T - Prevention Resource Center by pengxuebo


Preventing a Hijacking
                                     ONNECTION                     N      E      W       S    L       E            T          T

                                                                                              address their issues by increasing pro-
                                                                                              tection factors and decreasing risk fac-
                                                                                              tors. The Community Incentive Pro-
                                                                                                                                          E            R

By Roland Mena
                                                                                              grams have gone a long way toward en-
                                             of alcohol and tobacco. Many Montanans           hancing community awareness that even

  S         cience-based prevention is the
                                             accept drinking as part of life and there-
                                             fore do not see the problems that alcohol
                                             or the use of other drugs can cause, espe-
                                                                                              small amounts of alcohol or other drugs
                                                                                              can affect the brains, abilities and poten-
                                                                                              tial of our youth. Ultimately, this
concept that by using specific strategies,   cially for those we love. We are generally       combination of tools gives us the oppor-
activities and products, we can impact       tolerant to the point of denial. The other       tunity to prevent hijackings, create more
substance use. This is accomplished by       barrier is that alcoholism and drug addic-       positive outcomes, and to do it in mea-
enhancing protective factors, changing       tion carry the stigma of moral weakness and      surable, responsible, research-based
community norms and by reducing risk         personal failure. It is hard to see someone      ways.
factors linked to substance use. We know     we care about as an alcoholic or drug ad-
that schools, communities and families       dict—a “failure” in life. Until we under-        —Roland Mena is the Chief of the Chemical
                                                                                              Dependency Bureau of the Addictive and Men-
can create environments in which youth       stand that addiction is a disease of the brain
                                                                                              tal Dependency Disorders Division of the De-
are less likely to participate in risk be-   and that social factors contribute to who        partment of Public Health and Human Services.
haviors and more likely to participate in    gets it, we will be caught in this paradox.
healthy activities. We know that preven-     By really looking and assessing the inter-
tion equals a changed attitude about us-     play of personal characteristics and social
ing alcohol and drugs.                       environments, we can begin to address the
     What makes prevention so important      core issues that lead to addiction or abuse.                      Prevention
is that addiction always begins with vol-    Really looking—really seeing—are the
untary behavior. No one has ever taken       keys to creating positive change.
a drug or a drink intending to become             The Chemical Dependency Bureau                  A Father’s Story ........................................... 2
addicted. Alan Leshner, Director of the      has been using two tools to create change.
National Institute on Drug Abuse, calls      The statewide Prevention Needs Assess-               Blueprint for the Future ............................... 4
addiction the “hijacking of the brain.” So   ment (PNA) and Community Incentive                   Positive Youth Development ....................... 7
while addiction begins with voluntary        Programming (CIP) are helping us imple-
behavior, prolonged drug use actually        ment the risk and protection technology              MPIRC ...................................................... 10
alters the brain, creating fundamental and   that science tells us will reduce or pre-
                                             vent risk behaviors related to alcohol, to-          Polson Partnership Project......................... 14
long lasting changes in the way the brain
functions. What starts as a behavior of      bacco and other drug use. The PNA pro-               Safe Kids/Safe Communities..................... 18
choice becomes a behavior fueled by          vides us with the ability to measure atti-
compulsion.                                  tudes and prevalence of attitudes and                Faith Health Cooperative........................... 19
     The two biggest barriers to effective   behaviors in a given community. The CIP
                                                                                                  21st Century Learning Centers .................. 21
prevention in Montana appear—at least on     takes the next step by helping communi-
the surface—to be contradictory. The first   ties form coalitions that can take strate-           Fatherhood ................................................. 22

is our general ambivalence toward the use    gic measures to help their communities

VOL. VII                                         Issue 1: Prevention                                                               Spring 2003
                                     The Vicki Column
                                          This is the first in the series of three    portunity. A number of models designed to
                                     issues highlighting programs, issues and         enhance Montana’s prevention system are
                                     concerns around the topics of prevention,        under examination and it’s likely that we
                                     treatment, and, finally, justice. The themes     will see a metamorphosis rise from the
         Montana Prevention          were chosen because they correspond to the       2003 Legislative Session. Rest assured that
           Resource Center
               P.O. Box 4210
                                     three points of a triangle drawn by the          the Prevention Resource Center is a stable
           Helena, MT 59604          Governor’s Alcohol, Tobacco and Other            point in a changing system. It will continue
Web Site: www.state.mt.us/prc        Drug Policy Task Force. Once again, in           to provide community resources – includ-
                                     seeking articles, we cast a broad net, hop-      ing the web site, hot news, community re-
                 Vicki Turner        ing to capture what you’re seeing and have       source directory and VISTA Program.So
               (406) 444-5986        learned about what’s working in the field.       stay tuned. Prevention works. We’ve got a
          vturner@state.mt.us        We were delighted with your response. The        good start and the next steps can only take
          Guylaine Gelinas           contents of this issue reflect the thoughts      us to the next level.
       Administrative Support        and observations of a broad range of writ-
             (406) 444-9772          ers, programs and communities.                                               Vicki
               Mary Asbach                We are caught in the winds of change,
               VISTA Leader          partially as a result of the recommendations          For more information about the
             (406) 444-9655          made by the Governor’s Task Force, and
                                                                                      Chemical Dependency Bureau’s Commu-
                                     partially because the Interagency Coordi-        nity Incentive Program (CIP) noted on
            Kelly Backhaus           nating Council is examining its role and         page one, please contact Jackie Jandt, CIP
               VISTA Leader          function. But change always presents op-
             (406) 444-3925                                                           Project Coordinator at 406-444-9656.

                 Ryan Smart
           Program Specialist
              (406) 444-9654
          rsmart@state.mt.us         Notes From the Edge
                                     A Father’s Story
                                     By Ron Clem
                                                                                      new friends, was failing in school and her

                                       O           ur story probably isn’t much
                                                                                      criminal behavior had attracted the atten-
                                                                                      tion of local law enforcement officers.
                                                                                           I am retired from law enforcement,
                                     different than that of any other parent who      with narcotics experience. I recognized the
                                     has frequented these forums looking for          pattern. My daughter had become a meth
                                     help for their children. Our daughter Carren     addict. My wife and I searched everywhere
                                     had been attending a private Christian           for help. The family court system, juvenile
 The Prevention Connection           boarding high school away from home. Her         probation, local medical treatment facili-
            Sherrie Downing          older sister had attended the same school        ties . . . we searched for three months, to
                        Editor       and had encouraged Carren to do the same.        no avail. Carren was nearly 18, she had a
               (406) 443-0580
          Fax: (406) 443-0869
                                     But Carren couldn’t adapt to being away          job, she was self-sufficient. This was her
E-mail: DowningSL@attbi.com          from home and opted not to complete her          “choice.” We were advised to wait until she
    www.sherriedowning.com           junior year. The high school environment         was arrested—just a matter of time. Once
                                     at home was chaotic and inundated with           that happened, the court system would take
        Karen von Arx Smock
                  KD Graphics        drug and alcohol use. Carren chose—and           over and mandate treatment.
Freelance Design & Production        we agreed—to receive her GED and begin                We resigned ourselves to the inevi-
    Phone/fax: (507) 894-6342        attending the local community college.           table. Our daughter would either die from
 E-mail: kdgrafix@acegroup.cc
                                          These were wonderful times for              drugs or go to prison. Our grieving pro-
                                     Carren and our family. She had success,          cess began. We had no hope. Then we read
                                     she was working part time and she was en-        an article in a local newspaper. The story
                                     joying life. Unfortunately, this did not last.   told about a local girl’s suicide while on
                                     Our world changed drastically and we were        meth. The story shocked us into action and
                                     in no way prepared for what came. Carren         we started looking elsewhere for help. We

                                 2   was introduced to methamphetamines at
                                     her workplace. Within five months, her
                                     personality had changed radically. She had
                                                                                      hired an educational consultant who rec-

                                                                                                       Continued on Page 3
A Father’s Story                               physician, psychiatrist, pastor or ranking
Continued from Page 2                          American government official. We opted
                                               for the psychiatrist, knowing that our
ommended a wilderness survival experi-         daughter would require extensive counsel-
ence as the first step in our daughter’s re-   ing over the next several months. The court
covery process. But before we could take       also mandated that reports about the facil-
that advice, we had to locate Carren and       ity and our daughter’s progress be filed with       Interagency Coordinating
                                                                                                   Council (ICC)
then transport her to the facility. This was   the court on a monthly basis.
not an easy task. Our daughter had been             We went to Tranquility Bay and found           Mission: To create and sustain a
                                                                                                   coordinated and comprehensive
on the streets for three months and we         the facility to be clean and professional.          system of prevention services
weren’t even sure of her whereabouts. Then     The mostly-Jamaican staff is remarkable             in the state of Montana
we received a call from our youth pastor       for their way of life and for the love and          Prevention Resource Center
that our daughter had attempted suicide.       dedication they share. The Jamaican people          P.O. Box 4210
She had survived. She was at our church,       we met are moral and rooted in faith. They          Helena, MT 59604
                                                                                                   (406) 444-1928
had hit bottom and wanted help.                provided our child an environment in which          Fax: (406) 444-1970
      We had our daughter transported to a     to recover her life without abuse, abun-
wilderness survival program where she                                                              Chair: Alison Counts
                                               dance or excess. It is not a resort, a Club         Belgrade Public Schools
trudged over hill and dale grasping to re-     Med., or a prep school. It is a facility that
gain who she was and to rid her body of        requires individuals to review their past and       Vice-Chair: Jim Oppedahl
                                                                                                   Executive Director
drugs. We hired a psychiatrist and indepen-    current choices and the outcomes of those           MT Board of Crime Control
dent medical staff to assist in evaluating     choices. The conditions are modest, but no
our daughter. The recommendations were         one starves, beats or berates the children.
consistent. She needed long-term residen-      They do, however, require respect, dili-            Gail Gray
tial treatment.                                                                                    Director
                                               gence and effort.                                   Dept. of Public Health & Human
      For the 21 days our daughter was in           We don’t relish the thought that our           Services
the wilderness survival program, we re-        daughter had to go to treatment. We wish            Vacant
searched programs. We worked with our          she had chosen to be drug free, to com-             State Coordinator of Indian Affairs
educational consultant and started with a      plete college, to live a life centered on our       Bill Slaughter
list of approximately 30 facilities located    beliefs. We certainly wish she had not at-          Director
all over North America. Prices varied from     tempted to take her own life. But our               Dept. of Corrections
$1,500 - $10,000 a month. But every facil-     daughter is alive. She has a second chance          Wendy Keating
ity we selected refused our daughter. She      and we have the opportunity to put our lives        Commissioner
was too old. She was suicidal. She was an                                                          Dept. of Labor and Industry
                                               back together as a family. I thank God
addict. Sometimes they even refused with-      every day for these blessings, and for giv-         Linda McCulloch
out comment. We were running out of time                                                           Superintendent
                                               ing us the opportunity to encourage our             Public Instruction
and needed a program that could and would      daughter back to health.
help our daughter.                                                                                 Mike McGrath
                                                                                                   Attorney General
      Our educational consultant gave us       —Ron Clem, Kalispell, Montana, 406-752-3703
several web sites to research and finally                                                          William Snell, Jr.
suggested Tranquility Bay, Jamaica, asso-                                                          In-Care Network, Inc.
ciated with a program called WWASP. She
advised us that the school is not inexpen-                                                         General John E. Pendergast
                                                                                                   Dept. of Military Affairs
sive, that there would be additional ex-
penses associated with treatment and travel.       If you have something to add                    Dave Galt
                                                  to the upcoming conversation                     Director
We were told to expect $3,000 per month                                                            Dept. of Transportation
and advised that treatment would require          about treatment, please con-
                                                  tact Prevention Connection                       Dr. Richard Crofts
at least a year.                                  Editor Sherrie Downing with                      Commissioner of Higher Education
      The cost wasn’t our only obstacle. Due      your ideas. (SLDowning@                          Betty Hidalgo
to Carren’s age, we had to extend her guard-      attbi.com)                                       Chair
ianship to ensure that she would stay at the                                                       Montana Children’s Trust Fund
facility until treatment was completed.                                                            Lt. Gov. Karl Ohs
Extended guardianship allowed us to make                                                           Ex-officio
decisions for our daughter. Those decisions,
however, were under close scrutiny of the
court. We had to hire our daughter her own

attorney. We also had to hire an indepen-
dent observer not associated with the fa-
cility in any way. The observer could be a
                                                Comprehensive Blueprint for the Future:
                                                Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Control Policy
                                                Task Force Report
                                                          Governor Martz and Attorney General McGrath convened a task force in
                                                     February 2002 charged with:
                                                          “Development of a statewide drug control strategy to address the drug and
                                                     substance abuse and drug trafficking problems of Montanan. This drug control
                                                     strategy should serve as a comprehensive plan for the coordination of all drug
                                                     control efforts—including enforcement, education, prevention, treatment and re-

                    PNA Data Bites
                                                                                                 tion), the Prevention Needs Assessment

    Between July 1, 2001 and June 30,
                                                 T          he members chosen for this task
                                                force brought vast expertise from the areas
                                                                                                 (Department of Health and Human Ser-
                                                                                                 vices), the Adult Household Survey and
                                                                                                 State Treatment Needs Assessment Study
                                                                                                 (DPHHS), the 2000-2002 Montana Board
       2002, state-approved substance           of law enforcement, treatment, prevention,       of Crime Control Anti-Drug Strategy, the
dependency/abuse treatment programs             Native American interests, state depart-         Native American Substance Abuse Treat-
      under contract with the Chemical          ments, youth court, the Montana State            ment Needs Study, and others. Expertise
                                                House and Senate, businesses and victim          from state agency representatives provided
Dependency Bureau served 1,164 youth
                                                advocacy. They came from rural and ur-           background and interpretation of the rela-
    under age 18. Of the youth served,          ban communities throughout the state.            tionships between data and practical appli-
          69% suffered from substance           Seven task force meetings were held be-          cation through program administration.
                                                tween February and August 2002 in six
                                                communities from Miles City to Kalispell.        Select Recommendations
                                                Public input was solicited and welcomed
                                                from more than sixty individuals who pro-              The most important recommendation,
 Based upon the Chemical Dependency
                                                vided data, perspectives and recommenda-         viewed as critical to improving alcohol,
 Bureau’s Alcohol and Drug Information
                                                tions on topics as diverse as the difficul-      tobacco and other drug control problems
    System, of the persons (adults and          ties of treatment delivery in rural areas, the   in Montana, is to encourage a joint gover-
                                                impact of methamphetamine production on          nor/attorney general initiative establishing
       youth) served by state approved
                                                rental property owners, and the pressures        the permanent position of a “drug czar.”
    programs between July 1, 2001 and
                                                on the court system to respond to burgeon-       This position would have the responsibil-
                         June 30, 2002:         ing drug enforcement indictments.                ity, authority and funding to provide lead-
                                                     Parents presented the most gripping         ership and direction for state prevention,
   – 71.5% report age of first use of the
                                                and illustrative testimony, bravely sharing      treatment and drug-related correctional
     preferred drug at or below age 16;                                                          programs. Additionally, the position would
                                                stories of children damaged and lost
                 – 24%reported age of           through substance related events. The per-       be responsible for analyzing the impact of
              first use between 13 - 14;        sonal experiences of two task force mem-         alcohol and drugs, informing citizens, and
                                                bers provided a recurring reminder that the      leading intercross-departmental planning
     – 16%reported an age of first use                                                           for the most effective use of state dollars.
                                                mission of the task force involved much
                  between 10 - 12, and;
                                                more than gathering data and grappling           The task force agreed that Montana needs
     – 7%reported an age of first use           with dwindling financial resources.              to change the focus from being tough on
                                                     It became clear early on that the scope     crime to being effective on crime. We can
                       younger than 10.
                                                of work needed to be segregated into a few       do that through effective and integrated pre-
   For more information, contact Pete W.
                                                distinct categories. This allowed the task       vention, treatment and judicial programs,
    Surdock, Jr., M.S.W., ACSW, Project         force to give proper attention to those ar-      all coordinated through the leadership of a
                                                eas determined to be of highest priority:        drug czar.
     Director at 444-3964 or by e-mail at
                                                prevention, treatment and justice. The prod-           Another key recommendation was to
                                                ucts of the Prevention Workgroup are de-         encourage gubernatorial and legislative
                                                scribed here.                                    support for the work of the Interagency Co-
                                                     The Prevention Workgroup relied             ordinating Council and the Prevention Re-
                                                                                                 source Center. This would be demonstrated

                                            4   heavily on existing data from multiple re-
                                                sources, notably the Montana Youth Risk
                                                Behavior Survey (Office of Public Instruc-
                                                                                                 by dedicated and sustained financial
                                                                                                                  Continued on Page 5
Comprehensive Blueprint                            came increasingly clear that each of the task
Continued from Page 4                              force members, irrespective of their con-
                                                   stituency or background, was firmly com-
commitment through the state general fund.         mitted to the importance of prevention as
The ICC is currently funded principally            the primary path to addressing substance
through annual commitments from                    use and abuse in Montana.
DPHHS, the Montana Board of Crime                       The work of the task force is complete;
Control, the Office of Public Instruction          the Blueprint was presented to Governor
and other sources. This is an opportunity          Martz and Attorney General McGrath in
for the State of Montana to commit to the          September 2002. The recommendations are
necessary and serious role of prevention of        far-reaching and visionary. Some require
substance-related behaviors.                       legislative and executive action, others
     It is necessary to seek new revenue op-       speak to community attitudes and toler-
portunities that will fund prevention              ance. It is the hope of the task force mem-
through options such as increased driver’s         bers that this document and its recommen-             PNA Data Bites
license fees and increased reinstatement           dations will be viewed over time, used as
                                                   the baseline to assess the commitment of              http://oraweb.hhs.state.mt.us:9999/
fees for DUI offenders, establishment of                                                                 prev_index.htm
an ATOD endowment fund, as well as in-             Montana to measurably improving the con-
vestigation of revenue options from other          ditions that affect children, families and            The Montana Prevention Needs
fees, fines or registration resources.             communities throughout our remarkable                 Assessment Project 2002 of the
     We also need support efforts to               state.
                                                                                                         Chemical Dependency Bureau is the
strengthen Minor in Possession laws, adopt              The complete Comprehensive Blue-                 third of three separate youth surveys
graduated drivers license laws, institute an       print is available on-line at www.discover
effective MIP tracking system, and a keg           ingmontana.com:/gov2/css/ddrugcontrol/
                                                                                                         conducted biannually since 1998. The
registration law.                                  default.asp.                                          2002 survey includes statistically valid
     Other recommendations can be viewed                                                                 responses from 19,585 students across
in the complete document. There are sev-           —Submitted by Cathy Kendall, Office of Public
                                                   Instruction and member of the Prevention Sub-         Montana. The information is used to
eral particularly important recommenda-
                                                   committee of the Governor’s Alcohol, Tobacco          provide an accurate picture of Montana
tions regarding access and availability of         and Other Drug Control Policy Task Force.
treatment services for youth and families.                                                               youths’ substance use.
     Throughout the sometimes arduous
process of developing the Blueprint it be-                                                               ”Binge drinking” for purposes of the
                                                                                                         survey means the individual consumed
                                                                                                         5 or more drinks in a single sitting within

Raising Resilient Kids                                                                                   the past two weeks.
                                                                                                         • Within a two week period in 2002,
By Dorothy Bradshaw
                                                                                                           25,775 youth between the ages of 12
       “It is up to parents to teach children right from wrong at a very early age—before                  and 17 engaged in binge drinking.
    the age of five even. If we wait until they are teens, we are too late. Discussing values            • The number of youth who reported
    is vitally important for our children—to show we care and to show that human be-
                                                                                                           engaging in binge drinking in 2002
    ings have a responsibility to themselves and to each other.” —Tipper Gore
                                                                                                           declined by 4.25%, when compared
                                                    future holds. Children who, now and as

W              e live in interesting times. In
                                                    adults, will be able to meet the complexi-
                                                    ties of life—personal or societal—with a
                                                    good sense of self and the ability to negoti-
                                                                                                           to data from year 2000.
                                                                                                         • In 2000, 30.5% of the youth respond-
                                                                                                           ing reported binge drinking; and
this age of information, certainty has be-          ate life’s tricky curves. The risk factors for
                                                                                                         • In 2002, 29.2% reported binge
come a rare commodity. As parents, though,          children are there regardless of family cir-
we do know one thing: we want our kids              cumstances. But focusing only on risk fac-             drinking.
to be okay.                                         tors is unhealthy for parents and children.          For more information, contact Pete W.
     The ability to be okay has a name—             Dealing with complexity demands adapt-               Surdock, Jr., M.S.W., ACSW, Project
psychological researchers have dubbed it            ability, judgement, and, yes, morals and
                                                                                                         Director at 444-3964 or by e-mail at
resilience. Resilience is a trait that helps        values. A recent report shows that teens say
us deal with difficulty. It helps explain why       morals, values, and/or religious beliefs in-         psurdock@state.mt.us
some people seem to thrive in terrible cir-         fluence their decisions about sex far more
cumstances, while others are undone by              than anything else.1 So what we teach our
what seem comparatively trivial events.
     We want to raise children who are
strong enough to deal with whatever the
                                                    kids, how we interact with them, what we

                                                                       Continued on Page 6           5
                                                      Raising Resilient Kids                                 Another word on imperfection: fami-
                                                      Continued from Page 5                                  lies and individuals who strive for
                                                                                                             perfection tend to be rigid. Resilience
                                                      share with them—all have an impact on                  requires flexibility. It’s okay if your
                                                      their resilience—on how they will react                kids see your flaws. Show that you
                                                      when faced with difficult decisions.                   accept them, and, when appropriate,
                                                                                                             discuss how you have dealt with
                                                           What follows are a few tips that will
                                                      help parents nurture their children’s
                                                      strengths, the strengths that will help them        3. Combine strong limits and love:
                                                      negotiate the risk-strewn road to adulthood            Studies show that kids of parents who
                                                      and beyond.                                            are high in control and high in accep-
                  Furthering Positive                                                                        tance (strict but loving) have teenag-
                 Youth Development                      1: Use natural and logical conse-                    ers who are independent, socially re-
                                                           quences rather than punishment:                   sponsible and confident.2 Although
                                                           Natural and logical consequences                  many teens seem precociously so-
    — Encourage and assist children and
                                                           provide a way for kids to learn from              phisticated, they don’t suddenly be-
         youth to focus on educational and                 their experiences and to develop self-            come full-blown adults at age 12 or
               developmental opportunities                 discipline and internal motivation.               13. Teens need limits, too. Set clear,
                                                           They also show the advantages of                  consistent expectations for behavior,
                leading to lifelong learning.                                                                then follow through when these ex-
                                                           following rules and respecting order.
                                                           A child who stays out until after the             pectations aren’t met (with a logical
        — Engage youth as full partners in
                                                           family has finished eating should                 consequence, of course). Parents
       community-building, through active                                                                    should apply these expectations to
                                                           miss that meal (and be a little hungry
                                                                                                             themselves as well. It is easier to en-
      roles on boards and by participating                 as a result). This is a natural conse-            force rules when you live by them,
                                                           quence. Logical consequences are                  and you foster integrity in the pro-
        in program design, implementation
                                                           created by an adult to fit misbehav-              cess.
                             and evaluation.               ior in a logical way. For example, a
                                                           three-year-old who continues to run            4. Include your child in decision mak-
    — Encourage public awareness of the                    into the street must stay indoors for             ing: As appropriate, involve your
                                                           the rest of the day. Punishment that              children in decision-making. As chil-
             positive contributions of youth                                                                 dren age, let them help decide on
                                                           does not “fit the crime” can arouse a
                      within the community.                                                                  family rules, use of family time or the
                                                           child’s anger or even cause retalia-
                                                                                                             division of chores. Not only will your
                                                           tion, often leading to a power struggle           kids learn decision-making and ne-
— Engage local businesses in establish-                    between adult and child. Don’t think              gotiation processes, they will also
      ing mentoring programs, apprentice-                  of discipline as parental control. Ide-           have more buy-in to family expecta-
                                                           ally, when we discipline our children,            tions. This is also a means of treating
       ships, job training and employment
                                                           we are showing them how the world                 your children with respect, and, as we
                     opportunities for youth.              works. A child who understands con-               all know, respect breeds respect.
                                                           sequences only in terms of parental
        — Spread the word about positive                   control will be less able to make good         5. Communicate: Have to say it. Com-
                                                                                                             munication is the key ingredient to
                        youth development.                 decisions as an adult.
                                                                                                             growing resilient kids. Don’t wait
                                                        2. Use your imperfections: Nobody is                 until they are teenagers. Start talking
                                                           perfect, especially not a parent. Don’t           to them about their lives now. If your
                                        Source:            hide your failings from your kids. Ac-
    “Toward a Blueprint for Youth: Making Youth
                                                                                                             kids feel listened to when they are
              Development a National Priority.”            knowledge and use your failings as                eight, chances are they’ll want to talk
                                                           opportunities to demonstrate the pro-             to you when they are fourteen. Re-
                youthinfo/coverpositveyouth.htm            cess of amending errors. When, after              silience grows in an atmosphere
                                                           15 minutes of trying to get the sliver            where one can not only have a voice,
                                                           out of a screaming, squirming, cry-               but provide an ear as well. Be sure
                                                           ing 4-year-old thumb, you lose your               your child knows how to do both.
                                                           temper and scream back—take a             —Dorothy Bradshaw is a therapist and non-
                                                           breather and then tell your darling       profit consultant with a private practice in Hel-
                                                           you made a mistake. Don’t excuse          ena, Montana. She can be reached at
                                                           your behavior or pretend it didn’t        dorothy.bradshaw@attbi.com.
                                                           happen—something that children            1
                                                                                                         With One Voice 2002: Americas Adults and
                                                           (and adults) often do. Not only do you        Teens Sound Off About Teen Pregnancy, avail-
                                                           model taking responsibility for your          able at http://www.teenpregnancy.org/re-
                                                           actions, but you increase the ability         sources/data/pdf/WOV2002_fulltext.pdf
                                                           for you and your child to communi-

                                                           cate about what is happening when             Reviving Ophelia, by Mary Pipher, 1994, Pen-
                                                           strong emotions are expressed.
Toward a Blueprint for Youth:
Prioritizing Positive Youth Development
By Dr. Kirk A. Astroth, 4-H Center for Youth Development
Montana State University
                                               authors recognized that                              FOR YOUTH INVESTMENT

 W             orking with young people is
                                               both approaches are
                                               valuable and necessary
                                               and that, in practice, the
                                                                                  “Problem-free is not fully prepared nor fully
more art than science. Despite heightened      distinction between
demands for programs that are “scientifi-      them often blurs. Effec-              —Karen Pittman, Forum for Youth Investment
cally-defensible,” in the end, success of-     tive programs can’t fo-
ten hinges on such unscientific intangibles    cus only on preventing
as the quality of the relationship between a   negative behaviors.
young person and the program leader, or        They also need to promote the positive
the interpersonal chemistry of a particular    through youth development. Community                         The 8 Essential Features of
group of teens. Fortunately, understanding     Programs to Promote Youth Development                        Settings that Promote Positive
                                                                                                            Youth Development
the characteristics of settings that promote   identifies eight essential features of settings
positive youth development can help nur-       that are conducive to positive youth devel-                  1. Physical and psychological safety
ture more “artists” adept at working with      opment. At long last, this report puts the
youth.                                         research into perspective, and delineates                    2. Appropriate structure with clear,
      What exactly is “positive youth devel-   how to be effective in fostering positive                         consistent rules and expectations
opment” and where did it come from?            outcomes for young people.
                                                                                                            3. Supportive relationships
      Let’s begin with the basics: youth             Young people need continued expo-
development is the natural process of de-      sure to positive experiences, settings and                   4. Opportunities to belong
veloping capacities. Youth will develop        people, and must have abundant opportu-
with or without us—young people inevita-       nities to gain and refine their skills to ac-                5. Positive social norms
bly grow into adults. While development        quire and develop assets. These findings
                                                                                                            6. Support for efficacy and mattering
will occur through the course of daily ex-     also suggest that the more settings adoles-
perience, positive youth development is far    cents experience that include the eight iden-                7. Skill-building opportunities
too important to be left to chance.            tified features, the better off they will be.
      Positive youth development occurs        Redundancy of features is good.                              8. Integration of family, school and
from an intentional process promoting posi-          Adolescents who spend time in com-                          community efforts
tive outcomes for young people through         munities rich in developmental opportuni-
                                                                                                            Source: Community Programs to
opportunities, relationships and the support   ties experience less risk and show evidence
                                                                                                            Promote Youth Development
needed to fully participate. Youth develop-    of higher rates of positive development.
                                               Adolescents who don’t experience any of                      Natural Academy of Sciences,
ment takes place in families, peer groups,
                                               the eight features during daily life are at                  Washington, D.C. February 2002
schools, neighborhoods and communities.
Intentionality is the key.                     great risk for developmental
      Positive youth development programs      delays or for heading down
provide opportunities, relationships and       negative paths.                          Research demonstrates that cer-
support for youth, helping them acquire the          This report represents a           tain features of the settings ex-
life skills necessary to meet the challenges   milestone in our history that            perienced by adolescents make
of adolescence and adulthood. Proven pro-      elevates the public discourse            a tremendous difference—for
grams use experiential, research-based edu-    about how to improve out-                good or ill—in their lives.
cational opportunities that help youth be-     comes for all youth, not just
come competent, caring, confident, con-        those considered to be “at-
nected and contributing citizens.              risk.” This is a volume you really should                    Source cited:

      Community Programs to Promote            have on your shelves. For a preview or                        1
                                                                                                             “Toward a Blueprint for Youth: Making Youth
Youth Development is a report by the Na-       information on ordering a copy of Com-                       Development a National Priority.”

tional Research Council that brings to-        munity Programs to Promote Youth Devel-                      http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/fysb/
gether the most current research-based in-     opment, visit: www.nap.edu                                   youthinfo/coverpositveyouth.htm

formation on the programs and strategies
that promote positive youth development.

      The release of this report is exciting
because it bridges the gap between “youth
development” and “prevention.” The
                                                 The Road Less Traveled
                                                 By Janet Meissner, Executive Director of the Alliance for Youth

                                                                                                  and families. Investing in effective drug

                                                   B            efore I sat down at my desk to
                                                                                                  control policies and strategies is sound eco-
                                                                                                  nomic development and guarantees a much
                                                                                                  better return than most stock market invest-
                                                                                                  ments (even before the market downturn)!
                                                 begin writing this article, I pulled several
    As another measure of how much is            binders from my shelves to utilize as points           As a member of the Task Force, a par-
                                                 of reference. As I wiped away the dust and       ent, a taxpayer, and a professional dedicated
changing, youth development has finally
                                                 the titles of the reports contained within the   to the development of healthy young people,
   been recognized as a unique field of          binders became clear, I wondered about the       I invite Montana leaders to study the drug
   study. A master’s degree program in           fate of the Governor’s Drug Policy Task          policy and strategy road map prepared for
youth development will begin next fall at        Force Report. Will this report sit on a shelf    them. I invite you to take a trip down ‘the
                                                 and collect dust? Will it be a reference docu-   road less traveled’ and implement the poli-
  Montana State University as a part of                                                           cies and strategies holding the most prom-
                                                 ment, paperweight or fire starter? Or will
   the Great Plains Interactive Distance         Montana, in a display of its renowned rug-       ise. There may be unforeseen potholes, de-
    Education Alliance (GP-IDEA). This           ged frontier, tackle-anything attitude ‘take     tours, or, dare I say it, road construction
                                                 the bull by the horns’ and implement the         along the route, but the road does lead to a
 consortium of 10 universities is offering                                                        healthier Montana.
                                                 highest priority drug policies and strategies
     distance-delivered master’s degree          recommended? Looking sporty in my rose                 In closing, I return to my original mus-
 programs in youth development. MSU              colored glasses, I reply, “Of course! What       ing, “What will be the fate of the Governor’s
                                                 other response is there?”                        Drug Policy Task Force recommendations?”
  faculty are teaching several of the on-                                                         I don my rose colored glasses and confi-
                                                       Then the eternal Montana wind blows
    line courses, but on-line classes are        and the sky becomes cloudy. The glasses          dently take a step forward onto that road less
 also available from faculty at Michigan         come off and reality glares. Montana, and        traveled, knowing fellow Montanans will be
                                                 the nation, are in a time of extreme budget      on the road with me.
State, University of Nebraska, Colorado
                                                 crisis. How can we possibly consider new         —Janet Meissner was a member of the Pre-
   State and Kansas State universities.          taxes, redirecting funding streams or in-        vention Committee of the Governor’s Alcohol,
 Learn more about the degree program             creased commitment from the state’s gen-         Tobacco and Other Drug Policy Task Force. She
             by visiting: www.gpidea.org
                                                 eral fund for drug control policies and strat-   has an M.S. in Health and Human Performance
                                                 egies?                                           from the University of Montana and is a Certi-
                                                       My response is how can we not? The         fied Health Education Specialist.
                                                 toll of drug abuse is tremendous in terms of
                                                 the economy, the social fabric of our soci-
                                                 ety and the health of our neighbors, friends
   Editor’s Note: The Comprehen-
   sive Blueprint for the Future: A
   Living Document prepared by
   the Governor’s Alcohol, To-
                                                     Families, Schools, Communities: Connecting the Voices
   bacco and Other Drug Policy
   Task Force is a thoughtful—and                    A statewide conference on Families and Learning will be held in Helena, March
   useful—report. I encourage you                    3-5, 2003. It will begin on Monday with a plenary session on A Framework for
   to take the time to view it online                Understanding Poverty, a seminar built around Dr. Ruby K. Payne’s
   at     http://www.discovering                     groundbreaking book by the same title. Entertainment with be provided Monday
   montana.com/gov2/content/                         evening by western storyteller Jim Garry.
   d r u g c o n t r o l / F I N A L _ ATO D _
   Task_ Force_ Report.pdf                           Full-day and half-day seminars on cognitive coaching, using research-based strat-
                                                     egies, developing parent leadership, grant writing, understanding poverty, and
                                                     developing authentic parent participation will be conducted Tuesday. Tuesday’s
                                                     seminars will be presented by leading educators in their fields including Elaine
                                                     Meeks, 1998 recipient of the Milken National Educator Award; Luz Santana, co-
                                                     founder of The Right Question Project and widely respected developer of innova-
                                                     tive training programs; and Gloria DeGaetano, nationally acclaimed educator,
                                                     consultant, author and parent coach. Workshops on family resource centers, using
                                                     research-based practices, parent involvement in schools and early childhood edu-
                                                     cation will be presented Wednesday morning. Naomi Haynes Griffith, a pioneer
                                                     on child abuse prevention and a national speaker and consultant on child welfare
                                                     issues, will present the closing speech, Renewing Our Commitment: Seeing the
                                                     Work through New Eyes at brunch on Wednesday.

                                             8       For further information on this conference, contact Chloe Fessler at 406-
Braiding It All Together:
Weaving the Tapestry of Coalitions
By Tim Anderson, LAC Lead Counselor, District II Alcohol & Drug Program

                                                   ensuring that the different aspects of poli-

    I          appreciate the opportunity to
                                                   tics, perspectives and personalities mesh.
                                                   This has meant commitment from key
                                                   agencies and individuals, including Judy
share some ideas I have learned along the          LaPan, Administrator of the Richland
way . . . after all, we have some great ideas      County Health Department and Jerry
and programs. Now—I would like all of              Schlepp, Director of District II Alcohol &
you who are reading this to sit down and           Drug, both of whom have provided the time             Action Guide
write a check to me so that we can go for-         and resources necessary for a successful
ward with those ideas.                             process.                                              Public Education Network has devel-
      . . . I’m waiting . . .                            In Sidney, a few of our many active             oped an indispensable guide for
      Now please refer to Rule 62 of the AA        collaborations include:
                                                                                                         community leaders, parents and
program: never take yourself too seriously.           — Law enforcement personnel, District
In other words, keeping a sense of humor                  II Alcohol and Drug, the Tavern As-            educators on how to use the No Child
is essential in this business.                            sociation and high school youth                Left Behind law to advocate for
      This scenario probably seems far-                   working together to reduce sales and           improved public education. The guide
fetched, but oftentimes this is exactly how               consumption of alcohol;
we operate in coalitions. We ask everyone                                                                cuts through jargon and clearly explains
to come to the table to listen to some great          — The Montana Tobacco Use Preven-
                                                                                                         the law's new requirements for states,
ideas, then ask them to share their re-                   tion Program;
                                                                                                         districts, and schools. The guide is
sources, often disregarding their history,            — The Sidney High School Trading
politics, perspectives and personalities.                 Card Program;                                  organized as an easy-to-use profes-
Then we wonder why our efforts aren’t                 — The Montana Abstinence Partnership               sional development tool for administra-
working.                                                  Postponing Sexual Involvement Pro-             tors and teachers committed to
      Successful coalitions are more than                 gram and Richland County Health
large groups getting together to solve prob-                                                             improving student achievement. The
                                                          Department; and
lems. Real collaboration is about weaving                                                                guide is available for free download.
                                                      — A collaborative grant that includes the
the strands of a tapestry to make a beautiful                                                            Single hard copies are also free.
                                                          Lambert, Savage, Fairview and
picture. Individual interaction is essential for
                                                          Sidney communities geared to pro-
effective results. Coalitions are the central                                                            http://www.publiceducation.org/pubs/
                                                          viding alternative activities for youth.
strand and framework of the tapestry.
      As with any tapestry, when the picture            One or two of these organizations might
is complete you can’t see the framework            be represented at the coalition meetings, but
supporting it. Too many times people think         the healthy coalition is the vital strand weav-
that the collaborative process isn’t work-         ing all of these groups together. In Richland
ing because they don’t have any programs           County’s America’s Promise—the Youth
or projects specifically attributed to the         Summit Coalition—is the strand that
coalition. It should not be the goal of the        provides the framework for the tapestry.
coalition to solve particular issues, but to            Our tapestry is not complete by any
partner and network particular people to           means, but the results have already been
bring about solutions.                             beautiful. Our hope is that our experience
      We have had some success in Richland         can provide one small thread of encourage-
County, not because we’ve had huge                 ment as you weave your tapestry.
numbers of people turn out for coalition
meetings, but because we’ve identified and
partnered “like” programs that share com-
mon goals. If you ask most people in
Richland County about these programs, they
wouldn’t realize that the coalition had any
part in their development or implementation.

      Bottom line, most of the work of the
local coalition has been done by a few dedi-
cated people working in the background,
                                            MPIRC: Strengthening Montana
                                            By Barbara Riley, Program Director
                                            Montana Parent Information and Resource Center Network
                                                                                            weekly e-mail newsletter, and lending li-
          Born to LearnTM Institute,
                 Prenatal to 3 Years
                                             O            ur state’s prevention programs
                                                                                            brary of books and videos.
                                                                                                 Additional network partners include
                                                                                            the school districts, schools, agencies and
                                                                                            other federal programs that are implement-
                                            are broad-ranging and unique in their ap-
                                            proach to strengthening Montana families.       ing school-based parent involvement strat-
           April 7-11, 2003, Billings, MT   One effort to link programs and services        egies. Those partnering with MPIRC dis-
                                            with a common theme—parent involvement          seminate information, receive training and
     The Montana Parent Information &
                                            and school/ community partnerships—is in        materials, and/or publicize their efforts
                                                                                            through our web-site and printed materi-
Resource Center along with the Billings’    its fifth year of bringing best practices and
                                                                                            als. Last year, 132 schools and countless
Young Families program is sponsoring a      innovative efforts to the forefront for par-    individuals throughout the state signed up
                                            ents and schools. Montana Parent Informa-       to be part of this network. They receive
Parents As Teachers (PAT) training. This
                                            tion and Resource Center Network (MPIRC)        weekly web-newsletters, regular mailings
comprehensive 5-day training serves as      provides services through five geographi-       and updates about trainings and activities.
      the cornerstone of the Parents As     cally diverse lead centers across the state.    Through their feedback, we’ve discovered
                                            These lead centers—in Missoula, Great           topics of current interest or needs for ser-
Teachers (PAT) Program. In addition to
                                            Falls, Bozeman, Polson and Billings—            vices that can be addressed on the MPIRC
         the “Born to Learn” curriculum,    offer regional technical assistance, compre-    website or through product development.
  participants receive a comprehensive,     hensive training, and/or direct services in          MPIRC also provides activities that
     research-based guide that includes
                                            one or more of the following areas:             compliment the work of the lead centers
                                                                                            with a focus on training and professional
 monthly personal visit plans, guidelines     — Provide the Parents as Teachers Pro-        development: workshops for teachers and
                                                gram;                                       school administrators; parent training on
   and ideas for group meetings, and all
                                              — Provide technical assistance and            issues relating to their children’s educa-
             the forms necessary to run
                                                training to school districts (especially    tional success. All are available at the re-
              an effective PAT program.         low-performing educational agencies         quest of schools, communities or agencies.
             Cost per participant: $475         or schools) on successful parent in-        The rural outreach component integrates
                                                volvement strategies, parent com-           these efforts with individual technical as-
          For more information, contact:        pacts, parent involvement policies          sistance offered to schools or communities.
                                                and school planning and improve-            For those ready to build capacity for cen-
                   Julie Kucera, MPIRC          ment;                                       ter-based parent involvement programs, we
                          406-543-3550        — Provide parents with resource mate-         have established a new AmeriCorps Pro-
                   mpirc@montana.com            rials and strategies to assist in their     gram, Western Montana Literacy Support
                                                effective participation in their            Corps, through which members help start
                                                children’s education;                       FRCs in schools and community settings.
                                                                                                 Statewide partnership efforts are an
                                              — Continue to develop and/or enhance
                                                                                            integral part of the work undertaken by
                                                services for young children and their
                                                                                            members of the MPIRC Advisory Board,
                                                parents through individual school-
                                                                                            a committee that meets twice yearly to
                                                based Parent or Family Resource
                                                                                            guide the MPIRC statewide agenda on par-
                                                Centers that coordinate and integrate
                                                                                            ent involvement. For 2003, an Early Child-
                                                early childhood programs with
                                                                                            hood Literacy public awareness campaign
                                                school-age programs; and
                                                                                            is being planned by the school officials,
                                              — Coordinate and integrate local and          federal program staff, parents and commu-
                                                regional activities around parent in-       nity members who make up the advisory
                                                volvement that are funded through           board.
                                                other state and federal sources.                 Prevention takes many shapes. In this
                                                  The Missoula lead center, Family          case, the combination of direct services to
                                            BASICS, a project of WORD, Inc., directs        parents paired with information and train-
                                            the statewide efforts of MPIRC, oversee-        ing to schools and communities on the
                                                                                            value of parental involvement leads to

                                            ing and coordinating all lead center activi-
                                            ties, housing and managing the web-site,        knowledgeable and effective families.
                                            state office technical assistance cadre,
Keep Our Children Alcohol Free
By Jeanne Koester, Missoula Forum for Children and Youth
                                                humor—to provide high quality guidance

  T           hroughout a decade of chang-
                                                to parents of older children and teens. One
                                                program focuses on Family Communica-
                                                tion, the other on Teens and Alcohol.
ing names and organizational structures, the         Last year’s community planning moved
Missoula Forum for Children and Youth           to the implementation phase this year.
has pulled together agencies serving chil-      MUSAP’s many partners are working:
dren and families to promote community
collaboration for prevention.                     — To produce fact cards for parents of
      In 2001, a Forum subgroup, the                middle school children. Following
Missoula Underage Substance Abuse Pre-              the model of the Ohio media cam-
                                                    paign Parents Who Host Lose the
vention Team (MUSAP), decided to take a
                                                    Most, Missoula’s cards will empha-
hard look at the big picture of community           size the new community policies and
policy and practices on underage drinking.          guidelines. Parents also will receive
MUSAP meetings became microcosmic                   the National Leadership to Keep
debates on this culture’s mixed messages            Children Alcohol Free booklet, Make
to young people. Part of the problem, the           a Difference: Talk to Your Child
group concluded, is our failure to separate         About Alcohol.
drinking by older teens and 20 year olds
                                                  — To create a “Party Buster” hot-line
from drinking by children and young teens.          to encourage reporting of underage
The entire community, they felt, could              drinking parties and older teens and
agree that middle school children should            adults who supply alcohol to young
not be drinking.                                    people.
      With support from United Way, over
several months, MUSAP facilitated a               — To draft a form letter that County and
broadbased community dialogue on drink-             City law enforcement members can
ing by children 14 years and under.                 send to those suspected of supplying
                                                    alcohol to children, in cases when
Through the Keep Our Children Alcohol
                                                    prosecution is not possible. The
Free Project, MUSAP convened discus-
                                                    warning letter will include informa-
sions and interviews with leaders from              tion about Montana’s civil and crimi-
Missoula’s human service and treatment              nal liability and the range of risks in-    Montana’s most recent Prevention
agencies, schools, law enforcement and              volved when young people drink.             Needs Assessment shows Missoula
courts. The project surveyed hundreds of                                                        students reporting one of the state’s
youth and parents, with a focus on those          — To develop a community referral
                                                    flyer providing parents with informa-       highest rate of alcohol use.
considered to be at highest risk.                                                               Missoula’s political, human service
      The group’s hope was twofold: to iden-        tion about funding screening, chemi-
                                                    cal dependency assessment and treat-        and community leaders are working
tify a shared public policy on young drink-                                                     together through the Missoula Forum
ers; and to form consensus on strategic roles       ment services for their children.
                                                    Missoula’s four alcohol education,          and MUSAP to look more deeply at
for key community sectors. After multiple                                                       cultural and community influences
                                                    intervention and treatment programs
drafts and meetings, a Missoula community                                                       that contribute to these findings. The
                                                    are collaborating to provide Missoula
policy on drinking by children 14 years and                                                     next step will be to undertake
                                                    courts, schools and parents with com-
under and provides ethical guidelines for           prehensive information for respond-         broadscale community responses to
parents was created. It embraces specific           ing to children who drink.                  address them.
strategies to get Missoula working together,
proactively voicing and enforcing strong             Missoula County Public                     For more information on the policies,
community and family standards that will        Schools recently received a U.S.                guidelines and strategies discussed in
make Missoula a safer place to raise chil-      Department of Education grant to                this article, see: www.missoula
dren.                                           fund the Forum, and specifically                forum.org under MUSAP.
      In addition, MUSAP engaged in a           MUSAP, in efforts designed to lead
massive effort to educate Missoula parents      a similar environmental project focused
about risk and protective factors through       on high school drinking. This year, too,
the production and network broadcast of         the University of Montana is providing
the Montana Family Show starring John           leadership within MUSAP to begin exam-
Sommers-Flanagan. Two half hour pro-
grams use a fast-paced talk show format,
music, skits, youth and expert panels—and
                                                ining the problem of college-age drinking
                                                in Missoula.
                                         It Takes a Community
                                         By Elaine Meeks
                                                                                        consistent caregiver is vitally important to

          Key protective factors
           promoting resiliency
                                            I         t takes a whole community to
                                                                                        healthy emotional development during a
                                                                                        child’s early years.
                                                                                              Project activities were developed to
                                         raise a healthy child is the guiding prin-     create conditions for bonding and attach-
 — Having a caring and supportive        ciple of the Polson Partnership Project at     ment, as well as to enhance protective fac-
                                         Cherry Valley Elementary School. Cherry        tors for the children and families in the
            relationship with at least
                                         Valley includes approximately 280 students     school community. Over the years, the fol-
                         one person.
                                         in preschool through fourth grade. Ap-         lowing components of the Polson Partner-
     — Communicating consistently        proximately 38 percent are Native Ameri-       ship Project have been developed and sus-
                                         can and 53 percent qualify for Free and Re-    tained.
clear, high expectations to the child.
                                         duced Lunch. The Polson School District              Family Involvement: There are many
— Providing ample opportunities for      is one of five districts on the Flathead In-   opportunities for families to be involved
       the child to participate in and
                                         dian Reservation,                                                           in the school
                                         home of the Salish                                                          c o m m u n i t y.
    contribute meaningfully to his or                               When children and families feel
                                         and Kootenai               trust, attachment, and a sense of
                                                                                                                     Family Fun ac-
             her social environment.     Confederated                                                                tivities have re-
                                                                    belonging to the school community,
                                         Tribes. Since es-          it is most likely that students will             sulted in a sig-
                                         tablished in 1993,         succeed academically and socially.               nificant in-
                                         the project has ex-                                                         crease in parent
                                         panded to include                                                           involvement in
                                         students and families from Linderman El-       all aspects of school programming. These
                                         ementary and Polson Middle schools.            occur in the evening, on Saturdays and
                                               The project was conceived as a col-      during the school day. Many family ac-
                                         laborative concept by a broad base of          tivities are offered at the school and in the
                                         school personnel and key stakeholders          tribal communities of Turtle Lake and
                                         from the community. The goal was to en-        Elmo. Cherry Valley has a Family Center
                                         sure success for all students. Despite the     within the school where numerous family-
                                         fact that Cherry Valley implemented a          oriented and parent education activities
                                         child-centered, continuous progress cur-       take place.
                                         riculum, many students were not achiev-              Bridging Cultures: Culturally re-
                                         ing success. In looking at the specific needs  sponsive curriculum is integrated through
                                         of these students, major issues emerged:       significant professional development and
                                         poor attendance, behavior issues, unmet        collaboration with the tribal community.
                                         health needs, lack of parental involvement,    This includes native language instruction.
                                         cultural discontinuity between the family      The project sponsors cultural arts activi-
                                         and school cultures. There was                 ties in all schools as well as an annual Cel-
                                         acknowledgement that this constellation of     ebration of Families Pow Wow each spring.
                                         factors often lead to issues with drug and           School-based Child and Family
                                         alcohol use, increasing disengagement and      Support: Child and Family Resource Part-
                                         failure at school that culminate in drop-out   ners in each school offer academic support
                                         as well as potentially violent and illegal     by teaching and modeling pro-social be-
                                         behaviors. For these reasons, the project      haviors, supporting home-school commu-
                                         began as a school-based prevention/            nication, and by linking families with com-
                                         early intervention program for children and    munity resources and services.
                                         families.                                            Alcohol, Drug and Violence Preven-
                                              From the outset, it was critical to the   tion: A Prevention/Intervention Special-
                                         success of the project that in meeting the     ist coordinates drug, alcohol and violence
                                         needs of the children and families, services   prevention education throughout the dis-
                                         would be inclusive, available to all, and      trict. This includes training high school
                                         fully integrated as part of the school pro-
                                                                                        students and parents to implement preven-
                                         gram. The project design is based on sys-
                                                                                        tion education in the elementary schools.
                                         tems and attachment theories, as well as
                                                                                        The specialist also collaborates with com-

                                   12    risk and resiliency factors. The school
                                         community is a system, the classroom a
                                         sub-system. Attachment and bonding to a
                                                                                        munity agencies and implements interven-
                                                                                                         Continued on Page 13
It Takes a Community                            grants from the Montana Children’s Trust
Continued from Page 12                          Fund, Montana Parent Information and
                                                Resource Center Network, Title 1, Title IV
tions for students identified as having         and a district adult education mill levy.          PRC VISTA Honor Roll
issues with drugs and alcohol.                       Regardless of the funding challenges,
                                                                                                   Erin Babb
     Early Learning: Family literacy, and       the project has helped develop school cul-         Helping Hands, West Yellowstone
child abuse and neglect prevention are the      tures focused on strengths and a shared            Beth Bondy
key objectives of the early learning com-       commitment to the success of all students.         Hill County Mentoring, Havre
ponent Little Cherries and Lindy’s Learn-       Over the years, the Polson Partnership             Karin Brown
ers. These free, weekly, interactive early      Project has documented success in achiev-          Alliance for Youth, Great Falls
childhood literacy sessions are offered for     ing the goals of increasing parental involve-      Jamie Bussiere
                                                                                                   Tobacco Free Missoula
3-5 year old children and their caregivers.     ment, reducing the incidence of youth sub-
                                                                                                   Cathy Cooke
Roll and Tumble with Cherry Blossoms is         stance abuse, youth violence, child abuse          Boys & Girls Club of the Flathead
for caregivers and children 18 months           and neglect, and increasing pro-social be-         Reservation, Ronan
through age 3. Providing parent education       havior, school success and overall family          Carrie Croucher
while creating a supportive environment in                                                         Libby Community Interagencies
                                                and community health. Efforts to increase
the school make these offerings very popu-      student achievement are evident: Cherry            Mary Hoeffel
                                                                                                   Youth Taking Flight, Missoula
lar and well attended.                          Valley was named Montana’s Title 1 Dis-
                                                                                                   Bobbi Hughes
     From the outset, the project has been      tinguished School in 2002.                         Women’s Resource Center, Glasgow
funded primarily by a number of grants.                                                            Regina Hughes
                                                —Elaine Meeks is the Polson Partnership
Sustainability has been a major challenge       Project Administrator, and has been since it
                                                                                                   Hardin Boys & Girls Club, Hardin
as the project has developed, and a com-        began in 1993. She is also the Principal of        Stephanie Ironshooter
prehensive after-school program had to be                                                          Montana State University, Billings
                                                Cherry Valley School and the Title IV Director
discontinued this year due to lack of fund-     for the school district.                           Nicole Kennelly
                                                                                                   Townsend Social Services, Townsend
ing. Currently, the project is funded through
                                                                                                   Cathy Kirkpatrick
                                                                                                   Glendive Medical Center, Glendive
                                                                                                   Brian Lewis
                                                                                                   Helena Indian Alliance, Helena

Prevention Resource Center                                                                         Erin Mahar
                                                                                                   Evergreen Junior High School, Kalispell

VISTA Update                                                                                       Aaron Mayernik
                                                                                                   Montana Head Start State Collaboration,
                                                  — developed 204 public relation plans            Maureen Mitchell

  P           revention Resource Center
                                                    and newsletters and 47 computer sys-
                                                  — provided 219 hours of volunteer
                                                                                                   Big Brothers/Big Sisters of Helena, Helena
                                                                                                   Carol Moran-Patton
                                                                                                   Big Brothers/Big Sisters of Flathead,
VISTAs (Volunteers In Service To America)           training session and one parenting             Rhea Papke
are making a huge difference for Montana’s          program;                                       Prevent Child Abuse, Bozeman
communities by helping them develop lo-                                                            Joshua Pennel
cal prevention strategies. They mobilize re-      — recruited 43 mentors and 24 tutors;            Montana Board of Crime Control, Helena

sources, link agencies, write grants and gar-       and                                            Elrae Potts
                                                                                                   Tobacco Free Ravalli, Hamilton
ner donations from local businesses and or-       — trained 333 individuals in sexual              Beth Roberts
ganizations, organize community events,             abuse/rape counseling.                         Social Norms Marketing, Bozeman
and obtain resources to initiate, expand and                                                       Becky Ruth
sustain project activities.                     —For more information,visit www.state.mt.us/prc    Montana Head Start State Collaboration,
     Since inception, the PRC has spon-
sored a total of 154 VISTAs throughout the                                                         Andrea Simon
                                                                                                   Violence Free Crisis Line, Kalispell
state. Currently, 30 VISTAs from all across
                                                                                                   Susan Smaka
the United States are serving in 16 Mon-                                                           Butte School District #1, Butte
tana communities.                                                                                  Shannon Stober
     Over the 2000-2001 biennium, PRC                                                              HRDC/Turner Youth Initiative, Bozeman
VISTAs generated numerous resources for                                                            Laura West
                                                                                                   Ronan Big Brothers/Big Sisters, Ronan
Montana communities, including:
   — Raised $592,575 in cash and                                                                   PRC VISTA Leaders
                                                                                                   Mary Asbach & Kelly Backhaus
       $128,082.72 of in-kind resources;                                                           Prevention Resource Center, Helena

  — recruited 1,977 volunteers;
  • facilitated 633 cooperative partner-
    ships;                                                                                        13
                                           The Cigarette Tax:
                                           A Cash Cow for Montana?
                                           By Eric Aakko, Montana Tobacco Use Prevention Program
                                                                                           would help offset smoker’s medical costs,

                                            H           istorically, governments have
                                                                                           encourage adult smokers to quit and reduce
                                                                                           youth initiation. Others suggest that while
                                                                                           states face escalating health care costs, a
                                           considered superfluous products—like to-        significant increase in tobacco taxes might
                                           bacco and alcohol—cash cows. The taxes          allow smokers to actually pay their way.
                                           levied are easy to administer and bring ad-          Montana’s tobacco tax is one of the
                                           ditional revenue into government coffers.       lowest in the nation, at 18 cents per pack.
               Prevention Works            In Montana, the debate has begun on             In the northwest region of the U.S., Mon-
                                           whether or not to raise the cigarette tax—      tana also has one of the lowest tax rates.
    States with comprehensive tobacco
                                           and if so, by how much.                         Presently, the Protect Montana Kids (PMK)
     prevention programs are reducing           Neighboring states, including Wyo-         advocacy group in Montana is calling for
     smoking, saving lives and money.      ming, are eyeing increased tobacco taxes,       a $1.50 per pack increase. Their projec-
                                           not only as a way to raise revenue, but for     tions, based on estimates of a $1.00 per
Florida cut high school student smoking    their public health benefits. Research from     pack tax, show that $60.6 million in new
         by 47% between 1998—2001.
                                           Canada and the U.S. has found an inverse        cigarette taxes would be collected annually,
                                           relationship between tobacco prices and         up from approximately $11 million. Addi-
 Oregon cut 8th grade smoking by 41%       demand—when the                                                             tionally, PMK esti-
                                           price goes up, demand         Economists describe the                       mates that $173.6 mil-
                 between 1996—2000.
                                           does down. In fact,           quantitative relationship                     lion would be saved in
                                           research demonstrates         between price and demand                      long-term state health
      Massachusetts and California are
                                           that when the price of        as price elasticity.                          care costs as a result of
     saving up to $3 in tobacco-caused     cigarettes is increased                                                     reduced          smoking
      health care costs for every dollar   by 10 percent, overall                          (based on lifetime savings of adult smok-
                  spent on prevention.
                                           demand decreases by 4 percent.1                 ers who quit and youth who don’t start).
                                                In Wyoming, the Joint Labor, Health        With the 2003 legislature facing a huge
 http://www.lungusa.org/press/tobacco/     and Social Services Committee agreed to         budget shortfall, including increased medi-
                                           back a bill in the upcoming legislative ses-    cal costs, a tax increase—or user fee—
                                           sion that would raise the cigarette tax from    could help patch the budget shortfall. An
                                           12 to 60 cents per pack. The proposed tax       increased tobacco tax could also prove to
         For more information, contact
                                           measure is seen as a way to discourage          be a dramatic public health benefit. Ulti-
     Georgiana Gulden at the Montana       youth smoking while funding children’s          mately, the 2003 Montana Legislature will
   Tobacco Use Prevention Program at       health insurance programs and other Wyo-        have to decide if an increased tobacco tax
                                           ming health care expenditures. Last Janu-       is indeed a cash cow.
                                           ary, Washington State raised its cigarette
                                           tax from 83 cents to $1.43 per pack, and        Sources Cited
                                           used the increased revenue to fund various      1
                                                                                             — U.S. Department of Health and Human
                                           state programs.                                      Services (1991). Strategies to control to-
                                                Research shows that rather than de-             bacco use in the United States: a blueprint
                                           creasing consumption among youth, high               for pubic health action in the 1990s. Pub-
                                                                                                lic Health Service. National Cancer Insti-
                                           cigarette prices actually discourage smok-           tute.
                                           ing initiation.2 Another argument for in-       2
                                                                                             — Zimring, N (1995). Cigarette taxes as ciga-
                                           creased tobacco taxes is a user fee for              rette policy. Tobacco Control, 4 (supple-
                                           smokers, meaning that since smokers tra-             ment 1), 525-533.
                                                                                             — Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids. Re-
                                           ditionally have greater health care costs,           trieved on December 23, 2002 from:
                                           they should pay a fee to offset the costs            http://www.tobaccofreekids.org/reports/
                                           associated with smoking. For example, in             s e t t l e m e n t s / To b a c c o To l l . p h p 3 ?
                                           2002 the annual health care costs in Mon-            StateID=MT
                                           tana directly attributed to smoking were
                                           $216 million, with Montana Medicaid pay-
                                           ing out $52 million in smoking-related ex-

                                     14    penditures.3
                                                Proponents of increasing the tobacco
                                           tax argue that an increased tobacco tax
Indians and Civic Engagement:
Where Do We Fit In?
By Stephanie Iron Shooter

 A            s I sat at a banquet dinner for
                                                    how to let me know in her “it’ll be all right,”
the Governor’s Conference on Civic En-
gagement this past year and listened to             mode that I was in the right place and I do
Leslie Lenkowsky speak on “American-                have something to offer. Than I heard the
ism” and the “founding fathers,” I gazed            whisper of my ancestors saying, “This is           Slowing the Revolving Door
around the room to see where all the Indi-          your chance, one of many, where you can
ans were. In my own lonesome reality, I             show them who you are, where you come              Research reports two main reasons
found only one, a nice Indian gentleman             from and how the many centuries of suf-            families move—family instability and
who sat right next to me. Then certain              fering by Indian’s will not have been done
                                                                                                       lack of available, safe, and affordable
words and phrases began to linger in my             in vain!” So, bootstrap and all, I hastily
mind as I distantly listened to Dr.                 pulled myself up from that chair with a            housing. Experts cite a strong correla-
Lenkowsky and watched the Governor,                 newfound hope, hope that there are people          tion between poverty and the risk of
such as . . . savage, reservation, genocide,        who understand the history, the suffering,
                                                                                                       academic failure, and a strong correla-
drunken Indian . . .                                and are willing to continue trudging this
                                                    road to wellness.                                  tion between poverty and frequent
      I did not ponder these thoughts lightly;
this was only a preface to what lay ahead.                My supervisor, the small white woman         mobility. This article outlines a few family
As the minutes passed, I wondered where             sitting next to me, helped me sort through
                                                                                                       involvement strategies schools can use
I fit into all of this . . . civic engagement?      this brief but powerful awakening, and re-
                                                    alization, through encouragement. She              to provide stability and support for highly
Was I really proud to be an “American?”
I am certainly proud to be Lakota. Ques-            reminded me of what it is to be civic in a         mobile children.
tioning my own place in this world at this          country with such a tainted past, and this
moment was disheartening, however real.             involves spirituality, or God, or the Great        http://www.ascd.org/readingroom/
I wanted to stand up and scream to Mr.              Spirit, or a higher power. I took this posi-       edupdate/2002/200211/varlas.html
Lenkowsky, what about me? What about                tion as a Volunteer In Service To America,
my people? What about our history? Do               after reaching deep within myself as to
you not remember these words, “ . . . bar-          “why” I would do such a thing. I
barous, uncivilized, Godless . . . we were          remembered…with the smell of sweet
                                                                                                       An Excellent Training Opportunity
given the power, by the king, to, in any way        grass burning, I remembered. I got down
                                                    on my knees and prayed, I asked for the            Utah’s 1st Drug Endangered Children
necessary, overcome, and force our God
onto them . . . if they resist, it is their fault   strength to see this through and be a true         Conference
that death is attained . . .” (d’Errico, 1997)      blessing to everyone I encounter, however          March 27-28, 2003
This is how this country was founded. To            painful or challenging. With this, I end with
                                                    a message. Hope, happiness, faith, and             Salt Lake City
not recognize this is closing the door on
the true meaning of acceptance, forgive-            love, come from within us all, this is why I       http://www.ci.slc.ut.us/police/community/
ness, openness, and growth to be “Ameri-            am here, to share a simple promise, that I         decc1.pdf
can.”                                               will do my best to understand, accept, and
      With each hollow word of the speaker,         validate you. In the face of reciprocity, I
I increasingly became overcome with fear            hope you will do the same for me.
and sorrow. I looked around the table               —Stephanie Iron Shooter is an enrolled mem-
where I was sitting and to my left I saw a          ber of the Fort Belknap Gros Ventre Tribe, and
white woman with the blondest hair you              a PRC VISTA.
could imagine looked at me with sympa-
thy and quiet, unspoken understanding.
Later, wandering the carpeted halls of the
convention center, I slumped into a chair,
some lone chair in the corridor, and found
the PRC VISTA Project Coordinator. I
looked up at her and weakly tugged at her
skirt. She looked down at me and we be-
gan to talk about how alone I felt and if I
was supposed to be here. She grasped at                                                               15
                                             Prevention at its Best:
                                             The Boys and Girls Club of the Hi-Line
                                             By Robin E. Morris, Executive Director

                                                                                              ing a recently closed elementary school

                                               T          he HELP Committee (Havre
                                             Encourages Long-Range Prevention), has
                                                                                              from Havre Public Schools. The
                                                                                              corporation’s name was changed to the
                                                                                              HELP Committee and Boys & Girls Club
                                                                                              of the Hi-Line, and the process of charter-
                                             actively engaged in preventing alcohol,          ing with the Boys & Girls Clubs of America
                                             tobacco and other drug-abuse for 24 years.       began. Start-up funds were provided by the
                                             During that time, approaches, theories and       Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
                                             strategies have shifted dramatically. We         Prevention.
                                             are proud to have played a part in shaping             Several local organizations had previ-
                                             local, regional, state and even national pre-    ously attempted to open youth centers, but
                                             vention initiatives.                             for one reason or another, the programs
                                                  Most recently we were represented on        didn’t get off the ground or were short-
Boys & Girls Clubs of America                the Governor’s Alcohol, Tobacco and Other        lived. The key difference this time around
              An Ounce of Prevention
                                             Drug Control                                                            was the HELP Com-
                                             Policy Task Force.          Our most recent prevention                  mittee, its staff, and its
   It takes money to run a Boys & Girls      This provided yet                                                       relationship with
                                                                         approach involved the open-
     Club—on average, about $200 per         another opportu-            ing of the Boys & Girls Club                Havre Public Schools.
        youth per year. But consider the     nity to share les-          of the Hi-Line. It truly incor-             Additionally, HELP
alternative: keeping a young adult in jail   sons learned—               porates all of the components               was poised to partner
costs taxpayers anywhere from $25,000        and to learn les-           needed for an effective youth               with the nationally
      to $75,000 per year. Boys & Girls      sons from others            prevention program.                         recognized Boys &
  Clubs—a proven delinquency preven-
                                             in this and related                                                     Girls Clubs of
                                             fields. It was exciting to note than many        America. HELP believed that their experi-
      tion program—are one of the best
                                             in the prevention arena are moving toward        ence and community standing could only
                    bargains in America.     direct services as opposed to ancillary ser-     be strengthened by partnering with a na-
                                             vices. As we have learned, young lives are       tional organization already in the “business
        SOURCE: http://www.bgca.org/         better affected by comprehensive, multi-         of serving youth.”
                    whoweare/facts.asp       faceted programs offered over time. It also            The goal was to open the club July 1
                                             helps when those programs are delivered          and to serve 200 youth (ages 6-18) within
                                             by caring adults.                                the first 18 months. We more than met our
                                                  A little over a year ago, the HELP          goal—the program took off like wildfire!
                                             Committee, based in Havre, was ap-               We had already served 200 youth within
                                             proached about opening a Boys & Girls            the first six weeks. We are now serving
                                             Club. To take a few steps backward, the          555 children aged 6-18!
                                             HELP Committee, founded in 1979, fo-                   We realize that the pool tables, air
                                             cused on education related to the preven-        hockey, computer games, gymnasium and
                                             tion of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug         craft projects got the kids to come, but qual-
                                             abuse. While many programs served area           ity staff and programming brings them back.
                                             youth, services were generally channeled         The Club provides programs in the areas of
                                             through the schools, special programs,           character and leadership development, edu-
                                             media campaigns and summer camps. The            cational enhancement, career preparation,
                                             proposition to open a Boys & Girls Club          health and life skills, the arts, and sports,
                                             led to a myriad of additional questions,         fitness and recreation—all assets (and pro-
                                             meetings and soul-searching among those          tective factors) that will help them make
                                             involved. We knew that a “yes” would             better decisions as they grow into produc-
                                             change the mission of the HELP Commit-           tive, responsible and caring citizens.
                                             tee forever.
                                                  Havre is a town known for its ability       —Robin Morris was the Chair of the Prevention
                                                                                              Committee of the Governor’s Alcohol, Tobacco
                                             to get down to action, Within two weeks          and Other Drug Policy Task Force.
                                             of being asked, the answer was “yes.” It
                                             was time for a Boys & Girls Club. The
                                             HELP Committee, a long-standing not-for-

                                       16    profit corporation, would lead the charge
                                             by obtaining a name change and by leas-
Boys and Girls Club of the Northern
Cheyenne Nation
By Rick Robinson
                                                were often made by staff and even youth,

   I        n June 1993, the Boys and Girls
Club of the Northern Cheyenne Nation em-
                                                who volunteered their time, money and
                                                other resources. Many eventually reached
                                                the point of complete burnout. The program
                                                closes, equipment is dispersed and kids are
barked on a dream of serving all local chil-    left with next to nothing to do and a devel-
dren—and specifically Northern Cheyenne         oping feeling of mistrust of what their com-
Tribal youth—with after school and week-        munity could provide.
end programs. The Lame Deer based club          What works
was one of the first three non-profit Boys
and Girls Clubs on Native American Lands             Boys and Girls Clubs on Indian reser-          Mr. Lewis’s assessment is exactly
in the country. Now, nine years later, there    vations work, and they are reframing the       right, particularly from the broad, overall
are at least 134 established Native Ameri-      picture of youth development and non-          perspective provided by the involvement
can clubs serving over 80,000 members,          profit work on reservations. Mr. Daniel N.     and commitment of the fastest growing,
most of whom are ages 6-18. Every reser-        Lewis, the Navajo Chairman of Boys &           most comprehensive national youth devel-
vation in Montana and Wyoming has a lo-         Girls Clubs of America’s (B&GCA) Na-           opment organization in the world. The
cal Boys and Girls club, providing a myriad     tive American National Advisory Commit-        Boys and Girls Clubs of America has 140
of prevention programming in safe, fun          tee believes that B&GCA’s success in In-       years of experience to offer local clubs in
places where kids can go after school.          dian Country can be attributed to the fol-     areas ranging from financial management
                                                lowing factors:                                and board development to organizational
  —The Northern Cheyenne Boys and                                                              evaluation and programming that is strat-
                                                  1. B&GCA’s proven experience and             egy-based, tried and proven. The help pro-
   Girls Club serves 860 youth in two                programs in serving youth for more
   clubs. The main club is in Lame Deer;                                                       vided by the national organization and a
                                                     than 140 years.                           network of over 3,000 clubs nationwide
   the second is in Ashland on the St.
   Labre Indian Mission grounds.                  2. The successful collaboration of Na-       also contributes to success because every
                                                     tive American communities, tribal         club is ready and willing to help other clubs.
Challenges                                           governments, the federal government            Programming is the heart of the local
      One of the main challenges to any non-         and corporate organizations.              Boys and Girls Club. That’s what the kids
profit program is in keeping a consistent         3. The continued focus B&GCA has de-         and community see, and yet there is much
level of funding coming in. This can be              livered to provide culturally appropri-   more involved in maintaining a healthy
particularly difficult for those serving some        ate programs, training and resources      organization. At the local level, success
of the most improvised, isolated and under-          to Indian Country, Hawaiian Home-         comes from paying attention to youth pro-
developed communities in Montana. In the             lands and Alaska Native villages.         gramming as well as to the many elements
past, the scenario has often included fund-                                                    of running a non-profit organization. But
ing from a single-source grant that would                                                      ultimately, facility and staff-based pro-
                                                   For more than 140 years, the Boys &
last from one to three years. New, untrained                                                   gramming dedicated exclusively to youth
                                                   Girls Club experience has positively
people would come on with the best of in-          affected America’s young people, with       equals unparalleled prevention outcomes
tentions. As staff, they were high on moti-        an emphasis on providing valuable           in any community—and especially in iso-
vation, wanting to put their arms around           programs and services to youth from         lated, underdeveloped Native American
children they knew and cared about, while          the most challenging economic and           communities.
frequently placing little emphasis on grant        social backgrounds. In fact, Boys &         – Rick Robinson was a member of the Preven-
management, accounting set-up and proce-           Girls Clubs of America’s mission is         tion Subcommittee of the Governor’s Alcohol,
dures, training, planning and evaluation.          to inspire and enable all young             Tobacco and Other Drug Control Policy Task
      Programming ranged from attempting           people, especially those from disad-        Force. Mr. Robinson is the Executive Director
to do too much too soon—often due to               vantaged circumstances, to realize          of the Boys and Girls Club of the Northern Chey-
promises made by enthusiastic grant writ-          their full potential as productive, re-     enne Nation.
ers—to minimal programming delivery by             sponsible and caring citizens.
staff who lacked the skills and knowledge
to run effective programs. This led to pro-        Given the specific challenges facing
grams diminished to intermittent activities        Indian youth, reaching out to Native
and a narrow focus on clientele.                   American young people is a natural
                                                   fit with B&GCA’s mission.
      All too often, the grant cycle came to
an end with no forethought given to pro-                            —Daniel N. Lewis
gram evaluation, data collection, forward-
looking planning or sustained funding. Not
wanting the program to fold, heroic efforts
                                                   —Oversight Hearing on Problems Facing Na-
                                                    tive Youth, August 1, 2002
                                            Safe Kids/Safe Communities:
                                            The First Year
                                            By Patty Carrell, State Coordinator, Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies
                                                                                              litions to include activities such as DUI and

                                             H             ealthy Mothers, Healthy Ba-
                                                                                              seat belt enforcement and youth alcohol
                                                                                              sales monitoring in their annual work plan.
                                                                                              Public school officials invite SKSC mem-
                                            bies—the Montana Coalition, has just con-         bers to come into the elementary schools
                                            cluded the first year of its newest statewide     to provide occupant protection education
                                            project, Montana Safe Kids/Safe Commu-            and into middle and high schools to pro-
                                            nities (SKSC).                                    vide alcohol and drug impaired driving pre-
                                                  Now well into the second year of work,      vention education, as well as occupant pro-
                                            it is satisfying to take a look back at the ac-   tection information.
                                            complishments of 17 local SKSC Coalitions              An important part of the project is the
                                            scattered throughout Montana and focused          free information packets supplied to the
                                            on Alcohol and Drug Impaired Driving Pre-         coalitions by the HMHB Public Education
                                            vention and Occupant Protection.                  Clearinghouse. The packets are distributed
                                                  One of the most gratifying aspects of       by the thousands at community and county
                                            this project is the great success of the true     events and agencies throughout the state.
                                            community-based coalition. We believed in              Some of the many methods local
 A 30-minute, in-school video program,
                                            the premise that when major stakeholders          SKSC Coalitions use to impact their com-
Make the Right Call, features nationally    within any community have a vested inter-         munities and counties include:
  recognized, former critical-care flight   est in the work being proposed and decide
                                            to pool their resources to work together,           — Seatbelt use observational surveys;
   nurse Barbara Babb, R.N. Ms. Babb
                                            anything is possible. Our belief proved to          — Child safety seat fitting stations;
    presents a factual, compellingcase      be true.                                            — Child safety seat rental programs;
  describing the consequences of teen             The premise in action has exceeded            — Mock crashes;
                                            our greatest expectations. City fire depart-
  drinking and drunk driving. The video                                                         — Seatbelt convincer demonstrations;
                                            ments, emergency medical services, city
    also encourages students to make        police departments, county sheriff’s of-            — National mobilization campaigns that
responsible, safe decisions. Call Patty     fices, county health departments, auto in-            support seatbelt and DUI enforce-
                                            surance companies, auto dealerships, hos-             ment;
       Carrell, Montana Safe Kids/Safe
                                            pitals, child care resource and referral agen-      — Most of Us media campaigns; and
 Communities Coordinator at 406-449-        cies, Montana Highway Patrol stations,
                                                                                                — Live “radio remotes” promoting child
  8611to find out how you can get this      court justices, pubic school districts, local         safety seat checkup events.
                                            American Red Cross offices, YMCAs,
             video for your community.
                                            Head Start and WIC offices ( . . . and the             This project is funded by the Montana
                                            list continues to grow) have all expressed        Department of Transportation from appro-
                                            interest in making Montanans safer on the         priations through the National Highway
                                            roads. They’ve also found many ways to            Traffic Safety Administration
                                            accomplish this . . . together.
                                                  Perhaps the best explanation for the        —For more information about Montana Safe
                                                                                              Kids/Safe Communities and a listing of local
                                            success SKSC has had is that it has some-         coalitions and contact information, see our
                                            thing for virtually everyone. Those inter-        website at www.hmhb-mt.org, contact Patty
                                            ested in child injury prevention, youth al-       Carrell at pattycarrell@hotmail.com or Mike
                                            cohol and drug impaired driving prevention,       Cooney at mcooney@hmhb-mt.org or call
                                            raising awareness about the benefits of wear-     449-8611.
                                            ing seat belts and proper child restraint or
                                            explaining the dangers of driving while im-
                                            paired will all find a home here.
                                                  Some projects are involved in carseat
                                            checkups where 4-day trained, certified
                                            Child Passenger Safety (CPS) technicians
                                            do inspections and installations. Some are

                                            involved in providing the actual CPS train-
                                            ing. Law enforcement agencies provide
                                            special services that enable the SKSC Coa-
Prevention, Intervention and Treatment:
Faith-Based First Responders
By Dave Young
                                               Community-Based Organizations (CBOs)

 T           he faith community is a signifi-
                                               in providing health and social services to
                                               the underserved and most needy individu-
                                               als and families across Montana.
cant thread in the fabric of the social ser-         For this project, social services are
vices safety net, helping promote healthy      defined as those prevention, intervention
lifestyles, reduce socioeconomic disparities   and treatment services provided to indi-
and mitigate the impact of illness, disease    viduals and families who need assistance          FBOs and CBOs:
and disability. On many occasions, the         in maintaining or achieving their full po-
faith community has been the silent first                                                        Defining the terms
                                               tential for self-sufficiency and healthy in-
line of defense in addressing hardships        dependent living. These services promote
                                                                                                 FBOs – Faith Based Organizations—
through prevention, intervention and treat-    and protect the physical, mental, spiritual,
ment. This tripartite assistance runs the full social and economic well-being of indi-           must be connected with an organized
spectrum of social services and includes       viduals and families. They offer hope, heal-      faith community. They are based on a
activities that range                                                 ing, holistic health       particular religious ideology and draw
from providing space                                                  and social well-being
for AA meetings and          The faith community under-                                          staff, volunteers or leadership from a
                                                                      through acknowledg-
                             stands the value of working
sponsoring health                                                     ment of the inherent       particular religious group.
                             in partnership with other
fairs and blood draw-        community-based organiza-                worth of every indi-
ings to assisting            tions and interest groups.               vidual and the signifi-    CBOs – Community Based Organiza-
single mothers, fos-                                                  cance of healthy rela-     tions—are neighborhood, grassroots
ter children and oth-                                                 tionships.
                                                                                                 types of organizations that emerge from
ers suffering from physical, financial, emo-         The Montana Faith Health Coopera-
tional and mental trauma.                      tive will make sub-awards to others work-         the community to address community
      Montana’s faith community recently       ing in the areas of faith and health, as well     needs.
joined hands with the health care establish-   as provide technical assistance to
ment and other health care advocacy groups     Montana’s FBOs and CBOs. Additionally,            For more information, see http://
to form the Montana Faith-Health Coop-         this project will support, in part:               www.etr.org/nsrc/pdfs/faces/
erative. The impetus grew from collabo-
ration between the Montana Association of         — Parish Nurse and Congregational              F_Definitions.pdf
Churches and the Montana Office of Rural              Health Minister training through the
Health in year 2000, when the organiza-               Parish Nurse Center, Carroll College;
tions worked together on a Rural Crisis           — Continuing Education through the
Outreach Grant entitled Seeds of Hope:                Northern Rockies Institute of Theol-
Revitalizing Rural Montana. The Coop-                 ogy;
erative was officially formed in June 2001        — Prisoner-Community Re-Entry
and is currently directed by a 15-member              through Teach, Encourage, Assist and
steering committee representing a diverse             Model (T.E.A.M.) Mentoring, Inc.
group of faith and health interests. The
mission is to foster and promote produc-       —For more information, visit http://
tive faith-health partnerships across Mon-     faithhealthcoop.montana.edu or call 406-994-
tana designed to improve the holistic health   5553.
and social well-being of Montanans and
their communities.
      In September 2002, the Cooperative
was one of 21 awardees in the nation to
receive support from President Bush’s
Compassion Capital Fund Demonstration
Program (http://www.whitehouse.gov/gov-
ernment/fbci/). The overall goal of the
Montana Faith-Health Demonstration
Project is to enhance and expand the role
of Faith-Based Organizations (FBOs) and
                                             MADD in Montana
                                             By Bill Muhs, President of MADD—Gallatin County

      According to the National
          Highway Traffic Safety
                                             M              others Against Drunk Driving
                                             is a grassroots non-profit founded in 1980.
                    Administration:          It has approximately 600 affiliates and 2         GALLATIN COUNTY
                                             million members and supporters nation-
   — In 2001,104 persons were killed in
                                             wide. Currently, there are three MADD
    Montana in alcohol related crashes,      chapters in Montana—in Fergus, Gallatin,            — Enact Vehicular Homicide and Ag-
   which represents 45% of all fatalities.   and Yellowstone Counties. The Montana                   gravated DUI law.
The national average was 41% in 2001,        Chapter has been very active during the last        — Increase mandatory fine for 1st time
    up from 38.3% in 1999. In 1999 and       sixteen months, focusing primarily on                   DUI to $1,000 with monies ear-
 2000 the percentages in Montana were
                                             changes to our DUI and underage drink-                  marked for local prevention, treat-
                                             ing laws.                                               ment, DUI enforcement, and state-
           47% and 46.5% respectively.
                                                   Our efforts really began when we met              wide DUI tracking system.
    — For ages 15-20, 51% of Montana         with Governor Judy Martz in September
                                                                                                 — Enact law that requires mandatory,
    highway fatalities for our youth were
                                             2001 to request that she appoint a DUI Task             automatic BAC testing for crashes
                                             Force. Several months later, she and At-                involving fatalities or serious injuries.
        alcohol related in 2001, versus a
                                             torney General Mike McGrath formed the
             national average of 38.1%.      Governor’s Task Force on Alcohol, To-               — Strengthen Minor In Possession
                                             bacco, and Other Drugs. The Task Forces’                (MIP) laws to include mandatory
— 77% of all highway fatalities in the US
                                             recommendations were presented to the                   drivers license suspension, parental
    occuring between midnight and 3:00       Governor and Attorney General on Septem-                involvement, community service, and
              a.m. were alcohol related.     ber 25, 2002 in a ceremony in Helena.                   higher fines; statewide MIP tracking
                                             These recommendations included 15 strat-                system; keg registration.
   — About 3 in every 10 Americans will                                                          — Increase penalties for BAC test
                                             egies for combating drunk-driving and un-
        be involved in an alcohol-related    derage drinking in Montana. MADD                        refusal.
        crash at some time in their lives.   strongly believes
                                                                                                                           MADD’s Na-
                                             that a compre-             By almost any measure, Montana
     — More than 20 percent of alcohol-                                                                               tional President,
                                             hensive approach           is one of the worst states for al-            Wendy Hamilton,
            related traffic deaths involve   can have pro-              cohol-related fatal crashes and               spent an entire week
                BAC levels below .10%.       found impacts              underage drinking, as evidenced               in Montana in early
                                             that      include          by our recent grade of “F” by
      — Those under age 21 commit 15         saved lives and                                                          January. She trav-
                                                                        Mothers Against Drunk Driving
 percent of all DUI offenses in Montana.     the prevention of          Rating the States Report Card.                eled throughout
                                             needless injuries.                                                       Western Montana
            Youth Risk Behavior Survey
                                                                                                                      and spent two days in
             (www.opi.state.mt.us/index)     MADD Supports Legislation                         Helena meeting with key state officials, in-
      — In 1999, 23% of Montana’s high          — Enact .08 Blood Alcohol Concentra-           cluding Governor Judy Martz. Wendy also
                                                    tion (BAC) per se law with equalized       challenged legislators to pass key DUI bills.
   school students drove a vehicle after
                                                    penalties for DUI conviction and per              MADD has made tremendous
      drinking alcohol compared to 13%                                                         progress in a short period. To find out how
                                                    se conviction.
nationwide. (Report by Governor’s Task                                                         you can assist with MADD’s efforts, con-
                                                — Enact statewide open container law           tact Bill Muhs at MADD-Gallatin County
         Force on Alcohol, Tobacco, and
                                                    making it illegal to possess any open
                     Other Drugs, p. 11)                                                       at 585-4225 or visit www.madd.org/mt/
                                                    alcoholic beverage or to consume al-
                                                    coholic beverages in a motor vehicle       gallatin .
       Prepared by Bill Muhs, President
                                                    on public highways.                        —Bill Muhs represented MADD on the 17-mem-
                  MADD-Gallatin County                                                         ber Governor’s Alcohol, Tobacco and Other
                                                — Enact strict repeat DUI offender laws
                                                                                               Drug Policy Task Force.
                                                    that meets Federal guidelines; apply
                                                    vehicle sanctions to repeat DUI of-
                                                    fenders, high BAC, and DWS if from
                                                    drunk driving.
                                                — Enact Administrative License Revo-

                                       20           cation (ALR) law that revokes driv-
                                                    ers license at time of arrest for BAC
                                                    test failure or refusal to take BAC test .
The 21st Century
By Gary Pfister, Montana Office of Public Instruction

     EXTRA, EXTRA – Read All About It!
       21st Century Community Learning Center Program transitions
       from the federal Department of Education to the Montana Of-
       fice of Public Instruction
                                                 implementing the goals and objectives of            Great Websites

  A          s a result of the No Child Left
Behind Act of 2001, the Office of Public
                                                 their out-of-school time programs. Consid-
                                                 erable time and effort will be devoted to
                                                 coordinating services and activities with the
                                                                                                     Wyoming’s Comprehensive

                                                                                                     Anti-Drug Plan
                                                 regular school day agenda and to effectively
Instruction has assumed responsibility for       utilizing the resources of partnering agen-         http://www.jointogether.org/sa/news/
administering the 21st Century Community         cies. A national training session for project       features/reader/0,1854,555304,00.html
Learning Center Program for the State of         directors and selected 21st CCLC staff mem-
Montana. Through this program, commu-            bers and partners was conducted in Dou-             Census/School District Population and
nity learning centers are able to provide        glas, Wyoming on February 13th and 14th.            Poverty Estimates
academic enrichment opportunities for            The training was available as a result of
children, and to offer literacy and other edu-   Montana’s partnership with the National
cational services to families. The program       Center for Community Education, with sup-           PovertyEstimates.html.
targets students who attend high-poverty,        port from the C. S. Mott Foundation.
low-performing schools. The purpose is to              Montana’s 21st Century Community              Department of Education's No Child
make safe and drug-free environments for         Learning Center allocation for FY ’03 pro-          Left Behind
students of all ages available during times      vides for an additional funding cycle. The          http://www.nclb.gov/
when school is not in session. 21st Century      grant announcement for the 2003-2004
Community Learning Centers can be lo-            Program Year will be released by late Feb-          Public Education Network's Action
cated in schools or other accessible, and        ruary 2003. Applicant training workshops
                                                                                                     Guide for Community and Parent
are designed to provide a range of services      are planned on a regional basis. The dead-
to support student learning, provide en-         line for completed applications has been            Leaders
richment activities and services, and inte-      tentatively established as May 16. All fu-          http://www.publiceducation.org
grate and strengthen existing prevention         ture program years will run from July 1
programs. Local needs dictate the way            through June 30.                                    Replacing Initial Grants
projects are developed, and applicants are
                                                 —For additional information about Montana’s         http://www.financeproject.org/fptips.htm
strongly encouraged to initiate active part-     21st Century Community Learning Center Pro-
nerships that include eligible schools and       gram, contact Gary Pfister at the Office of Pub-    The SAMHSA Prevention Center
community organizations of all types.            lic Instruction in Helena. Telephone (406) 444-
     U. S. Department of Education funds         3000 or e-mail gpfister@state.mt.us                 http://www.samhsa.gov/
were awarded to states by formula.                                                                   preventionpartners
Montana’s FY ’02 allocation provided ap-
proximately $1.4 million, to be distributed                                                          The Survival Guide for Parents of Teens
through a competitive grant process. The                                                             www.co.missoula.mt.us/healthpromo
announcement for Montana’s 21st CCLC
application was released in the summer of
                                                        21 Century
2002. By the October 4th deadline, forty-
one applications had been received. After
a regional review process, ten (10) projects
were funded for centers in Arlee, Billings,
Box Elder, Brockton, Butte, Darby,
Glasgow, Hardin, Livingston, and
Stevensville. A total of $1,420,666 was
awarded for the 2002-2003 Program Year.
Based on measurable progress and the
availability of funding, these programs will
receive comparable support for the next

four years.
     Grant recipients are in various stages
of hiring staff, preparing facilities and
                                            Fatherhood and the Head Start
                                            By Mary Jane Standaert, Director, MT Head Start/State Collaboration Project
                                                                                           cus and sensitive to the ways those issues

                                            W            hen it comes to prevention, it
                                            is often most effective to work with the en-
                                                                                           relate to family well-being.
                                                                                                Parent involvement means both par-
                                                                                           ents, whenever possible. Fathers some-
                                                                                           times need different help or more encour-
                                            tire family instead of individual members.     agement than mothers, but fathers and fa-
              For further reading:          Head Start has long recognized the value       ther substitutes make a huge difference in
                                            of parental and family involvement—not         children’s lives—and in the operation of
  The Fatherhood Initiative Resource        only for the child, but for family members     the programs that serve them. The Father-
   Guide can be ordered from the Head       and the program.                               hood Summit gave all of us an opportunity
                                                                                           to uncover resources and best practices al-
Start Information and Publication center-
                                            Coming together                                ready in place in Montana.
                (202)737-1030 ext. 222.
                                                 The Collaboration Office was awarded           The child is nested in a group of fam-
                                                                                           ily members, whether they live together or
                                            an AmeriCorps planning grant that pro-
   Helpful Websites or email addresses:                                                    not. That family is nested in a community.
                                            vided the resources necessary to bring in-
                                                                                           If we can help family members support one
     Mark Elliott—Fatherhood Specialist     terested Head Start, Early Head Start and
                                                                                           another, families, communities and our
                                            Child Care Resource and Referral Agen-         state all benefit.
          for CDI Region VIII Head Start
                                            cies together. These stakeholders learned           We are very excited about our work
            Quality Improvement Center      about AmeriCorps and strategized how           with AmeriCorps—and about finding new
              — melliott@cditeam.org        AmeriCorps members could best assist           and different resources to assist Head Start
                                            with addressing the federal initiatives.       and other early childhood programs as they
           National Center for Fathering         The Denver Regional Office offered        include and support parents.
                    — www.father.com
                                            small grants to Head Start and Early Head
                                            Start programs to further their efforts to
           National Fatherhood Initiative
                                            address the initiatives. The programs that
                                            were funded focused on fatherhood, lit-
               — www.fatherhood.org
                                            eracy, and youth development. Ours fo-            A few outstanding local
                                            cused on fatherhood.                              resources:
                   The Father’s Network

           — www.fathersnetwork.org         What was needed                                   Missoula—John Sommers-Flanagan
                                                                                               and Philip Mamalakis from Families
          National Practitioners Network
                                                 In an effort to assist Head Start pro-        First
                                            grams address multiple new federal Initia-          Naomi Thornton and Ron Liszak from
                for Fathers and Families
                                            tives, the Collaboration Office welcomed            Futures at Word, Inc.
                     — www.npnff.com        a VISTA (Volunteers In Service To                   Chris Johnson of MT Legal Services
                                            America) January 2002. Together, we have
                                            made a concerted effort to clarify the fed-       Helena—Lisa Murphy and Sheila
                                            eral initiatives and to illustrate them with       Hogan from Career Training
                                            possible activities and partnerships.
                                                 Through initial surveys, we realized           Beth Satre of MT Coalition Against
                                            that program staff needed much more in-             Domestic and Sexual Violence
                                            formation about all of the initiatives, but       Kalispell—Ted Berg
                                            specifically about fatherhood: What did it        Bozeman—Adie Foster from Prevent
                                            mean…what could they do differently . . .           Child Abuse
                                            what resources were available . . . weren’t
                                                                                              Polson—Lori Lasche from Cherry Val-
                                            they already doing enough? The questions
                                                                                                ley School
                                            were endless.
                                                 The Head Start Collaboration Project         Great Falls—Deb Kottel from the Uni-
                                            hosted the Montana Fatherhood Summit in             versity of Great Falls. Deb started a
                                            October, and 135 people attended. They              program for the children of incarcer-
                                            came for information and left motivated             ated parents.

                                            and inspired. Together they had begun a           Browning—Christy Horn from
                                            strategic plan. Programs, agencies and              Blackfeet Head Start
                                            many fathers were appreciative of the fo-
Are You Making Headlines or
Reading Them?
Enhancing Prevention by Generating News Coverage
By Jeff Linkenbach, Ed.D., MOST of Us™ Program Director

                                                                                                   The Main Frame is available free of

 G           enerating press coverage for
                                                                                                   charge at http://www.mostofus.org/

your health promotion projects is critical.                                                        This resource can be used in several
It can build public awareness of your ser-                                                         ways:
vices, generate interest among stakehold-
ers and educate legislators about the value                                                          — to help your project develop an
of your work. Even so, we often find it dif-    where by decreasing drinking and driving
                                                                                                        overall strategy to generate press
ficult to publicize our efforts, whether be-    and teen smoking, and by increasing adult
cause we don’t have the time, resources or      seat belt use.
training to create a media strategy.                 In relating to the press it is critical to      — to create a complete project-
     The MOST of Us™ Campaign,                  stress the positive attitudes and healthy
                                                                                                        specific press kit,
housed within the Department of Health          behaviors that are the norm for a whole
and Human Development at Montana State          range of health and safety issues. While             — to generate one-time news events
University-Bozeman, has created a tool kit      there are many resources that discuss how               such as a news conference or
called The Main Frame that provides re-         to generate news, The Main Frame is the
sources for generating news coverage and        first guide to cultivating press coverage
impacting the public debate when it comes       using the social norms approach.                     — to respond to requests from the
to issues of health and safety. Most of the          Our efforts to promote the work we
                                                                                                        press, and
examples used in the guide are related to       do must become stronger, more sophisti-
alcohol use, but many of the strategies and     cated and more proactive. By generating              — to counteract skewed and off-
talking points are relevant to tobacco and      our own press coverage, we can foster a                 balanced coverage of health
other drug use prevention as well.              frame for public health issues based upon
     In the fields of prevention and health     accurate portrayals of community norms.
promotion, often our only efforts to gener-     For example, the “everybody’s doing it”
ate publicity are reactive instead of proac-    and “students are out of control” themes
tive. We are forced to react to a tragedy or    would shift to the more positive and accu-
must formulate a response to a damaging         rate themes highlighting the majority of
report or statistic. This guide emphasizes      people who practice healthy behavior. Of           The opinions expressed herein are not
                                                                                                   necessarily those of The Prevention Recource
the need to create proactive media strate-      course, this needs to be done without mini-        Center and the Addictive and Mental
gies that will allow you to frame and de-       mizing the seriousness of issues.                  Disorders Division of the Montana
                                                                                                   Department of Public Health
fine your work, your issue, and your orga-      —In order to access more information about so-     and Human Services.
nization before others do it for you. This is   cial norms and the MOST of Us™ Campaign,
critical because in press relations, “the       please visit www.mostofus.org or call
frame” that a story is given generally es-      406.994.7873.
                                                                                                   The Prevention Resource Center and the
tablishes the tone of public conversation.                                                         Addictive and Mental Disorders Division of the
     The Main Frame uses the social norms                                                          Montana Department of Public Health and
                                                                                                   Human Services attempt to provide
approach to prevention, which is based                                                             reasonalbe accommodations for any known
upon sound social science, accuracy in re-                                                         disability that may interefere with a person
                                                                                                   participating in this service. Alternative
porting and positive messages. The social                                                          accessible formats of this document will be
norms approach, listed by the New York                                                             provided upon request. For more information,
                                                                                                   call AMDD at (406) 444-1202, 1-800-457-2327
Times Magazine as one of the most signifi-                                                         or the Prevention Resource Center at
cant ideas of 2001, is providing an effec-                                                         (406) 444-5986.
tive alternative to traditional prevention
strategies. Projects all over the country
have used this science-based approach to
achieve statistically significant behavioral

change. The MOST of Us Campaign is at
the forefront of this initiative. MOST of Us
has achieved results in Montana and else-                                                                         Continued on Page 5
                                                                                                                           grants require a community match and an
Montana Children’s Trust Fund                                                                                              evaluation of services.
By Sara Lipscomb                                                                                                                The Montana Children’s Trust Fund is
                                                                                                                           a public/private partnership administra-
                                                           unteers appointed by the Governor, each
                                                                                                                           tively housed within state government and
  P         revention works! Early inter-
vention and support with families and chil-
                                                           of whom represents a different region of
                                                           the state.
                                                                The mission of the Trust Fund is to
                                                                                                                           governed by citizen volunteers. Funding
                                                                                                                           comes from voluntary contributions, the
                                                                                                                           Montana Income Tax check-off for child
                                                           provide grants and technical support to pre-
dren results in cost savings for the health,                                                                               abuse prevention, a federal prevention
                                                           vent child abuse and neglect through
education, judicial, and correctional sys-                                                                                 grant and a one-time allocation of TANF
                                                           proven primary prevention strategies. For
tems because adults who were abused or                                                                                     Emergency Assistance dollars.
                                                           the past five years, CTF has funded a pro-
neglected as children are more likely to be                gram for children of incarcerated parents                       —For more information on the Montana
unemployed, underemployed or to rely on                    in cooperation with the Montana Women’s                         Children’s Trust Fund, how to apply for funding
public assistance. This translates into a                  Prison in Billings. In 2002, funding will                       or the projects we support, please contact Sara
lower earnings and fewer tax dollars. An                                                                                   Lipscomb, Montana Children’s Trust Fund Tech-
                                                           be provided to a similar program for in-                        nical Assistance Specialist, at 406-728-9449 or
investment in prevention provides divi-                    mates in Missoula’s regional jail and                           mcf@montana.com.
dends for years.                                           prerelease center. Programs like these pro-
    In 1985, the Montana legislature cre-                  vide continuity of family support services
ated the Children’s Trust Fund (CTF) to                    for a high-risk population.
provide support to Montana’s local child                        All programs funded are strictly vol-
abuse and neglect prevention programs.                     untary. Parents must be involved in de-
The Trust Fund is comprised of seven vol-                  sign, implementation and evaluation. All

                                                 A joint publication of the Prevention Resource Center
                                                   and the Addictive and Mental Disorders Division

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