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Advanced Environmental Science - Castle High School

VIEWS: 48 PAGES: 48

									Surprise! If you are reading this check
    out the BONUS Assignment!

Print out an article/current event pertaining to
  ecosystem issues and or population problems!
  Bring in the article with a one page handwritten
  (must be legible) or typed summary of the
  article. Must include the following: article copy,
  summary, your opinion…Due Friday, Oct. 22!!!—
  5 bonus points toward the exam!
   Proceed to the next slide for Chapter 4 Exam
                        Review!
Advanced Environmental
       Science
    Chapter 4 Exam Review
 Ecosystems: How they Change
               Question 1:
What is an interbreeding, reproducing group of
         individuals of a single species?

            Answer: A Population
             Question 2:
What is it called when the number of births
within a population is approximately equal to
            the number of deaths?

     Answer: Population Equilibrium
             Question 3:
If natural enemies are removed, herbivore
       populations will most likely ….

Answer: Increase, overgraze, decline due to
                 starvation
               Question 4:
Predict what will happen if there is an increase
        in the population of an herbivore.

 Answer: It will be followed by an increase in
  populations of its natural enemies (think Isle
                 Royale example)
                Question 5:
  Describe how a population achieves a stable
                     size.

Answer: Death rate is the same as the birth rate
                  on average
              Question 6:
What is the term for the number of offspring
 that can be produced in a population under
               ideal conditions?

         Answer: biotic potential
               Question 7:
          What is a lethal mutation?

Answer: Changes in the genetic code that cause
                     death
             Question 8:
What does “survival of the fittest” mean?

Answer: organisms that can best cope with
existing environmental conditions and live to
                REPRODUCE
               Question 9:
         What is recruitment mean?

Answer: The percentage of offspring that reach
           maturity and reproduce
                Question 10:
              What is a gene pool?

Answer: all of the variations (alleles) of all genes
      present in a population of a species
              Question 11:
What is the genetic material in all organisms?

               Answer: DNA
              Question 12:
During sexual mating, the individual offspring
           will receive __________.

Answer: One set of genes from each parent
           Question 13:
 In nature, how are herbivore population
       regulated and kept balanced?

Answer: Natural enemies (predators) keep
       herbivores from overgrazing
            Question 14:
Compared to rates of change which occur in
nature, how can you describe human-induced
                 changes?

        Answer: Extremely rapid
               Question 15:
What is the term that refers to the ability of an
       individual to attain breeding age?

             Answer: recruitment
               Question 16:
What is the critical number of a species referring
                        to?

 Answer: The minimum number of individuals
    needed to sustain a breeding population
              Question 17:
What are some examples of selective pressures?

     Answer: predator-prey relationships,
          competition and herbivory
              Question 18:
                True or False?

All individuals of a species have identical DNA.

                Answer: False
              Question 19:
What phrase is often used to describe Darwin’s
         views on natural selection?

       Answer: “Survival of the Fittest”
               Question 20:
Survival of the fittest does not refer just to an
 organism’s ability to survive but also its ability
                to ____________.

              Answer: reproduce
            Question 21:
How does territoriality limit populations?

Answer: Individuals or groups that cannot
acquire and defend a territory are prevented
               from mating
             Question 22:
              True or False?
Mutations always benefit the survival of the
                 organism

              Answer: False
             Question 23:
         What is replacement level?

Answer: Reproductive rates that just maintain
          the size of the population
              Question 24:
If conditions change such that they are beyond
     the limit of tolerance for most but not all
   members of the population, what can be said
                about the survivors?

 Answer: The survivors will give rise to a new
 population which is better adapted to the new
                  conditions.
              Question 25:
        What is a selective pressure?

Answer: a biotic or abiotic factor that affects
    the reproductive ability of a species
             Question 26:
What is the segment of DNA that provides the
   genetic instructions for making a single
                protein called?

              Answer: A Gene
             Question 27:
When would an herbivore population be likely
 to experience the J-curve population change?

 Answer: When the environment would be
        lacking herbivore predators
              Question 28:
 What can one expect to happen to a species
  after many generations of feeding at night?

Answer: Over the generations, the population
   will become increasingly well adapted to
               feeding at night
              Question 29:
  In ecology, what does succession refer to?
Answer: change in a community over time; one
   species or group of species gradually being
               replaced by another
             Question 30:
The combination of abiotic and biotic factors
  that may limit population growth is called
        _____________________.
     Answer: Environmental Resistance
              Question 31:
           What is carrying capacity?
Answer: The maximum population density that
   a habitat can support without experiencing
              long-term degradation
              Question 32:
Give an example of a species that is unlikely to
          have a high biotic potential.

   Answer: A species that has an intense
  protection of its young (high parental care)
                  Question 33:
   Describe what is happening within a population
Answer:       according to the S-curve.
Population
growth
accelerates
then levels off
below are near
the carrying
capacity
           Question 34:
 What is likely to happen if one or more
conditions change so rapidly that they go
  beyond the species’ limit of tolerance?
Answer: the species will become extinct
               Question 35:
What is it called when one species diverges into
               two or more species?

              Answer: Speciation
             Question 36:
 As a result of adaptation, a(n)__________ is
             more fit and successful.
A) Individual organism B) gene C)population
                  D) Community
              Answer: Population
              Question 37:
If and when environmental factors change, what
     options does a species have for survival?
        Answer: Migrate, Adapt, or Die
               Question 38:
How can fires be beneficial to some
ecosystems?
Answer: Fires release nutrients and
help restore energy balance in the
biosphere
                Question 40:
    Explain what this graph represents.




Answer: There is a population explosion (most likely due to
human interference) causing the population to exhaust all of
its resources thus beginning to die off.
             Question 41:
      What is a climax ecosystem?
Answer: A stable ecosystem in which the
populations of all species are in balance and
 without interruption or change can exist
                indefinitely                 Final
                                               stage
                                               of
                                               succ
                                               essio
                                               n
           Question 42:
Give examples of events that can alter the
        carrying capacity of an area.
 Answer: fire, introduction of a predator,
invasive species introduction, supplemental
            feedings for species
              Question 43:
   Give a present day example of organisms
    undergoing change by natural selection?
Answer: Insect populations becoming resistant
 to insecticides, bacteria becoming resistant to
    antibiotics, weeds becoming resistant to
                    herbicides
              Question 44:
 What factors contribute to the evolution of a
                  new species?
Answer: mutations, physical isolation, exposure
    of isolated groups to different selective
                   pressures
              Question 45:
 How have humans caused ecological upsets?
Answer: Elimination of predators, introduction
    of new species, creating monocultures
    (limiting diversity), habitat destruction,
                    pollution
              Question 46:
        Give 3 examples of field signs.

Answer: tracks, prints, hair or fur, nests, poo,
 seedlings, road kill, shells, disturbed material
      Other Notes:
  **Invasive Species examples
   **Mark-recapture Method
      **Sampling Method
**Exam Day is MONDAY, OCT. 25!

								
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