photos in your materials look like they are being
   mistreated. Why do you give oxen?
 Oxen are well capable of heavy work like pulling a plough.
 Farming families in Africa do not have access to tractors, so without oxen they
   have to open up land for sowing by hand. This is extremely tough work,
   particularly for the many elderly widows we help. Children also have to help out
   before going to school.
 Without oxen to pull ploughs, much less land is cultivated and far less food crops
   grown.
 Oxen also enable farming families to open up their land promptly, so they get the
   most out of each growing season.
 We train farming families in techniques such as animal husbandry and correct
   ploughing methods.
 We also provide them with suitable yokes and ploughing equipment, or give them
   guidelines on how to construct appropriate equipment to high standards using
   traditional methods.
 It is in families’ interests to keep their animals happy and healthy so they are
   productive for as long as possible.
 All our programmes have associated livestock experts. These check animals,
   and look for signs of ill-health.
 They have not reported any signs of discomfort in the oxen caused by the yokes
   or overwork.
 Some supporters have commented that the pair of oxen in photos in our
   catalogues look mismatched in size. They have raised concerns that this means
       the smaller oxen would not be able to keep up with the bigger one. However, in
       the original photo it is clear that the oxen are the same size, but one is standing
       in a furrow.
      We are proud of our animal wellbeing policy. Would you like us to send you a
       leaflet about it?

   10. How are poultry cared for in your projects?
    We take animal welfare very seriously. We have long had an animal wellbeing
       policy in place, and we are working with external animal welfare organisations to
       update, improve and implement this policy.
    Our poultry projects are monitored regularly by livestock experts, who look out for
       any signs of maltreatment or distress.
    Our aim is to become standard leaders in the countries where we work. Many of
       the countries where we work are producing their own organic and animal welfare
       standards, and we are committed to these.
    UK standards, such as those set by the RSPCA, are not always applicable in an
       African situation.
    For example, bird flu is endemic in much of Africa; and keeping chickens free
       range puts them at greater risk from the virus, which can be spread by wild birds.
       Therefore, we generally promote enclosed shelters with outside runs.
    We encourage farmers to vaccinate their poultry and provide medical treatment
       for any illnesses. We also train farmers to give good quality feed to their poultry ;
       and keep them well protected. Often, neighbours of families helped by Send a
       Cow will copy these methods, so better practice spreads.
    When cared for properly, poultry provide: eggs to sell and to malnourished
       families to health; droppings to fertilise fields; and male chicks to sell for meat.
       Many families we work with report that their chickens have enabled them to send
       their children to school; to repair their homes; and to grow more crops.

Programme Answers

1. How many people have you helped/ How many animals have you donated?
    We help over 13,000 households a year. There are an average of 6 people in
     each household.
    Our work has a significant multiplier effect, so for every person we train we
     estimate that 10 more benefit. Most of our beneficiaries report that their
     neighbours ask them about – and adopt – their new crop growing techniques. We
     also know the wider community benefits through the increased availability of milk,
     vegetables and fruit, as well as jobs in some cases when farmers employ people
     to help them work. So by training one person, a whole community can benefit.
    We encourage this process by training some farmers in peer training methods, so
     they can pass on their new skills to their communities.
    We are currently devising ways of recording pass-ons and this multiplier effect to
     document more accurately the number of people we have helped.
    In terms of the number of animals we have given, many families have received
     more than one animal each. For example, we normally give two or three goats to
     each family, and several chickens.
    Although we have been in existence since 1988, we were a very small charity
     until 1999. Since then, we have expanded rapidly, and we now help many more
       families per year than we did at first. Between April 2004 and June 2005, for
       example, we helped almost 1,800 families by giving them livestock. Our schemes
       gave out almost 6,000 animals in this time.
      In addition, some families receive training rather than livestock. For example, in
       the highlands of Ethiopia and Lesotho, our programme has concentrated on
       teaching people how best to grow crops in those regions, though we are now
       distributing livestock.
      We also run a ‘Breeding Bull’ scheme in Ethiopia, Uganda and Kenya means we
       provide a good quality bull for cross-breeding with local cows, to improve the
       quality of the offspring. We estimate the number of calves born from this scheme
       will run into the thousands. We also use these bulls to enable people who have
       received high quality cows from us to maintain similar quality in their cows’
       offspring.

2. What types of gift do you provide? How do you make sure they’re suited to the
   climate where they’re going?
    Our main gifts are cows and goats. We also provide: breeding bulls and breeding
       goats; beehives; sheep; grasscutters; donkeys; draft oxen; rabbits; poultry;
       materials for building water storage tanks; fruit trees; medicinal trees; and fodder
       trees.
    Probably the most important gift of all is the training we provide, in animal care,
       natural sustainable organic farming techniques, group management, hygiene and
       family planning, and many other topics.
    We have different projects to suit different areas. For example in the Ethiopian
       highlands, the climate suits apple trees, which would not grow in many other
       areas where we work.
    We buy our animals locally, so they are suited to the area’s climate. We usually
       buy cross-breed cows, which combine the high milk yields of good quality dairy
       cows with the ability to withstand local conditions in Africa. We do give some
       pure-bred cows, but only in areas where we know they will fare well.
    We work with local groups on deciding what is most needed, and respond to their
       requests. Our local staff are also well-placed to work out what gifts would work in
       different areas.

3. How do farmers store the milk?
    Most families boil milk to destroy any harmful bacteria and consume or sell it on
     the same day.
    It is commonplace in many of the countries where we work that families will drink
     milk in the form of a milky tea or consume it in a type of porridge.
    Some families will also process their milk to make cottage cheese and butter,
     particularly in Ethiopia where milk based products are often the only source of
     animal protein for families. In Zambia many farmers will sour their milk.
    Increasingly Send a Cow is working with groups that are looking to set up cottage
     industry processing organisations, whereby groups get together and set up a
     savings scheme to purchase storage facilities, giving them the opportunity to
     market dairy products such as yoghurt and butter.

4. I’ve heard that many Africans are lactose intolerant, is this true?
    According to the World Health Organisation, a clinically significant milk
       intolerance is rarely a problem - although a very mild milk intolerance (in terms of
       feeling slightly bloated) may occur in a person when there is a long period
       between receiving mother’s milk and starting to drink cow’s / goat’s milk.
      To explain in more detail: You lose tolerance to lactose the longer you don’t have
       it in your diet, for instance if it is not possible to move from mother’s milk to
       drinking cow’s / goat’s milk. This is common in Africa and although milk
       intolerance is not naturally genetically inherited, it can become a genetic issue
       when generations have not had access to milk. This is probably why you have
       heard that Africans are lactose intolerant.
      However, the benefits far outweigh the negatives for the many malnourished
       families we are working with. Milk brings much-needed nutrition to very poor
       diets. It provides children with all the vitamin B12 and around half the calcium,
       phosphorus and vitamin B2 they need in a day, as well as being a source of
       vitamin A.
      Over time, the gradual reintroduction of dairy products in progressively greater
       quantities tends to improve the ability to tolerate lactose. So, children brought up
       on a diet that includes dairy products will be less likely to be lactose intolerant as
       adults.

5. Don’t animals, especially goats, cause erosion in many parts of Africa?
    All the animals we give are properly controlled. We give all the families we work
     with thorough training in how to manage their animals, and we check that they
     have built suitable shelters before we place any animals.
    Generally, larger animals such as cows are stall fed. This means the animal is
     not allowed to roam freely, which can cause erosion, but is kept in a roomy
     shelter and has food brought to it.
    This also means that farmers can easily collect their animals’ manure and urine
     to use on their soil to grow better crops. We train them in these techniques.
    Some animals, for example local cows, are not stall fed. They may be grazed –
     but always under close supervision, to ensure they do not eat crops or harm the
     land. We train our farmers to provide night shelters and supplementary forage
     feeding. This practice enables them to collect manure to make compost, and also
     provides security for the animals. The supplementary forage feeding improves
     the animal’s health and productivity.
    Often, neighbours of the families we help will adopt the shelters and feeding
     methods that we teach. So in fact, we are spreading good practice.
    We also train farmers in many other sustainable farming methods. These include
     how to prevent and combat problems such as soil erosion by terracing land and
     harvesting rainwater, so it does not flow off and take the topsoil with it.
    So our work helps the environment, rather than harms it.

6. How do you select recipients? Why are so many of them women?
    Established groups, such as church organisations or women’s groups, usually
     hear about Send a Cow through word of mouth and approach us for help.
    Our African staff look at the group carefully, to see if it is suitable. They check
     that it has clear aims, and that its members work together well and care about
     one another.
    If our staff decide the group could benefit from our programme, they then help
     them decide which members should be the first to receive livestock.
    In some cases, we do work with a community who have never worked together
     as a group before.
      The group and Send a Cow staff discuss which members should be the first to
       receive animals. Groups in Africa tend to have a deep understanding of
       community needs, so members are happy to see poorer neighbours helped
       before themselves.
      Our beneficiaries are always chosen on the basis of need. We do not choose
       people on the basis of their religion, gender or ethnicity.
      This means that the majority are women, as women are usually the poorest in
       any community. We work with a lot of widows, and a lot of women who have
       taken in orphaned children.
      In the case of poor couples, the man frequently has to work outside the home –
       often many miles away. So it is more practicable to train the woman.
      However, if a woman is trained and given an animal, her whole family benefits –
       including her husband, if she has one. We encourage women and men to share
       equally in decision-making, the work involved and the benefits the livestock
       brings.

7. What happens if the husband takes the animal?
    All Send a Cow beneficiary families sign a contract with Send a Cow and their
     community group before they receive animals. This sets out the conditions of
     ownership of the animal. The gift is placed with the whole family.
    If a husband (or wife) was to take the animal away from the family, that could be
     a breach of contract.
    We would discuss the issue with the family concerned and the community
     group’s chairperson.
    Probably, the group leadership would decide to take back the animal and give it
     back to the family.
    We carefully monitor all our projects, and we have never yet encountered this
     scenario.

8. Are you going to expand into different countries? How do you decide which
   countries to work in?
    We are always alert to the potential of countries where we could start new
      programmes. There are a number of factors that decide where we could work.
    We need to be sure that projects would be successful in a new country. Although
      our programme is quite flexible, it does require people to be settled, with at least
      a little bit of land, and to be able to feed their animals. So we do not usually work
      in urban areas or war-torn areas – though we do have a programme in northern
      Uganda.
    We have a duty of care to all staff employed by Send a Cow, and have to make
      sure they are not working in areas which would be dangerous.
    We began in Uganda because of a specific link with a church group there. We
      formed other partnerships in neighbouring countries, and expanded our
      programme there.
    We often expand to places where we have already developed links with partners.
    We also work closely with other charities in a global network of livestock
      development organisations.

9. How does pass-on work?
    Initially a whole group will be trained together. Wherever possible all will receive
     a livestock gift, although in some cases we will provide a percentage of the group
       with the gift, knowing that every member will ultimately receive a gift through
       pass on.
      Other groups will then receive training ready for pass-on of livestock from the
       original group.
      We will also train some particularly effective farmers in ‘peer farming’ techniques,
       so they are able to train new recipients themselves.
      By the time a region is looking to pass-on third or fourth generation offspring
       there will be many ‘peer’ farmers that will take on the role of training new
       recipients.
      Send a Cow will remain involved until it is satisfied groups are managing their
       land and their livestock (where appropriate); that the the pass-on process is
       properly managed; and that there is an effective peer farmer network in place.
       This can sometimes take as long as long as 5-10 years.
      This process is key to the long-term sustainability of the programmes.

10. How does the pass-on principle work for bees or fruit trees?
     Gifts of beehives are repaid once the recipients have sold their first honey
      harvest.
     They pay money into a group fund, which is then used to buy more beehives to
      give to other group members.
     Gifts of apple tree saplings are repaid by passing on the saplings generated from
      the original gift saplings.

11. What topics do beneficiaries learn in their training courses?
     All beneficiaries are given training before they receive an animal. This includes:
          o Animal husbandry, so they can care for their animal and spot signs of
               disease.
          o Animal feeds, so they can grow fodder for their livestock.
          o Organic farming, so they can use the animal’s manure to grow better
               crops to feed their families.
          o Environmental issues, so they know how to conserve water and increase
               soil fertility.
          o Credit, savings and business skills, so they can manage the money they
               make from the sale of eggs, milk etc.
          o Family nutrition and family planning, to keep the family healthy.
          o Group dynamics and management, so their group functions well and
               ensures the project’s success.
          o Gender issues, so that women and men can make decisions together and
               become equal partners.
     We also offer ongoing training courses on topics suggested by farmers.
     A lot of training is carried out in villages, so farmers can see its relevance in the
      context of their own lives. This may be backed up by short residential courses at
      specialist centres, such as St Jude’s Centre in southern Uganda, and the Gako
      Centre in central Rwanda.
     Some is provided by our own staff, and some by relevant government staff or
      local training centres.
     In some countries, we are training “peer farmers” – people chosen from within
      their communities to deliver on-going training within the group.
     We regard training as just as important as livestock.
12. What training do you give in water storage? / What other practices do you
    teach for times of drought?
     There is a common misconception that Africa is just one large desert – when in
       reality it is a huge continent with diverse climates, landscapes and rainfall
       patterns.
     We work in all types of environments – tropical and sub-tropical, semi-arid, and
       mountainous – and only provide livestock suitable to these environments and the
       associated rainfall patterns. If there is not enough water, we won’t provide
       livestock.
     In countries where water is scarce, there can often be an extended dry period
       followed by a torrential downpour.
     Send a Cow’s training helps farmers ‘trap’ this water on their land – either by
       improving the quality of soil through organic farming practices (so rain soaks into
       it, rather than running off it) or through simple water harvesting techniques.
     Our water harvesting techniques include the provision of materials for groups to
       dig their own water catchment ponds and simple ‘around farm’ practices such as
       the introduction of water tanks that can collect up to 10,000 litres of rainwater as
       it runs off the roofs of houses.
     We also provide training in producing cheap gravity fed trickle-irrigation systems
       using old lengths of punctured hosepipe.
     For times of extended drought our training includes hay and silage making and
       the storage of dried foods, to help families feed themselves and their livestock.

13. Don’t farmers in Africa already farm “organically”? What do you mean by
    “organic or sustainable farming”?
     Sustainable agricultural practices are natural methods that meet the needs of
       present-day farmers without damaging the potential of the land for future
       generations.
     Over the years, many traditional farming methods in Africa have fallen into
       disuse, often because people have adopted unsuitable western methods of
       farming. Often, the result is that farms deteriorate over time.
     Our sustainable farming training brings these techniques back. But it also
       improves upon these methods, and brings in ideas from other areas, or new
       techniques that have been developed.
     Some problems, such as erosion, might be new in an area, so farmers won’t
       have learned ways of combating them from their parents or grandparents.
     Sustainable farming techniques include: using manure to make compost and
       enrich soil; making pesticides from animals’ urine; making a bag garden that
       conserves water.
     The result is a massive increase in crop yields. Farmers report they can triple or
       quadruple the amount of food they can produce, and can grow varieties they
       never thought possible – such as pineapples.
     Would you like a copy of our Natural Gardening leaflet?

14. What help do farmers get with their animals once they’ve been trained?
     All farmers get support for as long as they need it: either from an extension
      worker, or from a Community Animal Health Worker.
     Extension workers are usually qualified and experienced animal husbandry
      workers. They can often treat animals themselves, or get help from government
      vets. They can also give farmers advice.
      All beneficiaries belong to a community group, which offers mutual support.
       Community Animal Health Workers are members of that community group, who
       have been trained by Send a Cow. These workers are supported directly by Send
       a Cow staff and the local government vets.
      Farmers can also get extra training: one-day refresher courses, for example.
      Members of the community group also offer mutual support. We work to build up
       the capabilities of these groups, so that in time they can provide all the support
       farmers need and will not require our help.
      Even then, our staff will be available if particular problems arise that a group feels
       it cannot tackle on its own.

15. What organisations does Send a Cow work with?
     The main organisation that we work with is Heifer International, which has offices
      in the US and several other countries (not the UK). Our approaches are
      fundamentally the same: we have similar aims and visions, and share similar
      values to those of our Cornerstones (which can be found on our website).
     In Kenya Send a Cow’s programme is managed by Heifer. In Ethiopia, Send a
      Cow is the managing organisation. In Cameroon Send a Cow funds part of
      Heifer’s programme.
     Some of the organisations we work with in Africa are: the Kulika Trust, Sunarma,
      Christian Children’s Fund, the National Union of Disabled People of Uganda, and
      St Jude’s Organic Farming Training Centre. We also have close links with
      government ministries in each country.
     In the UK, we’re a member of BOND (British Overseas NGOs for Development),
      the UK Food Group, and the Trade Justice Movement.

16. How does the relationship between Send a Cow and Heifer International work?
     There is very little actual difference between the two organisations. It’s more a
      difference of emphasis. Heifer does more work supporting micro-enterprise
      development. Send a Cow focuses more on organic farming practices. Both work
      with farmers of any religion or none.
     We are looking at developing joint programmes in new countries, and both
      organisations are keen to learn from one another.

17. What happens when only a few people in a village receive livestock? Does it
    create jealousy or tensions?
     Not everyone wants to join a group, because of the commitment and effort
       required. Recipients have to build a shelter, grow fodder and attend a training
       course before they even receive an animal.
     Though we are always involved in such discussions, we encourage the groups
       we work with to decide for themselves which members are the most in need, so
       will get the first livestock. This reduces the chance of any resentment.
     Even those who do not get livestock can benefit. We encourage beneficiaries to
       teach their neighbours the sustainable farming techniques and other skills they
       have learned in their training courses.

18. What about families who don’t have enough land or money to look after cows?
     Families do need to have at least the use of a little land – enough to grow crops
      or keep a beehive on – in order to benefit from our programme.
     Most will need to invest some money in building a shelter for their animals –
       though we do help child-headed households with this.
      For most new projects, we help set up a revolving fund. Farmers can borrow from
       this to pay for essential goods for their animal, and pay the money back when
       they start to make a profit from their animal.
      For families that do not have much land or money we can donate gifts such as
       beehives, which do not need much land or care.
      We do not offer disaster relief – that is outside our remit.
      Would you like me to send you some animal fact sheets? You can also find out
       more on our website.

19. Why do Africans have such big families? Isn’t that why they’re poor?
     In most Africa countries, all support to an individual from birth to death comes
      from the family. People may have several children to ensure care and
      companionship when old, infirm or sick.
     Children do need to be fed, but also contribute to their families by carrying out
      household and farm chores. And, once older, the children will provide for their
      parent and older family members.
     In some cultures, children are seen as a blessing; the more children the greater
      the blessing.
     Families often welcome others into their homes, for example clan members from
      elsewhere.
     Families with a few more resources would be expected to care for those in
      greater need. Increasingly, families are taking in orphans, whose parents have
      died from HIV / AIDS or other causes.
     Even if parents wish to limit their family size, they have limited access to family
      planning services.
     Our training looks at cultural expectation as well as family planning; particularly
      important for those orphaned children who do not have the guidance of their
      parents.

20. How is Send a Cow funded? What is its income?
     Most of our money is from the general public: either individuals, or groups. Rotary
      Clubs, schools and churches are some of our biggest supporters. We have about
      40,000 supporters currently on our database.
     We also get institutional funding from the Department for International
      Development and Comic Relief. In the past, we have been helped by the Diana,
      Princess of Wales Memorial Fund.
     Between June 2008 and June 2009, our income was £3.9m.
     Most of that rise has been due to increased support from the general public.

21. How do you guard against corruption? Do you work with governments?
     Our remit is to give practical help in the form of livestock and training directly to
      community groups.
     Our staff in Africa buy our gift animals themselves. They do not entrust large
      sums of money to anyone outside Send a Cow, including the government.
     Only small amounts of money are given to community groups, to set up loan
      funds.
     All our projects are carefully financially managed, by staff with relevant training
      and qualifications.
     We also train beneficiaries in basic book-keeping and other financial skills, so
       they are able to monitor the group loan fund too.
      Although we have excellent working relationships with local and national
       governments, we do not work through local officials.
      Our accounts and country programmes are audited, and submitted to the Charity
       Commission.
      A summary is available in our annual report. Would you like a copy?

22. What do you mean when you say you are a Christian charity?
     Send a Cow was founded by a group of Christian farmers in response to a plea
      for help from an African bishop.
     Christian ideals underpin all our work.
     All our trustees are Christians, as are the majority of our staff. Anyone who
      works for us needs to be sympathetic to and comfortable with our Christian
      ethos.
     However, we welcome the support of non-Christians.
     Our work is essentially practical. We do not preach to, or try to convert,
      beneficiaries.
     We do not help only Christians. Many of our beneficiaries are Muslims or have
      traditional beliefs. No attempt is made to convert them.
     A minority of the groups we work with in Africa are church groups, but that is by
      no means always the case. We select beneficiaries according to need, not
      religion or race.
     You can read our Christian statement on our website, or would you like to be sent
      a copy?

23. Aren’t cows worse for the environment than cars?
                Intensive versus small-scale farming
     Many of the statistics you may have heard come from the report called
       Livestock’s Long Shadow by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United
       Nations, or from other research that applies mainly to animals kept in intensive
       farming systems in the developed world.
     There is a huge difference between that kind of agriculture, in which milk and
       meat yields override environmental concerns; and the type of small-scale
       sustainable farming system that Send a Cow promotes in Africa, where people
       live in harmony with their environments.
                Emissions/ flatulence/ burping/ manure
     One of the main environmental concerns is about emissions of the greenhouse
       gas methane from cows’ burping, flatulence or manure. Methane production is an
       unavoidable byproduct of rumination.
     Cows that are fed easily digestible food emit less methane. We train farming
       families in how to chop up specially grown fodder into small pieces and mix it with
       legumes, to make it more digestible.
     They also use mineral blocks containing urea and molasses, which further aid
       cows’ digestion.
     We also train families in compost management, so that manure emits less
       methane as it breaks down. Methane can even be captured in biogas digesters
       for fuel for families who have no access to mains electricity or gas.
                Deforestation
     Farmers who keep livestock are also accused of deforestation to create grazing
       land. This is simply not true of families supported by Send a Cow. They keep one
       cow, or just a few, and do not generally allow them to graze, but instead grow
       special fodder which is chopped up and brought to the animals in their shelters.
      Where animals are allowed to graze, it is under close supervision. They do not
       graze on specially created pastures, but instead on areas such as hillsides where
       little other than grass will grow.
      Farmers are actually planting leguminous fodder trees to feed their cows – up to
       500 per cow. Like all trees, these soak up carbon from the air; and as they are
       leguminous, they also fix nitrogen. This means more carbon is captured and held
       in the soil, and more carbon is stored in the growing plants – rather than being
       released into the atmosphere.
                 Water consumption
      Livestock is also accused of using up too much water. We only give families large
       livestock if they have a reliable water supply, and we also teach them water
       harvesting techniques.
      Families in areas without a good water supply might be given other gifts that
       need less water, such as sheep or poultry.
      All the fodder grown is rain fed only so is not using underground or stored water
       otherwise needed by humans.
      Farming families with livestock and training from Send a Cow use manure to
       increase the water holding capacity of the soil, so they can grow more crops
       using less water.
                 Transport/ fossil fuels
      Some of the statistics about livestock’s effect on the environment factor in the
       carbon emissions from agricultural transport. Rural families supported by Send a
       Cow use virtually no motorised transport.
      Fossil fuels are used to make artificial fertiliser, emitting about three tonnes of
       carbon dioxide for every tonne of fertiliser produced. Farmers helped by Send a
       Cow use composted manure instead.
                 Pollution
      By using composted manure, farmers can avoid artificial fertilisers which can
       pollute water supplies and deplete soils in the long term.
      They can also avoid artifical pesticides, as cows’ urine provide the basic
       ingredient for organic pesticides.
                 Overview: Send a Cow is beneficial – not detrimental
      By training families in such methods as to ‘how to grow fodder and how to make
       compost’, Send a Cow is actually improving the existing agricultural situation in
       Africa. The farming families we train will pass on the methods they have learned
       to others in their wider community, who can then farm in a more sustainable
       manner.
      By supporting rural families with our sustainable agriculture programmes, we
       enable them to stay living on the land, eating locally produced food, and
       preserving the environment for future generations.

24. Why do you give rabbits? Won’t they escape from their hutches, breed rapidly,
    and devastate the crops?
     We give rabbits in Lesotho, where the environment is so harsh that families living
       in extreme poverty are unable to keep larger animals or grow much food.
     Rabbits are cheap and easy to keep, and their meat is extremely nutritious.
     They also provide families with manure, to increase the fertility of the land.
     Before giving any rabbits, we provide farmers with the materials to make secure
       hutches, and training in how to do so.
      We also provide farming families with training so they are fully aware of keeping
       their animals securely.
      In the unlikely event that a rabbit did escape, there are many rabbit predators in
       Africa. The rabbits we give are domesticated and unlikely to survive in the wild
       long enough to breed.
      We have only just begun giving rabbits in Lesotho, but we looked into it very
       carefully first. We asked other agencies who already give rabbits, who report
       positive results.
      We monitor all our projects closely, and to date there have been no reports of
       any escaped rabbits in Lesotho.

25. How does foot-and-mouth affect your work?
      We were founded by farmers and we retain strong links with the farming
       community. We are deeply concerned by the threat Foot-and-Mouth poses to
       rural communities in the UK.
      An outbreak in the UK does not, however, affect Send a Cow’s programme in
       Africa. We buy our animals locally in Africa, so are unaffected by any export ban.
      Although we have no record of there ever having been foot-and-mouth cases
       among our projects, the disease is endemic in Africa.
      Our veterinary staff in Africa are therefore well able to recognise the symptoms
       and take appropriate action, following internal procedures based on guidelines
       from the agricultural authorities in their country.
      Foot-and-mouth is not harmful to human health, and meat and milk from infected
       animals is safe to consume.
      Europe has a slaughter policy because of the devastating impact that the disease
       has on our higher production animals and farming systems. The majority of
       African farmers keep less productive local African animals, whose productivity is
       not as greatly affected by the disease. Most such animals will recover to
       reasonable health and productivity given time. Therefore, agricultural authorities
       in Africa contain outbreaks of foot-and-mouth until they run their course rather
       than eradicate the disease.
      African agricultural authorities generally run foot-and-mouth vaccination
       programmes when the need arises, and Send a Cow will support this procedure
       as required.
      The authorities do generally order a ban on movement of animals when an
       outbreak of an infectious livestock disease is reported. In that case, Send a Cow
       immediately implements measures to ensure we do not inadvertently aid
       transmission.
      However, the method of farming that we promote involves very little movement of
       animals from farm to farm, thus minimising the risk of livestock contracting or
       passing on the disease. We train farming families in how to stall feed their
       animals. This means that livestock are kept in roomy shelters and brought fodder,
       rather than allowed to roam freely. Furthermore, slaughtering of animals can take
       place on the farm, so animals do not need to be transported to abattoirs.
      If a purebred or crossbred cow or goat, such as Send a Cow normally gives,
       became infected, it could become very low-yielding. Depending on circumstances
       our staff would probably decide to replace the animal, once the outbreak had
       cleared.
      The risk that staff would bring back foot-and-mouth from a trip to Africa is
       miniscule, as the disease is not long-term resilient when exposed to the sun’s
       heat. Nonetheless it is our policy that staff take suitable disinfection procedures
       on their return, as a precautionary measure.

26. What do you do when there are land right issues?
     Land rights are different in all the countries and areas where we work, so we
      have to act on a case-by-case basis.
     Land rights are often an issue – particularly for women, who sometimes do not
      have the right to own land in their own name.
     Families do need to have the right to use, if not own, at least some land in order
      to benefit from our programme.
     We always work through community groups, who are able to advise us on any
      local land right issues.
     Through our projects, community groups often gain in confidence and the skills
      needed to deal with authorities, so are better able to demand their rights.
     In addition, we are starting to do more advocacy work, so could potentially offer
      groups direct help on land right issues.
     Some of our farmers have reported that projects have already had a positive
      effect. For example, in some areas of Kenya and Uganda, widows are
      traditionally expected to marry a member of their late husband’s family, giving
      their new husband ownership of the land. Some widows have reported that
      having a cow and in income means they can resist any pressure to do so.
     And in Ghana, local clan chiefs have given a project run by our partner Heifer
      some extra land to set up a mango planatation. The mango trees should provide
      a wind break that will benefit the whole village.

27. I would like to apply for help from Send a Cow/ I know of someone who would
    like help from Send a Cow.
     You need to apply to your local Send a Cow office for assistance. Send a Cow
        UK is not involved in deciding which groups to help.
     Before applying, you should consider whether the assistance we offer is
        appropriate for your group’s needs, and whether your group meets the basic
        criteria for assistance from Send a Cow.
             o Are you applying on behalf of a community group? We cannot help
                 individuals.
             o Would your group benefit from livestock and sustainable agricultural
                 assistance? We are a specialist charity working in those fields.
             o Are you based in a rural or semi-rural area? Our programmes are
                 inappropriate for an urban setting.
             o Are the members of your group considered poor by local standards?
             o Are you based in one of the 10 countries in which we work?
     If you can answer ‘yes’ to all the above questions, you might qualify for
        assistance. However, please note that each office will have their own, far more
        detailed criteria.
     Even if you fulfil the criteria, we may not have the means to help your group. We
        get many applications for assistance, and sadly often have to turn groups down
        or put them on a lengthy waiting list.
     If you would like to apply, you should contact the relevant country director in the
        first instance. We know that our country directors do their best to reply to your
       emails. However, they are very busy, so we do ask for your understanding if they
       take some time to respond.
      Staff from country offices always carry out extensive assessments before
       agreeing to assist a group. Please note that even if you are visited by a member
       of Send a Cow staff, your application will not necessarily be successful.
      Even if we are not in a position to help you, we wish you every success with your
       project.

28. Why do you no longer work in Ghana?
     From the end of the financial year (June 2008) Send a Cow will be working in 9
      countries in Africa. The country that we will no longer be working in is Ghana.
     We had committed to funding work with Heifer Project International
      (£15 000 a year) for three years and this is coming to an end in June 2008.
     Last year, Send a Cow's income dropped slightly to around £4.7m. Given our
      drop in income we have decided that Send a Cow will not start any new work in
      Ghana this year. However, Heifer International will continue to work in this
      country.

				
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