VIEWS: 48 PAGES: 48 POSTED ON: 12/20/2012
Surprise! If you are reading this check out the BONUS Assignment! Print out an article/current event pertaining to ecosystem issues and or population problems! Bring in the article with a one page handwritten (must be legible) or typed summary of the article. Must include the following: article copy, summary, your opinion…Due Friday, Oct. 22!!!— 5 bonus points toward the exam! Proceed to the next slide for Chapter 4 Exam Review! Advanced Environmental Science Chapter 4 Exam Review Ecosystems: How they Change Question 1: What is an interbreeding, reproducing group of individuals of a single species? Answer: A Population Question 2: What is it called when the number of births within a population is approximately equal to the number of deaths? Answer: Population Equilibrium Question 3: If natural enemies are removed, herbivore populations will most likely …. Answer: Increase, overgraze, decline due to starvation Question 4: Predict what will happen if there is an increase in the population of an herbivore. Answer: It will be followed by an increase in populations of its natural enemies (think Isle Royale example) Question 5: Describe how a population achieves a stable size. Answer: Death rate is the same as the birth rate on average Question 6: What is the term for the number of offspring that can be produced in a population under ideal conditions? Answer: biotic potential Question 7: What is a lethal mutation? Answer: Changes in the genetic code that cause death Question 8: What does “survival of the fittest” mean? Answer: organisms that can best cope with existing environmental conditions and live to REPRODUCE Question 9: What is recruitment mean? Answer: The percentage of offspring that reach maturity and reproduce Question 10: What is a gene pool? Answer: all of the variations (alleles) of all genes present in a population of a species Question 11: What is the genetic material in all organisms? Answer: DNA Question 12: During sexual mating, the individual offspring will receive __________. Answer: One set of genes from each parent Question 13: In nature, how are herbivore population regulated and kept balanced? Answer: Natural enemies (predators) keep herbivores from overgrazing Question 14: Compared to rates of change which occur in nature, how can you describe human-induced changes? Answer: Extremely rapid Question 15: What is the term that refers to the ability of an individual to attain breeding age? Answer: recruitment Question 16: What is the critical number of a species referring to? Answer: The minimum number of individuals needed to sustain a breeding population Question 17: What are some examples of selective pressures? Answer: predator-prey relationships, competition and herbivory Question 18: True or False? All individuals of a species have identical DNA. Answer: False Question 19: What phrase is often used to describe Darwin’s views on natural selection? Answer: “Survival of the Fittest” Question 20: Survival of the fittest does not refer just to an organism’s ability to survive but also its ability to ____________. Answer: reproduce Question 21: How does territoriality limit populations? Answer: Individuals or groups that cannot acquire and defend a territory are prevented from mating Question 22: True or False? Mutations always benefit the survival of the organism Answer: False Question 23: What is replacement level? Answer: Reproductive rates that just maintain the size of the population Question 24: If conditions change such that they are beyond the limit of tolerance for most but not all members of the population, what can be said about the survivors? Answer: The survivors will give rise to a new population which is better adapted to the new conditions. Question 25: What is a selective pressure? Answer: a biotic or abiotic factor that affects the reproductive ability of a species Question 26: What is the segment of DNA that provides the genetic instructions for making a single protein called? Answer: A Gene Question 27: When would an herbivore population be likely to experience the J-curve population change? Answer: When the environment would be lacking herbivore predators Question 28: What can one expect to happen to a species after many generations of feeding at night? Answer: Over the generations, the population will become increasingly well adapted to feeding at night Question 29: In ecology, what does succession refer to? Answer: change in a community over time; one species or group of species gradually being replaced by another Question 30: The combination of abiotic and biotic factors that may limit population growth is called _____________________. Answer: Environmental Resistance Question 31: What is carrying capacity? Answer: The maximum population density that a habitat can support without experiencing long-term degradation Question 32: Give an example of a species that is unlikely to have a high biotic potential. Answer: A species that has an intense protection of its young (high parental care) Question 33: Describe what is happening within a population Answer: according to the S-curve. Population growth accelerates then levels off below are near the carrying capacity Question 34: What is likely to happen if one or more conditions change so rapidly that they go beyond the species’ limit of tolerance? Answer: the species will become extinct Question 35: What is it called when one species diverges into two or more species? Answer: Speciation Question 36: As a result of adaptation, a(n)__________ is more fit and successful. A) Individual organism B) gene C)population D) Community Answer: Population Question 37: If and when environmental factors change, what options does a species have for survival? Answer: Migrate, Adapt, or Die Question 38: How can fires be beneficial to some ecosystems? Answer: Fires release nutrients and help restore energy balance in the biosphere Question 40: Explain what this graph represents. Answer: There is a population explosion (most likely due to human interference) causing the population to exhaust all of its resources thus beginning to die off. Question 41: What is a climax ecosystem? Answer: A stable ecosystem in which the populations of all species are in balance and without interruption or change can exist indefinitely Final stage of succ essio n Question 42: Give examples of events that can alter the carrying capacity of an area. Answer: fire, introduction of a predator, invasive species introduction, supplemental feedings for species Question 43: Give a present day example of organisms undergoing change by natural selection? Answer: Insect populations becoming resistant to insecticides, bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics, weeds becoming resistant to herbicides Question 44: What factors contribute to the evolution of a new species? Answer: mutations, physical isolation, exposure of isolated groups to different selective pressures Question 45: How have humans caused ecological upsets? Answer: Elimination of predators, introduction of new species, creating monocultures (limiting diversity), habitat destruction, pollution Question 46: Give 3 examples of field signs. Answer: tracks, prints, hair or fur, nests, poo, seedlings, road kill, shells, disturbed material Other Notes: **Invasive Species examples **Mark-recapture Method **Sampling Method **Exam Day is MONDAY, OCT. 25!
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