Performance Management Objectives Maximizing Employee

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Maximizing Employee Performance
Dr. Mary Kamienski UMDNJ School of Nursing Leadership Institute

• Define the terms coaching, counseling, and discipline • Discuss the purpose of performance appraisals • Characterize common rater errors • Design an effective performance appraisal process.

• Ongoing, face-to-face, collaborative process face- to• Assists the employee to carry out job responsibilities • Assists the employee to gain knowledge and skills • Should be the immediate supervisor • Allows for immediate application of learning in the real world • • • Informal counseling Short term is spontaneous, brief and open Long-term can be used to correct performance Longdeficiencies
– Planned and behavior specific

• May also mean providing opportunities to attend conferences or seminars

• Opportunity to demonstrate interest in the employee • Requires interpersonal contact • Private session to help employee solve a personal problem
– Ex. Absenteeism – Conflicts with others

• Organizations require the use of standards and guiding principles • Undesirable conduct is defined as breaking rules or not performing job duties adequately • Generally seen as punishment for negative behavior • Purpose is to improve job performance • Taking corrective action

• May require referral to a professional counselor


• Conforming to standards of regulatory agencies
– JCAHO – Department of Health – Board of Nursing

• Money
– Suspension – No transfers – No promotions

• Defense against litigation • How effective is the disciplinary process?
– Absenteeism – Tardiness – Practice issues such as infection control behaviors

• License
– Suspension – Revocation

• Mandatory education

Using survey data collected from 177 firefighters, associations between various aspects of meting out discipline and employee reactions are examined in an exploratory study. Results reveal that the pleasantness with which disciplinary action is administered appears to be the most important factor in lessening discipline's potential for generating emotional reactions and deterioration of supervisor/subordinate relationships. In addition, perceived appropriateness of discipline is related to the degree to which prior relations were positive, accuracy of supervisor's diagnosis of the situation, and presentation of a reason for discipline. Cessation of targeted behaviors was least explained by the variables of the study suggesting that the factors that account for effective behavior change through disciplinary action are in need of identification.

Performance Appraisals
• • • • Formal evaluation of performance Required by JCAHO Generally done annually Purpose
– Opportunity for personal and professional growth – Ensure quality of work (patient care, management, etc)

Job Description
• Should provide the baseline or minimal performance criteria
– ANA clinical standards – JCAHO patient safety standards
• • • • • • • • • • •

Knowledge and Skills
Assessing patient status Planning and implementing care EVALUATING RESPONSES TO CARE Documentation Operating technical equipment Rapidly identifying and responding to emergencies Participating as a team member Coordinating patient activities Communicating effectively Educating patient/families/others Appropriate DELEGATION

• Appraisal should be given at time of hire • Should be based on a job analysis
– Includes job description and job specifications


Types of appraisal tools
• Structured tools
– Forced distribution scales
• Average, Above average, Below average

Appraisal Tools
• Flexible tools
– BARS Behaviorally anchored rating scale – MBO Management by objectives – Less bias

– Rating scales – Variety of measures common to nursing practice – Can be ambiguous
• Ex: “Provides safe nursing care” care”

• Peer Review • Checklists
– Can lead to rater error

Standards of Professional Performance
• • • • • • • • Quality of practice Education Professional practice evaluation Collegiality Ethics Research Research utilization Leadership
• American Nurses Association

Nurses’ Role in Evaluating Practice Nurses’
• Seek feedback from
– Patients – Peers – Superiors

• Superior should give periodic feedback • No SURPRISES at appraisal meeting

Management by Objectives
• Two-way communication Two• Established goals
– Limit to 2 or 3 goals – Meaningful and realistic – Include strategies to achieve goals – Provide an in-service on writing goals in– Review goals – All should agree on goals

Data Collection
• Anecdotal notes
– Manager and employee

• • • • •

Documentation review Interviewing patients Attending staff meetings Talking with coworkers Reviewing skills or competency evaluations


Skill Testing
• Anecdotal records
– Based on observation – Based on reports of others – Based on report of employee – Used in evaluation
• Employee awareness

• Demonstrating competence • Regulatory requirements • Training and testing to maintain expertise
– Ex. Medication updates – Equipment use

• Making this a part of performance evaluations
– Employee awareness – Clear criteria

Patient Surveys
• Difficult to use for individual employee evaluation • Surveys are generally overall satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the experience • Anonymity results in inability to identify who cared for the patient • Real-time patient/family comments are more useful Real– Making it part of employee evaluation – Employee awareness

• Evaluator bias
– Use of examples = decreased bias – Develop an awareness of personal bias – Central tendency
• Good or average on most items

– Halo effect
• Recent exceptional performance in one or more areas

– Horn effect
• Recent unsatisfactory performance

Rater Errors
Halo effect Recency effect Horn effect/problem distortion • Sunflower effect • • • • Rater temperament effect (strict or lenient) • Strict ratings to motivate • Lenient ratings in order to be “liked” liked” – All high as team is “great” • Guessing error great” • Initial impression • Central tendency • Status

Appraisal Meeting
• Pre-scheduled Pre• Evaluator/employee mutual agreement on time and date • Pre-evaluation Pre– Rater – Employee

• NO INTERRUPTIONS if possible • Privacy • Length of time stated at beginning of meeting


Active listening Assertive communication Be aware of gender differences in responses Focus on employee performance not personal characteristics • Use calm, even voice to communicate negative information • Avoid defensive responses

• • • •

– “Sandwich every bit of criticism between two layers of praise” praise” – Use criticism sparingly – Offer solutions for improvement

Successful Performance Appraisal Meetings
• Conduct the meeting in a nonthreatening or neutral environment • Allow 45-60 minutes per 45person • Be sure it is confidential (share only based on need to know) • Maintain the focus on performance not personality • Give specific suggestions for improvement • Establish a time frame for achieving goals • Recognize and reward positive achievement (particularly following an unsatisfactory appraisal) • End the meeting on time • BE AWARE of your mood (re-schedule if necessary) (re-

Avoid appraisal MARATHONS!

Special Circumstances
• • • • • Tissues and lollipops Threatening behaviors Re-schedule if necessary ReDocument aberrant behavior immediately Be transparent about your reaction to unacceptable behavior

Don’t Forget Follow-Up
• Pre-plan Pre• Keep the follow-up appointment follow• Give periodic encouragement before follow-up followappointment • Be clear about sanctions, disciplinary action, etc. if remediation is not successful


Special Issues
• New and probationary employees • Problem employees
– – – – – Excessive absenteeism Decreased quality of work Errors in judgment Work-related accidents WorkHigh rates of turnover

• Keep communication open • Communicate appreciation for the contribution employee makes to the organization (unit) • Involve them in unit governance • Be positive • Be fair and show respect • Spread the workload • Create a supportive culture • Tolerate differences

• Transfers and termination • Progressive discipline
– – – – – Counseling Verbal Written Suspension Termination

• Increasingly professional employees • Ability to improve or “move” problem move” employees • Improves your performance evaluation • Allows for provision of safe, high-quality patient highcare on YOUR unit! • Essential component of team building