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Waste Management Waste Management practical application of

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Waste Management Waste Management practical application of Powered By Docstoc
					Waste Management:
practical application of the new ethical concepts of Eco-Ethics International Union

by Romeo D. Caturao, MSc in Marine Ecology
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What are Wastes?
Basel Convention Definition of Wastes
“substances or objects which are disposed of or are intended to be disposed of or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of the law”

Disposal means
“any operation which may lead to resource recovery, recycling, reclamation, direct re-use or alternative uses (Annex IVB of the Basel convention)”

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Kinds of Wastes
Solid wastes: domestic, commercial and industrial wastes
especially common as co-disposal of wastes Examples: plastics, styrofoam containers, bottles, cans, papers, scrap iron, and other trash

Liquid Wastes:
Examples:

wastes in liquid form domestic washings, chemicals, oils, waste water from ponds, manufacturing industries and other sources

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Classification of Wastes according to their Properties
Bio-degradable
can be degraded (paper, wood, fruits and others)

Non-biodegradable
cannot be degraded (plastics, bottles, old machines,

cans, styrofoam containers and others)

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Classification of Wastes according to their Effects on Human Health and the Environment Hazardous wastes
Substances unsafe to use commercially, industrially, agriculturally, or economically that are shipped, transported to or brought from the country of origin for dumping or disposal in, or in transit through, any part of the territory of the Philippines

Non-hazardous
Substances safe to use commercially, industrially, agriculturally, or economically that are shipped, transported to or brought from the country of origin for dumping or disposal in, or in transit through, any part of the territory of the Philippines
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Sources of Wastes

Households

Commerce and Industry

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Sources of Wastes
Agriculture

Fisheries

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Waste Generation by Country
(Global Waste Survey Final Report Published by IMO 1995)*

Countries Japan Germany Netherlands Hungary

Amount /year 395 M tonnes/year 104 M tonnes/year 6.1 M tonnes/year 102 M tonnes/year

Poland
Romania Bahrain China

130 M tonnes/year
607 M tonnes/year 92,000 tonnes/year 6 B tonnes/year

Philippines

1.3 M tonnes/year

*from primary and secondary industry sectors
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Waste Generation in the Philippines

In Metro Manila:
• It is estimated that 25 million m3 of acid and alkaline liquid waste is disposed of annually from the electronics industry. • Almost 2,000 m3 of solvents and 22,000 tonnes of heavy metals, infectious wastes, biological sludges, lubricants and intractable wastes are disposed of on land or into water courses. • 4,000 tonnes of solid wastes are generated daily. Of these, only about 3,400 tonnes are collected and transported to existing sites.
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Waste Generation in Iloilo Province
Hundreds of tons of domestic wastes are generated daily by households contributing to the enormous environmental problems the world is facing.*

*Chua, TE (1996) Waste management in the coastal areas of the ASEAN region. ECLARM Proceedings No. 33
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EFFECTS OF WASTE IF NOT MANAGED WISELY
• • • • Affects our health Affects our socio-economic conditions Affects our coastal and marine environment Affects our climate

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EFFECTS OF WASTE…
According to NAS:
• GHGs are accumulating in Earth‟s atmosphere as a result of human activities, causing global mean surface air temperature and subsurface ocean temperature to rise.
Rising global temperatures are expected to raise sea levels and change precipitation and other local climate conditions. Changing regional climates could alter forests, crop yields, and water supplies. This could also affect human health, animals, and many types of ecosystems. Deserts might expand into existing rangelands, and features of some of our national parks might be permanently altered.

•

• • •

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EFFECTS OF WASTE…
According to NAS:
- Some countries are expected to become warmer, although sulfates might limit warming in some areas. - Scientists are unable to determine which parts of those countries will become wetter or drier, but there is likely to be an overall trend toward increased precipitation and evaporation, more intense rainstorms, and drier soils. - Whether rainfall increases or decreases cannot be reliably projected for specific areas.

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Effects of waste….
Activities that have altered the chemical composition of the atmosphere: -Buildup of GHGs primarily carbon dioxide (CO2) methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N20). -C02 is released to the atmosphere by the burning of fossil fuels, wood and wood products, and solid waste. -CH4 is emitted from the decomposition of organic wastes in landfills, the raising of livestock, and the production and transport of coal, natural gas, and oil. -N02 is emitted during agricultural and industrial activities, as well as during combustion of solid waste and fossil fuels. In 1977, the US emitted about one-fifth of total global GHGs.
Inventory of US Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2000, US EPA, Office of Atmospheric Programs, April 2002 EPA 236-R-02-003.

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WHAT SHOULD BE DONE • Reduce Waste
- Reduce office paper waste by implementing a formal policy to duplex all draft reports and by making training manuals and personnel information available electronically.
- Improve product design to use less materials. - Redesign packaging to eliminate excess material while maintaining strength. - Work with customers to design and implement a packaging return program. - Switch to reusable transport containers. - Purchase products in bulk.
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WHAT SHOULD BE DONE
Reuse
- Reuse corrugated moving boxes internally.
- Reuse office furniture and supplies, such as interoffice envelopes, file folders, and paper. - Use durable towels, tablecloths, napkins, dishes, cups, and glasses. - Use incoming packaging materials for outgoing shipments. - Encourage employees to reuse office materials rather than purchase new ones.
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WHAT SHOULD BE DONE
Donate/Exchange
- old books - old clothes

- old computers
- excess building materials - old equipment to local organizations

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WHAT SHOULD BE DONE
Employee Education
- Develop an “office recycling procedures” packet. - Send out recycling reminders to all employees including environmental articles.

- Train employees on recycling practices prior to implementing recycling programs.
- Conduct an ongoing training process as new technologies are introduced and new employees join the institution.

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WHAT SHOULD BE DONE
Employee Education

- education campaign on waste management that includes an extensive internal web site, quarterly newsletters, daily bulletins, promotional signs and helpful reference labels within the campus of an institution.

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WHAT SHOULD BE DONE
Preventing Waste - packaging waste reductions and changes in the manufacturing process - use biodegradable materials

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WHAT SHOULD BE DONE
Conduct outreach program adopting an ecologically sound waste management system which includes:
• • • • • • waste reduction segregation at source composting recycling and re-use more efficient collection more environmentally sound disposal
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Residents are organized into small groups to carry out the following:
1. construction of backyard compost pit

2.

construction of storage bins where recyclable and reusable materials are stored by each household
construction of storage centers where recyclable and reusable materials collected by the street sweepers are stored prior to selling to junk dealers maintenance of cleanliness in yards and streets greening of their respective areas encouraging others to join
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3.

4. 5. 6.

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS: EMS What is an EMS?
An EMS is a formal set of policies and procedures that define how an organization will evaluate, manage, and track its environmental impact. It follows the basic model:

Plan > Do > Check > Act
This facilitates cost-effective environmental performance by defining and continuously improving the process and actions that an organization undertakes to meet its environmental goals.

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EMS Development
• A Policy Statement that communicates an organization‟s environmental priorities to employees. • Managerial endorsement of the policy statement demonstrates the organization‟s commitment to the effort and willingness to allocate resources for implementation. • Once a policy statement is in place, the organization implements it following the model.
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Stages in the Implementation of EMS
1. Plan
Identify all environmental aspects: any environmental or health and safety impacts resulting from activities and services. The organization then evaluates each aspect according to a variety of criteria:
• • • • understanding of eco-ethics environmental and health effects economic impacts liabilities

After establishing a complete list of significant aspects, the organization sets environmental goals and develops a plan to achieve those goals.
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2. Do
The „do-phase‟ of the model involves implementation of the environmental plan through employee training and establishment of operation controls.

3. Check
Evaluates progress toward meeting program goals through ongoing monitoring and measuring and periodic EMS audits.

4. Act
Involves taking corrective action to update and improve the environmental plan. For example, if an organization makes significant progress on one environmental aspect, another environmental aspect will replace it on the priority list.
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Why Should an Organization Adopt an EMS?
1. Improve environmental performance
It helps monitor energy and water conservation, resource efficiencies, and pollution prevention.

2. Better regulatory compliance
Increase regulatory compliance which is especially important for organizations that spend time and resources with regulatory violations.

3. Certification and recognition
EMS implementation can enhance an organization‟s image and improve public community relations.
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EMS Certification
• EPA encourages organizations to use recognized EMS frameworks to improve compliance, pollution prevention, and other measures of environmental performance.

• Third-party certification can also add credibility to an organization‟s EMS.

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Several organizations which offer certification programs:

• • • •

American Chemistry Council American Forest and Paper Association International Chamber of Commerce Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies • International Organization for Standardization (ISO) developed the most widely recognized EMS standard

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Principles of an Effective EMS
For better environmental and overall organizational performance, an EMS should:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Focus on continual improvement Serve the organization and its mission Receive top management support Remain dynamic and flexible Fit the culture of the organization Represent employees and their actions Establish employees awareness and involvement

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That ends my presentation. I hope this lecture about ECO-ETHICS will make you aware of what is happening to our environment.

Now I urge you to join Eco-Ethics International Union to help build a better house for humanity!
Thank you for listening!
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