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Drugs & Alcohol Informa(on All Students Should Know Made By: Students in New York City for Students in California What Will We Be Talking About? • Alcohol – Emma Vasta-‐Kuby • Marijuana – Max Cohen • Ecstasy – Ali Weiss • Steroids – Parker Saling hGp://www.homebusinessandfamilylife.com/images/ diges(ve_system.gif Alcohol!! What is Alcohol? • Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, is an intoxica(ng ingredient found in beer, wine, and liquor. • Alcohol is produced by the fermenta(on of yeast, sugars, and starches. Aﬀects of Alcohol on the Body • Alcohol aﬀects every organ in the body. • It is a central nervous system depressant that is rapidly absorbed from the stomach and small intes(ne into the bloodstream. • Alcohol is metabolized in the liver by enzymes. • But the liver can only metabolize a small amount of alcohol at a (me. • This leaves the excess alcohol to circulate throughout the body. • The intensity of the eﬀect of alcohol on the body is directly related to the amount consumed. Problems Associated with Excessive Alcohol Use • Chronic diseases: – liver cirrhosis (damage to liver cells) – pancrea((s (inﬂamma(on of the pancreas) – various cancers, including liver, mouth, throat, larynx (the voice box), and esophagus – high blood pressure – psychological disorders • Uninten(onal injuries, such as motor-‐vehicle traﬃc crashes, falls, drowning, burns and ﬁrearm injuries. • Violence, such as child maltreatment, homicide and suicide. • Harm to a developing fetus if a woman drinks while pregnant, such as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. • Coma and death can occur if alcohol is consumed rapidly and in large amounts because of depression of the central nervous system. • Alcohol abuse or dependence. Alcoholism • Alcoholism /alcohol dependence is a diagnosable disease characterized by several factors: – A strong craving for alcohol – con(nued use despite harm or personal injury – the inability to limit drinking – physical illness when drinking stops – and the need to increase the amount drunk to feel the eﬀects Binge Drinking • According to the Na(onal Ins(tute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism: • Binge drinking—paGern of alcohol consump(on that brings the blood alcohol concentra(on (BAC) level to 0.08% or above. • This paGern of drinking usually corresponds to 5 or more drinks on a single occasion for men or 4 or more drinks on a single occasion for women, generally within about 2 hours. How to Tell if You Have a Drinking Problem • Drinking is a problem if: – it causes trouble in your rela(onships, in school, in social ac(vi(es, or in how you think and feel. **If you are concerned that either you or someone you love might have a drinking problem—talk to the school counselor or an adult you trust to get them help** Health Aﬀects of Diﬀerent Kinds of Alcohol • Is beer or wine safer to drink than liquor? • No!! One 12-‐ounce beer has about the same amount of alcohol as one 5-‐ounce glass of wine, or 1.5-‐ounce shot of liquor. • It is the amount of ethanol consumed that aﬀects a person most NOT the type of alcoholic drink. Don’t Drink and Drive!!! • Alcohol use slows reac(on (me and impairs judgment and coordina(on • The more alcohol consumed, the greater the impairment. • The legal limit for drinking is the alcohol level above which an individual is subject to legal penal(es • Legal limits are measured using either a blood alcohol test or a breathalyzer. • All states in the United States have adopted 0.08% as the legal limit for opera(ng a motor vehicle for drivers aged 21 years or older. • HOWEVER drivers under age 21 years are not allowed to operate a motor vehicle with any level of alcohol in their system. • Note: Legal limits do not deﬁne a level below which it is safe to operate a vehicle or engage in some other ac(vity. Impairment due to alcohol use begins to occur at levels well below the legal limit. LEGAL DRINKING AGE 21 Alcohol Use by Youth • Studies have shown -‐ alcohol use by youth increases the risk of fatal and nonfatal injuries. • Research has also shown that youth who use alcohol before age 15 are ﬁve (mes more likely to become alcohol dependent than adults who begin drinking at age 21. • Other consequences of youth alcohol use include poor school performance and increased risk of suicide and homicide. Drinking in Modera(on • No one deﬁni(on of moderate drinking • Usually describes a lower risk paGern of drinking. • According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans—having no more than 1 drink per day for women and no more than 2 drinks per day for men. Possible Health Beneﬁts • Protec(on against coronary heart disease • Evidence of cardiovascular beneﬁts from drinking 1 -‐ 2 drinks per day Shocking Sta(s(cs (youth and alcohol) • About 6.6 million children under 18 live in households with at least one alcoholic parent. • Young people who begin drinking before age 15 are four (mes more likely to develop alcoholism than those who begin drinking at 21. • More than 1,700 college students in the U.S. are killed each year— about 4.65 a day—as a result of alcohol-‐related injuries. • In 2000, almost 7 million persons age 12 to 20 was a binge drinker; that is about one in ﬁve persons under the legal drinking age was a binge drinker. • Every day an average of 11,318 teens try alcohol for the ﬁrst (me. • 56% of students in grade 5 to 12 say that alcohol adver(sing encourages them to drink. More Sta(s(cs!! •In the United States, about 50,000 cases of alcohol poisoning are reported each year, and approximately once every week, someone dies from this. •Alcohol is involved in 50% of all driving fatali(es. •Alcohol is the number 1 drug problem in America. •Four in ten criminal oﬀenders report alcohol as a factor in violence. •Among spouse violence vic(ms, three out of four incidents were reported to have involved alcohol use by the oﬀender. Marijuana History • 2737 B.C. Early writings in China note prescribing marijuana to treat every thing from gout to absentmindedness. • 1600s American Colonies mandated the growth of Cannabis Sativa for the hemp which was needed for rope and fabric among other things. " • 1765 George Washington thought to use cannabis for hemp product, medicinal, as well as recreational use. • As late as 1850 Cannabis Sativa grown for hemp products as well as for medicinal purposes. " • 1915-1927 Cannabis begins to be prohibited for non-medical use in the U.S. " Marijuana is a Cannabinoid • Cannabinoids are characterized by the chemical compound Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and include hashish, hashish oil, and marijuana. " • It is the feminized Cannabis plantʼs leaves and buds." THC • THC is absorbed through either lungs or diges(ve tract, and is then transported to the brain and aGaches to Cannabinoid receptors • Takes about 14 seconds to reach the brain • THC is the part that makes someone “high” Addic(on • Cannot be physically addicted • Mental addic(on or withdrawal • Can interfere with sleep • Frequent smokers also have increased chance of mental illness • Some users can feel like they need it Physical Eﬀects • Increased heart rate • Bloodshot eyes • Hunger • Enhanced senses • Time distor(on • Relaxa(on • Mild Euphoria • Outward happiness Slang • Many names used for Marijuana including: – Mary Jane, Weed, Ganja, Pot, Bud, Dope, etc. Types • Kush, Haze, Diesel, Many hybrids Uses • Medicinal use • Recrea(onal use Legal or Illegal? • Many states have decriminalized Marijuana for medicinal use • Alaska, California, Colorado, New Jersey, Maine, Michigan, Montana, New Mexico, Rhode Island, Oregon, Vermont, Washington, Hawaii, Nevada Ways to Consume Inﬂuences • Many musicians and public ﬁgures have and s(ll do frequently use Marijuana, which contributes to many new smokers. Sta(s(cs • Es(mated 16 million Americans frequently consume Marijuana • 35-‐50 million have tried it • Most widely used drug in America • $200 billion annual industry PEER PRESSURE • Students over estimate peer use rates. Most students believe that their peers are smoking around once a week when in actuality around one third of students use marijuana. " • Parents on the other hand underestimate use rates. Around 14% of parents believe that their children have tried marijuana, 38% of their children admit to experimenting with marijuana. • Methylenedioxymethamphetamine • SDmulant: entactogen • Class A drug (serious penalty if caught with it) • Widely known as “E”, “X”, or “XTC” • Pure= Molly, Mandy, Mindy What is it made of? • Safrole-‐ black oil extracted from sassafras plants • Releasing agent of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine • Eﬀects caused by indirect oxytocin secre(on • First discovered in 1912 by German chemist Anton Kollisch – cure for abnormal bleeding. • 1927: Found to be muscle relaxant and blood sugar regulator. • Mid 1970’s: Student gives to Alexander Shulgin, pharmacologist at UC ﬁrst report published, described as his “low calorie mar(ni” and passed to friends and colleagues awer being discovered as a way to enhance therapy sessions. • Now: S(ll prescribed illegally by some doctors and therapists to improve communica(on with pa(ents and improve their quality of life (i.e., terminal cancer pa(ents). What does it do? • Goes into peak eﬀect between 1.5 and 3 hours awer inges(on, though eﬀects start awer half an hour lasts approximately 8 hours with fa(gue-‐inducing comedown at end. What happens aEerward? • Studies indicate that repeated recrea(onal users of E have a severe risk of clinical depression, even awer quixng the drug. • Psychological and physiological eﬀects, including mania, amnesia, demen(a, and perpetual disorienta(on. OVERDOSE! Remember: • Ecstasy is rarely pure. • Pills owen contain: – Methamphetamine – Ephedrine (an appe(te suppressant) – Ibuprofen (Advil) – Baby powder Steroids What is a Steroid • Any large group of fat-‐soluble organic compounds, as the sterols, bile acids, and sex hormones, most of which have speciﬁc physiological ac(on. How are they used? • Steroids are taken by inges(on or injec(on • People who take this drug owen use them in a paGer. Usually in cycles of weeks or months. This is known as Cycling. • People also combine diﬀerent types of steroids to maximize the eﬀec(veness of the drug. Medical use of steroids • When a man has tes(cular cancer the pa(ent is owen given oral steroids to produce testosterone, which makes up for the the loss of testosterone caused by the cancer. • Steroids are used in pa(ents who have recently received a transplant so that the body does not reject the organ. • Steroids are also used to inhibit allergic reac(ons (ex. Poison Ivy or Poison Oak) What are the short term eﬀects of Steroids? Good Short term eﬀects Harmful short term eﬀects -‐ The steroids produce an -‐ From the use of anabolic increase in lean muscle mass. steroids the body can develop liver tumors. -‐ Increases strength, and give -‐ -‐ Jaundice, ﬂuid retenDon, you the ability to work out or and high blood pressure. train your body for longer -‐ -‐ The shrinking of genitalia doubling your body size in a -‐ Reduced sperm count, along very short Dme. with inferDlity -‐ Baldness -‐ -‐ Breast begin to develop -‐ Steroid users also suﬀer from impaired judgment -‐ -‐ People become unaware of danger and think they are invincible Why do people take steroids? • Steroids are owen taken by athletes to try and gain an advantage on their compe((on • This is illegal in all major sports and is not taken as a light maGer • Steroids are bad for the sports community because it gives players an advantage they would most likely not have Mark McGwire Where do people ﬁnd steroids? -‐ There are some forms of legal steroids that can be found in speciﬁc stores or online -‐ For most athletes who take the drug illegally they are provided the drug by some trainers, or in other cases even drug dealers that make a living from selling steroids to athletes. Now It’s Time to Make an Informa(onal Pamphlet 1. Will you use a single sheet of paper folded in half (1 (tle page and 3 informa(onal pages) or third (1 (tle page and 5 informa(onal)? 2. What message do you want to share? 3. How will your pamphlet get the reader’s aGen(on and interest? 4. What are the three most important things to teach in the space you have?
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