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					                      Prof. Ion BOLDEA
Department of Electrical Machines and Drives, University Politehnica
                      of Timisoara, V.Parvan 2,
    RO - 1900 Timisoara, Romania, Tel.+40-56-204402, E-mail:
                    boldea@lselinux.utt.ro,

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                  Contents
• Introduction
• Variable speed wind-generator systems
• Variable speed hydro-generator systems
• Stand-alone variable speed generators
• Superhigh speed gas turbine PM generator
  systems
• Automotive starter (torque-assist)/alternator
  systems
• Home and space electric generator systems
• Conclusion

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Variable speed wind-generator systems
• 13,932 MW by the end of 1999
• 2 – 2.5 MW units




Wind turbine induction generator system with blade angle
               control and soft-starter [1]
                                                      CR-IG

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Connection circuit for fixed – speed wind turbine
            using external resistors
                                                  CR-IG

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  Measured (gray) and calculated (black)        Measured (gray) and calculated (black) rotor
current magnitude as the 15- kW machine is       speed magnitude as the 15- kW machine is
  connected using external resistance [26]        connected using external resistance [26]




               Measured (gray) and calculated (black) machine voltage as 15- kW
                     machine is connected using external resistance [26]             CR-IG

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Variable speed generator connected to the grid
       through bidirectional converter           CR-IG

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Grid side converter control
                                        CR-IG

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Machine side converter control             CR-IG

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                                                                     CR-IG
                                    Unity power factor




 Phase current and voltage.Speed
1500 rpm, generator, torque 100%




                                               Phase current and voltage per
                                             phase.Speed 1500 rpm, generator,
                                             torque 100%, reactive power 50%
           Results with inverter control at power grid
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Stand alone SCIG control systems [3]          CR-IG

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 a) Vdc versus time                  b) Vd versus time


Full load application over 50% load application [3]


                                                          CR-IG

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Doubly-fed IG (DFIG) wind turbine system

                                                DFIG

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a)                                    b)
     Vector control of DFIG a) and
     step active power response b),
     without and with decoupled
     control [4]
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                            Sensorless
                            DFIG with
                            operating
                            modes I, II,
                              III [8]




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              Rotor and stator current and their
              harmonics content at s = -0.27with
              controlled rectifier - current source
              inverter in the rotor




                                               DFIG

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DFIG connected to the power grid



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        Power [pu / 2000 kW]




                                   Turbine speed referred to generator side [rpm]


Implemented wind turbine characteristics – aerodynamics
                   characteristics
                                                    DFIG

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                                                          DFIG




The block diagram of the supply – side converter control [8]

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The block diagram of the machine-side converter control in a
                doubly-fed wind turbine [8]              DFIG

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a) The active and b) reactive stator power control [8]
                                                      DFIG

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                      Three-phase short-circuit
                         on the power grid :
                      a)   Stator voltage
                      b) Stator currents
                      c)   Rotor currents
                      d) Speed
                      e)   Turbine torque
                      f)   Electromagnetic torque
                      g) Active power
                      h) Reactive power
                             [8]
                                                DFIG

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                   Modified vector controller
                   for unbalanced voltages in the
                   power grid [6]




                                           DFIG

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Stator currents in individual phases       Stator currents in individual phases
for 10% negative-sequence voltage          for 10% negative-sequence voltage
applied - conventional controller [6]       applied - modified controller [6]

                                                                            DFIG

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                        Stator currents in individual
                       phases for two- phase
                       operation-modified controller
                       [6]




                                               DFIG

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 Sensorless control of DFIG
                           s
                  Im s 
                           Ls
                               Im s  j Im s                           
                                                         s   V s  Rs i s dt


                                              Ls
                                                  
                   s
                  I  ir  jir   i ms  i s
                   r
                                               Lm
                  cos  1  ir is         sin 1  ir  ir
                  cos  2  ir ? ir        sin 2  ir  ? is
                  sin  er  sin  1   2 
                  d er
                         r
                   dt




                                                                      DFIG

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                Sensorless control of DFIG




Experimental waveforms showing estimated and actual sin  for
               step in ifrom 0 to 0.5 p.u. [2]
                        rq
                                                          DFIG

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                  Sensorless control of DFIG                     DFIG



                                           a) Before filtering [2]




                                           b) After filtering




Experimental waveforms showing estimated and actual  at starting
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Variable speed hydrogenerator systems
                                    Pump storage
                                    necessities prompted
                                    by nuclear power
                                    usage led to the
                                    design and
                                    application of two
                                    rather large
                                    (310MW) power
                                    DFIGs; one with a
                                    cycloconverter and
                                    the other with a
                                    GTO inverter-
                                    converter in the
                                    rotor circuit [10]

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Ramp power response for motoring mode
        (Ohkawachi unit 4) [10]              DFIG

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Ramp power response for generating mode
       (Ohkawachi unit 4) [10]          DFIG

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Goldishtal pump-storage station
          300 MW [27]                      DFIG

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Power flow at constant torque in turbine and pump
                  operation [27]                DFIG

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Stand-alone variable speed generators




Stand-alone MG generator – converter with battery quick back up
                                                           PMSG

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                                               PMSG




PM generator advanced mobile genset [28]
                                                 PMSG

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                   PM generator
                    advanced
                   mobile genset
                       [28]
                    Peak torque,
                   power and fuel
                    consumption
                                         PMSG

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                               PM
                               alternator
                               genset
                               with
                               Diesel
                               engine
                               [28]
                                         PMSG

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Dual stator winding IG with reduced
  count inverter – battery system                CRIG

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Starter generators for vehicular technologies
   • Induction type
   • IPM brushless type
   • Transverse flux PM brushless type
   • Switched reluctance type
  • Claw pole rotor synchronous type
Characteristics :
   * High starting torque
   * Large power speed range
   * Low volume and system costs
   * Low total system losses at 42 Vdc – battery – mild hybrids, 200 –
   400 Vdc – battery – full hybrids and electric vehicles           ISG

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         Starter-alternators (continued)
So there is the low voltage (42 V d.c.)
starter-alternator and the high voltage (150-
400 V d.c.) motor-generator for mild and
respective heavy hybrids electric vehicles.
Typical peak torque and voltage versus
speed for a PM-RSM mild hybrid starting
and, respectively, torque-assist mode are
shown in next slide, with corresponding
efficiency.                               ISG

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Starter-alternators (continued)

                              42V
                              battery
                              voltage
                              versus
                              d.c.
                              current
                              load
                                               ISG

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                           Starter-
                           alternators
                           PM-RSM
                           cross-
                           section
                           [12]
                                           ISG

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a) Generating                     b) Motoring


Rotor position    er in relation to     s
                                               and   s


                                                           ISG

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                                Starter-alternators (continued)
               150                                                   60                               1

                                                                                                     0.9
               125                                                   50
                                                                                                     0.8

                                                                                                     0.7
               100                                                   40
                                                                                                     0.6
Torque (rpm)




                                                                          Voltage (V)


                                                                                        Efficiency
               75                                                    30                              0.5

                                                                                                     0.4
               50                                                    20
                                                                                                     0.3

                                                                                                     0.2
               25                                                    10
                                                                                                     0.1

                0                                                     0                               0
                     0   1000   2000      3000       4000   5000   6000                                    0   1000   2000      3000       4000   5000   6000
                                       speed (rpm)                                                                           Speed [rpm]



                                          a)                                                                                         b)
                     Peak torque, voltage a) and corresponding machine
                              efficiency versus speed b) [12]
                                                                                                                                                         ISG

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a)                                                        b)
     Potential 42V d.c. automotive starter/alternator system
         with winding switch (a.c. machines) and passive
     (capacitor) voltage a) and with boost/buck converter b)

                                                               ISG

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H-bridge dc – dc boost bidirectional converter with
     transformer and inductance (T + L) [11]

                                                      ISG
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IGBT losses for the induction motor drive: base
                                                       Total power loss at 30 kW max. delivered power motor
and max speed, with and without boost converter [11]
                                                       design of Table 2 with boost converter, Vb =180 V [11]




                                                          Total power loss at 30 kW max. delivered power motor
                                                          design of Table 1 with boost converter, Vb =180 V [11]




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Fundamental rotor – position and speed tracking observer [14]
                                                             ISG

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Estimated initial electrical rotor position [14]
                                                      ISG

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Superhigh speed gas turbine PM generator
                systems

Typical power – speed ranges :
   • to 150 kW at 70 – 80 000 rpm
   • to 1.4 – 5 MW at 18 000 – 15 000 rpm

Applications :
  Stand alone, standby or cogeneration in distributed
power systems.

                                                         PMSG

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The superhigh PM generator : rotors


                             a) cylindrical




                             b) disk – shape



                                                PMSG

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Variable speed PMSG system with constant output
              voltage and frequency          PMSG

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3 – 5 MW medium voltage superhigh speed PMSG ( f1  0.6  1.2 kHz )
      With dc voltage booster and three level PWM inverter

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Home and space electric generator
           systems
                                   Stirling
                                   engine
                                   linear PM
                                   generator
                                     [25]

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              Various PM linear
              alternators [25]


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                   Conclusion
The present paper leads to conclusions such as:
 variable-speed generator technologies for power
systems are already available up to 400 MW with
doubly-fed induction generator motors. They bring
more flexibility and better efficiency to power
production and transportation for distributed/power
systems wind and hydro electric generators are prime
candidates for variable speed
 better system design optimisation and sensorless
control methodologies are still desired
              University “Politehnica” of Timisoara   55 of 61
• automotive starter-alternator system for mild (42V
d.c.) and heavy (150-600V d.c.) hybrid vehicles have
been proposed in various configurations. The IM
solution has been brought to markets by Toyota and
Honda. Up to 35% fuel consumption reduction in
town driving has been reported for Toyota Prius but
the additional electrical equipment has been rated at
3000 USD. PM-RSM or transverse flux PM rotor
configurations are currently proposed as they are
credited with slightly less initial system costs for
lower total system losses.

              University “Politehnica” of Timisoara   56 of 61
     PM or induction generators with full (respectively
fractionary) power electronics rating are proposed for
dedicated stand alone or mobile gensets in the tens or
hundreds of kW. Faster availability, lower volume and better
energy conversion ratio with faster response for load
transients are expected for such solutions.
• Superhigh speed PM generators with powers up to 150kW
and 75 krpm and for higher powers (up to 5 MW and 15
krpm ) are proposed for distributed power systems, aircraft
and small vessel.




               University “Politehnica” of Timisoara   57 of 61
       Home combined electricity and heat production
through burning natural gas has been demonstrated with
quiet, free piston Stirling engines and linear PM
generators for efficiency above 85%, and at the power
electric grid for tens of thousands of hours in the kW
range. More compact configurations with still high
efficiency and lower initial costs are required to make
home electricity generation truly practical with all
implicit advantages.




            University “Politehnica” of Timisoara   58 of 61
                                       References
1.   L. Mihet Popa, F. Blaabjerg, I. Boldea, “Simulation of wind generator systems for the power grid”, Record
     of OPTIM – 2002, vol 2, Nr. 423 – 428.
2.   G. Podder, A. Joseph, A.K. Unnikshnan, “Sensorless variable – speed control for existing fixed speed wind
     power generator with unity power factor operation”, IEEE Transactions, Vol. ???, No. 5, 2003, pp. 1007 –
     1015.
3.   R. Teodorescu, F. Blaabjerg, F. Iov, “Control strategy for small stand – alone wind turbines ”, Record of
     PCIM – 2003, Nurnberg, pp. 201 – 206.
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     fed machines and 4 quadrant IGBT converter linked to the rotor”, Record of IEEE – IAS – 2000 Annual
     meeting, pp. 2249 – 2254.
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8.   I. Serban, F. Blaabjerg, I. Boldea, Z. Chen, “A study of doubly-fed wind power generator under power
     systems faults ”, Record of EPE – 2003, Toulouse, France.




                           University “Politehnica” of Timisoara                                          59 of 61
9.    P. Pena, J.C. Clare, G.M. Asher, “A doubly fed induction generator using back to back PWM converter supplying
      an isolated load from a variable speed turbine ” , Proc. IEE, Vol. EPA – 143, No. 5, 1996, pp. 380 – 387.
10.   T. Kuwabara, A. Shibuja, H. Furata, “Design and dynamic response characteristics of 400 MW adjustable speed
      pump storage unit at Ohkawachi power station”, IEEE Transactions, Vol. EC – 11, No. 2, 1996, pp. 376 – 384.
11.   A. Vagati, A. Fratta, P. Gugliehni, G. Franchi, F. Villata, “Comparison of a.c. motor based drives for electric
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12.   I. Boldea, L. Tutelea, C.I. Pitic, “PM-assisted reluctance synchronous motor/generator (PM-RSM) for mild hybrid
      vehicles”, Record of OPTIM – 2002, Vol. 3, pp. 383 - 388.
13.   W. L.. Soong, M. Ertugrul, E.C. Lovelace, T. M. Jahns, ”Investigation of interior permanent magnet offset
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14.   H. Kim, K. K. Huh, M. Harke, J. Wai, R.D. Lorenz, T. Jahns, “Initial rotor position estimation for an integrated
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15.   M. Linke, R. Kennel, J. Holtz, “Sensorless speed and position control of synchronous machines using alternating
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      electrical vehicles ”, Record of ICEM – 1998, Vol. 1, pp. 229 – 239.
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18.   M. P. Kazmierkowski, F. Blaabjerg, R. Krishnan, Editors , “Control in power electronics ” – special problems,
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                              University “Politehnica” of Timisoara                                        60 of 61
19.   H. Polinder, “On the losses in a high speed PM generator with rectifier with special attention to the
      effect of damper winding”, Ph. D. Thesis, Technical University Delft, Netherlands, 1998.
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      rectifier”, Record of ICEM – 2000, Vol. 1, pp. 301 – 313.
23.   K.H. Kim, M.J. Youn, “DSP – based high – speed sensorless control for a brushless d.c. motor using a
      d.c. link voltage control”, ECPS Journal, Vol. 30, No. 9, 2002, pp. 889 – 906.
24.   B-H Bae, S-K Sul, J-H Kvon, J-S Byeon, “Inplementation of sensorless vector control for superhigh
      speed PMSM of turbo – compressor”, IEEE Transactions, Vol. IA – 29, No. 3, 2003, pp. 811 – 818.
25.   I. Boldea, “Linear electric actuators and their control”, Record of EPE – PEMC – 2002, Dubrovnik,
      Croatia.
26.   T. Thiringer, “Grid-Friendly Connecting of Constant-Speed Wind Turbines using External Resistors”,
      IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 17, December, 2002
27.   A. Bocquel, J. Janning, “4*300 MW Variable Speed Drive for Pump-Storage Plant Application”, EPE
      2003 – Toulouse
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      March, 2003


                       University “Politehnica” of Timisoara                                        61 of 61

				
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