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    deprives our troops there of any claim to the protection of
    the convention in the event they are captl.1red and ""!akens
    the protections afforded by the Conventions to our troops
    in future cOnflicts.
               The structure of the paper suggesting a distinction
        between our conflict with al Qaeda and our conflict with
        the Taliban does not conforca. to tbe strueture of the
        Conventiotw. The conventiona call for a dec:ision whetber
        they apply to the conflict in Afghanistan. If they do,
        their p~sions are applicable to all persons involved in
        that conflict - al Qaeda. Taliban, Northern Alliance. U.S.
        troops, civilians, etc. If the Conventions do not apply to
        the conflict, no one involved in it will enjoy the benefit
        of their protections a$.a lIIiltte~ of law.

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                      NEW YORK TIMES
 _ _...r:.;t-,;;.";...;;.:;;;;=--,~_..;...._ _---,-Fax: 2028620340
                                                                              Jun   8 2004   15:17              p, 04

                                              Status ofLepl Discussions re
                                            Application of GeIIcva Convention to
                                                   Tah'ban and at Qacda
                 1.   yo1 Conehroog re Wu Crimes Act Liability                                                   /

                 • AJllawyers iAvolved in theR discussiom aaree that the Wv Crimes Acl. 40ea not        /   "
                   apply to lillY aaicms I3l:CD hyU,S. officials with RGpcct to al QaedaorTaliblQl v
                      Ikiainees.          t....:.   *                    '
                 .1. APplicability ofGPW tg Confliet Widl aJ Oacda

                 • DOl lawyen have coacludcd as matter oClaw that our eonllict with al Qaeda.
                   reprdll!5S ofwher-c itilwricd our. is not covCfCd byGPW.' Lawyen fi:om DOD,
                   wac. and OVP 5UJIPort that legal ccmcJusion.
                   • DOl. DOD.          wac.
                                          lAd OVP Jawyas be6eve !hal thU COIIdu.siOll is desirable
                      hm a aomaac"liW ii., ..... biiCiiiWltjiiOfid'cSl!Je'bestposdblt; hp,,.'lw

             3. Appliebilkv ofGPW lP Conf!jct Wjlb 'he Taliban

             •    DOl, WHC mel OVJ> laW}lU$ agree that the Ptesi4ent bas authority to (lefl!mlin.. ID
                  suspend G'PW as bctweculhc U.8.1Dd Afah,nimn based on a COl/CIusiOD that
                  Jifibanisfm is lI. failed Jute.                                        '
             •    DOS lawyeri*4i •• 8"ec   Ytidi4;;.all.aa'ft IIId 'IP'.' AIeL .li=tQ;..nnie~ -
             •    ICS Iaw)ua oppose ~ 4efennin«tion OIl poljcy gounds to !he atezU: tbat tho"
                  polio:y emuideAdOD$ arc DOt ~ lIS ;ct fixIh in !he Iut bullet of 1. .t!ove.
                  All tel..... ~ agree that(.a)-Tah"hn d«dnces aruotPOW.1pR' te) 1It~, _
'!Z:J.. •   ,.    Me al •• jrJ. 1Ite GIt. ai_ae _Eled. .. My ar. . "'•• {tc:; Me p~ •
8                 pNta:Von s ofGP'VIi" thus aD ...1_' ~ agree dl.U Talibm detainees will not
                  benefit at aU 1iom GPW, wheChct or not GPW is suspended.

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                       • DOJ lawyers believe that it is desirable to ildhere to the Prtsidttll's determination of            o.....:.r-
                         January 18 1b3l GPW does not apply to our conflict with the Tahoan in order to                      ,.   .........c..-
                         provide the best pcnsiblc level oCprotcc:tion against misapplication oftbc War Crimes               ~ .,.-
                         Act. OVP. DOD IDd WHe la-wym agree that the Presi4cnt's IUlUary18
                         detennin~ provides the be!t possible level of protection.

                       4. POW StatuS

                       • The lawyer.s involved til agree Ibt III Qaeda or Talibm soldiers are presumptiVely
                         DOt POW$, consistent with ~ President's detenninatioll ofJlIluary 18.

                       S. further Screening
                       • DOJ, WHC. and. OVP lawyus beli~e !lui, IRa Pa&ilill1t h. Ilelimti:~ lIete. • :cd                    ,x...~
                         thal al Qaed4 and Taliban soldiers who come WIder U.S. collltOl are not entitled to
                         POW nalI '&eykk ~.Ii"',.. tIIat"is deVRninatiMl is CleackIWle'su.d that PO
                                   l   $

                         PfOCeduru are uecdcd foe tither ~ oewy al Quda Ut'TIliban detain. .
                         ~cvc diii noU.-liOW iIiii:Sift'SidI the DiSiiiiiJitYt6 ICteUC or fmiSli:r
                         any prisoDa" detmnined DOt to be III appI'OPriate c:andidak 10r delcPlio.. e.a:..
                         beCaaSo he is • low level toervit who poses no con.tinW:ig threat and who has lID
                          relllVUlt fnlOrmadoa.                               .
                      •   DOD, JCS and DOS JawyctS believe that, in the unlikely event tbat "doubt $bould
                          cise" u to wMther a putit;ular detainee does not qualify for POW Slatu$, we should
                          be prepan:d to offer additional scncning on a caso--by·eue bub, eitherpur.slIQIU' to
                          Amele S ofGPW (m the CXtCQ.1 the ~enticln applies) or foMfneN ~ t-ztiele 5
                          (to the extent it does ROI).(n-. NoX     ~~... ~ ~................ ·4 :U....
                          c:.,   ,/." - ':f Me.       X" ~--...:- -       --~:l                          . _
                   6. etA, Is$US!
~  .
.. " -
                   •       The lawyers mY'Olved aU
                           !be U.S. military.
                                                      a~     thallhe CIA is bound by the same legal restrictiOIl$ 1$ .   t
ct....            •       They further asn:e Ibac the CIA Cl\ioys the urne high level ofpl1lleclion from liability

                           under the War Crime{ Act IS the U.s. miJilUy.
                          CIA lawyers belicve IbJr, to tIu: exfCDt tbaI: GPV/'s plOtectiom do not apply III I:
        .   '$"
            ~             lIlatter of law but 1hose protCcliOAS are applied u a matter of peBey. it is d£5irable to
                          circIIlnscn"be that policy so U to limit 11$ application to die CIA. The odler Jawycn
                          ;u.volved did IlOt disagrcewirhorobjecl to CIA's view.

        NtW   1UH~   II Mto   raX:LUL~bLUJ~U     Jun   ~   LUU~   10: I~

    Insert A

I   •     DOS lawyers believe this conclusion is desirable from a
         'domestic--and international lay standpoint because it
          .provides the best legal basis· for our .intended treatment
          of the detainees and strengthens the Geneva Convention
          protections of our forces in Afghanietan and other
    ... ---conflicts.

    •    DOS l.awyers further believe this conclusion is
         appropri.ate for pol.ic:y reasons beeause i.t emphasizes that
         even in a new sort of .conflict tbe United States b,ules
         its conduct on its intexnational treaty obligations and
         the rule of not just on its policy preferences.

                                                                           .   .

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I,,·                  -,-~'--   ..   j

       "   .',

                                               'ItIc iIIJDwiDg di:;t.:ussilln ~ the requiremm.ts of intem,monallaw as
                                                   Armed Forces of the Ucired States, as intetpreted by ~ United Stllt~.
                                             -.lJcent in other sr.ctiODS of rlW; malysis, other nations and intcmatiOIW
                                                   a more resCrietive yjew, whkh may affix:t our policy lIIllIlysis lind thus is

                                         De ~ev. Co.."eutioll$

                                         (U) The laws of war contain obligatiOllS reievllIlt to tbtl is&'ue of interrogation
                  recJmiques and.!lldbnd!l. It ohould be lIOted, howl<Vet. th.8t it is lhe position of the U.S.
                 (ioYa'DmI:nI: lhat lIOIIe oftlJe provisiOll'l of the Getmra Convention Rdative to the
                 1'lmfmeat of~ oeWar of August 12, 1949 (Thitd Grneva Convention) apply to
                 at Qaida c1c::tainees because, inter alia, aJ Qaida is not II. High Contracting parry 10 the
                 Cmlvmtion. 1 A5 to tbe Tah'ban. the U.S. position is that the provisioM of Geneva apply
                 to OIl!." pteSelIt conflict witt! the Talibon, but that Taliban de~ do llOt qualify 11.'1
                 prlsPneu ofwar uudm" Article 4 oftbe Geneva COOventiOll.2 The Departr.umt ofJustic..
                 bas opined !hat the ~ Couvomion ~Jative to the PInt.eclion ofCi'Vilian Personnel in
                 time ofWa..(Fourth aeuCV.ll, Convention) does DOt apply to Uplawful romb3tanll.

                 B.                      The 1994 CORv....fioD ApilastTortDte
                         (U) The Uuited States' primary obligation COllCCmil'lg torture IWd plated
                 ptactices ckrives fiorD. the ConVmti<m AgaiOS! ToituIll aDd Orhc:r Cruel, Inhuman. or
                 n"'gad.ilig TteIlllnePt or ~ (colDll1on~y referred to "" "thl'l Tottnre
                 CQIlvention"). The Ucited States ntiiied thI'l Convention in 1994, but did so with a
                 variety ofRe&ervatioDS Md Ullrlermndings.

                         (U) A41cle 1 of tile Convention d.,fines the tenn ''tOttrlJ:l'l'' for pUlpOse oflhl'l
                 treaty.' The United States caoditioned its Illtification ofme rn:aty on an undem3nding

                                order- to IlODSfitute 1OrIUre.lIIl aCt must be specifically intended to
                                         inflict severe physical or mental p~ or suffering IWd that mcotaI pain or

                                                                                              tam 'llI"U":" _ any act by wbich
                 SC1Ien: pIIiG or wfhing, ~                             Dr ~ io ;......tionaU)' ~ VIla pcr.!OII &,.-lUchplllpOSOS
                 .. obtainidg Jiom. him Dr • Ibird ~ jnfimnoti.... CJ( a coat<soiou, p"nj,hiqg IIiIn tor an Jet 1= or. lhiJ:d

                 1'<='" bas "" io 8U~ otlmviIaJ oommitII:d, or _dati"B m: eoc:rciug hiIn. "': • ~
                 J"">'OI'. or fur            1i1rI"""'''
                                             &Bed .... ~.. oro.aykiDd,               .udlpIIiJI or suJfe<iD8 ~ ~ by or
                 .t ..... ~ ..tor wiltllfl<, ~ or ~ DC. public officii( ~ding in III officllIl """IO"Y. It
                 does Dot iDcludc p .... Dr ~ arising oply from, ibbor=r in or iQcid=IIII to IawI'ul sam;tiDll<."
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                                           lIdlbialg reftG to proloDged mental harm caused by or resulting from (1)
                                           ,!tao~ iuBWtion or tlnatcned intliction of Se1I!!!."ll pain or:
                                                 j,ls; (2) die or lIPPlicatian. or thIeatt:oed
                                             ~ or applicatian. of nUndalt/'.ring III1h.tmces or other
                                             proc:edmell ealrJ!latod to disrupt prufouod1y the genses or !hI!! pen:onsltty,
                                             (3Ltbe tbreat of jm,!!jw:n~ death; or (4) ·the threat that IIDOtber pecslln will
                                             i.mnineD.tIy be subjected to dCiltfi; seveR: physical pain or suffering, or: the
                                             administntion or appUcation of mind alteringsllbS1aJu;es or other
                                            procedum C3lcuJatai to            disruPt profouod1y tho: St::lmCS Or pC1Wlllllity.•
                           (U) Article 2 of the Convention requhes the Pries to ''W::e effective legjslati"",
                      ~w.judiciallllJll other me:atrurc5 to ~veot IlCts oftorturf, in ony tem'roty
                      ~·lfBjUriSdiction". The U. S. Govmnnent believed existing state aw.t fedenol criminal
                      law was adequate to fulfill this obligution, and did not eJUICt implememing legislatiDll.
                      AI1icle 2 also provides tluIt act\! of tlll'tu:e c.annot be justified on the grounds of exigent.
                      circ:uxn.stauce6. such M a stat.: of war or public eJDerg.mcy, or on order.< ftom a superior
                      officer or public authority.' Tht: Ucited States did not have an Undetstanding or
                      Remvation relating to tbis prOvision.

                             ((J) Article 3 of the CC!IlV'cI:ltion contains au obJigation not to ""Pel,·Jetum. or
                     extradite" perEiJn to another state when there are ''sublltllnhal grounds" fur believing that
                     me person would be in danger ofbeing subjected to torture. The U. S. under.stmldWg
                     relating to thi~ arti<:;le is that it only appHes "ifit is llIore likely than DOt" that the person
                     would be tortured.

                                (U) Und~ Article S. the Parti~& are obIigaUod to establi$h jurisdiction IW'U ads of
                      t<JrtUri' wh"" committed in my tmitory under its jurisdiction or on hOlll"d It sbip 01:          .
                      airr:raA regi~ered in tlIat state, or by il!llllllionals whe:!ever cotmnitted.. The "Special
                    . maritime and renitorial jurisdiction oCtile Uniicd States"llDdc:.- 18. tJ.S.C. § 7 satisfies the
                     U. S. obligation to establish jurisdiction over torture =mni\ted in territocy under U.S.
                     jurisdiction at: on board .. U.S. registen:d ship or ai=afl HOWeVer, lbc addititmlll
                     rcquimneJrt of ,Article 5 conceroillg jurisdiction oVer acrs ottorture                         by u.s,
                     "wherever committed" needed legislative impJementatiolL ChapteJ; 113C of Title 18 of
                     the U.S. Code pIOvides feder:ol criminal jurisdictitm ""er an extrate:rritoriBl act OX
                      attempted act oftorton: i!'i:M offendcris B. U.S.lUltiOlla1. The stlltUte defuIez; ''tm:tIn''
                     conmstent will! the U.S. UndeManding on Article 1 of the "foxture ConventiPlL

                              (U) The' United States is obligated under Article 10 of the Convention to eusur:e
                     thai: law enfOl:cc:ment and milimy penonncl involved in intrnogatiOIJ6 are ~ lI!ld
                     illfoxmed n:garding thl' prohibition against to~. Under Article 11, 6}'1.1tcmatic tevll'WS
                     of interrogation nIles, methods, aru:I ptSCtiecs are also Iequimi.

                    • (0) \8 U.S.C. § 2340 ""do thio lmgua.gc. For. ~ dis.....wu Dfthe U.s. ~ ud
                    ~,"""arions, .~e lh<-llIililll flepOt! otlbe U.S. \0 dIo U.l'. Colllmit1Z:c J\.gllinsfTnrnue. da",ll-€Ictoher 15.
                     , (UJ Btit .ee disOl&lon to !he CllntwY jI{!be D~ Law set>:jOll OIl W lICI;I:Uity de!bDs...
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                                             ;ifioa;·;' the Cmlvenoon prohibilll cmel, inhUltlBn and degrading
                                        :   .              .
                                                             ~ tenitorics under a party's juriadiction (Art 16). Primarily
                                                               tcIIm "d"l\f3diDg m.atmalt" was vagUe and ambiguolllf, the
                                                          .. ~_r"*1jon on this &<tiel" to the effect tliat: it ",,~e.:s iAdf
                                                                      lICatmem or punisbmc:nt XI1tBIlS the CJ1lel, unm,nal and
                                                                        prohibited by the Sri>, 8"',.and 14· Amendmmts to the
                                                    .'dlii<:WlSion infra, in the Domestic Law seeman).

                                           sum, the obligariom under !be Torture Convention awlY to 1he
                                                          CQrobatant detaineeS, but the Torture 'Conve:otion prohibits
                                             ~cd in the u.s.      undetstanding, aM prom'bi.t.s ..~ inlruxaan, and i
                                                     and punislnnmt" only to the ~lmt oftbe ns. ~ relating .
                                   (U) 1m additiOllil1 trc:atY to which the United. States is a party is the hitematiunal
                    .. ; Cowmant Oll Politioal ""d Civil Rights, J:ll1ified by the United Stares in 1992. Atlicle 7 of
                        tJd& tzUty provides 11lIIl "No one shall be subjected to tortUIe or to cml'l, inbJl77!"D or
                        df=sr.Idiug trea1n:lent Of punishment." The United St.wte&' r.dification of !:be Coveoaut wu
                        !lUbjllllt to a ~ation that "the United States consii!m it&elfbound by Article 7 only to
                        ~ extmt that. erne!, inlrumau, or degrading tmt,1meut or Jl'mishment IDa!IlS the ciuel and
                        unusual trea,tmr:nt or pUDishmeot ptohibited by the Fifth,. F5gltth. 8JJI3Ior Fm:ateelltb.
                        Amendments to the Constitution of the United Stlltm," Under 1his treaty, a "HlDIIOIn
                        Rights Co1.IllDittee" may, with the o;;ouscnt of the party in question, consider allegatiOlla
                        that sucl1 Party i~ not fulfilling it< obligations lUIder the Covcomt. The UIDtt:d Stat1:6 has,
                        maintained consistl'llltly that !he CQvenant does not apply outIIide the United StaleS or its
                        special maritime and. temtorial jurisdiction, and that it does not apply to operatiaos of the
                       mililaly during an intemational mnc:d c:onfli<:t.

                               (U) Th.. D':paltD:u:nt of Justir.e bas o:mcluded that costoIDaIY int=lll1iooaliaw
                      elIUlOt bind the Executive Bnmch unda the Constitution. ba::ause it iii ¥JOt :&::duaJ. btw.
                      1n particular. the DeplUtIlU:llt of Justice has opined that "under cleal' Supreme Court
                      precedent, any pr:esidcntia1 decillion in the Clllmlt cODflict conceming tho dw.ntioD qd
                      trial of a1-Qaida or T:ali'ban militia prisoll.= would constitute a ''conlrolfulg'' Executive
                      ad thBt would il:umediW:ly 8lld oompldely ovl:O'ide ;my cos!\:mlaly iDImlatiooal btw                                 .'

                      "(U) M=Io!lllldum datr:d 1l1f11la1J' 12. :ZO():Z, Roo Appl"""';.,, (}fT"ro(l.Ii~ IJIUf lAw< to 1ll..(}rlJdll and Tallh,,,,
                      D~.t32.                                                   "
                      1 (U) MclIWrandutn dated Januazy 22, :Z002, R• .' Applicatifm o/T-n1S ltlld L4wr to "j.{!mJa mrtI r.IiI><111
                      Dl1ItZin_ al 35:

       NEW YORK TIMES                       Fax:2028620340
                                                                                   jun     ~        2004 . 15:24

-                                             SECRETINOFORN

      ill.     DomeStic Law
      A.       Fede~       Criminal Law

      1.       "torture. statute

             (U) 18 U.S.C. § 2340 defines astortw:e any "act committed by upeno,. acting
     UMf!I' the color oflaw specifically Wlimlkd to' illJlict ...~ physicol or melllal pain. '.' "
     The   mUmt  requited is the intem to inflict severe pb)"ii"ll1 or mental. pain.           §       n
     2340A requjJcs that the ofi"_e occur ·outride: the United SfJltes". Jurisdiction OVA" the
     offcw;e extends to 1lll'f national of tho:: Unital States or any alleged <>ffmder present in the
     United States. and eould, tM:efote, reach military membern,. civilian employees of the
     United Stato::s, or contractor employeet.' The "Unit~d StafJ'lS" is defined to include                        an·
     areas tmdQ' the jurlsdicUan ofthe Unital States, iJJt;llkiing the special maritime DId
     terolQr::ialjurisdiction (SMTJ) of tire UDited States. SMT] is a &tatutotY creation' that
     extcwh tM criminal jurisdiction oftb., UnitOO States fi:rt: Iksigwltllli crimes to dtmDed
     areas. I. 1lle effect 10 ro granf fed"flll oourt criminlll j"lxri~diction fur ther;peci£icaUy
     ideatified crimes.

             (0) Guavtanawo Bay Naval·Statio.u (GTMO) is included within tb definition of
    \h., special maritim" IIId tenitorill1juri!idiction of the; tTnited States, and ae~y, is
    within the United States for pmposes of § 2340, Thus, the Torture Stanlte doe!l not lIPl:'Jr
    to the ..ondnrt oru.s. pemmnel Rt GI'MO. That GTMQ is within fue SMTJ oftbe
    Utlitcd Statl:s is manifi:sted by the pros!'Clltion ofciviliart dependeots atW. ompl.oyc..s
    living in GTMO in l'roerlll District Couns bllSed on SMTJ jurisdiction and Department
    ofJustice opinion" and Ore clear intenliOll ofCotlgl't:Ss as reflected in the ZOOl
    amendment to the SMTJ. The USA Pattiot Ad (2001) am.ended § 7m add subsection 9,
    which provide,;;

               'With respect to otfl!:OllCS committed by M" aga:i:ost II. DIltionlll of the United StatilsI
              as that tem is used in section 101 of the Immigr.ltion and Nationality Act-

    • (!J) Secrio>I 134M )JI1iIIid.:., ,,""'....,.,.. DUIsiJI. tI.e United States commil5 0{ ~15 m cotPmit 1OCt\Ou:
    sIIaIl b< :fuot>f ~ imprisoned...•• (""P"asi' ar/ded).                           .
    '(U) U Usc § 1. ''Sp~ awilin&> aDd tcuiIoriJoIjuriS4iotiaa ailho UaiJ.,d Sll!.fcs iIIclDdes my llIIlds.

    IJIldI,r !he <o<c11l5ive .nt'<o~jw:isdictlo.. ofth. U"'",d Slales .
     .. (tJJ ScvcraJ pIIlI~ of 18 usc §7 ou:e reIevIDt m !he i!;= a<bBnd. PanlPPh 7(3) ptoVidcs' [SMTI
    in<:ludos:] "MY land< ~ or ~ r.... "'" _ "f!.be U,,;1l!d SIatti, OJIIllllldtr the c:xcIosiv.. me
    e_tjurlsdil::ti."" th=of, or my pP_ ..• PIPlllg.Iph 7fT) pmvidt:s; [SMTJ illCl!ldor.l •A>Jy I'D
    ou..idc: !hc:juNdictiDu ai",.yuotiml to an Ilff__ W arogaiao<t 3 ...!iomllof~ Uded Slates." SimiWIy.
    p~ 1(1) oud 1(5)           "*""       SM'fI jurisdktit>n m, "d!,e big&. ......, any od>t:r _ . 'IOilbim!be adallWty
    ",01 ~ jllriidic!i<J1l "fw United Sb.b iIIId out of the jurisdidion ohny puti<:ld.r .bote, aud my
    v",...l bel~ in >IIhoI" <IX in po>:t to tht: UlIi1>od S",1to; ••.• and '" '*"JI1Iln:ndI; he~ in ~ or in
    pm 10 1!Iio Ul1i/m Sta"", ... ..,hiIt: JUdI ..nm.fI ~ in !light 1)'10[ the bigb 'OM, ar ~ any Ci!her _tin wiIhiit
    !be admilaky and muitiIo<: jurisdictilllll of"'" um",d SIO,.,.1IIId "'" ,,(!he jurisdi"';"" "fOllY particuIu
    II (U) 6 Op.DI.c ~36 (1981.). 1k ~_ ~ tbt: sWUs of GlMo fur puJpOSt:< of a molnle blllJling ,101-
    nw:hinos o.. "1!I)' Ilrnd ~ ~ Uo;:..d ~~ glM':<!lm<m = 0 0 el!cl"osi". Dr <:o1lQlll:ClUjurudicti:cn".
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                                  (B)     liM ;+.nile'   ill fordp S1Jl5 aod tile appa:ro.umr      01"   mcinary   ~
                                  iINt* IiYe or cnrGa1bip, used. fur PI4pOscs of those miosioos or entitles <II" U5ed
                                  hr Uuited St*s PQsouuel assigned 10 Ibose: missi0ll5 Ol" ~
                                  NodIiDg In this p~ 5hall be '*mild 10 IlUpcrsme 'lilY amy' 01" iAtr:nlatiODlll
                                  agreement with ",bic.h &Us ~ cootliels. Thi; p&raJV8Ph does D.<lt "'PP1y
                                  witbtl'$pect TD 111 ofl"= co.o:uaiazd by a pmon desctihed in sectioo 3261(a) rsf
                                  Ibis title.

                               (lJ) Any pClllOn who commits an "'lUJIIm.ted offense in a location that is
                      conBidc:tt.d withiD. the speciallIl8ritime and tl'lllilOrial jurigdietion is subject to the
                      jurisdictiOll oftb" United StatllS.

                                 (U) For the purposes oftbi. disclUSi:DIl, it is assumed !bat lID inlnrogation done:
                      fOl"   official p11IpOSIls is under "color of law" 8Ild that d&a:inees are ill DOD"s &Ilstody ot
                      control.        .                                     .

                               (U) AlIhough Sedion 2340 does not IlpPly to int=gations at GTMO, it would
                      apply to U.s. oplltalians outside U.S.jurilldiction. such as AfglwJisWl... "1"he following
                      anal}'lris is ",\e\l'llD.t to such activities.

                               (U) To convict a deftmlant oftortUIc, Ihe ptuse<:ution must eIillIbli&h Chat: (1) 1h"
                      torture .oCC1lIIl'!d our..ide the United Stales; (2) th" dcfendl!Qt ""ted, undl% colm onaw; (3)
                     the ";cWn was within th" defendant's custody or physical control; (4) the de&nd"llt
                     specifically inteDd.Ild til cause 5ev1lte phyr;ical ot mmtal pain or sufferillg; aDd (5) that thq
                     act inflicted sevCR physical or mlllltlll pain or suffering. See also S. Enl:. Rep. No. 101-
                     30, Ill: 6 (1990). ('For an act to be 'b:ntllI."e,' it must ... cBIlGe SI!Wexe paiD.. sllflC:ri:og. and
                     be intended to cause severe paiD and mfferinz-")

                      Ito       "Specifically IBtellded"

                              (U) To violat" SectiOll2340A, the statute ;equires tItat severe pain IIIld IIIIffering
                     must be infliered with specifi".mtent. See 18 U.S.c. § 2340(1). In orderwJ;"ade1l!:pd'nt
                     to have actro with spa:i1ic intent,. he must luI:ve 'exptCllsly in12:Odcd 10 ilCbieve the
                     fOIbiddm. act. See United States v. Outer, 530 U.S. 255, 269 (2000); BIaclt'1I ~
                     DidioXI8!Y at 814 (7th ed. 1999) (de&ing specific intent a!l"[t]he intelll to accm:npiWl
                     tbepcecise ctUninal act that one is la.fl:rchaiged:with"). Forc:xatnFJe. inllatz1tifv. United
                     StrJtes. 510 U.S. 135, 141 (1994), tbestatuteat issue was constrned to reqt1ire that the
                     defendant act with the "specific int"nt til commit the crime". (lntcmal quotation DI3lb
                     m:ul citation. OInitt"d). AJ; a ",snlt, the d~fendant bOld to act with th" express "pmpose to .
                     disobey the law· :in otder fin" the ",ens nM ellllllealt to be: satisfied. Ibid. (Internal
                     quotation marts 8lld ciurtian omitted.)

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                                        ...... S ricm 2J.40 ~ tba a dc:fmIdmt aa Wl'lh the spec:i1ic

                    ...... fId~j_,",p_ lie iPflictioa oCsuch p.m IIIIJIt be tile ~$ prcei.$e
                               Il'~""             only parn1 bIIa:II. it WQUJd be sutficieut to
                                       •••••11.110'-.                I           ~wilblespcettothe
                                                                                 I           .ac41a1oWing !hat
                                                                     t'~-i1t &Oaa bis 1II:Ijoas, but Dt) ~ be
                                                                     lit 269; BlIlck's Law DictiQlWy. 813
                                                 gmmd t.deut "um(aIly] ta/a!G rl>e fbn:n of'recl=!ess;ae,s
                    (a-iDe .&1IIIIIIaw.- of a risk lIIJd the culpllblc taIdng oftbat risk) Dr negligel)Ce
                    (JrwoMlIg bJaweO!lJallsyinadvertmce),,). The Su:pR:mC Court bas used the following
                    e:umpk: to ~ lhc dit'fio:mH;e bc:twee:u melle two mental states:          .
l,::,:(. ',.,:
I· ...                     [A} paIOll mt!ll"Cd a bllIlk and took lUDDey from a tr::l1~ at gunpoint, but
                           deJibentdY &iled to make a qUick getaway mw the bank in the hope Dfbeing
                           arre&tc:d 50 Ihld: he would be ..etanled to prison and treak<I tDr Illcobolisxn.
                           Thgugh this ddi':ndanl: knowingly engaged in the: acts ofusing l:Orce 8l1d tsking
                           tnDIIey (li8.1W'ying ~ge:o.:.ral inteut"). he did not intend pemmne:otly to deprive the
                           bank "f:its possession of the money (fiilling to _stY ·specifio intent"),

                   Outer. 530 U.s. al268 (citing 1 W. Lafave &, A. Scott, SubstllIltive CriI:ninal Law § 3.5,
                   jl131S (1986),

                            (U) All a theoretical matt:er, therefOR:, knowledge alone that a particrua.- result is
                   ~ettain to  occur does uot constitute sp..,ific intent. As the Supume Court explained in
                   the conteXt of lIIUldc:I:, "Wl!._ ,t'.OInnlOn 1_ ofbomic:ide distillgUidtes...beIweea :d. p _
                   who mews !hat another ptnOD. will be: blh:d Q " n:mUt ofhill Cl)Drfnct iIIld a paBOtl who
                   ads with tIKr 5J11rific pmpo&e oftakiug IIIlOth«'s lim[.)" Urdted SIQIa v. Bailey, 444
                   U.s, 394,405 (19&O), "Put difIi::rentIy, the law distinguish'" actiOI1ll taken 'bec-.allSe Dt a
                   given rod Auw adiuns taken 'in !>pite' of their mUnknded bllt fllreSllell cOI!lleqIle:l1<!eS.·
                   VI1t;CO v, Quill, 521 U.S. 793, 802-03 (1997). Thus, even ifthe de£eudmt Jqwwl d.Jat
                   sevete pain                                            suc)l. hiD:m i!l not his   .       he lact6
                    reqw                                                      did                         J"*""•

                                                          OJ"'61200~"t« AM
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 3..4dimd mt acl5 in good filitb, be acts 'With aD hmIe!:t belie£that 1M: has DOt engaged in the
 pmscribed mndnct. S. CIted: II.Um'ted Sbtlts. 498 U.S. 192, 202 (1991); Ullired SkJIe
 v. ~ 42 F,3d 836, 831 (4th Cir, 1994).. For e:umple, in the context ofrtili:il fuIud,
 if.. iaodi.· tnllJonn"s"y boll....... Ib;tt die 1IIIIkri.J Ir1IIIsQlitD!d is Indh1W, be bu DOt IICted
 with Ibe ~ iDIISIt to dft::eive Dr mideild. See, !'.g•• CfrUIed Slaw v. ~ 186
 F 3d 928, 939-40 (9Ib Cir. 1999). A good faith .belief need not be Il reummble (lIIe. See
 a-t. 49~ V.s. at 202.
       . (U) A.1thoogb. a derendBDI theoMically could hold 110. 1lDl"".5onable belief that hiE
 ads would not coustitute the actions ptulnbited by the 9ta1U1e, evCII. though they wou1das
 a <:..rtainty produce the pItlbibitm etrllCtS, as a mattrJ of pnctice in the federal criJ:ninal
justiCl! system, it is highly lllliiGly that a jury would ac:quit in such Il situatiou. Where Il
defiudmt holds aD \lIIXt8Sonable belief; he will confinnt !be problem of pItlviD,g to the
jury !but be held that belief. Ju the Supreme Court noted in CIted:. "the more
~nable the assertoi beliefs or nllaundecrtandings. Bnl, the mon. likIoly th.. jUJY..•WIll
find thllt the Gover:oDll":lJl has c:.uried its burneu of plOving ltnowl!!dgc". ld Ilt 20341. All
explained above, a. imy will be pamitted to mer that the defeIldMtt held the ftlQui.!iite
spec:ifi<: inteut. As a 1Il.nt:r of proof. th~ a good faith defense will pto"" more
<:ampelliDg wbo:u a xeasonable bats exists for th" defeudant's be1ie£

b.       "SeYete hID or SuflC:rine"

           (U) The ~y folatIltoxy pbrue in the definition oftmtD!e is the ~tbat IlCts
 amount to tnrture ifth~ ~ ~sevm: pbysiclll or roeQIal pain or sulfcring". In
 L'llCamiuing the mc:rIning of II. sta1Utc.. its tat must be the stal1in8 point. See INS v.
 PhinFfll/ryo. 464 U.s. 183, 189 (1984) C'1lrls Court bas noted on mm,,"IX>U6 occasions that
 in IIll      involving litlI1:IltOJy coostmctiOll, our !ltarting point must be the ~
 employed by Omgress... and we assume that the legislative pUlpose is expreset by the
 ardiIIIuy nteRning oftbe wDI;ds used. ") (iDtema1 quohlious md citations omitted).
 Section 2340 makes plain tbal1h= ~tion of pa or wffi::riJIg pel' 5e, wbJitbtr it is
 phy&ieal. or mcut&l, is iIrsaflWeut to aJDOllIlt to torture.. IDstral. the teet provides that pain
 orsufferiJJg=       be .~;. The s/JItUte does·not, however, define the teOu "Severe". '
 NIn..the absence of such It ddiuition, WI! COQ!IIlue a !<bNtmytenn in ~with its
 ordinary or natural meaning." FDIC".        Ai..,......
                                                       SloU.S, 411,476 (1994). 1'hedictiurwy
defioes "severe" as "[uJll!IpariIJg in aaction, puDishmc::ct. or ceD8l1(C" OJ: ,,[ijDJlicting
discomfort or pain hard to eudure; sbmp; lffIi.etive; dlstttssiug; violeat; extranc; 3Jl
S~ psin,.anguish, torture", Webster's New lntema/inria) DictioDary;2295 (2d cd.
 1935); see American Heritage DictilnuIly ofk Engliah J aogplge 1653 (3d ed. 1992)
("CXlm!Idy violcDt or gdevo1lS: $evBre pain") (emphasis in original); IX The Oxfind
English Diction"4T'l S72 (1978) {"OfpaiD, BufiCring. l~ tit the like; Grievous,:
extreD:tc" ;rnd "of~I$ ... b3:rd to gnstain or I:DdUI:e"}. Thus, die adjective
"seYI!I;e" ~~ that the pain or suffilring mur;t be of sadl a high lr:vd ofinteusity thai:
the pain. is difficult fur the rrubjcet to endure.

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                       ....       ~Severe ..."...        paiD or sa1IeriD.g"
                                 (U)    scCtioD 2340 giva; furthc;- goidance as to the meaning of "severe ItIC:Dbl paUl
                      0[      ~. IS di&tinguishcd 1ir>ro                  severe physical pain and I'!lffecing. The sta.tute
                      de6".,.,    "severe mmtaI pain Q[ su1!"ering" as;
                                 !he ptolonged IDI:I:I.!Jl harm caused by'or resulting from.-
                                 CA) iDfIiction or thmItenm in:fli<:tion of ~ physical pam OJ:
                                 m~                                                                           .
                                 (B) the administl;Uion or appfu:atiOIl, or tbrcatl'Jled administration 01" applic.ttiCltl,
                                 of mind-altering subrtanc..s or ather procedure.! calClllal:eiI to disrupt ptofuundly
                                 the s _ or tfw p~nality;
                                 (C) the tbn:at ofimmiornt; death; or
                                 (D) tb.e threat rbat another person will imminently be subjected to death. sevm:
                                 physical pain or SDiferiug, or the a~tioo or pppliC3l:i<>n of m.i:nd-al1ering .
                                 subsfaIlce:> or other ~edures calculated to dimIpt profirundly the 1Se%I8"5 or

                     18 U.S.C. § 2340(2). In order to prove "~e"""re mental paW. or 1lUffecing" , the statute
                     requi:rC6 proof of ''ptoloJlged Jnwtal hann- that was call6l:d by C1f resulted from ant: of
                     fOur _erated acts. We CODSide:r each of these elcmetltll..

                              (U) As ~ iJlitial matter, Section 2340(2) reqwcs that !be ~e:re mmtal paUl
                     must be evidenced by "prolonged DlIm.tal hlllm". To lJrolong is to "lcugth= in time" or to
                     "exleod fbI' duration of; to draw out". Web!lta's TbiM NeW Intem.atiooa1 DictiowIIy
                     181S (1988); Websfel:'s New International Dictionary [980 (2d cd. 1935). Aa:ordJngIy,'                                             ,
                     "prolong" IIdds a temporu dimension to the hann to the individual, namely, that ~ harm                                            .1
                     mlUlt be one that is ~d OVer SOlD" period of time. PUI: another waY. the acts giving
                     tis" to the bann must ~.use some In!i"r.s. tbDngh.not necessarily peun~ damage.. For
                     r:1awpk, the mental sb;a:i:n ~em:ed by an iudiW:dual during a lengthy !IDd :intense
                    Wtomogatio;n. SUch as one that state or Ioca\ police might conduct upon a. criwiDal
                    1lUtpcct, would DOt violate Section 2340(2). On the othm:" band, the devclopmel:rt of a
                    llleuta1 diwrof:(" sach 19 PDsttnlwnaD.C Gtress dil;order, wbich ClIIllaGt months or I!V8Il
                    yeaI!I, or even chronic dr;pression. whicli also can lm;t fur II considmbl" period ohime if
                    lllJbated, might sarisfY 1he prolonged harm requirancot. SIiI1 Ammican Psyclilillric
                    Association. Diagnostic and StatUtico.l Mwul.O.I oj"Mt!IIraJ DisorJm 426. 439-45 (4th eli.
                     1994) C'DSM-IV"). S/!B also C .....g Haney &: Moua L)nch, Replarmg Prison8 Oftloe
                    Future: A PS)lcholog;cal AltaQosis of8tfperttlar and Solitary Omjinemenr, 23 N.Y.U
                    Rev. L. & Soc. Cbauge 477,509 (1997) (noting posttIamnatic stIess disollkr is
                    fulque:ntly found in torture victiw.s); ifSrma Lme, /m.miwQlio" Law und Health § 10:46
                    (200 1) (recommlroding evaluating fot post-traWnaDc.stt'ess disordel:' imntigrant-client

                                                                       03lO6lZOO39:44 AM
------  NEW YORK TIMES                        Fax:2028620340                            Jun      8 2004       15:26               P. 11

         who has I!IqIOrimad 1mtm'e).1J By                C:...-
                                            10 "severe paiD" the pbrase "prolonged
         1DG1fJ1~' ~ JI(JWbce elIc: in the U.s. Code IlOf does it appeu in relevmt
         medial ~ue or ~ blllDllD rigJds reports.

                 (U). ~ OIIlymust b= _aalllaml be prolcmged.1O IUlIHIDt to e;ew= EDemal paUl
        _ .,w1i"80 bat aboittll)!ltbe~ by ... :n::6Ult Iiomcmeofdoc ad&......,..m the    t!-......1.

        .""., 1iI. .... all     of •         .,....,..u
                                               provisioa. die most IIIIunl ~ of tile pmIicu.
        ... liIPd ill Serlim 2.14O(l)(AJ(D) is that Cou&rest i:Dtmied the list to be ....haIJstive.
        JD.Qda- ~ odIIll acls DotiDc:h. " willlin s..c:tion Z341J(2)'5 c:DIIDlCr1ltioI are not
        wilbiatbe Slldutmy S« Leaz/Imruzn .... TamlIJI County Ntm:Otics
        ~ &: CDOrdiNmoft UrUt. S07 U.S. 163. 16& (1993) (- ~o U71izu ut
        ercBaio-aheri'll$ "): NDtUl&II Singer. 2A SutberllIDCl on Statutory Con.stxuction § 4723
        (6th.ed. 2000) ("[W)Mc a fbllD of WQduct the IIIlIJIIler of its perllnmancc andapealion,
        and the pcmaas ."d things to which it retm; /Ill! des:igDllted. there is an ~c·thiit all
        omissions shoIdd 'be l!IId~od as excPDIlS.'') (footnotes omitted). We com:J.ude ilia!
        r.orture within the me.DiDg of tile ItaDlte tcquires !he specific infl!llt to cau&e prolonged .
        mental balm by one of the aculimd in Section 2340(2).

                (U) A dJauiaJlt mU9t specifically inteUd to eause prolongm m"'lltal balm fur !be
     defmdant to haVe committed torture. -It could be atgIled that 8 defepdmt needs lobaVe
     specific intmt only to coDDDit the predica!ro acts that gil'", rise to prolonged meDial bamL.
     Under that view, so loIIg 11& the defendant spedfic.ny intmded to. fur CiIc;uriple, tlirioaJen a
     vlctW with immi""lt death, he wotdd ha:ve had sufficient _             rea for It eonVittiDi'L.
     ACIlCIl'Cling to this View, it wimld be fiD1he( D.eCe:I58lY:fur ~ oonvic:tion to ~ oIIly that
     the Victim f.actrullly snffe(ed prolangcd mental bBml, r.I~thm that the defcudaot .
     int(::lldtJd to CIIUSe it We believe that !his approach is contrary to the text oftbe"ilfifute.
     Tho statute requires that the ddendmt specifica:lly intend to inflict g,V1'J:!: IIieutal pain Or
   . suffering. Bccatl5e the stBtDte requimi thio lD~ta1 state with respecl to the: £ritUdioD of
     sev=: )'IlQ1ta1 pain and bceansc it e:rpressIy defuu,. ;'e= _tal pain in IftImII of
     prolonud ml!llltal haun, that mental ..t..a must be prese:at with respect to pmJonged
     me.ntJl harm. To read the SIII1ute otherwise would read the pbrllse "prolangm UlCIDtaI
     hann ClIIJSed by armmltingtrom-out oftbe definitiOll of·~ \Ile:atBl paw. or
       auffering" _

               (U) A defeDdant co!lld negate it sbtlwiugof $pecifie intmt to cause !'leVel" mental.
       paiD or suffering by slmwmg thn he had lICtedin good faith !hat his ccmduct VIOuld oOt
       "'Ill< lJSM.lV expw....dool~1i.e cIi<order("PTSD")io houughr.". by cocpoo5UII'lD 170, ,;
   ,   ~,sur:h ... ~ pky$icd;,p.y.,.. ~!he                       dcIil:'hs ofalbm I/.aI! dllriQ&lhusc _the ,
       iIIdMd..J feb: 'iD=sc fear" ",,"""""'.' r.I at 424. 'l'IImo ...a;,n..g 1ioIn ...... cIisardtt ~.    ...,
       --""""sb.         irdermitl, "~oml mt.usi.., ~"""'~ gf'1be C9tm"••• ............."
        di<ln=ing ""'..... ..r u.. .,.=...... "iD.oe...., psydro>I.agil:>J. _       •• at.~ In iD\IoUIIIl at exte.iJId c:ucs
        that o;yd><>l.i7.o Qr ==d>l. Illl osprct oCtIu: 1mJIDatic OYCIlL' ItL &1428. Adt\iIit:uulty•• person willa I'TSD
        ·[Pl~DYJ· ovoilk.tianllli....,ciated wid! the 1mmIo, ia>:kuIioIe: avoidDl,g coiI'ImalioDs ibaIit Ib:
       lUIIIlII, pla= 1haJ  .timul_    ra:oU.ctiou:s .bant the tlauu:m, I!lIII they ~ • .....,bm,; of....,..u
        =1>0".;"0",,... such ... 'ledricIed tall&" of aIIkt (e.g., In 'lIa1It: loviDg foetloas)", PIll "1ho fioe!il:lg
       of~ or ~ from 011>=.. l/JIJ. l'iPolly. ... ia:ldMduol·widtP'IsD bt5 "[PJcm:o..;;,t
       ;ymp1DDiS of~ IituI!SIl, • " !:Yid£Jlcx:d by "iDif.lbility III: LHiIbmSlil ofm".,..". '~••
       "=w.geruod $tordc t<>;pDIISC·. I!lIII difli<;1llIy .a..piDg atl'''''''''''lntDog.11t(d.

                                                       OJllWlllll:H:44 AM
                NEW YORK TIMES                 Fax:2028620340                       Jun   8 2004     15:27               P. 1 2

.. I,   :   <


                  IIDlOIDIf to tbo adS pm"''bjtaI by tht! mtDte. I1uK, if I de&DdIml _ il good fiiith·beIief
                 a. bis . . . WiD
                                                    ill prolcmpl au:ataJ bann, he Iac:ts the m=Dl r;tafe
                            " k1alt ..... to .>:etiIUlc torbft.. A dcfeodmrt could show Ibat he IicII:d in
                 plOd &idl by'imq IIIIlb steps a ~ professional titeoJ:uM.lXIDSbltUIg with
                 C!lLpQb, or~ eridaace pimd fhml past ~ Sft.. e.g., RIltlzhf, 510 U.s.
                 .. 141 o..lO <w6ua!blt wbD:e the IfIIbJII' ~ tJgt the deff:odmt act with tlJ8 speei.fic
                 _ _ fd WdII! the law. the ipCCific; iDtaJt dcmcut "ndgbl be negated by, e..g..lJIOIIfthat
                 dcfindntldied ill good. faith OD....MIX of COWISeL") (citoti.OlI& 0Dritted). AU ofu..
                 /ItI!p& Wl)II)d. d10w that he bas c:bw1I 011 the televauf: body ofbowIedge ~g the
                 I1:SIlIt plUSCribed by the statuTe, DllDl.ely proloogM IllCIlIlIl hann.. BI'lICIDlIt the pftSI!Qce of
                 good faith would DqBe the &pdfic iW:ot ekmr:rrt oftortPl1:, good rlith may be a
                 COUIplete de&=c to such II. charge. See, ~g.. Ullited Statu v. Wall. 130 F 3d 739, 746
                 (6th CiI-. 1991); United Staten. CasJH!Tson, 773 F.2d 216,222-23 (gth Cir.l985).

                         (lJ) Seetion2340(2) sets fortb four basic categories ofpredieate acts. The fjn;t
                . categmy is the ninteutional iDfliction or tbmItmed infliction of severe pbysical p/rin or
                  :IUffc:riDg~, This IIlight at appeBl' SQpert1uous because (he stl¢Ute u.:ady providl!S
                  that !be infliction Dr!leVCl"e physical pain or t<Uffering c:an lIX1llJUllt to ~ Tbis
                  provi&ioo, how!<ver. actually eaptttres tim infl.iction ofphY5icaI pain or IiIIfIi:ring whw the
                drJthJdant iDfIicts physical p.un or suffr.ring With gr:ueml iuteut J:B1ha" than the sptrjfic
                intcut tbaI i6 P'lquired wben:: severe physical pain or II1lffcring alone is the basis fo.rtbe
                charge.. HI':DCe, $i. 'UMt!Ction reacbe,.; the infliction of &eVere physical pam. or ~
                when it is emly the means of I:lIllSing prolonged nrental hmn. or put iIDIJI1It;rway, a
                defeudmt.has comnUtted toxtme when he inteot.ionally inflicts scvt:le physi~ pain or
                suffcriJIg with the specifie intent of cBlISlng prolonged meobU As fur the acts
                themselves, acts that <!IIUSe ~.zvere physic31 pain or sufferi'.llg- can satisfY this provi5iOlL__

                         (U) Additicm.oJly. the threat of inflicting such pain is a pJ;edicatr: act under the
                statDle. A tbrc:at may be implioit or e;xplicit. See. -e.g;, United 8""6 v. Sachdev. 219 F.3d
                ;l5. Z9 (1st Cix'. 2002). fi1 criDtinalJaw, court~ geueralJy d..renninc whether lUI.
                individual's words Or IldiollS constitute a threat by examining whether a reascmable
                person in !hI!!=      ci:rc!hDmnC~ would conclude that a tbxeat bad b=:.. r.pade. See, e.g.,
                Wdtts v. U,.ited SlflJa. 394    u.s. 70s, 70s (196~) (holdWg that whcthe:i-a!itlltenlenl:
                constitulQI a threat Ilgllinst the pteIlidect's life bad to be detami.ned in light of an the                      ·1
                sunounding l:~umstaneCli); Sachdev, 279 F3d iii 29 ("al'CaSonable person in d~t's
                position would perceive there tD be a tlnat. etplicit Dr implkit, ofphysic:al injm;y");                            I
                Unitetl States Y. Klwrmmi, 895 F.2d 1186, 1190(1th           err.1990) (to estiIblish Ihllt
                was lIladi!!, the ~ent mUllt be made ·in a contcxt under such circumstances whereitt
                a p"wnahle person would fu=e that tIW statement would be interpreted by tholle to
                whcm the ~ communicates a st3tpm",,~ lIB a se:non.! elCpD'!Ssion of an intention to
                infliet bodily hann upon [!Il101ber individual]") (citatillll and il1temal quoWiori Irial:tts
                omitted); Ullited Scates y_ Peterson, 483 F.2d 1222, 1230 (D.C. Cir. 1973) (Pl'ltCeptiOD of
                tbrea! of imminent b3llll ~<:e'Isary to establish .elf---defeos~ had to be "ohjectively-
                reasonable in ligbt of the sunounding circ\lllJStarn:es"). Based on this common IIpptoach,

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                                                                 .'"   .

                          'IN beIie.s IUt tile eristeDc:e of a threIt ar Ieftr1! pa. or mft'eriDg $houkI be asses'iCd
                          D'oIIlIbe ,1."ipWat af a " .. , ..ble ~ in !be same cim'lllstmQes.
                               (U) II,' I, §ertioa2l4OQ)(B)                             (110'_
                                                                        that pmlOl1pihzuuW II-.
                          .....Ii"l tartare. all be .......... by "lilt ~ 01" applicew... DC tJwMmed
                          .".u . 41.... or ....;'.,..01......."" ... . . .raocc. oratberpJucoImes .".,..,. . .
                          "diu,.. protDuadlydle'" arttie~. The sbbIU:ptaYidea
                          ,.... ffi., of. . . CIIIIlIIilu1lII. milld-aItrbtg _bclap... 1'be pbnso!                           ~
                                                                                                                                  lID   ~
                          . . . .N' . . . is: tmmd DOWIiae. in the U.s. Code, nor is it fi:nmd in dictimwics. n is,

                          ItJw.... .-; a mrnmoaly usc l:)'IIOIlJDl for chugs. See. e.g.. United States v. KiJJplej. l41

                         F3d 828, 834 (tJI' Cit.) (u,&uing to COII!mUed mbst!IDaAI as "lIIind-altmiDg        .
                                      6[8)") em. dlmied, 112 S. Ct. 137 (200\); Hopev. John.t01l, 131 F. 3'" 41i6, 501
                         (5· Gr. 1997) (memng to dru~ ami alo;obolas "oUDd aIteriog substaace[s]"), r:ert..
                         dMtieJ. 523 U.S. 1014 (1998). In addition, th., phrase appealS in • munbcr of sfJrte
                         sI:Idutl!II, amf the ~onbo!l.t in which it lIppe!Inl.:onfi:n:ns tllis ~ ofthephnose.
                         S~, e.g., Cal. Pmul Code f 3500 (c) r?IeGt Supp. 2000) ("'PsychnIropic dro~ also
                         include IlIimH1t!!rlng••. drugs•.• '1; MinD. stat. Aun. § 2tiOB.201(b) (West Supp. 2002)
                         ("'cbaDi~ dcpendmcy treslXnt:!ll"'" detint! as ptngrams designed to '\"edu.c[e] the risk of
                         the ~ of alcohol. drugs. Of ofb« mind-lIlkring wbstBru:es:',.

                                 (U) This subparagxapb. ~ection 2340(2)(lJ), bo"lVl:Vef, does not precltJdc IIU.Y IIDd
                         all use of drugs. Instead, it prohibits the WIll of drUgs that "disrupt profomJdly 1brl sc::nses
                         or 1he persoual:ity". To be               =.
                                                            ~ could argue that this pJmose appli..s only to "other
                         procedures". not the application of mind-altering sublitanCiol. We ~ject                   •

                         intapret.atiou ba;ause the tl:mlS of Section 2340(2) expressly indicate that the IJll8lifyiDg                                       :;i
                        phnse applies to bo1h "other pXOCerlURS"                         au
                                                                              the "application of ntiDd·aItm:ng
                        substana:s". The word "other~ n10difies "procedures calc~ to disnJpt profoundly the
                        SellS""". As 3D "lijectiVE, "DfJteo:" indicaJ:es that the teIm Of phase it modlfies is the
                        remaindlOf ofsevetaJ things. S..e WebsW's ThiJd New: l"ntEmatioIl8lDU:lionary 1598
                        (1986) (defining "otlJe,;"1I$ "bciIlgtbe OJlC (as of two orUlOre) mmaiuingornot                                                      :1
                        iucludedj. Or pm another WIlY. "olher" signals that the wards to which it attaches m:e of                                            ;I
                        the salIle Jdnd, 1ype, or class as the ID.ore r;;peo;:ific itlm previously li:;ted MOl"tXlVCI:.
                        wboore a statnle coupl... woms or pbnses together, it "denotes an intention tblIt they should
                        be undeGtood in the: s8Ille genenl smse." NDlmID. Sing«, 2A Sutha:lmd on StaIDlbty
                        CoDStrQction. § 47: 16 (611) ed. 2000); .fee t.I/.so B«c:harn 1', Uw.itf!ll StlllB$, 511 U.s. 368,
                        371 (1994) (""I1urt several in a list share lIJl a11rlbutel:OllllSl!.ls in Javor of
                        iDtctptOOng the other items as possessing that attribute as wd1."). ThWi, Ibt: pairiDg of
                        milld-alteriDg s~5tmc"" witb }>IOcedures cak:nIaied to disJ;o:pt pro!ouDdly the SCIlSe or
                        pel'llowW.ty and the "'IC of"otha:" to modif'y "p~" MoWllIIIat !he use of mJr.b                                                       I
                        ~ mDlSt IIlso cause a profound disruption oftbo senses orpersona1ity.                                                                 i

                                (U) For drugs or procedures to rise to the level of "disrupt[ing] protoundly tbl>
                        sense or per:sowdity", they most prodllCe lIIl ~ effect. And by reqtliring that they
                        be "caleu1ated" to produce sllch an effect, the statute requires that the defendmt ball
                        oonseioU'lly designed the acts to produce such an eft'ect. 28 U.S.C. § 2340(2.)(B). The
                        woro "disrupt" is ddjned as ''to bToale =de:rj to part roxeibly; rend," imbuing the vert>
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    with. coamotabon ofvio1coce. Webs\«'s New futeJll.llionai Diction3l}' 753 (2d eel..
    1935};.sl!!II! Webslel"s 1bird New lnka!.atiotW Dicti<QlY 656 (1986) (d.,fjning disrupt as
   "to break: ~ lbIp1:IIR- or y<kstroy!he IIIIity or wbnlla'SS 01"); IV !be 0xfuro Englisb
   DirJimlftY 832 (1989) (ddiDing dimJpt as "{t]o ~ Ill" bunrt.asonde., In break: in
   picgcs; liD SIF 2ab: fina'bly"). M.oreova', disnptiDll ofthc: 9CII&eIi or peroomIity alone is
   iDogfflCieof to DlJlri1biD.1ht: SCGpe of lIDs subso!; iDste.od, 1hat di.sruptiau IIlIist be
   ....fiJwId. Ibe WOld "lJroti:m:Dd'" bas a 1IlmIba: oflDrnings, all ofwhichconW1 a.
   sillJlifiClU1t depth. Webs!er's New TntematiOIW Dictiomty 1977 (2d ed. 1935 defuJ...
   pmfuuDd as: "Ofv/I:CY gn:at depth; extc:udi:ng fill' below the IiIlrliIcc or tDp: unfathomable
   [;] ..•[e]omiog fiom. reaching 10, or situated III a depth or more than ordinary depth; !lOt
   aupaficiaI~ deep-seatM; chiefly with r~ In the body; lIS apm/orDJd sigh, w(l1DJdcd,
   ocpaiD[;j ...(elh~ by intensity, as of fcdiDg or quality; deeply fclt oneoili=i;
    as, profinmd respect, fear, or melancholy; hence, ellCOtnpa5sing; thoroughgoing;
   C9D1Plete; as, projiJlmd sleep. silence, or iptamJIl." See Web6ter's Third New
   InteoW.ional Dictloll8l)' 1812 (1986) ("havingvel)' great depth:: extending flu' belowthe
   surface•. .oot supcrlicial"). Rand<llJl. House Websn.r's Unabridged Dictionary 1545·(2& ,
   ed. 1999) al90 defines pw:tbu».d as "originating in Of penetrllliDg to. the deptlmof oIie'lI
   being" OJ: "pen'3Sive or intense; thorough: C:ODlplcten or ''el'tmding, situared, or
   origin;o!:ing £If down, or fat beucath the ~- By tt:q1liring that !he procedures and
   the d:oJga <:reatG a profinnul disruption, the ~ more thau the acts "fo=.Dility
   separate" or "Jmd" the SeD8e!1 Ol' pe:rs.olllllity.Tho$e acts must ptmetr3ie to the con: of JIll
   individual's abilitytD pezceive the work! around him, substantially iu.1Erleringwith his,
   coguitive abilities, or fundamentally. his pe!SD1lIIlity.

        (U) l'b.e phrase "di!lnlpt profmmdl:y the senses or pem>lllIlt'ty" is IWt used in
  mepbl health Jjremme nor is it deriwd from elsewhere in U.S. law. Nonetheless. we
   thiDk the followmg ""amples would coustit.utl':a profoUIld disOlPtion oftbe senses or
  penoaality. Such an effCcl might be seen in a. dmg-iJlducetl dementiA- In SlWh a state,·
  th" individual suff'en irom sisWficant memmy iJ:opaitment, Il1lIlh as the iDability to rdaW.
  anynew iDIOlmation or rr:call illiilImation abom things previously of inteu:st 10 the
   individual Set! DSM-IV at 134. \J 1'his implli:Imeilt is accompanied by aile or more of
  tl>.c; fOllowing' deterioration of language fim.ction, e.g., repeating sounds or words ovt!I'
  and OV"'l" ...gain.; iDlp.ured Ability to ""ecUle 6im.p1c motor activiti<:s, e.g., io.o.bility to rb-I!SS
  o/." wave goodbye; "[inlab.ility to =gnixe [ami i~1 objec18 $w::h as chair.I Ol"
  peociIs" despite nonna1 visual functiolling; Of "(d1istUIbances in el:eclIliw level
  functiocing", i.e., serious impainnent of abstract '!biDId:bg. It/. .A1134--35. SWillilrly, We
  think tba.t tbt; WlSet of "brid"p8)'dmtic disoJ;der" would satisfy this standard. S- irl d
  302·03. Iil this disorder, me individual suffin P~l1otic sywptums, inclUding ~
  othtll'tbings, delusions, ha.I.luciD.s!lDl1ll, or CVt:Il II. cidatoDic state. This em last fur one day

   '" (U)     l'ubIisbod by r= ~ P>yclUalric Assoda~"", iInd ","Il<» . . . "DJIaboxu.ti"" of ovor ..
. thousand psycbialri>U, tk DSM-tv i. _ n l y uocd ill U.s. ooum .... """,",,, of iDfiItmoIi.... ~
  _101 b"""lh ~ """ ;. likly II> be mod ill n:iaJ obcukl d.o<ges "" bnIIIghtlhat ~P' ..... ~ """
  s...., ~g.. A.IJ\iIr.J Y. ~Ia, 122 S. Ct. 2242, 224S II. j (2002): /(Jlnn.t ... c;n".." 122 S. Ct.8Gt; 871
  (2OOl);JCa>uarv. RatIrlrJa, S2l u.s. 346. 3S9-60(1997);Mca.- v. Ml11'ri/Wd.No. OO-CV"OlZOE(SC).
  lOa2 WL 14776117 It -2 D. 7 (WD.N.Y. J""" Zg, 2002); P~/... .., CoasIiJI 0JIi.c« Prmfs.. 2DJR s.,pp.2d
  432, 439 (D. Md 2002); ~ll!gIIe v. Ttl"" Bdl CO'P., 202 P. SUpp 2d 512. 519 (E.D. fA. 2002).

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     '0' ,
                                  IDOAth. See id. We likewilJe thWt: mar the ollSd of obsessive-cDlJlpulaiv1':
                      IJ/:. C'YeII one
                     diIOIdet bD.viom would rise io this ~ Obsessions lire intrusive thougbtaumelaJcd to
                     !12I.ity. 1bey arc DOt &imple wolIics, 1JI.If. arc ~ted doubts or even "aggte6Siue or
                     bo>aific:iwp.w-." S-id. at 41&. 'IbeDSM-lV 6JrtIwe:ll'biXI&that~
                   . ~ ''n=pditm: ~ (e.g., baDd WUbiug.1JI1leriDg. cherking)" 8IId that 'i:b]y
                     ddbJitioD. [IIIey] arc c:ilhr.:r llIeIrty excessive <If lire IIIX COIIIlCdcd in a reaIi:Jtic waY wiIh
                     ..... they ~ designed to."euInIfize orprevmt"': See id. Socb.c:ompalsioDS OJ'
                     obsasioaGlIl1l8I:be~. Sa itl at 419. Mon:ow:r, VIe think lbal:pusbing
                     IIIIIIlaJIIe to lIB: brink of soicide (whlch couIJ1 be Mdt:nccd by acts of d.,mui:ilati.a:n),
                     would be a suflicicu1: disruption of the pcnonaIity to <:<lDStitute: a i'rofauod di!nptiou",
                     1bcsc ~ples. of COIl[lle, an: in lID way inta.dcd to be 3D,        m ..    m;tive li9I.. Instead, they
                     3M mc:tdy iDt£nded to illuslratl: the sort ofmcotal health effi:ct& that we believe would
                     accompany an adion severe enougb. to llIlOunt to on.. that "disrupt[~] profoundly th..
                     sense or the pr:mmality".
                               (U) !hI'l thinl predicat:lo set listed in Section 2340(2} ill t1:n""I"",;ng WI. individual
                      with "imIoinenl dealh", 1g U ,s.C. § 234O(2)(C}. The plain text atakes cIea:t that a tIu'eat
                      ofdeath able is insufiicimt; tIw threat m1l&t indicate tlJat death is~. The
                      ''1kt:at of imminent death" is fOlmd in the ~ law as an demmt oftb,e 1Ief"",e of
                      dIn'ess. See Bailey, 444 US. lit 409, "[W]1ulre Congress bonuws tl5UlS of art in wbic.h
                      lire IICcumulatM the legal tradition aDd Plesning of eeuturies of practice, itjlleluilimly
                      kDoW'S and adopts the cluster of ideas tho1 were ll!IlIr;hed to each hollowed wont in tbo
                      body of teaming finm which il VIlIS taken and the meaning its !Ill" will COIlVlOY to the
                     judicial mind uWesli otherWise instnlcted.· In such case, ablen,ce of cooU3Iy ditection
                     may be taken as satisfaction wilb widelY lCCeptM definitions. not as 8 departure /rom
                    .1hem," Morissette \>. United Slotes, 342 U.S, 246, 263 (1952). Comnwn law """"5 md
                     legist.tillD ge:o.mny define "imminence" 8$l.'eq1liring that the tbn:at be .JiDMt
                     imm....tialwoJy 1intheoming. 1 Wayne R. LaFave &: AIlIlIin W. Scott, Jr., snbSt8IiliVe
                     Criminal Law § 5.1, at 655 (1986). By cOJl1ra<rt, tbrea1sre!i::aingvaguelyto tllfngsthat
                     might happen in the future do Dot satisfy this immediacy"'quirc:drettt. Ses £kiitedStateS
                     v. .Fiore. 178 F..3ni 917,923 (7"' dr. 1999). Such" tbreat fails to satW'ythis
                     rcq~ not bccaUBe it jJ; too remote in time but because th.,.., is a lack of certainty
                     that it will aeeur. Indeed, timi.lIg ill un indi~ator of certa;im:y that th" l=m will befiill the
                     dd=dmt Thus, a vague tbrelit that someday the prisoner might be killt:d woUld nat
                     suffice.. Wstead, subjecting a prisoner to mock OllI:ecutions IX playing R~dm roul~
                     with him would have 5Ufficimlt immedjo"y to co~ a thRat ofiunninent do:ath.
                     Additicmilly, as ~ earlier, we believe that Ibc msl>:oce of a thmat must be
                     assessed fivm the pec;pectiv" oca reasonaLle pason in file SalIle ~.
                             (l)) Fourth, iftbe official threaie:Ps to do an,ything pnMoU61y described to a third
                    party, or commits such an ad against a third party, fu;rt tbrca1 or lII:tioll can S~ 8!J the
                    ne<=e1iS3IY predicate for prolODged me:ntal b3un. See 18 US.c. § 2140(2)(0). The: statute
                    does not require any telatioDSlUp between the priscrn:.:- and 1he third party.

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          .!Jl:" even one moIlth. See id. We likewise think: that the ooset of obsessiVlK:OllljJulsive
          di&OIdet beha.viOlll would rig: to this lew!. Obsessions IIle intrusive thoughts imre[al,,;d to
          reality. 'They,", not rimple womcs, but are I1!JIIla.ted doubts or even "aggIessive Of
          boW1ic ;UJIlId_." $"" iJI.. at 41&_ n.., DSM-IV tilrtJJfr explains rbat compul&ions
          include "n:pditivc be:baviots (c.~. b.BIId washing,. fJI'dmng. dJ.....Jcjng)·· aDd that "{b}y
          W:fu:U.tion" [they] iIlC either clemy exCCll&ive OT arc: not CIHJIlQ:tcd in a realistic way wilh
          Wbat they    ==  designed to tle'IItraliu Of ~t"~ See ill. Such compnJsiwm or
          obGessiomi mwd: be "time-c.onsumiDg". See ill at 419 _ Moreover. we thiDk !bat pushing .
          Sl.lIlleoDe tn the brink of suicide (whh:h could, be evidenced by acts of sclf,mutilatiim),
          wuuld be a snffici=v.t disruption of the p=wdity to =titul:e a "}Imfaumf di5ruption....
          These e:li:IIlIlPles, oF 1:01I11le, ate in IID wily int!!oded. to be an exh:nu;:tive fut. Instead, they
          are merely ~ to illUslr.tte the sort ofm~ta1 bNlth effi:cts that we beli..wewcmld
          accomp3.lly lID /lttiou severe enough to IlIDOWlt to OIle: tbJI.t "di&rupt[s] profuundly the
          seuse or !he pasoDality".

                      (U) The tbinl predicate act listed in Section 2340(2) is t1D:c.uteDing W1 individual
            with "jrmnjnQ.1t deelh". 1g U.S.C. § 2340(2)(C). The plain text makes elear that 8. threat
            Df d~ aloJre is iDsu.tficimt; the thr>:ar must indicate tbat death is ''jyntninent'''. The
            ''IhI"eat of i:auniDt:nt death" is found in the cmpmoulaw as IIIl elCUleP.t oflhe d""f:telt of
          .dul"ess. See B<Ii/ey, 444 U.S. at 409. "'[W]here Congress bortOW$ t..uns of art in which
            an: acc:umu1aR.d the legal tnoditiOI1 arid memring of ceaturles ofptlldice, it pieslliaiabJ:y
            Jmows and.adapts the cluster of ideas that Were attached to ea,ch boJrnwed wa:td in u...
        .. body ofleaming from which it was taker! and the meaning its ose will. COIlW)' to
           judicilol mind. tmlesa odtetwise inIItnlcted., In su<:h case, ablea,ec of cODtraryifu:r:Ction
           may be taken as. satisfaction with widdy accepted defiDitio.ns, DOt ... Il dcpN:ture from.
         them." MrJtiS$dte 11. United SWles, 342 U.S. 246, 263 (19.52). ConImonlaw                =- awl
         .l.egidatiou. gen6ally define "iJDminmlle" as requiring that the threat be almoot
          immcctiMely furtht:onling. I Wlly.o." R. & Austin w. Scott, 1r., S"ObstaD1ive                     ",

          CrirnirnU law § 5.7, at 655 (1986). By COIJttast, ilnais refi:a:ingYaguclyto thingo<that
          might happen in the fulure do IIOt satisfy this immediaey requi=1IIIt. S#!8 Uniled Stutes
          11. Flore.. 178 F . .3rd 917,923 (7d1 Cir. 1999). SudI:a tbrI!lIt faih to satisfythiJ;
          requirement Dot beca.use it is 100 reUlote in time but because thEre ill a lid: of certainty
,         tbat it will occur. Indeed, timing ill an indiostor or c~ that tht; harm will hefiIl the
I.       ddcndan.t. Thus, II VlIgIlc fbreit ilillt s~ the priSOIJel" might be lilled would not
         suffice. lDstI:ad,. subjO!£tmg a prisoner to mock elI:ecutions oJ: playing RU!I~ roulette
,   .    with hUn would have sufficient immedjw:y to ronsti~ a tbIeat of imminent dc:;Uh.
         AdditimJally, as diseu&sl:d earlier, we believe that the eristecce of lI. threat must be
         asseucd limn the penpective of IIll!IIBlIWlble p=on in (be sam.. circumsumees.

                 (U) Fourth, if the official thrcfItens to do :mytbing previously d..scribed to a thini
         party, or commits such an at:t agaill&t a tbird party, fuat tlm:at or acliml C3D. serve as the
         ru=ssarypmlicate fur prolonged m..m:aJ himn. See 18 U.S.C. § 2:l4O(2)(D). The statnte
         docs. not requite any relationship bctw= the prisona =l the third party.

                                                  O)1tJ1lI200J9:44 AM
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 I'    .   I
 i~:   ' ,
                the l1mctiun of. bodily member. 0lgaD. or merdlIl faculo/,        O£ (E)   any oth« inj ury to the
                body. no mattrr bow tttnporary.

                b.         M. . . ." IS u.s.C. § 114
                             (U) Wl:Ioewr wilh 1I\e iDtmt to torturo (&'I defined in -.zion 2340), maims:, or
                disfiguR6. QltJs, biles, or slits the oo;e, air, or liP. or cuts out or dillllblc& the tmJgne, or
                puts out &=maY' aD eye. or eIlb ott or disables .. limb or lIllY member of lIII01:her
                peU~ or wboeYer, and with like wteat.lhmws OTpmIlS upon IIDOtber ~tI,. any
                <NIJding wlltt:r. con"O&ive acid. or caustic $lIbst:mcc ahaIl b~ fined mdlor iropri.aoncd nat
.f,             IIlOI'e tb..n twenty yean. T1rl!I is a specific intent crime.

                    eo     Mllrdu, 18 U.S.C. § 1111

                           (0} Manl.;r is the UlllaWfu1lo11ing of a human being with malice afu.rethmlght. .
                Evay II11lJde;r perpo;tnred by poison. lying in wait, Dr any other kind ofwillfb1,
                dclibeOOe, malicious, and premeditated killing; or committed in the pe!peIration of. or
                attempt to p~e, 8I1Y arsou, escape. murde.::. kidIlIIppjng. IIeasoD. espionage,
                sabotage, aggn.vated &eXnal ~e or sexual al:nne, burglary. or robbccy; at pc:lpChated
                from a pmacdita.tJed dcsigu unlawftdly md. UlDli"imtaly in effect the death of fIllY Jmman
                being other lhIIn him who is ~, is mlmlo:r in the first dep. AnY,o!her mutder is
                munl.,.. in tbe "ccxmd dcgr.:e_· IfwithiD the sun, whoever is guilty ofDluxdta: in. full first
                degr= slWl be pimished by death or by imprisonment for li:fll:; whoever is guilty of
                murder in the seeoJld d~greI!, shall be iJ:npJ:monori ~ lilly tt.m\ of years or for 1i:fi!:.
                Mum.:r is 3. specific; in1mt crime.

                cL         M.,ul.nghte.-, 18 U.S.CO § 1112

                          (U) Mmslauglrter i& the ~lLwful kilfuIg of a human bl'iPg witb.out malice. It is
               of two kinds: (A) voluntary, upon a suddl:n quaad or heat ofpassionlll\l'l (lJ)
               invo11llltary. in the cotmnissioll of an UIIlawfuI act not lI!%IOunting to a flllony, odn the
               oommissiOll in an nnlawfu1 manner, or without dD.e caution am:l cirouwspcctioD, of a
               lawful act whirll wight produce death.

                        (U) Ifwithm the SMTJ whoeVI!:l" is guiltyofvohmtmymandaugbter, shall be
               fimrl and/or imprisoned not more lhan ten )Ie<jIiI;whoe:veri/; guilty ofinvoJu.ofaly
               IWWSlallghter, .hall be fined rmdfor ~ Dot more than six yeatS. Mattslaughtoor is                                 !I
               a genenl intent~. A dMtI.l =tIring from:lht ~onal intOlrOgalion. ieelmiques                                       I!
               may subject the imexrogatol" to a charge ofrnansiaugbte;r:, IIlOst likely of the itmllll:ataIy

               e.        IIlttntate Stalking, 18 U.S.c. § 2261A

                         '(V) 18 U.S.C. § 2261A provides that "[w]hoever,.,travels..•within the r;pecial
               l'll3ritime and tmritorial jutisdic:tion of the Uuit.n Slatl'S.•• the intent to kill, injlW!,
               ~, or intimidatl: another pe:rsQu, the coun:e of or as a result of, such travel

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                 plal;cs tbat person ill ",,$AIAbIe fear of Ihc death of. or serious bodily injury ofthal
                 penoo."!hIIS lb/!r:eaRlbnccla:Pmw to .. vioblicn of2261A: (1) ddeudant tnve.Iro in
                 ~. ,              3 De; t2) be did II) with !he inIt::nt to iDjv:re. ~ intimate mother
                 penaa; (3) die p.,.,...n he inJmded to UrD9 or injun: was n-8_IJbly p/aA:d in ~ of:
                 ~ ... S2riou bodilyiD.Pu1 as • result ofthalltraVl!l See United SIatD .... .A1-ZUbllidy.                                           , I
                 213 Fold lI04, 80S {61h Cir. 2002}.

                         (U) The ttavel itsdfmust have been IlIItkrtakc:n with the specific ilI.t= to
                  tJf iDJimid.ID~.        Or pnt II>lCI'ther way, at !lie. time of the travel itself, the defendant
                 uum bIIIIC I!IIgaged in that ttaYd fOr the px!:Cise pUlposo: IIfh.aras&ing ...other pe!SOZ). See
                 Al4vbaMly, 183 F 3d at 809 (the cWendgnt "must haw in1epdr:d to balas& or iDj~ [lhIo
                 Yic:tim) .nto tisne he c:fUIISed the state Imej.

                             (U) the thini e~ is not fulfiJled by the                  =
                                                                            act of travel itself Sill! Urrited
                 S'lat1'O..... 0rtM.fmTJ. No. OO-CR-5~B-S, :;!oot WL 185140 (0. Me. Ian. 26, 2001) C'A

                 plain ~ of the Ibdut" tIIIb!sI "\"",, that the stam1./: ,equiles 1tw actoI to plm:e the
                 victUn ill ~le tim. J:IItha- thBn. as DeteudJmt would have it, thot hi8 inVel place the
                            in telISODlIb1e fear.").
                             (IJ) It is wili"ke1y that this statulE's pUrpose is a.ixned at intetrog.at1Oll8.

                 f.          C""q.irat:Y, 18 U.S.C. § 2 IlIId 18 U.s,C. § 371 15

                         (U) CODSpUacyto conunil: crinle is a Gep~e offi::t\se :IioJn cnllu: that ill file
                 o~~t of !he: compiracy.16 Therefore, whae someone is charged with. cODSp~. a
                 conviction ClIIInOt be SIlBWned unless the Govnnment ~ablli\bes beyond a ~ble
                 doubt !:bot the deiend8tlt !wi thO: specific intrmt to YioW:e the substantive stD1nte. L

                         (U) As the Sup= Court moct :recently stated. "the ~euu of a conspiracyiu
                 'au agtean.ent to commit lID. unIxwful.act..·· United!S v. Jimenez Redo, -S.Ct.~, 2003
                 WI.. 139612 .... ·- (J/IIL 12., 2003) (quotingJI'lIUIelli v. U"ited Stales. 420 U.s. -nO. 777
                 (1975). Moreover, ·[tJhat~ isa 'distiDct evil,'wbich 'mayeJcist and be puWshed

                 I<   (tl) 18 U.s.c. § 2. I'ri..,;pw.
                      (a) ~ clllllDUm \Ul a~ apW!l1 die U~ SUo"" or aidI, abe.., """"",Is, ""mmondc, iudac...
                 or)'iU<Ulft U. ctmIlII>lI....... ja pnUsLabllo as • principal
                     (b) \VItum!I- ..mtbIly Q\l'lCS ..... 1r::I1II be do:mt; 1II'bicJ> if di=Ilyp~ by bim 01" IIII<IlIoa" ~ ""
                 aD ~ o,pimt l1li: U..w St*s... p!JlIilIho&le '"' "pribI:;p.I.
                 18 U.S-C. 5311. Omspidcyto """"""'otli:ase IltID &5.a4 t.:(d.,dSl>lte.
                    rItwu ......... po=as ~ ......., III c........:it....,. o.ffi:"", apinat tbe tmircd S\IneS, or 10 ddiond thI:
                UtJifI,d State<, M "'lY .g~ ~ofil1l1>\Y _                      or fur my potpoOI!, """ 0lIC tJJ: _ of AJo:h pcn:aas do
                ony act to .a.ct!he Dbded ofthc """'"Pimc:y, _h.1ud! be 6D<d ItIIdet IbU title ur ~ dDt-..
                ...... five ~ orb"
                If;   ba_.    b otr_ die .,.,..,.m,rioll of'oOllich is rhO o~at ofthe COIt5jIiIky. iJ • JOi........,.".,.. aaly.
                !he fb< <Uclt c"IISpirscy d.all dDt _oed ~ mz<imnm pnn;.........' 'PnMdcd fur such
                \0 (U) Un.-,u·Srzm.t ~ R.abi."wid;, 2]8 US 78, 59, 35 S.Ct6&2. L lid 1111 (1915).
                "(u) U.iHd"",,", v. Qur,gitmo, 491 F .2d906 (1." g". 1~74), ccrt doW<d4tHl.s. 904 (1974)"
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                  ,.,bd!II:r or IlOt!he !iUbsWltive crime =es.", /diat ~ (quoting Salinas v_ U..ited States,
                  522 U.S. S2. 65 (1997).
                  3.      . . . &rxiac:a _de.. do.. Fed......t C...u;dn..t La", that eOllld ,..,nd.,.. specific
                          ....... edIawiIle aiminal, IUIt tmJ.."llfu1
                          (U) .(Jeacdlly. the fullowing d; 'c'lssion id.:n1ifi!16 legal doctrines and deiimses
                  IIJPIitable in lilt iJdmoprion of unlarill c:ombmnts, and the decillion process related to
                  I.bem. li1 :practice, their eflieac:y Il$ to my pmo;m or ciJ:auDstmee will. be f3ct-dependent.

                     (U) As the Supreme Court has ra:ogoized, 8.Ild as we will explaiD. filltba below,
                 ~... ~~, pomplm disaetion in the: .",,;r!I:cise ofbis COllDDlltllh"-in-Chie:f
                  "\;~* hi con4utliDg opc:PtiuJ,s agai&t hostile f"olce&- Bet!ame both "[t)he
                 ..ftMdiVe~ aDd the mnmmd of the milituy IIOd u.sval foJtts i$ VC!Ifed in the          ,
                 Pn!Iridcat.,. tbe Sup.!:mDe Court has ,inallimOnslYI stated that it is dthe PresiJbfil.t t:i.lrme who
                 D conslitutiomtlJy invested Wl'l:h tb.II enfj,.. chQ,ge oflwstlk opcmliOlIS. N Hl2Irfilton Y.
                 Dillin. 88 U.S. (21 WalL) 73,87 (1874) (emphasis added).                        .

                                                                             Courthn                      a canon
                                                ataluteII are to consttued in 11- lIIiIIIDCI" that avoids
                 ~totionaI difficulties .'10 long as a rrasonabli:: altmmtive constroctiDll is available.
                 &e. I!.g_ /!Il.wQtd J. DeBartolD Corp.. v. FIo~ Gklj'C04It BIJg. & COII$Ir. tradl!f
                  CDrmdl. 485 U.s. 568, 575 (19118) (citing NlRJJ v_ Callwfje BUhop ofChi.cttgo. 440 U.S.
                  490,499-501, 504 (1979» (w[W]bt:nl an, CODSiJ:Imtion of 11- statute
                 would ruse =ious constitutional pmblmls, [coJU1B] ~n eoDStnlc [aJ sbItUte to avoid
                 such probleuls unless such couslruotioo is plllinly r.on1nuy to the intent af COIlgtCS8.")
                 This CUIOlI of ....wsttuctiOll applim esper;iB.\ly whe:re an act of Con~ =ilId be mid to
                 '"'lClO0ICb upon powers constitutionallY committed to a. coOJ:dinIlte brmc:h of government.
                 See, e.g.• Frn,Jdin v. Massaclnzsl!tI.t. 505 U.S. 788, 800-1 (1992) (cita1iDll DJDitted) ("out
                 oftespecf fur the separation ofpowers and the llIIiqne com:limtional position afthe
                 Presidmf. We find t.h.II.t tenua.t Iiileoce is not mough to subject the President to the
                provi;ions oftbe [AdrniID.stntivc Procedure Act]. We would require an I:lqlr<:$&
                IrtlJrcwcut by CongJ."CS5 bcfutc assuming it imerided the ~s pr:dlmuanre ofhU
                &latUtm:y duties In be reviewed fur abuse of discretiotz. j; Publir: Ci/k.." V. U7dted ~t!!J
                D.'t ofJustice. 491 U.S. 440,. 465-67 (1989) (oon!Jlruing Fll<'Ieral.A.Msoty Committee
                Act DOt to apply to advice given by Alncrie3l1 Bar Association to the President oil judicial
                lIDlIl:iDations. to avoid potc:ntial ,,,,nstitutioDal question regarding encmaclttnc.ot on
                Presideatial power to appointjudgc&).

                        (U) ID. the area of foreign aff3in, md war pow~ in partieul;u-, the avoidance
                canon hll8 special fun::e. See. I'-g., Dept a/NUl')' v. Egan. 484 U.s. 518, 530 (1988)
                C"UDIess Congress specifically has provided otbetwise, courts traditionally have been

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                                                                1Ut"'lC I   to get lbe tBIuIS aod ccodi1iOllS
                                                                        OciJoID~dto QJJlfroI
                                                                        power to ddalD and intumgate
        eDIImycamlM.......   mIllIS Old ofbis cousti1.dinnallllllharity. Cnrnm""d......iii=Chief. A
                      of~234OAtbat                        1be::::"~"~J.;r~)'
                                                             qu~,. Cuogress may-no       mcm: noplate
        !:be                                and intClOOgale enemy con:d>lItants th.a it Ul8Y~e bis
        ability to direct Ilnop znovemcots DJl the battlc:fidd. Accordingly. we wuuIil ooO>illuc      .
        SediUD Z]40A to avoid this oanstitutiouat. difficulty, Bad I:OIIdmtc: ~it dace,. IIPPly
        to the l'I:erideDt's detention lind intelrogatiOll of enemy cmnbaWlts pll1lUllO.t to his
        Comm/mijer~in-ClJjef authority.

               (U) This approach is Cl)IlSistent with previoos decision" of the DOJ invotYing the
       appW::ation of fecil'UJ criminal law. For example, DOJ bas p~eYio\lSly consttued the
       cODgrel»iDDal contempt $tatute as iruapplicablc to "l;ecutive branch officials whil ICfuse-1o
       c:aDq)ly with congressional subpoenas bcc;w&e of lUI a&&atiOIl of execl1ti"e priVilege.. l:n a.
       1984 opinion, DOJ c:ancluded that

               if executive officials were subject to prosecution £hX" crlminal COD.U:m;pt whenever
               Ibt;y cm:ried out the Pre5idr:;l3t's cWlll of ~llIive privllegl!, it Wlluld significs'l.1 tl:y
               bUIdt:n ID\d irnmea9milily impair the fu:Ilidl!:ll1'u ability to falfill biB CODStltuiianaI
               d1ltic:s, ThQcfure. the sepB.tatiOu ofpilwcx-s principles that underlie the doctrlue of
               =xecuti~ privilege also would pndude an .application oflbe IlOIltempt of
               ~ statnte to puoish offil;Wtt fbi: aidins the J.>rosidettt            m
                                                                                    assed:iDg his
               cunstitntilmlll privilege,

      PnMecv.tionjor Contempt o/Congress of (1fI ExECIIii!ffl Brad Official W700 Htu AsserlRd
      A. Oaim o!EzecufivePrlvilege. 8:OpO,L.C. 101,134 (May 30, 1984)•. J...ikcWise,. if
      ex:ccuiive officials were sul:!iec;t to pros"",ntlon ftn- <:O'I.1lIuding Inte,nogations When they
      WO':l"e carrying aut the Presidem's COmnumda--in-Cbiefpowers. "it would sigoificantly
      btnrl.... and iI:um!!8SllI1lbly impair tb£ President's abilitY to tblfill his ,om;titutianal
      dati"",· These constitntianal principles preclude IIIIlIpplicatiDD Df S~tion 2340A to

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I     4 rl"       I:
! .!':"
I "     ",    .   !..
                         pIlIIish officials fix' aidiJ:Ig die Presi.dau ill. l'!Xerasiug IDs ~lusi'lle constitntioul
                         au1horiti~_   1tL
                                  (U) It 00IIld be argIl"Il1bat CaIIpsa eucted 18 U.S.C. § 2340A with tU.Il
                         bowledp _cOPSidcnlkm. ofthl: PleiidI::nt's CcIID=IIIIIk:l---in-CbidpcrtrQ',1IlId u.t
                         CDIJ&mIS Qcmded to ~ his ~ bawever. the I1cpz:tDleot roaId not
                         ~ SectiaD l340A ;lrd tbIen1 ofticUh aaiD!; p1IISU3IIt to t!J.., President's
                        UGdiludooal CIIlhori1:Y to ",.. a milic.y ""DIplip. In......... iD a ~ 1:IOIIDIJQrt, DOJ
                        bas c..,w..w did both eoudI: IDd ~ sbould reject p:nsernr;ons !bat -w!y
                        fWenl aimiDallaM to ac:cmty It. i4 mIhoriud puDIIIiDt to one ofthe ~&
                        c:t!I!CjllniOlllll powers. 001, tor e:uwplc, has ~y c;mcluded that C~ could
                        DOl CODSIitutiomD.y ~ the cong:nsiPDBl~ statute to exa;utivc bnmdl
                        offlcials YJho refiqe to comply with congressillIJlIlUbpoaJas because of lID assertion of
                        executive privilcp. ~ opined that "oourts...would SlJl,'ely oonchlde that ;I cOminaI
                        prosecution far 1bc exercise of a ~vdy valid, oonstitutioJllllly based privill!ge is
                        not .".,<;jstaJtwith tbts CoDStitutiOll.· 8 Op. O.L.e. at 141. Fm1b~, D01 couclwlrd that
                        it coWd DDt oo.g a crilJiliJal prosecutionllgllinst ;I defendant who bJd acted pursumt to
                        lID 1'!Xm:ise of the PtcsidcJ:rt's coa&IittItiaQlJl, poWoor. ''l'Iuo PIaideat, dnongha. UDitM
                        States Anomer, need DPt, indeed may not, pros:#::CUte criminally a suhordiIllte .fOr
                        ~ On his beludfll claim of I'!Xl'Cutive privilege. Nor could tht; Legislative BtaDc.h
                        Ill" the courts require or inlplelnent th,; }BO&e(;ution of such lID iIldividual· /d. Aldwugh
                        Congress may dctfuc federal crimes that the Pzesident, through the TIIke Care CJaus;e,
                        should ~ ~ QUlIlot <=Up!:} th!: l'resident to ~ outl;Olae(;: bbn
                        pll.t1mElt to the President's OWD COIIStitotiona181ltbority. If CougJes:< could do so. it could "
                        control tilt: Pesidiut'G authority through the mauiPuIa.Iion off'r.dl:ral criminal law.

                                (U) There: am ev'eA greateI' !:OIl/:lllOlS with respect to proseclUioJls illWng Ollt of
                        the =ise of the President'~ ex:pLtSS authority as CoUlO1;mdIlT-in-Chlefthan with
                        prosec1ltioDs arising out of the assertion of C\UlI:uti"" privileg!:. In a serif'S of opiniOll1i
                        exaruiniDi VlIrious legal q,..,wons arising a1\eJ" September] l, 2001. OOJ I'llqJIahtPrl the "
                        scope: of the l'iesi.dent's' C",,""IIDoo, Wr: b.tWly mmunari:u: the findings
                        oflhose opiDitlllSbere. Thr: President's OOIIStitufiotud power to ~t the security of the
                        Uuitcd States IWd the liw:s aDd safety ofits people must be ~ iIlligbt of tho
                        Founders' intention to rn:cate a fudetal gtM' ·cloathed with an 1hepOWl'ltli requisi.m
                        tD the comp1elE ~ DfIt& trust... 1he PBIlera.lid No. 2:J, at 147 (Akomder
                        H.mltoJ1) (Jacob B. Cookr: ed. 1961). F~ a,mQOg the objettivei C(!!iiilditted to that
                        ttuSt bytbe Con5Iitudon is the s$;Jnity o(tbenalion. As'ltamiitxm expbil1edin arguing
                        fur lhe CoIlIItitution's adoptitm,. b~a.1l!lI::·ntbe ciro1ILl!lltanCeS which may affect the public
                        &aiioty" are:not rMucible within =:Wn detemrlnalc limit&,

                                it must be admitted, lIS uecessaty co.o.ue:quence,' that there can be no llmitllden of
                                that lluthocity, which is to provide for the defense and prota;tion of tile
                                COlIllI1Imity, in any matter essential to its effic.acy.
                        [ti. at 147-48. Within the limits that the CowrtitutiOIl itsclfimposes, the:lCope. and
                        distribution of the pow=: to protect natiOlllll .courity must be co~cd to 8lI1borize the                     ·:1

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                            molt e1fieacious defi=Dse of the nation IIIId its intem;ls in ~ "with 1hc reWstic
                            jNIpOUS (tfthe Gte iIIstnmlCDL· UcIttBr v. United Srtzw. 334 U_S_ 742, 782 (1948).

                                      car="IIIc~ ~ and lD:itmy.,f the Coastituti<>a. ...w.&b that !flo,
                           FOUIldI:Es cafIWi;IaJ. the Prr$jdent with the psiDw:y~"ility, and thcfefore the power,
                            to c:IJSIlIC; the.-ity oflJuikd StaIl!II in £i.tDatiOn& of gam: II.1d 1DlfiA IS~:n emergencies.
                           The McisiM to dqIloy JDiIiIIDy fon:e in !be dcfeQlie of United Slates imcre:&YS is expressly
                           plical. UDder Pft:sidentill Authority by !be VeSting C18U$e, U.S. Omst. Art. § 1, cL I,               r.
                            Bad by the Ownmandrr-in-CbicfClalme, it!. §z, cL LIS DO] hIlS long IlUdentood the
                           Counnandc:r·iJa.-CbieIf ~ in -pamcular IS an affil:mative gmnt of 3Il1horlty to the:
                           .1'residI!ut. The FtlIWCIS ~d the C]anseas invt:StiDg tIu; l'nsidcDt with tile: fullest
                           T1IUge of power muiCl;Stnoo at the time of the ratification of thft Constitution as beJongiug
      .   ,~.!   ;   I     tD the militaty con:mI3llder. In addition, the Structm:e of the Constitution dewmllibates
                           lhat any power ttaditimllilly UDdemood as perts.ining to the executive whiih includes the
          ..•              conducl of ~ II!ld the de:fulse of the IIiltion unless t:XpICIl&1y II!Isigned in the
                           Constitutl<lll to Congr!:l:;s, is vested in the Pre&idaiL .Artiele n, So:ction 1 UI3kes this clear
                           by &Uting that the "executive Powtll" man be vested in a Presid.m oflhe United Stlt.tcs of
                           America." That sweeping grant vest:! in the l're!lident lUI =11ID.tnled "execnlive power"
                           aDd contrasts with the sp!:Cif:ic enumeration olthc POWfn-tho,,", "herein" granted to
                           Congns in Arti.,*, 1 The ixoplicatiops of constitutional tat and ~lW:e lI(C confinned
                           by the pncti"a} c:ansilhnfion that Wltional Gc:C"IIl'ity decisions ll':q1.Ifu:: the unity in purpose
                           and cnc:rgy in Erion that dlBtacterize the Preside:ocy ndbe:r tlwn CODgfCSs. I'

                             II (U) See Johrwm     v:      EiI:.../rq .... 339 U_S. 1ril, 789 (1950) (l'=idenI bas aud.urity to> cIopl..,. UziiIM
                            S-. ..-d IlIn;u ".bzaod 0If to my l'utioulm: ~"): FJft>1i>og II. Page so u.s. CJ Buw) 603, fil4-1S
                            (1950) rAJ: '"         ·I'.!a~ [lilt: ~l no lIUihori%ed 10 dirnd: Ib<> _ _ of1be -.loud
                            miIi..., Ii>w<s pkced by 10... at ID. ~oOJm8bd, oad 10 """,Icy m In !be namio:r be: 1liiY &em 'lIIlSl
                         . ~·)~Y. U"Pd Srutc>. S17 u.s. 748, '176 (1996) (Scsli.o, 1~ coocm:riDI inps<t wd,,~
                            in jnd£n'=) (The ~ pawm cf the Comm'lldcr·;'-Oliof '"", 1OI1mIi"".");·Mard 'II. lfIrirsl
                           Sla/t3. 274 u.s. SOl, 515·16 (1927) (llo-ndcis /I: HOm.:.. 11.• ~g) (PIoosid..a .....y cUn.:i; Ql)'
                           _CD'" CII~ to aIli5e in 1lIIY _Icr in ...w.- 10 p<UC"" III)' d.1IIy "f au, ~.); CmrmDllMlllilhll
                           Kasltlc}nlS",/$ v_ /..aird, 451 F.2d 16, 32 (I .. Cir. 1971) (1hc: P=idc>tbo& "J>o-r aJ c.........pdcr~
                           ", .t..1ion for=< ab,,,,,d"'): ~ p<Int Ytlll"'II1Ig/mm. 28 F.Ol&. 87~, 922 (C.C-S.D. oJDi, (1863) (No. 16,816)
                           (iIllICIia£ ~ Ihil; p ....... .uh"", tb= is "" ""Press legioloti."., dlx;b.miao. th<: ~ ;.. gai&d j;Oldy
                           by his ...... jlldg)bOCl lImd·dio=ticmj; Aurhmity", Use UJdMd S - Mill"" Po"""" ;,. Samalto, J6 qp.
                           OLe. 6,6 {Dct!• .( IfJ9)} (Barr; AlMnrq GIrnmd).
                           I. (U) Jwlicial ~ siIIa: "'" ~ oflll<: ltqIrab1ic; -.firm "'"
                           ODd dUl;y '" <qd  mill...,                                                       Pns\.,..,...
                                                            drm lIpiDIt Ibe UniItd SaoIleS IIad 10 _ _ 11)~"'" """",.a&o;t of
                                                                                                                                CDDOtilati.-t pD"OYU

                           lUIamrl. N. ~ Joseph SIoly Wd l.q ago, '[lJtmay b. fum!. pmpcrillrth<: &O-r. in 1IIe
                          aen:;'" atthc bizh di!rcu:IimI COII6dtxlIll dI:o~, 1m- ~tpublic P'">........ ., _ rm" SIIddca
                           "*"'II""-~. or III pzeIIroIt .... io:o:paudih: mi,_hili: by <1JImI!IIIY ~ wJW:h _ _ tmladin die IDl; of
                          !be ....".• .'/11« ApoUIIlI. U.S. (9 Whe..1) 362, 366-61·(1824). Ifdie~. c:wfivuft;d 0filtI ...
                ""D. iOIIIck OIl "'" ~ om! people aflLe Unittd Strt.., or oth<:r ;mm..t.""ab: dIUIg..oou Ikeat 10
                          II"....;..... iIlIIenms ....s !IllCIIIi<y, it. .. his constitnti.m.t """"",ilriIity to tespaad t<> IhBI: vrith
                          - - . are """""PQ". Su ,,"g~ 77h! 1>rioe      a..e..         fiT U.s. (2 Back) 635, 66B (181\2) ("I!" wor be "",de by
                          inVllSlon "" • bcip. UIiaa, thIo ~ .. Il!I' aaly ~ bon 'bouud to <mist furca by
                          W<ee_ •. ..mb_ ...-.itiJ,g fl>r my .tpeci.d ~ 1IlIhor:it¥'); Untred S/Dm v. Smith. 27 F.Co.;
                          1192.,1229-30 (C.C.D.N.Y, 1.-06) (No. 16,342) ~ Cirouit )\udcc) ~ of$1:IItU1IIrY
                          ~ it is "1IlI! dIJfy ._of!fL, ~ -tIi<....'" ._tD n:pcllll1 ~ Il>ej "" tJra j Story,
                          O>~rarlu § 14RS ("[t]he c<llDllm>d "PP1btioll of tho publi< 1iJrcc._to maintaillpoa"",.Dd '" "",is,
                         f_igD UlvasWo" aJ:" e\:CoWve pawm).                                                        .
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                            (U) As 1bc Supmne Com: bas rtDlgr.;zed,!he and
                 the ~'s obJipion ID plUUd !be II3lioa. imply the mcillnypowers n ...........ry to
                 their ~<"   ,,"J   ~ "The fim of tile eDnmeratril ~ ufthe Praidentia !hal he
                 shan be Conmi!W!tl«-iIl-Cbicf oCtile AImy md Navy or the United Steti. ADd of
                 coume, tile gnut of...... pc:>WCC incllldea .n tlJat is ...,........t)' IID<l proper fur CUIyiDg 1bose
                 pow=II into eIt.....mnn .. ~ 'II. Eistmtrager. 339 U.S. 763, 7KK (1950). Tn wartime,
     :;i: "I     it ill fOr the Prmidel1t alonI: to decide wbat metbud.s to U5C to ba;t prevail against the
..   t)    !

                 .--y. The Prcsidmt'll complete discretion iu lD\ereilling 1bc Comn".."!....ciD-Cbicf                          ;':.
                 power h3S been IeWgaiz~ by the CIlUlts. In the prize Cues, 67 U.S. (2 BUd) 635, 670                           II',
                 (1862), tbI: ~le, th.. Court =pl.aitd that ""bdhcr lire Preside.o.f., "jn. fjlIfiJjinC his
                 4otic:s as Commllllder in Cbief", had appropriately responded to the r.:;belliou of the
                 soutbmJl ~ WIllI :Il quClltiou "to be fkdded bY him" 8IId which the Court could DOt
                 queatiDD. but M1JJt lo:sve to "the political depactiuen.t of th.. Govemment to·whirib this
                 pcnva' 'lOS e:dInISted".

                          (U) One of the core functions ofthr: Onmnander in Chief is that of capturing,
                 ",""'imng, and i:Dt~gating meJlIhern oftbc wcmy. It is well settled 1bat the 1'ia;ident
                 rn-i  seize and detain _ y c:gmbalants, at least for the dUIldion of the conflict, ami. the
                 laWl! 0 ( _ ~ clear that pl'isonc:lli·nay be intemlgaied 1br ~ couceming the
                 eneIIlY, itsslleogth, md its NwnCl;Oll5 Pn:sid"llti oxdered the gq>ture.
                 do:mo.tirm. and questiooing of enemy combatants during virtually t:'It:J:Y majorconfJjct in
                 the Nation'lI history. including fO!C:"llt ""nfliots in Korea, Vlenuun, iUld the Pimdan Gulf
                 Recognizing this authority, CDIlgJ:eSS bas n = <I1te!Dpted to restrict or intetmre with ~e
                 ~5          authority ~ this score.
                          (U) .Any effurt by Cougress to 1"CUlate the intenogatioll of 11llIawful coblblllmts
                 would violide the Constitution's sole v.:stiug of the CommIDJdo;--in-Cbiefauthadiy in. the
                 Pl:esident. There C:IlD be linlc doubt that intelligence opaatioll!l, Il:Uch 119 the ~ and
                 intamgation Qhllemycombatlnb awl leaden, are both pecessary andpropedor t1z
                 effective ""tldu"t ofa mililBty catn}>aign.. Indeed. such npo:ratiODll may be oflllOl'C .
                impu:rtsnce in B. wat' with III!. iote:mstional tttrorist OIB'IDization thim olle with thc
                convmtional anned Cmea of a nation-mk, due to the fOnner's flDJPhasis OIl secret
                operations III!d smprise attacks against civilians. It may be the C8$e tbat o.riIy succ;essfiJI
                intmuptitmo: c:8D provide the i.n1imnation nece$$:Uy to prevent the lruCll)esS of covert
                I~ .",.nh VpOIl the United Stales 8I1Ii its ci1W:us. ~ can DO:m.ore i:n~
                with the I'tr9deur" COIIdnct of the in.tmogaliou of eDeIl'I,Y annbldmts tb8ll it CBIl. diot:df,
                s1rII.Iegy or tactical decisious on the battlefield. Just as litatutes that order 1he l'resideol lQ
                conduct wdre in a ~ JJlIIIIDec or fur specific coaIa would be UlICODStitDtionaI, &0
                too are law! tba,t sed:: to pteVeIIt the Pn:&ident from gaining the intelligence he believes
                DCCessaI}' to prevent II1tI!.eks vpDll the UJJited States.

                       (U) & this autbmity is inh=nt in the President, exercise of it by subordinates
                would be b"6t ifit "!Ill be sbown to have been deriVed llnm the Presidci:.t's aulhonty
                thmugb Pxesid.cntial directive or other writing.20

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   ."   III'"


                             (U) The""""'" of nd t IIitIY could be railicd, IIIJl!.Q: the c:nn=t ci:r~ to ...
                                        Vf.olaliou. of a critnimIllbtItte. Often l!!:ti>rrad to 8S the "clIoit:C of evil,"
                          alI.egatiQa 'Of a
                          dCfabe. 1Ib::=:Uy bali b«n dcfiDrd IS folknn: .

                                  CoJ:llb;t lIiIl'dw .elm' bdievts to be necessary In    avoid a ham! ot evil to himself
                                  or to IIIlOthI:t- is justifiable, provided 1Mt:
                                  Cl) the hsml 01" evil sougbt to be avoided by sw:h c:oJ:lduct is JrI!8l:et- than thal:
                                      IJOUgbt to he pn=va1tcd by the law definmg the oH"= charged; and
                                  (b) DeitbJor the Cad.. no.- other law defi:aing the offeu5e ptUViilt:s Ollceptiotm or
                                      dIIfcnseII dcalWg with the specific s.ibwion involved; and
                                  (e) al.egi$\ldive PUIposc to o:ltcludc the,justifica1iori claimed does DDt otbInwise,
                                       pl:rinly ;,ppesr.

                         Model P"IlIIl Code § 3.02. See also Wa.~ R. Wave & AlIStin W. Scott, 1 Substantive
                         CtimiJJ41 Llw § S.4 at 627 (JY86 & ~002 supp;) (''UFave &: Scott"). Although there ill
                         DO federal statute that gmerally establisbes JleCesslty or oth.,. jnstificatiOIlS as defenses to
                         fl! cri:mhJ.;d laws, the SupR:UIe Court has =:ogIliud !be ~e.. See United &Iile:l
                         y" Bailey, 444 U.S. 394, 410 (l980) «(dying on 8r. Scott II!Id Model Penal Code
                         detinitioas ofnecessity dcfcDse).

                             . (U). The lI"O""'iity d/::\bJI;e lII.B.y prove espocially relevant in the cm:relit
                          cixeumsbDJlles. AJJ it bas bce:a described ip, the case law and UtI'ntIlm, the pm:pot:e bel:Wld
                         ncc...m:y 1$ 0;11" ofpoblicpolicy. According to Wa.Ve &. S""tt. "'thr: law ought to
                         promote 1fu, lII::bievemmt ofbigher values at the expense oflcSSCl valUt:!l, ami sometimes
                         the greater good :tOt society win be lro>Dl'lbhed by violsting the littnl bv.guage of1he
                         criwinallaw,n LaFlwe & Scott, at 629. lD partieulBr, the necessity defense ClIlIjl!Sti1Y the
                         inWdicmal killing of one perwn to save two others became "it iii better that two lives be '
                         saved and 0IlC lost !ban that two be lost and one IIl.ved." Id. Or, put in the lqguage of II
                         r:bnice of o:vilii, "the evil iDvo1ved in iliolaling the tenDs of !be cUmmallaw (...even
                         taking anothet'$life) !lllIY be less thaD. that wbich would result fimn litc:rJll coi:npfum.te
                         with the law ( ... two li~ lostr. Id.
                              (U) AddiuoDal elcro.entIi of the lICCessity defi:use are worth noting hac. First.. the
                         def"llSe is not Iimlicd to ccrl'ain types ofhmm. Th!!IEJiJJ:e, the hanu. inflicted by

                         necessity may inchII:Ie irltentirmal homio:::ide, so long 3$ t,he Iwui avoided is gR31er (i.e.,                    ii
                         prevcming l.IlOl'C deaths) ItL at 634. Serond, it IIlllSt actually be the de£eudazrt's ilItemiOll                ~'
                         to lIVDid the greamr- hlIIm; intelldin8 to commit muxder811d then learning oaly l3ter ibM                        i,!!i
                         the death had the tortuitous result of saving othr:t: liVe!: will DOt sUpport a :u.ccclISity                     ,. ,
                         ck:U:ose. lti. III: 635. 'Thild, if tile def""daDt mISOPbly beli.m.s that the h!sm::r' &ann as                   ~J \1           ,.'

                         necessary, ~CIl it; unk:nown to h:itn, it was not. he may still avail himselfof the def.elDse.                    "               I
                         As LaF.,re aud Scott expbriD, "if A k:iI.Is B tearlooably believing it to be neccsslllY to save:
                         C and D, ho is not guilty ofmuroct I!VCIl though, u:ntnown to A. C aud D could have hem                         ti
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                      NEW YORK TIMES                        Fax:2028620340                            Jun     8 2004       15:43             P. 11

                    ~ widwut lilt: _ _ty of1cilliDg B.- Ill. Fourth, it i$ for the CQurt, and DOt the                                                ,.-,
                    defrwl_ to iudF ~ !be hIIlD avoiMd outWeighed !he bmn done. Id.<rt 636.
                    F'dIh.. tile dcfimdant ClDlJDt rely upoa the aa:essity ddmse if.. third IIltcmatlve that will
                    . . - las t-1Ir'"4pCG aul tDooorn In him.

_'1.\, \ •••• '
;, ,'~I:".'~I ';'


                          (U) Lega}.3Ilthorities identi~ 1111 impOJtant ellception to the necessity deftnse.. The
                    defense is a,,-ailable "oaly in silua1imlll wh!!!cin th.. legisbtute haG not itself; fu. its
                    criminal statute. III3de a dertllDlin.stion of VJJlue$." Id at 629. Thus, if CoIign:ss a;plicitly
                    has made "lear that vioWiPIl of a statute cilDli'lt be outwe:ighal by tlJe hlIml aVoiikd,
                    ..ourts ..umot recQgrJlze the Ile<:esslty defem:e. LaFave BDd Israd provide as im ~le
                    lII1 aborlioo. statu~ tbIIt made clear thai: ahottioru; even to &ave t:hn lift: oflJle mothi::z-                                 I" "~

                    wouJd still be .. crime; in such ca9CS the IlCRlSsityd..feuse would be \IJ;IilVJilable.
                    630. Here,     however. COugJe6$ bas nat explic;it1ymad& a do:tcnuination.o£VJdUCli vis-a.-Vi!;
                    \bduI1I. rn fact. Congtesa ~licitly ~ effiirts to nmwvetorture from the wirigbiDg
                    of values penJlitted by the necessity ddl:nse. II

                    " lD dIo CA.T. """"" is d<>6ned .. "'" dlf=ticmal iIIflioti"....'f ><'v= p.oiD orouffi:rillg "ft!r 51IclI JIU'POS"S
                    .. o1Diaiag fro", bimor .lhb:dp"""" ~Iiml or ••m:di:s&iIuI." CAT orr 1.1. {)JIC couJlhrjl'l" tIw
                    such. dc6nitioll b;pt II ....... 2111!111pl1D iDii<:aIc tbta", tODd af ~ iDbma__1ID _                          .......
                    die dl<.>ms ........o-c:ould IlOIjzloIifirm 0<1 D f - . lD"tta"••crds, ~....uld ..... be a dd..".,. Tn
                    .,...-ting .SccIioIl D4Il, """"""". CaQgrcso",..,.,....{ Ibo JIII<P'I'" <:1_ ill 1110 de1injtj"" oftm1IIn:,
                    e<'i"-'ille'" iIRIl6... Io",...",.,...,. ti:!:iaI: ofvalaco by _ . By lcavq; S<d;DI12340 9\cnI •• to die

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                      (U) EW!II if. CXJIIrt WI'!lC to find that necessity did notjll81ifythe violation of a
                  ,,;mn.aJ 5hh~ a defcadmt could still iipp!UtIia1:e1.y raise II. claiul of The
                  ript to 5OIf-cJrflo:nse, _ when it involves deadly me, ig deeply ~ mOIlf la9i,
                  both lIS individmla BOd as to the nation as II. whole. As the Court of App"' fOr the
                                                                                                                                     '. !

  ~   :   I'      D.C. Circuit has 4pJaiDo:d:                                                                                                 : I

iii :"'"
                          MoI1:!ban two eozxturles ago, BJackstnae, best Jmow:n of the expositors oftb.e
                          EngJisb counnon ta.w taIlgl:l:t that "aU homicide is malicious., aDd of Collrne
                          amounts to o:uxtdcr, unless ... t:J(C'USt:d on the IICcirunt of accident or self·
                          preservation". Self'--defense, as I. doctrine ~gnl\y exonentiug the !:liking ofhmnan
                          lif", is iii viable; now a'l it WIIS in B1ackstnne's time.

                   Unikt/ State.r v. PdenDn. 483 F.2d 1222, 1228-29 (p.e. Or. 1973). Se1f:.&:funse is a '
                   COliIrnOJl-1a\1II' d.::fa,,,,, to .tI!der:ai criminal!aw o~ IUl.d I10thing in the text, IitnICture
                 . or bi&1my ofScd:iOll Z340A pn:clWks its .eppli"'n to II. I'harge of~. In the
                   ab_ gf my ttttual provision to the 1XlIItnny. We iJIlSllIDe self"l1e:fcDse "III), be an
                   8pPlopriale ddeasc: to'lII), allegation ·oftorture.

                      (U) Tb.c doe>lline of self-defC2l5ll pc:nnjts fb." us.. of fun:e to prew.:nt b3w. to another
                  pemon. As LaFave and Scott explain, one is j1l.'ltilicd in wring I1:ISooable foree in cl.efdIse
                  of anolhetpersOtl, even D. stranger. when he teasoWIbly beJjcve~ thlli th!: olhcris in
                  inm1ediate dIIDgcr ofunlaw£U.i bodily Iw:tn frombis advemuy md tll.llUhense ofsw:h
               '. foJm is necnsary to avoid tbis dllngel'." Id. ;It 663-1.4. Ultimatr:1y, evon dr:adly fl:m:e is
                  p....m.wDJe.. hut "only lNhen the a1taQ:. of the advers&ry' upon the other, pl'llllOl1 Ir:a3ODIIhly
                  appe;u;s to !be defo:ndc:x' to be II. dt:w:1ly attack ~ Id. at 664. As. with our disc:ussiaD of
                  ur:eessity. w~will xeview th4 significant <dements of this defellse?' A.ceon:fing to LaFave
                  and Scott,. the eletncnts of thl; defense of others IIl'C the same 8.5 those Iha! apply 1'0
                 individtW self-defeust:.

                 barul dDor: by1<lrlllU: in co~ III _~ co~ aJluwed Ibe -eW17 cJdi::,a to Apply
                                   ..                                                                                                    ::      I

                 J;'urther, the CAT ~ ... additiDlllII pl'In'ioian tIw ",.., ~ .....    ~
                 l mil:: lit __ or .. lIIn;M of wn. ~ poIilicaI iDotabllity- IX lIllY mlo£r p.m1ic: ..-g""",. ray hi: inVl>b:d
                 .... juoli6t:atian o f _ : CAT art. 2.2. f,,1IIIIn' Qftlri&ptO\'i&ion.ofthc ueny ;mdof""~ti!m o!the
                 """"'oity ~ tbld olIow< <he      .\>tmo,
                                                       to pmvidofor lin ~ ID !be d.,~ Set:: )fudel penal
                 Codo I 3.02(b). ~ did QOt ~~ CAT;mjcJ., 2J. ;"r., S<c:ti"", 2-4. Oiv= that C~

                 omit\I!d C/I.'-e dfurt to bot • on: ""U1i!D<: defonoe. SecPon 2340 could he nail IS pawilti:Dg the
                 n (U) Estly lwf "'U.stod !ba! in oreler '" be di8ible lOr ddCouc <If~. """ .bo1oJiI hEve SOlIII!'
                 ~ rdlIriouship W\th !bt, On<: In n.ood ofp!:<lIcctlOlL   TboI Vie", Jus bcom diocudcd.  LaF"".
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 \ !~i".f!'   1   "

 ".iiIIt".rl.:        ;1
                                  (U) Fitst, self-ddcPsc nquires that the use of f = be tWCUs:tD)' to avoid the datget
   ;h         I             ofllllkwiitJ btMIiIy IuInP. Iii II: 649. Adef!llldo: IllAY justifiably lUll dadly force ifhe
   ~..        !             t'C8_uly \iaiews tkat \9 other p5SOIl is .&out to inflic:t 1DI1a:wfiJJ datil or serious                            ,.,
                            bodily llama IIpIID aaoIher. md th.r iJ: is m:ccsczty to ..,.., 5IIIOh im:e to prevcot it. IJ. at
                            652. Looked at iom tile opposito: pQspeclive,lhIl defimderDlaynot use 1bn:e wbea the                               '"
                            fi:fte would be _ eqaaUy e~ III a Iaf.rJr tilu.e aDd !be do!tewb: 5Uffers llJI hann or:                                '.'1
                            risk byqtlos- See Paul B.ll.obinson, 2 CriminslLaWD~ § 131(c:) 111 n (1984)_
                            It bowover, other optioru; pamit the dr:fbJda to IdreaI: smly funn ClDlfrantaticm                                  ,      .

                            1IIitlWul baviDg to resort to deadly bee, the use of force way not be necessary in the fust
                            pIiIae. lAP_ aad Scott. at 659-60.
, ,r
                                (OJ :Sboond. sclf.defmse reIluites !bat the deimdant& belief in the necessity of using
                            fim:c be R F >JlI!ble- If 3. defendant hox.estly but \1IIR!3SOnIIhly bWeved !'om: was
                            ~, be will DOt be wle to make out a sw:a:ssM clllim of self-defense. Id. at 654.
                            Conversely, if .. defeDda:Ilt IPlLouroably bdieved lin attack was til ~, hut the fActs
                            sub$eq1Cltl,y showed 1lO 1II.1ack: was tbJeatated; he may stillxaise sclf-deten&e.. As
                            :LaFave *nd Scott explaill, "one may bejll!.ltified in shooting to dmlth an ad~ who.
                            having tbt""""",.,.! to kill bUn, R!acllcs fot his pocket as if for Ii gun, tb01lgh it 18lel"
                            sppc:iIllI that he bad no ganlllllf that he ....IIlI. only leaehin& for his h ..ulk;t:J;Cbiei." It!.
                            SemI: mthatities sncb. lIS the ModBJ. Pmal. Code, cwn ~ljmingte the teBIIOI.lability cletnent,
                            :lDd require only that the defeuder ho'Ol!Stiy believed tegardle&s of ilS reasonablmess-dJat
                            !he use of force was nl!Ccssary.

                                       (U) Thitd, I1I8J1Y lcgsJ authmitiec includH the requhanent a dclimtkrlll1l5t
                           rcuonahly bclieY" that th~ unla.wtUl violence is "i/nminfmt" be1bre hi:: can 1lSf'l mme in his
                           detblse. It would be a mistake, hciw~, to equatr; immi'DQICI' nrx:e1!S8rily with t:iroina-
                           tlwt lID iUlack is iJIunOO,iatew about to 1lCWI:. Ratha, lIS the Model Pe:wd Cod.. f:lI:plains,
                           what is "s$enti.J is tbal: the ~vere.TpOlLJeIOlust be "imwediat61ynectSSalY:' Model
                           l'cnrl CocIco § 3.04(1). Indeed, ~ mll3t b .. lJltlrefy UIOth'"I:"lII3.Y of atnasiug Ihe
                           ~~ oh_ity. Robin5on at 78. uP~e and Scott, fur e.urnp1e. beIie'ft that
                           the w")illl"Ili:e ~t mab:$ ~ as psrt of a necessity ddc:ose bcc&use if_
                           "ttaek is not immMiatelyopon the defj-nder, the dtf~ruayhave ok opIiom
                           available to avoid the attack Ihllt do rot involVe the USc of iOrr:e. r..Fave and Soott R1
                           656. It hOWGVU', tM fact of the a1tlwl:: beCO/lll:S cMain and 11,0 olher options remain the
                           use of.fOrce may bl: jJJAtined. T" II$tl a w"n-kmn'vn hypothetic:al, ifA WIIn' to kidnap iWd
                           c:on:Iil:1c :B; ;md then \t:Il B M wonld kill J3 o.rtI' Week later, B wouJd be jU5fi1it:d in lI!iiDg
                           furee in self..t.~ CYI<tI iftile opporlUDity IIIIJIiI! bef<m! the wed( bad pllSGed.. It! Ill:
                           656; set< oboRobiDson at § 131(c)(I) at 7&. futbh hypoCbeticel, whilctbe attadt itselfia
                           XIOt imminent, B'Ii use "ffurcc becomes immediately necesil3J:y wheneVer be bas lID
                           opporttmlty to liave himself frotn A.                                                                            I.""


                                  (U) Fourth, 1he aIIIQllIll of fore" should be·proportirmsl to the tbI;eat. As LaFave                     ! ":
                           and Scott explain, "tb.e ;mount of fine.. which (the dGfendt:r] :ooa.y justifiably use XDJllIt be               ,   "

                           reasonably n:lIlted to Ihe thre8.t'llled hmn Which he "~ 10 avoid." LaFave and Scott at
                           651. Thus, one rru.y not nae desdly .fuIce in respolllle to Ii threat that does D"r rise to death               1#1
                           or smolUl hodily halJll. If SUch harm. may ICSUlt however, desdly futce is "PPloplia:te..                       [;:i;
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           '"                                                             SECRETINOFORN
           '.              \
                                                ~ claim by an iDfividnal oCIbe defense of anedla wauld be t\n1f:IU
                                       SiIl'Wt         :,Ibe &ct that ro tbiII case, the lAfiou il!lelf i&undos- attack. and has 1M right to

                                       od!~'4bia fiIict _ bolster :aDd support an iDdividual claim of self-defense in II.
                                       pro' a6m. *""'1ldi:o& to the Supnme Court in hi Fe Nedgle, 135 U.s. 1 (1890).. In that
                                       case,. 1be St.te ofCalifimUa meSted and hekl deputy U.S. Mamhal Neagle for Bbooting
                                       :md. t:iUia&" Ibt: .sqi)mt of Sup!ane CoIIIt 111'5tiQc Field. In grmtnlg the writ ofhabcM
                                       ~ bNoaIo's IdcIu:e, the Suptane C(Jb{t djd not l1:1y alone upon ~ J:I:I.mbal" right
                                       til dai:uillbOChrr or his right to self..defmsc. RItIIcr. the Coort foUlld tbat Neagle,. as an
                                       agent of1he United states and of the executivebrmlch, _jumifiNl in flu, killing because
                                       ill ~ Justice Field, he _ adizIg p1mIIliWt to the executive btaPclI's inherent
.   . '\': J
                       ,.              constitlrtiowd llUthcrity to prolect the United Stms go'llerwumt. Jd. at 67 ("We C8IDIOt
,                  '\1<
                                       doubt !be pawa' of the president to take'measur"!/ fin" the PlUtection of a judge of one of
:;:'IW~::[.                            the courts Df!be United States who, while i:n the dim:1uu:ge DC the duties ofms ofiiCA. is
                                       th1a.tened with II. pawual att&ck whieh TSJ1JY pmbably rew1t in his death. That mtharity
    ,,;!              I
: 'IIi, .'. '
    "rl!! !;.         ~:.      ,
                                       derives, II.OOlnting to !he Court, from the President's power UIldtr AltiG1e to bh: ~
                                       that tIie laWli are I:lIithfully executed. In oth/!r words, Neagle 11$ a kdcfoal offi~ not only
                                       ooll1d ~ sclf-defimSe or dcfimse of another, bat also rould Mend bill           wow;:      on the                  ~ ':' I

                                       grolllJd that he wu implementing the Ex.<:nlive Brnncl1's autbmity to pI'Otect 1b.t: United
                                       states gowwment.
                                                                                                                                                      ,        ,

                                               (U) Utile right In de1'cld fbt, IIllIional gov"lDUlent can bc>raised lIS '!l:l .
                                       indiYidsW prosecution JIi Nf!IlgIe suggesls, then II. gavemmst defendapt, acting in his
                                       officialcapacl.ty. should be able to Bl:gue that l1li)' cantina that arguably vio1atP::d a                     ~
                                      .ctiQJiual pJ'Ohibition was ~ pm:t;tImIt to mOl:lO.tbanjllSt individual ae1f..dcfem;e or                        ;~       ,
                                      defi:llse of mother. In addition, the defcndanl:",ould claim thB.t he was ful1ilIing die
                                      b.ecutive BJanch's authority to protect the fedlnl govexnmcut. and the mdion,. .tiDlJl
                                      attBcl::.. The Se:ptl':mber 11 a1tao;b: have aln=ady trlgg&"edtbat authDtity, II!l ~gxJized
                                      both undt:ir domestic and intetuationallaw.. Following the ear.:unple of /". IT Nengle. we
                                      oondud~ tIw II. govemmeEtt defeDdanl may also ugue that his eond1lcl of an iDle:t:mgation
                                      Pl""perly a.mhoriz.ed, is justified on the basis ofprotecting the nation fi"oln ~
                                          (U) Thele <:an be little doubt that the nation's light to sel!~ has been
     .'         ' '
                                      tri~d IlIlMr !J1Il' law. The CollStituCon 3llIlOUll.ceII thlli one of it; puEPOUS is ''10
                                      provide for the COlPIIIOn defense." U.S. Coust.• Pw.nnble. Article I,. § 8 dec}QreG tIIlIt
                                      CDIIg1'CIIS is to exen:ise its powers to "proVide fur the eomD1On de1blse'''. &e a.18o 2 Pub.
                                      Papers ofRoDSldR.eag:m 9.20, 921 19811-89) (right to ~ recognized. by Article
                                      51 of the U.N. ChartCl). 'fW, rx.:sidrmt has partirular :tC6pOllSibility and pow« to take
                                      steps to cImod the nation and itB people. I,. ro Neagle, ~3S U.S 4It 64. .Set: abo U.S.
                                      COllSt., art. IV, § 4 ("The United States &hall ..•protect (each of the States} ~
                                      Invuionj• .A!J Cnmm8llder-in-Chir£rmd QritfE.xe<:utive, he may use /he Atmed FDtt:es
                                      to protex:,,!he uatiou lIIld,its people. See, e.g" tJ"i/.ed. SttZtes v. yerrbt~Urquib:z. 494
                                      U,S~ 259, 213 (1990). And he may empluy sec~ agents [0 aid in his worlc: as
                                      Commander-ill-OrieL Totten v. Urrited SlDte/!. 9:2 U.s. 105, 106 (1876). As the Supmne
                                      C01l:rt obs~ in The. Prize C(lSes, 67 U.S. (2 Black) 635 (l862). in ta'lponse 1.D an
                                      anned snack: on the United StB.tes "tfw Premde:nt is not only 8U~ but bollJtd to lllSist
                                      f=:e by fDICe ... wiJ:hout WlIiting fur lmY Specillliegislativc authority.· Jd. at 668. The
                                      SeptmWer tt events were a Wree{ attaelc on the UniTl'ld Slates, and Il$ We h/lve "Xplained

                                                                       SECRETINOFORN                                                   30
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                               NEW YORK TIMES
                                                                                                            Jun      8 2004      15:45               P. 1S

     't '.,
      :.:                                                                                                                                                           I
                                ~ fJldPrerident 1135 antbori2zd               the use of llll1itary 1Uroe with tb.e support of                                      J
                               . C00&1I:. .1<                                                                       .

                                                ....001 lias ....... c;Je:« in opiui_involving tru. ___ a1 Qaida. the
                                                     .                  . . . ~ by1be tM:DtB of Scpten1ba' 11. If Il

                                               ~ ;;;;WI~l!Itlll~Io~!P~:i~"'~m=CIleI~UY CQJllbafanthe would be doing so in onW to
                                                                                    ~ during an iDltuogatlon in a
                                                                          S13kc by ~ at Qaida t:eaoriI;t oetwmk. . In that
                                     J)(j)" heilievo=r that hi; could argue Ihat 1be'exeeutive bmlCh's constitntiooal!lIXthority

                                U> prob:4 u.. natlem fro .. IIlQd;: jllSli1ied actions. Tbi6!la1io1lal atld iulomaficmlll
• ,·i                           VCdlOnofl1le right to oelfdefeasc could supplement".,d, bobrte:r the gmerm:ac:nt
      "                         ~'3lbdjvidua1                rlgbt.                         .

                                do.       Law EafOJ:Celll_ AdinIllJ

.'   i~··'·   • i"" •.. ~ ..              llJ) t:r. of fuI:a: in ~ law enfin'el':Inent ir; a1IIhmized iOJ:.(l) self-dtfense
                                lJldiifcfewie of oCln against a bostile pcuoo when in imminent dan!F of dc<dh aT
                                scriolJ.S boduy 1mm by me Itosti/e penon; m to prevent the aetual thdt ar sabotage of
                                ~ viW to ~ ssmity; (3) to pmr!':Ilt ~ IIcttJAl tbeft ar sabotage oim;on:mes
                                thet an: ~ ~ to Iltbc::l;l;; (4) to :prevent the cl)llmrission of a Sl!dow,; crio1e
                                tha1 invQlfts immio=nt dangQ" of dealh or serious bodily hIm:oj (5) to PJ"ve!llt the
                                d~on of villll publle utilities ot similar critiealinfrastrue1llre; (6) fur sppreheb:lion;
                                and (7) 10 prwmt ~ (DODD 5210.56, 1 Nov 20(1). 1'lI.f,se jnstifjc;atiOQS
                               cdIl1t:DlpJ41e the IIBO offim:e against Il pc;(SOD who bas committed, is IXillIlIIittUl& or is
                               about to rommit. it serious offi:ll.6e. Tliis l"!MguU:ed COIIC!:pt 1bat Jbrcc, JUed fiIIr sw:h
                               purposes is ¥lOt IUJ.blwJnl oould be,lll'gUed to apply. at bst by aualoGY. to tfw U'Jtl of:lbree
                               .~ a dl:cainec to extract intdIigmce to JlLeveut a sedans and imminent teumist
                               iiMdtnt. lIoweva. we are unaware of any authority for the propositiolL FOI:" Ill\.
                               lmaIogoWl diltCu$siOli pertaining to the pending; cMJmissiOil Df a mml! c:rime, see the
                               "lle<:er.lity" and "self-defePSe" diseussiOll&, supm,

                                .. (tJ) WJidle dol! ~. c_tuIinn"l dob ... ait,·tion.akmc is .. dficicnr 10 jtmify 1b<"Ill"':""~xciort to
                                toelf~ il"'lIb.s ~!hIt tLc "gilt to aoJf~ ;. fiIrth.or .....~......, in/m:t!ariD'llllla••
                                ~~.tflb.t u.N. CIIaIb o/cdmIt lhlt "[IIlo1IWIc in tb<o pu:smt Chadlulwl iapirtfto< """LA! ript
                                DC •• 'o..~ ~ iron IIlID!d Id!Iicl: _                                     .p..stdl_buoflhe U.aillr:dNiltiaDo
                                uaIillhe ~ c-itllas tdm .... _                            """""""'fto .....",;.. iutrDlotiMal ~ IIIId aC<:Urity".
                                'IlPl-.:b bfSqlI>ft/k< II, 2001, oloady w~ 04'-....1111f&'t . -"'" t.TlIiuo! SlafloJ, IIZIIl iJIdeed
                                """" . . "'_;" .laJog m-y oCd QIIida ~ aIIlCb opm.tdte thIi!a::d SIalr& lbit. Clllll:1asioIl
                                _ ~b,.. ... U..mlNaliom s~Ca"""i1 .... "cpkmb.. 29, 2001, ......,...'_......Jy
                                adupIid ~ 13n Cl!p~ ~ tbc inbcmIf:np ofmdiYidu:ll..,a.""n..:t..'ve deft=e III
                                ~ by tbc cltaxb'otfh<- U..n.d N • .;...... 11W; riglltof .cIf~ is It pPt 10 ~1/tO ""Jf-
                                o;Io:fi:a<a. hi. oIbu ~ !he vi<:tim $1311; bu tlu:: rigbr to ",,0 CD"'" apiaot1hc aggr<aor MiA> ha iaitiQ,d. ...
                                "amotd .naot" omIil*, tltnoItw .b~<etI. n... U.,;r..t Srucs, Ibm'IIgIa its".;Jita,y IiI<l imeJli~
                               pm<lllDlOl. hu .. rlJbI;),tt(].@XIiz:r:d by Al:li<:le 5110 WJlIiIIuc u.jDg fine uadl_k 1iI= .. th dscat pored
                               by ..1 QaioD. _ adIo:l" ~ IIf"'IIlO 0_<1 to 1Ilc SI:pflorrm..: 11lh 1II!IIlk" C01DJ'lc{t:ly CIId<xl. • Orhct'
                               fn2Iit.or rNfiimllM light of tile Uu.iII:d Slates 11)....., fomc ill jl!; .elf-de1i:Pse.    !l.g., f:IIrc:r.Am<ricm
                               'I'm1:y "rRtlcipacal kismloe, an. 3, S.:pt. :1, 1947, T.LA.S. No. 1&38, 21 U.N.T.S. 11 (l!io Tmuy):
                               NonhAdalltle'I<?ty. IIt't. 5, J.F. 4,1949. 3 S~ 2241, 34 U.N.T.S.143.

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                             NEW YORK TIMES                   Fax:2028620340                          Jun    8 2004        15:45         P.16





                                            ~UDdo!r both intsnatiooal Ia..... and U.S_ Law,            3D. ordl'!X'to   commit 111 obviQUSly
                        ctimiDd act, .uch .. the ..iD1Dn killiag ob nancombatant or the toI1:llre oca prisaaer. is
         f"             lID    'UPk :l1li4 will DOt relieve a lIUbotdiDate ofbis respow;:ibility to cmu.ply with
         ";' :j ,~; ,\'                           2$ Only if;the iudiVidltal did not know oftbe unlawftd!lel9 of
     ,            , ~ .. :" I                         '                 IIqICCted 1Dldcr 1b: ~ to recognize
    :f,'l"~':.~',-             ':' ': -                      "     the'
    ql'~ I,' .,;                 : ~ from the (XIJ1$I!l{IJep/;c)t; ofviola!ion oflhe law ofmned<Xlllflict.Z5
         '.,      :
                                        (U) -~ mtcmRTioWlllaW, the &ct that a W3l' crime is conrmiUedpur.manr; to the:
                                  ,mdmliof il:military or civilian!iUpt::rior does not by itseJfrelieve tbe subordinAtr;
                                 , mr;,mitting it 1iom erimlJl>Il n:sponsihili}l WIdw: intenumDD$lmw.27 It may, however, b~
                                  COIISid<:ml in nlitigation ofpuuishu>eut.z                                                       ,
                                          (U) For iutan<;e, the Charter of th" fntemarlOlial Milirary l'n"1JruIl at ND.TIlJn~
                                  Irt. g, stated:

                                            l'bI= fm thai: the Defeodant acted ptm;lWIt to o~ ofbis Govmunent 0):' of II.
                                            sp:pe:riar shall not free him 1mm ~onsibility. but may be cOn:lidl:uod in
                                            mitigalion of pumslunent iftbe Tn'blllllll dlll:emrines that jUlilice so requm,l9
                                          (U) S.i1'Pilllrly, the St.alute for the lIlt«nrtJjoiW Tribunal. for 'Y'l1goShMa. iMlhe
                                  SbIIl1te mr the Intem Btiona1 Crimil:ml1'n"b'urull for Rwanda provide (in 3Iticlrs 7(4) &:
                                  6(4). respectively} pnwide:           -
                                           ,: '*"':1'act that an lIUIJI;.n p<':tOOll acted puml3llt   to an ordI:l- of a GWCniDlent or of
                                    ," '1:~l~or sIi3ll:mt re1i~ !rim of Griminrd It.SpOJl.!ll"bility, but JD3.y be consi.dettd
                                           iD,,g,ticipation of plJDi51m1mt iftbc TnbUl1lll deb:nniDcs that justice SO requites.
         '~I;,    , •                (U) ~ AJ; to the "",aal attitude taken by military trib1lIllls towI!nl-thti plea           or
                                 -w.periQl'! the following StltemIlDt is repn:sentl!ive:
                                         , ,

                               'It cannot be <tllallioned thai: acts dw:!e in tim!: of I1IIder the miliwy
                                 IIlltbority of lID enemy CIImlOt involve any criminallialrility OIl the part of
      -H ' ' 1- l'               offu;~ or salcii= if the acts are not prohibited by the canventiOllal OJ':
    ; '11~:; :,: ."X: , , _ _..c'CUIlIoDWy rules _ WiII'. linplicit obedieuce to ordln of SUperior ofIieets
                         I~'     _____
                                                     of           ~

     ·1: ,',
- ,,,~H-'t'l

! It"l ~-I:i
                                 - "(tJ) s~~ smioIl6_1.4. ~ SIlPP~to the C~. HalIIIboot OIl Ibe-IAwllfNt:vIl
                                 - Opaatiaa'< (NWP H4M 1991)
                                  ,. [01
         "I      .I-             .. ~, 11>0 J'nIrm·6,.,·1 Crjmjmol CmlttRflccl!ltb/; tmdi1iomII m.. htidli 33 oCtile
                                 Rome SIlI-. =..,...u..s Ib£o cIoIi=<o of 01JpQjGI: 1I!'dQs:-"I. !'he &ct dill a ru-'llli1llia. 11=
                                 j~ ofdle CoaItba bcoIl coDllAitted by. tic:<""A pumIUIl" ... GDfa: ofa GIN........., ..                        i."'
                                 of ~ ~. ~ mi/:iIlIry or ciYl1io!l. sb.n...c l:Iili..... !bot penoD of ~ 1 i[ ...ibIIily
                                 _ _ : (a) n.: pasaa MS UDder a hop! olJli&Itiua III obey onIm oldie ~or IOp<:doI:
                                 ill ~ (1)) TbepelSlJll didDOf bID", tlwr1bo ordcJ 'flU tmla1lfill; _ (c) '[be          onb:-_
                                 "",,;rnJ!iy1lUlPrlill. Z. l'oI:lb<:lJII1POIt' oflhio I1Ii::k. Olden to COIdIIIit ..... ~ OI'~
                                 ~ JiIui;aairJ'''' -.I1islIy 1m1awfi>L"
                                 .. .w U:S, 'N1ftl W. COUqe, h=atiotalLaw Documen". at 19#-45, 15~ (L946).
                                            NEW YORK TIMES                                   Fax:2028620340
                                                                                                                                Jun      8 2004     15:45            P.17


                                                                     ='M'i"fiebgble to ~ IIIilitary sy!lem.. But this iDJplia
                                                                            ,.     to lawfiil onb:s OllI.y. Jflhe aadcmr; pursuant to aSlJl,lCrior's
                                                                     CInkP be DIIIlder, tha produdim1 of the udtt willllQt meke it any less so.
                                                                     It IIIaY iiiiph' blot it ''''DUWt jusIUy the crime. We life of the view,

                                                                     hol!ll!lWt.'1b.t if1Lc j1IegaHry of tile IJl'da-was not IDlown In tlJtJ iu6::rior,

                                                                               acJIIJd DOt~haw: heen. ~ 1D koow otils iJlepIity,
                                                                          ~ ~ nrc"'S'm'Y to              fbi!: cmnmiRSiOil of .. crime   =$   8Dtl the
                                                                     iDtmi...: [.rie} wiI1 "" protected. Bullhe geu:ral milO is the m""""'ers of1l.c
                                                                     an!ud. fi:n't:::es arm bound to obey ouly the lawfiIl orden ofthl:ir
                                                                     eo;m-mwnding officen; and Ihey cilllllDt escape crimiDalliability by obeying
                                                                     .. ~....d which violates interuMtionallaw !!lid Olltragt!ll fundamtntal
                                                                     co*=evt:; ofjustice.

                                           The Ho.ttllgll O:ue(UnitedStalesv. WillrelmListett1l), 11 TWC 1236.                                                              , '
          ;1;" :;     '

    !,   .I",~ ,.) "          , •.
    e.;il!,' ;iv' f' {           ,'. (U) The lnferpati<mal:Milibay TnlJUnalllt Nuremberg decl"~I~,,1iX1 its judgm rut
    \~'i~"'~"+lr:' i !~th8t!tbe leSt ofreapollsibility fur ~ ordm "is not the ex;ist:cw;c of the ordr;r, but
     , "J ," :! . ;, \" ,,;,;., wIidhu knOral chc>ice _ infal:t polSible,")O ,
    , ;;:            ·'~.'i ::,~~:"""l::   I'.':       '~!~ . t .;          :                                                                                   '

                                            "''', M. Jji:i1i.~ tI.: ~ di~ the ~ ofsoperioc mderin
                                           'Ihe'~ ~ whichptomcs inltC.M. 916(d), MCM 2002:
                                                           ,   .      .
                                                 It is Ii. def~ 10 lID,)' ofI'"eDsIe that the BCcl!llred ..lIS aoling pIJIlIIllInt to
                                           , .' 0Jd.etB1iDl. . & accused lmcw the orden; to,be unlawful or a petSOD of
                                                ~ &Cue aDd ~would Iulve known thcoulels to be
                                               ~. An act perliln:ned plmWlnt to a lllwful order ';" j1lStilied. Au act
                                               ~ pmswmt to lID. IlIlIIl'!IIihl order is e.II:cmsed lIDless the lI<'CllSed 1tnew
                                             " it to be imlawful or a ~ of ordillary sez1ge IWd llJId~g would have
                                             : kMwn itte l1ldm; 10 be lIDlawfuL                                             .

                                     , brforence qfltm!/Ubless. An onter requiring the perl'oD:tlIllJCe of a. militaIy dnty or
                                     ;'8QtJD,aybe mfc:atd to be lawfulllUd it is disobeyed 81 thop-ru oCtile
                                           ~.1I.                                                                 '
          "t"         "
                                                                                                                                                                            ~   .-.
          ,I    ,     \~~

          ',I' :,'
         .I ~         ~.'     • I
                                                                                                   .      will genmillybe avlliliiblcforUS.
~        '[~:~:"fl': ;~!i                                                                         in ~al mteu:ogatious except where the COIIdPllt
, )" ,i\~"""\;~;i::,:\r~             i,
                    '"', , l,!,,<
                                                   ,   '       .

                                       ,. (U) 1 TlaillfMl.jarW.., Criwil>als bc:fat.,<bc lntmatioDal MiliwynIlKn>al. N~14 November
                                       llN,5- 1 ~ l!l46,lIi214 (1941), w=pted IJI US. N.ftIWI'6.CoUcgt. m-ticmal lAW                                  Dm:mn=es.
                                       "(u) n.;. ~ doe....,t ~ly 10 a pa'OlIIly ilk"" onkr, suM os ODe IbBt din:ctl< au;                          """""iss/Q" of 3
                                       cm....                      (Artit;:lt: 90. UCMJ).                       '                 .

                                                                                                    OllD00039M AM
                                        NEWVORKTIMES .......... .····l'ax:iIi286ili'i40 .......................... .
                                                                                                                        J un    8200415:46                     Ii: 18

                                                   Llo:k. ofDOJ Represeatatkna for DOD Penoxmel Charged with a CJilDiDaI

      1!       I

      i!      !,           II

, 11/;. ;.~·L              ~~
                                        "(1J) ZB CFll f 5O..1S (aX')
  .   III·   ~.( \         I"
  , .;.;\- .:Ib.      'j'               n (UJ   :zli U_lI-c. §l~,1lIe Alien. Tot! ClIIirD lop (A'rCA)..                                            .
                                        ,. (U) ~,fix- ........t.:. ~ ,. NtIigSWD, No. 93-9133, U:aUo:tt StlIS Com:l ofAppeel!, EkveOlh
                                        Circuit, lao 10, 1996. In 1hP   Q&e"    11111 C"1l"1Iit OCIJI;hukd, "!be AliIm Tort Claims At;t emblitllcs •
                                        l£detal furoat IVl=e CDlIrIs iIlay fashion dome£tit:   ,,,,_I....                                               cC
                                                                                                              rellledieo 10 gi.... dli:t:t ID .,;.,....1i"'"
                                        ~ ;""""";"Nl Ln<r••
                                        ,. (U) .u 0tUtII ". u"Ut!d  S_.
                                                                   (llJ).C., 200l)
                                        .. (U) ~ y. haa-Z,..,... 630 11.24 876 (:hd.Cir. 1980) gaS, ""... lB. 'c""dIle.oflbe Iype .u..ged bete                          , \~
                                        ~l_clbo ~bk """"" 42 u.s.a. § 1983. or ~!be C.,.,.titutiaD, ifpcrli>r""""'- by •

                                        fr";;;U;:;~:'-~~6, lOti StA. 73. 28 U.S.C § 1350 (""Ie).
                     ,,~        •   I
                        NEW   V~~K   TIMES


   "I' .            I
.till,I!,,'        ,\    C.      APpBabiIity of the Ullfltd State CD~tatioa
                                 ,~ ofthe Otutitatloll to AJiauI OuDWe the UllitEd Staats
,IUI',",O',,:    ;j: ' ,           (U) N~t eoany.mCllll do not cmjoy COIIS'IitutioD&! ri~ outBidethe
              1•       " ~ tarltolY oftbe: United StatCiI,l~ The COUl't!I have MId that 1IIl1awfid ~
                , , ' '1:1rib DDt gain cozu;IItuIjcmal rightI; upon trans~ to Gl'MO aslUllawful eomhatal:lr$):Dcmy
              , ",bc:Ic8usci the u.s. eurcis!:G extmaive domil!ion and control over GTMO .... Mo~,
              , , : beeam.. the ,,"uds have rej.",ted the concept of"<k fiIctD sov«eignty," con&titutiOllal
                  j) :rigldB o:pply to alieas only on I/Overeign U.S. territory. (S"" diSCUS!rion under
                  tf I "}urisd.ictfu:n ofFc:&:pJ Comls", infra.)

:hl' ~b'           !'
                                            NEW YORK TIMES                   Fax:2028620340                        Jun    8 2004       15:47              P. 20

                                             .m:1k &..jASioMbrent-
                                                                See, JofmaQ" 11. Eisenberger, 339U.S. 763 (1950) and Verriugo..
                                                 U~ 494 U.s. 259 (1990).

  ,,.13""" , :1\'                                       (tl) • An c:xmrinltioo.oftbehiitMy ofthc AIDe:ud:m=t and the dc:cisi.®s oftbkl
                           " t't                 [Sup:aoe1 Court COWI1II1iDg the proscription agailIKt t<Uel aud 1IIIl1IiUlll pllDisJm·nIt
                               I   ~   I . ' ctJD1irm& tbat itwa& dtsigned to protecl those convicted ofcriJnes.0-42 The import oftbis
                                   ,"       , JIolding is !bat, _,..,;ng a ddaiDee coald establish stmding to cba!leoge'lria trealntent,
  :t;"":~r;> ,;~  " :to;:,woutdmtliellndathe 81hAmmdmmat. ~. it does wtappear
 !,i1'~~:~;!::il' ;,        illOuld ~ pll1'SUe a e1aiJl1 regar:ding tMir pl'&'OOnviction ImIIm...,t
                                             I        ,.'

'~;L;~~~;i1jii: ',: ,:~~BfPtAmmdmmt                                  ,
  "':', ,"":,,, , ,,',' ,' :                                '(\.I)
                                          The staIdlII:dIl of the Eigblh Ameodmeu.t an: rehwant, however. <h.\e to the:
 I', , :';1' ::,::,:U.S:, ~~ to                                      /fut
                                                        TOrture»;m's d~~ of qucl, inbuman, aud ~egradlng
 • "~,,, ~., "ho'''''' "'tis "".'!Il,''fJJJ'IiIer ,"Cl;Ml and 1lIIUSll8lpun··bm"Of' lurispIudence. there IU'C tVl'o lines of
  '"                               "         _ _ (l)\;lJIIditiq,llll ofroafinewllllf.lIlld (2) e:xccssive fur= Au genetalmattCl-. th.::
         ,: :                                ~jlrmaulyllis applies to the official use ofphYldClll force, oftm. in sitnaliollu in
                                             whidl,lPl ;mqUi!. has ~ another iuroate or 11 gWUd -wheres.I!J tbe ooDlfjtjam of
                                             CoJiGndnId aulysis applil!$ to sueh 1hingI1 as eduUJU!rtraDve segregation. t.TndI!r the
                                             C:Xddssin!fun::oo lIIRly:Qs, "8 ~"'" ..ucgWg excessive fun:c ml$t d"lllOll5bate tIw tbe
    ,:;       ,        I   .
                                            "defendant Ktt:d '-ma.IicloIlslyand wii5tically to C3I1S" hatm..., Portsr v. Nussh!, 534 U.S.
                                            ,516, 528 (2002) (quDtiDg 1lwkon. v. McMillan, 503 US.I. It 7). EJtCessi-ve fim::c requires
                                            : the vnnec~~ and wantQu i:n!liction of pain. Whimey v. J.1bw.;, 475 U.S. 312,. 319
                                            : (19&6,1.

                                  (0) A cooditiOIl IIf confin=meut is Ilot ,"cruel 9l1d uttURlUll" unlet;s it (1) is
                         :"sufficiently saious~ to iln.pUcal:o: a)tu;1ituti())l;d plOtecticm, it/. pi: 347, and (2) l:"'fiects
                  ,      '''ilc1i"b~ iadifferene,," to the prisoner's healdl or suItty, Fanner v. BrrffllItJ" 511 U.S,                                            , ~;I,
. ",i," , : ,:825. 83f (1994). The f.i.rr;t element is Ilbjective. BIld iDquircs "GIIhl'ltbef the clWJ.qed
,'.t,,\:: ~:';: ;:I', ;. "c~tidn is cruellOJd U1I.1lmal. The ~ so·called "oubjective" "la:nL'lllt-requins
I \11~~,jlln i jl" ,~ ,::..tai:ninlrij:mofthe aaw's inbd: and iuquin:s whcthr!r the chalJenged condition ic
. r :,            ,t,:,,:. ':
                          ~iI~ lis prmisbmem.                               Wu._
                                                             1/. Seiru. 501 U.s. 294.300 (1991) (lb" SOIll"l:e oflbe
  .' ::,: ': ',i,i '.'( ~~,i&n.otdacpredllection.s IIfthis Court, buUb.eEighthAmmdme.nt itscl.t;
              , i i , ','Iivhk:h ~dDlf,CI.1IehQd U/l1!"'3Ip~t Ifthepaiuiufli.,..,.,I is n.ot fhmWlymeted
     "           > , ," PUtIJ!s~by4ui:;~ Dl" !I~judge, _                                    meDial eJeme:nt1\1\lSt be
                          ~"ut.ld tbc fumc:tiug Iltlit:el- befuJ:e it em qualify. j.
                                                      (U) The'Sup=nc: Com has lloted tbat "[11)0 static '1l!;st' em exist by Wbi"h
                                            coutts d"WMllt \VhdMr conditioJlS of eonfiDemen1; an: crud BOd 1lI111S1l8l, fur the Bighlh
                                            :AIItl:hdlBcDt must draw ill; meaning from the evolving stluldIuds of de<:enCy that mane the
                                            pmgmos oflllJll!turing society:" Rhod=. 452 U.S. at 146 (citation w:nitted). See also
                                            Estelle v. Ga7nble:. 429 u.s. 97. 102 (1976) (staring tbsrthe Eighth Am8\ld mf'llt CInbodies
         I'       ,(,.

     "             '                                                                                                         ""q><mU
                                            "'- (tJ) InfYD""'" 1>. 1I'I-iR~ 430 D.s.. 65t, 664 (1977). bt l>lgrdh-. • e",c: ~bolll pI'IIIi.lmzIIt in ..

:,.,:i~!; 'Ii
                                            publi." j1mIm: web sobol, the CmD:t ODlIIyzod tho clJWo .-I.. "'" 14th omondmcQ!'o Due ~ dJuts",
                                   ::       """"ludiug!bat Ib<: cmdl101:did _ viobtc the 1~1b ~t. 0V<n IbougIl it involvod"l' 10 10 ,""""ks
    m~·;,~. If ~.
                                            With • W"O<XIco11 pacl<IIc.

························NEWVORK·TIMES ···············{ax:202S620340 ···················!un "S'2004""6:02                                                 ···········p~03·


                                   • I

                                          . (0)' The govam:IlCiIt iDtcreIt here is of tile bighe$t magnitude. The typical prison
                                  eae, tbe!;p!tlmc:tioD of lither iDm!d£$ or officms, the pmra:ticm offbe immtc Air' to
                                  have ~ !be =1 ;md 1D11JSIIlIl ponisi.mQJt, or even the IIWnteIwK:e of III.ll.:r in the
                          \ ' prilIOIlprovidl: valid govmuumt in~ fur various depriwtions. See .q..Antienorr ....
                          • , NoslJet', 438 F.2d 183, 193 (5th Cir. 1971) ("pwtect(ingJ inmate!> frotu self-in£licted.
                                  qury,pl'Oted[    IlI8J !be gonrnl pru.on population god p"lllOllllcl from violate acl'l QIl bill
                                  pa>:t, plI'V_(ing) tsClIpe" are all legitimatl> pCIlological il1leR:!ll& that would pcmrit the
                                  impositiDll ofsolitluy I'Qlfinement}; McMahon v. Brnrd. S83 F.2d 1"12.. 17S (5th Cir.
                                  1978) (preventioll if inma.te 5Uicilhl is a legitimate iutea est). If the pmtediou of QUe                                                         ,
                                  penon or ""ell prison adm;ui.ttatioD can be deemed to be VIIlid govemmc:Dtul in~ in

                                  such aisea ficqDeDtiy pamitUd d'"J'rivatlOllS, it follows a forliori that the interest of the
     ~,                   I'    "',; n:i
                                ,NII&d!States h-.obtaining intelligCllCll vital to the protection oflllitold thoU98Dds of
     ~~, ,.' ; I ,: i.J1 \ i: ~ cit) tei elll be up·less VBlid. To be 8UI'I; DO caurt baa =UDten:d the pxecise
     .. ,.1".1":""'" ":" "j clr8nn.....Mr$.1lQ1:iUUUocr·E.......... Amewfm=·;•..:~~-
               t r'~ ....
                               ..                ' L - · -..    ~                    J_ ....y................:cc. Nonethd.....• it caD be
     , .,,: -,'-,~";:" .- :~fiiI1~ ...... llurtthe.e em be DO IIIOI'" compeDing govcmmeot ~ than that
     •       I             •

                                'Wbi~i "1 ..';01 liCzc; See Hope Y. Pelzer. 122 S. Ct. 2S08 (2002) ("1bi! UIlTl.... essaI)'
                                 aM             inOidio.nof pain "..conr;titnte:s r;xud imd unumal p'misbmcnt bbidileli by the
                                 Eighth Artmndm..", We have &aid that among uunece;s&lIy IIOd WUJ:dl.ln intIiclions ofpain
                                                   lie Ihm:iI
                                                    ,      ,    \hat are totally withOut penowgical jllstification.'1

                                                  .,'        fP) "It is now the sl3ltlrn doc:trine .•• tbat the Due Process CJ; embodies-a
                                                   :system of rights burn on mrmd principles "" deeply imbedded in the tradition'land
                                                   ;teelings of om people as to be deemed, fimdatnents110 a civilized society as conceiv!Xi by
                                                   'our whole history. Due l'roce65 is that wbicb comports with the deepest DOIiImS ofwhat
                                                   is tiair aod right awl just..,4lI nn" process is \'loIs.tJ:d if a practice or rule "otfeods some
                                                   Principle ofjw:tice "" l1lOted in the traditio:as and conscience of DIU' people as to be ,
                                                   r.IIIked lIS fimdpm ....tal...lU
                 ,I'                       I

    , . 'I .,"              f
    ~\ ,j. :~~.:.. ;;'~ iii';.                      , l1A SfRnding by itself; the plira$e "due process" would seem to refer solely IIXld
                                                  ~ly "l ~~ to ptOCeA in court, 8IId therefore to be so limited thai: "due process
         ,       ~   (".
                               ;'i'''~   . :,,!:: \·nr!iW" ~d be,Whatthe legisbl:ive bPnch emct.rl it to be.
                                 ", : " I '" ,.                                                                                  But that is not the
                                                  ~ba:Wbidi Iu!& hom plal;ed on !he tmn. "It is manjfust that it Wi!: DOt ~ft to the
                                                  lcgisilativb't;.owtr toeiW;t any proCCIiS wblch. might be deYi9ed. The article is a restraint
                                                  an the lc~ative R9 well,.,. on the executive IIndjudicia1 pOWCZS of the govcmment, and
                                                  camwt he 00 COIl&Irued as to leave congress free to tflJIke any process 'du" process aflaW"

                                                  .. (U) Bcr...... IfII, :0.,., Pmecss (omRdrn.ti"", UIIdl!t u.. 5th oud 141:h 'm..clmmlS ate the ~~1!Ie fur lIur
                                                  ~a,     IIIiI'GIl",,,,  ",,,.,,dt,...
                                                                                    &om ww=tfu::<.                                                                                      ,
                                                  • (0) Sola~ 11. Jla/llt:tml, 31!l ti.5_ 9. 16 (1950) (JlI5ti<% F~r di.V""ing).
                                                    (U) ~".~_,291 U.S.!I7. lOS (1934).

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                                                                                                   Jun8200416:0::;     ············p···0··4···

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                        by it& ~ will."'" With IbiI vieWpolDt. r:Iu! Sup-eme Cmnt his carwd out. tolefin- !be                                    ,.
                        coUrts JD>jud&c the kgislatM <IUd c:xccati~ IICtB 1br their eftld OIl the rlgbts of the
                        ~:              -                                                                                 .
                      '; :;; 1·~~IiIti«.,;within the tarltury oflbe UIIi.t:d Sc.ks arr: entitJr.d to the
                                                          %0 •.,
                        prlollIti~ Ib$"a£...... pm ..±- me1niI.
                           ~        •• I"'::":.L..;:. ,."        mg"""*P'A IItiDDS, au-.. . . . ptcsUillPU·_1.· ..............
                                                                                    _ _ _ -"              ....]' ...:.=--
                        lO~i";ssiDJItD 1iIe Uui!ed Stlda.. It is dfedi:ve iJ:l1he District of Columbia and
                        ia tiu· • UidI 8lC pat oCtile Uuital SUd£f;, 1rot does QOt apply of its own folce to
                         d'~ftwll!j"i'" BId:. it
                      '.;:y ~';':dae lIDitIod StitesdoesDDtreachClll<1llY aIim bollipi4b eag,;o.ged in
                                                     <m!1Im: tried. by militaly'ht"blHl8b oubide 1he tetritorial
                       JutiIdiCtibu o£dleUaittd States,"Tbt~ dodrineWOlU to prevmtllCCeS'l by
                        eoemybelligm:ulS. captuted and held alm:Jad, to U-S. C01I[I!I. Fm1heI:", ill U" Sl.ate311.
                   : ,:' "mIugo-Urq...iJa, 494lI.S. 259 (1990), the Suprcanc Court held tb.a1 a1icos outside 1hc
                      .' UriitedlSt.les did lIDt have Fomth Jomendm"lJt rights IIgaiDst the U.s. gover:nm.cnt.
                         Indeed, in !bat CII!le, the CoIU't ob6eIvcd that e:rtrmsioll of COI1IlIitutional rights to Ilieru;
                         outside of the UJ2ited States would in~ with the military oper.!lioM agaiD5I: the

                                 (U) Bwn if II Cowt were to find mistahuly that 1lIl1a.wfiJl COlUbatants at Gl"MO
                        did IJa'ft CODSti~ rightll, it ill; ~y Bm cine process wo1lld pose my standards
                       bteyDnd·dmse nquind by the Eighth AlJIendment. In 1m the Supnme OIurt held 1bJIt
                      ; ·rf]~i courts ,it not to supcn>i~ ~ but to enfurce the cOllSlituliDIJlll rights orall
                        'pCtllODS.~ :which biude prisonem••. ' The Supreme Court's I1Niew crf IdlI1!!: c:ritninal
                      :jastb ~:'IIII!la" 1I1e dIP: claulle bas never b_ !lllbjoot to plecise mattm\Cll.t
                      •bf ~4Ii,ctbO\Dili•• In eac:h case thtl CQurt ask& whctJieJ" !be c ba1J "Ilgcd. pI3dice or
                       po~ a. timdamf#ltal prilJcipJl: I;IfDbeay IIIllljusJic:fl which iohcrGs in t1u:"VI:tY
                       ideaofa.f'ree gmt«Jml~t mel. is the iwdienablcrigbt oIa citizen ofSIICb.govetl)Illeot""~
                       The eoiui bIIIi gcu:raIly treated cbaJ!engI!S to prison conditions as a whole under the ~el
                       aiid:iunisiWpun;shmimts clause of tho: Eighth Amo"~II<:nt, UIIh~thaD the Fifth
                       iAni~ls Due PtilcIlIl!I CIansc, and challenge!: to particular incidents and pQc1:ices ,
                       uDdI!r tile (lue JIlOCf:SS clause as well as under: llJOrf' 6p~c provisions, IlIlclI 8.'1 ibe First
                       AtIlcndmcnt speech 1Illd religilJn cJallSe!>.S~                         .

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                                               NEW VlffiK T1 MES                           l'ax:~a2BG20340                  """"j'Uh"'lI 2004   I b: UO   --~P.   05""" - - - - -


                                                                  , ~ 0u.1hc ott...bmd, ~ condnct ill so cgn:gioua thai there is DO justifu:ation.
                                                       fn Roo;ilII ,.. Ca/lfontia. d:K: S~c Court fOUDd !bid: IIu! State's .criml!; in UIilawfully
                                                       aIII:riOgb dcfinndlDt'S room, gnppliDg with him. to pJ:eW:IIt him from rwaIlowing ~
                                                     , mace. 100 IJH,u tnInsp<Jr1ins him to the ho6:pita1 to have his "...,.., ";h pumped "sbncJcrd
                                                        the coostIax:c.... The Court said of the police lIlCIhods "'II1I1Y are UJt!Ihods too clOSfi to 1be
                                                       rackmJdlbe =ew to pcanit ofamstilll1imW dim:teu'jllficm". 61 Even tlJoughRocJM is
                                                       about .vidaIce ~ the tlItioDl1le ir judicial intervCDtimr. 1$ tile iJJfiW&em1iillt of doe
                                                       JII'I"""C. &pIDning the impm:!ance of due process tim Cmu:t said '1nvo11lIlfxy verbal
                                                       cnnfcssiODL ••an: iDBdmistdblc Uttdo:r Ihe Due Process c.1ause: evc:n [tftrue] ... ~
                                                       cOllfmsiotQ1 ofIi:nd the commumty's ~ of fair play and decency. So hac.. 11) $lIIlCtiOl1
                                                       the brutal CUDdIld ..• would be ID affiml. bmtalit;y thll, clrntk o£1aw. NotbfDg be
                                                       l1lIlt1!! c>k,,1atrd ID ~t law IIIld Iheu:by to the temper of a society•.,Q Only

        \1        I.:,               ,,"
                                                     , =lit:=c:.:::~~ the r.onscience"wonld not be ~1"Ji under the
                    : ,,;i@Ul~Yrltb Amc:ndmcut sbtJdazds ere also releYurt due to the U.S.
,i, ;;,,; ,',~;'.~i:,i                                                                                                                                                   r:"
    ';.::~~~;:::'::t';~":::::~'~\tc) &Todntc Cou.v=tion's dc!inition ofcruel, inhlDllllD, and ck:gJlIding
          ;'                                         'mmm.mlt..
        >~'r             I·
         "                                                        (U) Ulldet" the Fifth Menrlment t:igh1:to Due Pmc=. suhstlDtive dwo pnlCl:ll.'l                        ..
                                                         pIOtt:dS aaiDdmdual fium <'file Clert:ise ofpawa' without IIl1Y ~h, j1l.6l:ifi.c.tiQn in
                                                         the ~ of "tl'/ 1egjtima ,." go'<til/JiX\t!otal QbjecriVI;... CoII"9' ofSa!:Tememo v. I..eWis,
                                                         523 U.S.  m.      lI46 (1998). t.lIJd« subslmtive d""" plOCCSrs "only the nIOIIt..gre~us ,
                                                         officw'WIJducl en. be said Tn bl! arllitury, in thl! conomtnticmal /1I9le.... ' Id at 84& (~
        i \ II    i .; ~.              •,                quot.Uion:madcs omittcd). That c:ondud: mllSt "shod: the COlllIciIlDCC.." See gmeraI.Iy id;
        ";"        ;. I'"              I"
         ~I,.:     :..   f,<,.         1;'<            ,RDchIIl v. Ca4jimIiD., 342. u.s. 165 (1952).63 By COIItra&t to deprivatioml Dlp11lclldural
                                                     , : due lJl1l<"'SII, wbich can QCCIl( 5<> long as thE government affim:Is adr:qwtle ptO«SSe8,
                                                       i gnvt:UIIIlmf: ICtiow; thai "shock the conscie:uc"''' :ml prohibited i:J:respedive ofh
                                                       ,procedures the govemment may =ploy in nndcrtakiug those fICtions. Stre ~1y
                                                       .1lDt:lWJ v. Califonrw. 342 U.S. 164 (19S2). .                                     .
                                                              MTo!lhock thI! collli(:imc.... the COOOIl"t lit issue must involve 1IIIXC tban me:no
                                                      ~gedce., See ~ of &..:ramenJv. :'123 U.S. Ill: 849. See alit> DanW v. Wi/li_.
                                                      474U.sl327 (1986) C1tistoricaUy. this j:uarlmtee of dtl" process his been "PPlicd to
                                           >          d&'"bbndc ~mlS ofgovamnetrt officialr: to deprive a person ofJifi!, h"berty, or
                         " ,"                       "ptn;e,li.'1(eoileding r:ascs).
                                                                     JUBtead, "P]tis...b..baviorOXl1fJ.c o~cW qf1bc
,   "                        , 1"':                ;", !id~:~~~:wuuId IIIOI>tpl'lbably I>tIppoit a wbstmltive due pnICIest claUn:
                                                              '"'. ,1 r   .'-/   or-   '

          II             I

         ·Ii, i                            I'
                                           ,   '


        IV,!,·I.:                          ~,
    l·, ,',                   I            II
    ":  q~! ilt, I

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                                           NEW YORK TIMES                      Fax:2028620340                      Jun     8 2004     16:03             P. 06

                                                COIId1lt.t iDfmdtd ~ iDjUle in some way auj\I&1ifiabl~ by my ~= e a t ill tbe
                               "                sort ofotlicW actim IIIOSt libly In rise In !be ct.lIIIM:imce4neking hM:l." Id. In some
                                                cu-'''' '.,- s.,._cua.r-ct'=mess or po~uegU,ll!:dDtrnaySU8ice. S. ill. l"ba
    .• J.:
    • 1(1 • . ,"
                                                                afmJpeWiry is "1tjynaoWy "not subjcd IO mrrbmriC"J appli~ in
                                                                    .. /II. at 850. k. U. COurt; 1IZpJaimd: "J)eJibeofe ~ IhiIl
       .,:"                                                                     JJl1I:fnot be 110 pm:.dly ~ in ~•                   .m  our como::D:J.              ,

                                                                                                          mbstlrdiYe due pi re dnnmds 3D.                       '   .

                                                                                              .., ablISI: ofpower is ww:lcmned U I:OJ!I!dmPe
                                                                                       Coiiilt opi·Jd.':that lIS • gIBeral tnatter !;Ddt. ~
    ." .~~ ~,' i              .:
                                                'fIIIIftitd "" ailPrup:_wt.:!l'e tIu= is II. l1:ti posibility for 3dIJal deIibI:lldion 3l;O CIJIIIOIiCd to
    :. Ill; I         1.1     . I,              tboIc W': iII"d rip " !i1IdJ. as :responrting to a prisaD riot. ~ quid: drdsions JJl\lIit be
                                                ~ ~ & ,bcigbtmrQ level of calp.,i1ity 1& thus JDlIl'Illlpptoptia1e. See ilL iii 851-52

                                                     (liJ) .'Ibis R1md1rd appears to be m, evolving one lIS tlm Coud's mo6t re.;eDi
                                            opiuion =gm'Iing this staudald cmphMiDd iblIl: the conscience !!hochrl was the
                                        , dc:Dlltl5npOJaryWPllCi~." CmlnryafSacrtmumro, 523 U.s. at 847n..8(empbasis
                                        :. 1Iodded); the: court P.l<p1aWed ftpd: ....bile a judglD.l!Ut ofwhat sboob 1m mnoc1l!1HZ "may
                                           be iftfin:tDM. by a bistOIy of!i&eny profl!ctiou, 0 it nCCCSllllrily mtJecls a tmtitional
                                           'IIJIIfastandiD or~ve bcbavim". nf~practice. BUd of1bl: ~ of
                                        ! blame pe:ratly iJPPlXd to o.:.n." Id. Ikspite the .:vo\vfug I1IIfDR oftbe st.aucbaI. tboo
                                           ~iII objective r.oIJJertblm GIlbjectlve. TheRoc1tm Courtcauti.".,d,tbat IltbotIp
                                           "the gIpu baa ... hils mtbem. tilted"' all to what substmtivc due p.cuccsllis.,judge; "Inay
                                           oat ,drawn on ''tbcit'' mrnly pc:mmal aIId private notiOIll; IIIld disreganI & J:iD:iitii.1blit '
                                           biDd ~ in tIJcir judicial.fimctiOll..• ("IJhese limitl;: IIl1l do:rived fr9m COPl!Iid..mtions
                                           Ihaf     * 1ticd Do thr: whole aatme of oW" judicial proeess." ld. At 110. '(hoW Sl<rl'&' V.
                                  , :LcWasa!.. i431 U.s. 783 (19U)(J'L':81finnfug that 1he 1l:sI 1& objective IlItfu:rltwu.
                              ,I' ',' I~)'i AI:b: Court aplained. the conduct isImc mU6t "do l.1lDrii lfuInDBi':a.d IIIlm."
                      '.'                                             .
                            :'."~" ",', ~ '~': ~"iBI:n!ri..Pi Ol"}IIiY3k! 9entfmetllBlism' in mder to violate due ptoceas..
          , ," ""                          :~3lf.itr.s: iriS; i'72.                                                           '.-
t      ;~I~'!"       I'      ':i   J   ,    -   -   :   l     I    .

, i.1                i,                                     (U) "lbI: SUpn::mt Comta1so clarified inIngnzham 11. Wri~ 430 U.S. 651
                           t~~.!ttirrdcr!O' due~. ",[tJthm:e is, of couae, a de millimbt leftl of
                           ,        •      with which tk Cousti:t:ution ill: not 1lO1ICc:med." [d. at 674. And 11'1 Poilrth
                           'Ciri:iIit h.m DOtal. it is a '"principle.. .inha'r:ot in the Eigbtb and 1bl: FOUIteeafh
        "            '·An:aendm ..... that ",[n1ot ...eY!:Q' ~l!:ut touch by a prison guard giws rille to a
       t\f;' '!:I j~                  fII!8e ofllClion.'"_ SeeJolpuOll v. Glid; 481 Fold at 1m3 \N"otevety~or
, , ,jl\ ,,,, "'." 'I:, , "iIlloYe, ~ if it :may /atr:;x' St'!ClU UIJIJeC<:SSa(y in Ihc peace of Il judge's ~ vioJatc.s
  'i~ikpii:1 .i , ,"primn,f;:'S ~ rigbls")." Riky v. Dono,., llSF.3d 1159.1161 (4" Cir. 1997)
  ;: :,[ 'I:,ll' I: I:i :(quoIiDg/:butwlr. 503 U.S. &19). the [shock:-tluH:onscience]. •• i:DquD:y•...[i&]
  . ," ;                  '~the :fi=e Mpplied C3U6ed inimy so ~ 3lld was so izwpircd by mlllittlot                                                              I .
  ., I t";, I '"           sadism...thai it 8lDI>Wlted to a bmtal. aDd. inhUWilllC Ilbus~ of oaida! power Iil1PUy
                           soc.tiDg ,to tile couscience." Wt?bb v. McCuJ/orq:!t.. 828 F.2d 1151. US8 (6"'Cit. 19111).
                          Exllmpleoafplu/!lil:al braIality that '"shock the eonscil!!lCe" include: tape ofpJaintift"by
                          UDifiJuDI!d oflico:r. see Jotu!S v. Well1wn, 104 F.3d 620 (4'" CiJ:. 1997); police officl!!I"
                          5In1c!( pfaintjfi"in teIaliation fur P~g;police office:r. see $1IilIin/onl. v. l1obniM.                                                       I,
                          634 F.2cl263 (5'" CU. 1981); police officer shot 9. f1r:r:ing IlUspr:ct'G Jel¢ without any
                                        ,               ,

                                                                                        01iDl>'l00l''''' .u(
      "          ,
                                  NEW YORK TIMES                 Fax:2028620340                      Jun    8 2004     16:04               P. 07

                                      .~\I(~c6Iir""'tIIc                '.....,.a·uam.' mil WliDglQ stop. lZe,,(kIrldga v.
'n;"         .          ••             Md' t~ 111iiJi;!liW. 8SO (MJ); TcutL l'J72)" aff"d, 474 1189 (0-' C'ir. 1973).          Mo.reo~.
.,"     .!
                                       t..  _i...1iI:.5 j" dy du*"";ug .. • ... cImiDg 1Ile CCIIIl'IIC of III. iJdaropliOll em
                                       .........cjga...'           III ,. gbcUrim:. ScIIan.,.v. ~ 92S P.1d 90. 91 (.... (Sr.
                                        l!i191)~_b.*uaddlrNl II hritb.~beatiogifhcdi4l¥J1am""'). By
                             ,uit;~...r.npre, &dws Ii1ICh aa ~ iuIUIts lUll .. mgry &lap of"'ro"djnJII fi:Ilcc"
                                       dSd."IIDl~ bdPlvior tbat «sJuv:bd die """"';enre" Sa: Riley v. DM1m, 115 F 3d
                                     , 1lS9.111is a.4 (4* CiJ:.1997) (findiugclabm,lhahuch bdIa\lioubncked tb COlSIicac:e
                                       "mintWE'").. We DOte, ~, tlvrtc:oudl bavI: distinguished betwCGI"'deuse offurc:e .
                                     . ill. iulaiugatiuua .... tIII: us= of bee iIllheprisun or aut:st sdting:;. !be Fifth CimJit hils
                                       belcl1b8l''1b!! . . ofphysical violeoee agaimt a petIIOIl who is in the presence nElbe
                                       police fill" rndncti,,1 mreuogaMn, wbo po8IiS DO ~ ta otllers, and W:bo does not
                                       o~ ~ M:ti,on which would iodiade·to il reasoubly prudent policeofficcr that
                                       tbll use of .tbrt:e is justified. is il CODIItitmional violalioo." Wue v. Ra!rI, 709 F:.2d ~S.
                                       3S 1 (5 Ttl Cir. 1913).
,1_'    . \
 /,'., I, ' :.
                   .'        •~
                                                  (li) brirtality is IUlt the 0IIly conduct that ~ lDCCt tlle &hock-the-
        .( .            .    ~.         cimQ....Oe!dBDdud. lnCoaperv. DJIPIIik 963F.2d U20(9 Cir.l!l92)(mbam:). the
                                    :.'Nmth ~ldd 1hal cstain psychologic8JIy-coen::ive iDttnogatiw \rldmiqucs Ctmld
                                      .•ClUlliilifJilda ...,... of ~Ye dtu: process.. 'Il:ul iuIarog/ltoD tedmiqI'CS W"liR

                                       slIIIJ'I'd'll iJabllo =oaiD. sileot. with fbI'! expt"'" pu!pOSe that any sI:atemeDfl;: he miI:,bt
                                      offi:l" wWId hDIp bqI bim       m- ~ in Iris own defrac. See id.. 1t 1249~ It was
                                      dIis ..piua parposc:1bat.fh., court fuImd to be the "lgpvaIiDg Jllctm:" l!'ladiDg III its
                                      ,cour.huioD. tbatthe 00J1ClucI; oftbe police "shockEd tile COIIIICieure. .. Id. at 1249. 'l'he
                                       court n'!"WlJed that while "it is It. legitimate puIpDse ofpolice mvesr:igatiOll 10 gather
                                      'i:VideDc:e aad mnsta infonnatiOJ! that will 61I{IWIld a guilty ck1Cw:Iant IIDJhDlike ir
                                    " ldifficul.tif!not impomjbldorhim to ~ju.sticc [.]"whm tbemetbods.maentu ,                                         i
                                    • '¢her ev1d=ncc awl infon:nation are deJibmielyunlaril.l ami tJoltt the ~totiim, the
                             is 1a4." Id. at 1250. In Wilkins v. M"!JI. 872 F.2d 190 (1'" Ck. 1989), ~
                                      ;S_th Cirouit folJlld that = < : lDGDIal cti5tn.u rnfIictCcJ. on a sU'JpCCt could be It. baAs
                                     :fur   a SDb6tantive dDc process claim. See id. at 195. $i!$ also ~.v. Robi"MOrZ, 612 .
                                      P ..2d 766, 771 (3d Gir. 1979) (c1aDn ofemotioDlllIumn could bl'! the bll$is of. ~ve
                                      due til! P'SS claim). The W"JIlutt cnurt fanorl that under IleIflIiD ~                                       :.       I·

 .1,.        y."
                             .~';   , ~~B.1IIJ6IIO!d with gun at his heIIIl ooIIld vioIm: theme righlB. See m F..2d at
                                       19S. 'w&eIbrz- it would rise to the le9d of"vjoI.fion dqJlllldcd 1IpOn wheti1e:r tba plajntjff
                                      WI!I·-'ki ~. "JDhm1llfud d:u.t. a J;e8.....e&hi,pczson would fiDd 110 beJ'Mld the IIOIlIl of
                                    " jII:opeI" ~.JiLUC"'I'Iure as 10 IIbock the ~e. and tlud it ia,. c:alrmlamd to iDducc not
                                    . mlii&dyp~Ui."'-Yf_aumdety.1mtseverementahllffi:ting,in thepbrilltif[" Jd. On
                                      !he o1Ml~ WI! uo1I= that merely dca:iving the mspcx:t does not shot:k tItC ~
                                      see. I'!.g., [£hUed States v. .Bymm. 145 F.Jd 405 (1" CU:. 1998)(assurlng defmdaont bt WIlS
                                      DOt in da\F ofpwsecutioD. did Dot shucl:: the coaroi=):oo:r does the IlSC of sympathy
                                      or Mends as in'mn...tiarics. see. e.g.. United Slates v. SimIoh, 901 F.2d 199.809 (9th Cit.
                                     1990).         .

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                                                        D.       JurWic:tiaa orF~ CoIllr1s

                                                       1.        JllliEldio. to Co..n~r Constit1ltioul Claims

                                   (U) The 100etal habeas staMc provider; tba1 courts mIrf only grant the Wri1
                          ""within their ~ jurisdictioo ,,". Thill ba6 been inta:prlted to limit A court'&. subject
                          -.~ ;....:~;~on 0Vel" babt.:as CIIeII to those in 1II/hich a cnstodian lies 'trithin the

    I",!,.j               ,I.I.UM~J~--

I 1;'[: ,:1'":,:; , , jUrlsdi'etiau.. For U.S. citiz=s, habsc juti:;diction lies xc_ess ofwbm: the damtion
"'ij "~'" I'             ' K.tion must be brought in Ibe which aCDStodi811 xcsidea or,
; '1,£1 j;'li!;.:, i" , '       C\lsInd'"DR !lie outsiilc the lJnited States; in the Dilltrict of Colmnbia. For wens,
 , iFr 'I"
    If: I', , I':' tJU,;:., i$1I.u babe- jurisdiction oIIIsiM tile oovr:n:igll. tenitoJY of the UDi1ed States.
                             j                     I             f       •                                                                   "

~  f t-          I   10          I  oj            . '            .1                                                                                          \'
      '~ ,;:\';:'::::.' 'I: ,::tllil~~'~:bytfll:: courts. bahe9S juri6dictiau is cokuninat16 with the reach
:' ,/':'
: ii: :"":' I', "bi,~~ ri~ althaugb that lC&Illt iSA mJ1ter of tIIKtuImy COIlSliu.eti.m.                    '
        "                                              Congt'!s~ bas th" power to atmd holbeas jurisdictiOll beyoDd tb,r; read! of-comtitwional
        IlL          /".1
                                                       rights bnt maynot p]al:e glade. ICIltric1iDIIs en it.

                                                             I    ,

                                                             I  (U)In Joltmon v. Ebunlragt'T, tbe Sllpn!llle Court :ruled thai: enemy alil:XlS,
                                                     capturrld On tile field ofbattte abJllod by lhc U.S. Amled rotCes, tril:d ablOad fur 'War
                                                     criDlc:s,. and iIA:atLCl:llkd abroad do DOt have aeccss to the U.s. OOUIt!<"' over a habeas
                                                   • petitiollJiIed by GalUlIIl Dlll:WIWs Gcizr.d by U.S. aoldios in C1JirJa. Eiseturagr!r
                                                     com;i~ babsas coq>US tJditiOllS by German seldia.. ""I'wai during            wwn      ill China
                                                     sapporting the J   'IJ'-.     convickd by Military Commission sitting in CbiIIa, lII1d
                                                     incan:crated in Gt::rmauy IIJld concluded that United Statt!l 00Ul1B lacked~OIL&Ii
                                                                              . .                                                           '

                                                            (u) Recently. UDlawful c:ombatallts detained at Gumfanamo Bay, a.Jla (GTMO)
        ,"            1'_'
                                                    have sought review in U.S. dislxid court through the wrlt ofhabellS ""1:J?JJa, 28 'U.S.C. §
        I.~I\· ~ ~
                          '-.   1'1
                                                   ,2241. 17,                                               .      ,
        :1· '. 1
        "".""""                 I

         ~, '1'"                           I"·'
             .            •              :..l,

    L    II          II.

        '~"'I" ; ::-
        !t~. d
         :,.              I

        :'f'" -\
          \!;I I
                                                                                   SECRETINOFORN                                                  45
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........................ NEW 'Yoli K M ............... Fax ,ili:2 86ili 'i 40 ................... Ju' 'n' .. 's'"                                 '2' '0' O'·4···· .,. '6" '.' '0' '5' ........... 'p'" O·'g'"

             Iii. '1'1
             'il··'    t.~
        · :~;. :i..                       .                  (U) Two c:ontIs h."uxmrined, mdiJl!je:ctad, petitioners' claims 1hat                                          u.s.
         ·~~!:I:."t                       , ~jtJrlsdictioD ~ ~O ~ iDI d'llll of "de W:tn soverl!igoty"" and.                                                                                                           I
          '~" : ~ '('
              ~\.                    ", that:fult:t W:iIs habeas Jurisdittion m the &deW courts.
             !'f'     -"'I" . ~~," ., .. , "            j"

             ,~, • t:!~;!~!";t1",1                      :A*i'iiu..tbt' ..... .r~;'1l
                                                          .,     .        ,

           :i[;,        i. ..                      . !em
                                               lD ~ QIlO!. group of~ dd:am1!5 blIs c:balleIlged. ,"?"dj~OllS of
         "Ih' " ;. . .....,fi.wi."vl!pt tba::PIgb the Alien TortQIIIIII5 ~(ATCA) am! 1he ~ve
        ;" UI,. ,. " .,' 'I . ~;~{A.PA), Tba c:ourl8 •                       dec1inrt! 11) a=isc jurisdictiOll on those
           a:            "/!:
                        -:;1 ,,' ~~:;'~:d8ito ~~ Pcti~ W;Al 0tJnh attempted to c:iwom:v"llttbc
           ...   f ' i. " . .'~lltiDitdioDsorbabea:l bybri:l!ging tbei:r .a.;tion under the APA aiJdATCA. Tbt:

                      "       'i d&t&t WiJrt found !bat, al1hough peti~ did not scl:k release trow. roustOdY. suit
                  .. J\. : ': o~.........giir: aonditiOll& of """finen"'lIt W8!I, IntII1I:thelC&S, l1!':}1lired' to be brougbr. und.c.-
                             tlf '
                                 "Mlier: .                                       I
                               ~;:                 (U) The court all>O bcld, in the altJa~vt; tbld it lacked jurisdiction l!Ven if
                               :i         :pctitioDets WQ:I,: Rot baaed by the exclmiv~ I1llIllre ofhabea& actiOD&- '!he ATCA
                               f:                          !ihaIl Illigi,IlaljurisdiCliou of my civil action by an alien
                                          , pmviM6 !be "distriet colll13
           _ ' I
            ..        ,.      fur a tvrt "u1y. couwtim:d in violation ofttJ law ofD&liom; or D. tJ:eaty ofthetJiilii!d
           ;:;,: ", . 1.'Si:*a-'l!:..U'S'C. § 1350. lheATCA. al~itprovidesfedMaijurii;dktiOii.oVer
         · ·1!. _~"          ',r
                           ·.·pHvtle ~ dDe5 DOt waive ~over.,jgn ~ty for a suit agaW:t the UIli1zdStates. The
           .,!.      :I      ,CQQltII baft held that the ArA' 9 wai""l" of skJv=:ign inmnD.Jity for DOIlIUonctmy dawages
                              ". ;
                             :ClIII:~'y bo used to maintain au           ".                                      A1f:A
                                                                                     action against the Unikd States. The Ai
                     : :-.:~ C' 'hI>wIsvs". found tru.uhe APA'" mlenlption fin" "toiIitm:y autborlty exemiBtd ,
                         .' in tiIiI $:l ·Uk'tibJafWlr Ill" in ol:CUpim oorllnry" pm.:hxled the ATCA.
                                                   ".    ,.,....                                                      I
                                                             I                                                        I
                                                        n., Military Estr.uen'ttorlal JllrisdidiOll Ad

                                     d .. ,;,. 1t~'!Jlel41lilllly~ria11uli9dictiIJllAct{ME1A). 19 U.s.C. § 12.61 ez

              '/:' '·1
                        . . . ····~,:te;rs=~C~~!:·=:nOZ~::t!~=:c::;:·~~:mde
                         'f:WpIioy.!.,s:md co.ntradtJr employees), and in membas of the Amu:dForce$ Wbo

      .";.('ti:' ..-·;:·':'i!j:
       ~.lllli.! i::: .  i~ D. criJIIinallll>t while iSllbject In t4c UCMJ bat who are DO lcmgCr lII;e:subject to
          ~"'!' i'l lib.\l UO/!J; or who commiU...t lheoff=WithD.~llOlsubjectm the UCMJ. Thro.
                        \i~ is thU ifthe COJJduI;I: by the imiIvldual. would "coustitub: m offEnse pmlj"bAbIe
     \fi. j              :by lmptisomnmt fur more tbIIIl ou.c: year ifthe collducr hlId b_ er<gtIged in "MIiIkht. tlw!
     h' ,'j!lfl I!                        ~p"-CW iIIIJrr"rimf!. tDld tllTri.torialjrnisdictio~ oft/fe u"lted States.- (empli.q, added).                                                       :in
     . "',,:, ~ .'
               .1,      '"
                                          the ab9e:uee of~ielnenting u:gulatiOllll,
                                                             .                 ~
                                                                                                                 ak ..... -
                                                                                                   Miea! elfuct ofMmA is llIII;III;tain;
                                                                                                                  I ... -
                        '.     .          ~.MEJA maains Fedcrallaw.                                                       . .
               '"                         t,            The UlIH'onn Cod., of MjJJtluy lu.&tiee

         · ':                                           ch1 The Unifurm Code ofMiliwy ,Lstice (UCMl) applies ta Unitl':d SbII:es
                                          Fon:t& Db.,lWtivo dilly, at all times and in all places throughout the world. Membex-S ofthe

                                          .. em.    J A.~A                    >Old I\PA thodtlcs. "'jed>:d ill
                                          aw.IIt at ~ time ill tht RDsrtI-.d Al OtiJ>h                    cues./
                                                                                                                 JDis~          Com! fur p.e., ..., awoiring
                                                                                                                                                                   ~             in rIr Xl_C.

                                                                                               SECRETINOFORN                                                                                    -tG
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               .I.                                                                                                ,
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1 "    i.       ()&fWas
            (U) A IDlIIIheJ ofUCMI provision& potentially apply to ~ce meIIlbers
       iuvol~ in the ~ aDd ~oftheintcaDgation ofdeWnecs. Most
       signifi/:..ut am the fulknving: 'IU                                          •



              M     'The elements of the offi:nsc are thai: the accw;ed engaged in WJIlQgfid
      eondUCl   tlult was reclcless or Wanton lII!d tbat the conduct was likely to pIridlice death or
  Igl'i=vousbodily hlInn. ''[L]ikely to pnlduce" means the natma1 or probable CODSeqIIl'lIIceo:
  , Dfparticular COQduct. lGJrievous bodily h;Inn" includes lqjuriC!l!l comparable to
  • :fuu:l:nrtojd or dislo...ned bon"". serious damage 10 intcmal organs. MCM lV~ll9; MrB,


 , ," M    Alti<lc 2 UCMJ; RIIh::s f« C<>~MonW, lWlc Z02, mel D~_
  "'"(U) The tollawillf: me ~ frmn tIic !lcpart:o:mnt of1ll0 Jumy Pampbl<t Z1~, MiliIDJl J.wg.,.'
  lladobook (MlB). '11IIIIich &1llIIIIIItIi= the "'~ of the !of.".,.t For eontts-MartW (MOl) UId • ..-
  law appI''''''lc !D Irial5 by.,.,.....,. mutial

                                       SECRETINOFORN                                               47
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                                                                                                                                                                           ., ,.. .


                                     ,(U) bsoU       eo,,,._tI#II .,Hltt!I'J - A1J. assault !'e8Ultitlg in actual i:afliction
                       , ofbodily lwm is ~ batktY, Bodily bum ID!BDIi any physi<:IU injury to or offensive                                                                                             \
                       , , trnrbia" )JiiiiteVersligtlt. MCM rv..83: Mm, Section 3-S4-1A
                   .   ,~        "




                            g.       D~cCfoD       of Duty,.Art 92
                                                                                                                                                                            ~.   IL

                                           j .
                                               :   '
                                               ,   '

                                                         81 weD            as .Ia''''t> aDd. tres1:ie9 Il:urt have beo;ome the IP' of1hc land tUaY crea1c c!'u!ie$ for
                                                         puIpOse5 of tbis                      article.

                                                         II.               "'1'....10 Art 1:z4
                                                                                   oftbis ohMl!lle tiIat 1be ........oed ~inttii:ted ....
                                                                  "POZSlIlo.-1¥l wlletbt:l ;' .... -W or not. that die iD.i'IIIY smously distigwed the
                                                         PiI~f~lbodly. desCmyrlli or diWllcd au otpII. or lJJt.Ulber. or seriou.s1y dimjnj,lriI the
                                                                                                                                                                                      'I  r:~

 t!~:!i:~'!llij~~i.:~irlltlhpJO.iiaI 'ri&or. MCM IV-77; MIB. Sc:dlon 3-S()'1.                                                                                                              'I
              "".""""",'."""","",                                      "                                            I,     UCMJ (R.c.M.. 5116)                                            r;! ~

                                                          ' ®
                                 ,             • '                     I                                                                                                                  I"
            :.j', ::                                                   1        In Wlc:r fur au.yuse of~ to be 1a.w;taJ. itmllSt eithel- bejDSlitiIld ~ the                               l~:!
                                                                                   or an aoc;eptcd affinDativc defhose 1& prese:Qt to e:J.C.USC the othctwise                             .1 q

                  , . ;".,' '1:1'
            ,",' 'If I". _
                                                   'I,   §!..
                                                                             ;~.cblrt No case law was fuuod that defines itt what point me or viokuce
                                                                            '~Iawfill or UD!awfuI. duringWllr" Each case is by its tIllIIlre, dqlmdent
                                                                           c:.factualcircn~st8llC<:'l=unc£ngtheillciokm.                                                                  .'
                                                                                                                                                                                          I: .
                                                                                                                                                                                           ~   i;

                            [t" .: !
                            ,",                ~ il
                                                                       '(U) Applying IIIlrepted rules fur the law of 8I:IJIfd cou.tJict.. tbe
                                                         autiorizt!d whr;n th«e is u. mililllIy jItIlpO/lI! 3Ild tlt.e fOrce Ilftd is lIP great« than
                                                                                                                                                        *   of fotce is only                ~II

                  i             ,.I.  I neceswy to acbir:w: the abjEdivfl. 'The: existQo::e of..... does Dot in and ofimelf'justify
                      Ii II           i:llllimils of MaUlt. For instance. in Ullirm StllllU v. Colley. 22 US.CMA 534, 48
                      ,i         I'                ,C.M..lL19 (19731
                                                             !be comtrecognized fhId; ''while it J,t lawful to!dllm eomyiu.·1I!e heat
            ,( .                 ,.     ami exro;ise of war. ,., kill'iUCh lIIl enemy after he: has laid down his amus:. "i&JDDI.ller."
                                        Fmthcc;. the filet that the Jaw ofw_hits bcc:u. viobotril puISUant 1D !Ill OOW: of a'~
: ' ;ll', :..                    Ii I ' Ilut1iorityl wbether miJ:iQry or civil,. does not deprive tile act in qW'Stion ofili: ~ of
I I i!~ ':tl.                    1) I, a Wlll' dri1ae.nor does;'t cOIl51itnte adefeuse in the trial oflal accUsM individual, unla:s
    "I, .."                 '.,;,I"'.~, :'!.~,
                                                   ',"~"'---IY""""-"-"''''''                                                             .
                                                                       ., _.' .~. In all eases where ~o~~is held~to cnnstitutc ~ oldeis may
                                                                                                                                         to                      defense,
                  , i :.<             '~r"'I~lm,                                ,W'aIi:cnme. the
                                                                                      r          1h8t the indhtidual
                                                                                                           fact                         WIS actingptrrSllanfto                        .        II

             . " '" be ~~·hi DlitiI!3finn"'Ot. nw tbrust ofthcse hol<tings is tIud even in                                                                                     I"!,II','
    i'       I ..,;".,;; ~ tb 1M UlOO ond extent of Jim:., apply.                  '.                                                                                                      '.
    ',;,    'I                                                                                                                                                                                 'I
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""""""""',""" NEWVOR k'TI M ""',"""'" Fax: 26:2 8Gi6 346 ",""""""""
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                                                                                 ~1HF 1D:sist, the lICCU3IId IIl\l6t hav= had I. reasanabJe                                                          ... '
                                                                               mlMllUSbaClil'!y ,billm Willi ahout to be iDfiicted on himseI:f.
                                                        u.*'.,Plldb::r"lDIa-1if1c _    fila BDd ~ 111 ordMuyprudenl adnlt                                                                            ,l'
                                                                                AtUtirm iWuId haVe bcli~ that tb= ~ gt~ to feu                                                                   " !,:
                                                                                  ,       (Illi objoctivc lt6t) and 1he pen;on mU6t have
                                                             It.lif'tflli                   tilled WIll ra:pDred to plutat agwinst death or
                                   :~i .~IQS~lIIiiIilY :baJ:l1II. subjective tesQ. GDevoU9 bodily batm me311S smous bodily
                                                 'l~daes DOt _           m/Dor' injuries IUCh as I. bid ~ or a bloody nose, bot docs                                                                 i'"
                                  ~:m:;:iIb;"~~j or dlsloc3kd ~ ~ ~,~m mcmhmll ?fthe body, smallS cJamagc
                                                 ,                                                                                                                                                    'Iii

                                           iDb:rMk orgBIlI, or other seribus bodily DlJUOCS. MlB. Sl!d!an 5-2. (See aho the                                                                           ;·ii
                                      'diiiCll<l&iclit' of"Self-Debse" UDcb the discussion ofFedt:nd law, Slipi'll.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                      I'" 'I;

                                              b,            Dr:feu.. of ADoth....                                                                                                                     "'
                                                            tv> POl" this dciC:use, the IICCIltled mlli:t'have had a naonabk beliefthat bann                                                              m  l
                   ,', " " ,,'_1Ibuut 10 be intlictod mu:l dUll: the accusal actwIIly,bclieft:d thlIt furcc was necessary                                                                                 lill
       .:\W,j,.il",""I·t :;, ::i~ ~~l '   pe:l8OIL The IICCIlec:d l!lnst ~ believe that the amoUllt of fOOle UlIC:d                                                                                       .r'.
                      , : .~iw;ts         to protect against the degrr:e ofhann lbreaJcmp!, MID, Srdion 5-3-1.                                                                                            :;:1

                         '''''"'''';'''''-,' . ;J .....,~:~~:.~W.II!II.~1"f'.:. :,1

           ,       ! '''. ' ' ' ' ' ' : ' ,      ""M drl&";";,..;,;cs when IIlJ accused is doing illawfuJ. act in a lawful munntl1.

         ,Ii'                        "ftr.!lof 'Degligmce, and lIIlforeseeable or Il1lintentional dc:a1h or bodily hmIl OI":CUIS.
                                     , MJB;S~54.                                                                                                                                                          r
                                 ", ::,i.:!:i':I' ':\.,:1.::..i. 'otF.~
                                                                                                                                                ,                                                          ,
                                     .,~;!,!:~                                                                                                                                                            ;,,:

                                     : 'i: ~ ,             M IfiflllOI8lll:" onnistake of a f::Id ooJtJecms
                                                                                                         clement of lin olfczlse in~lv:in~

                                  i "
                                     'I   itt:·
                                              c bdcot. the igtlOl3l1l"!c or Ilti5tlW: need ouIy ta.iJ;t in tb..l!Iind. of tht= ~ iA, if
                                 " :1" ,~, ofan event ~ as the accu..n believed, tbc.e would be DO o1li=nse.

                                           crixnb' not involvwg spocific intent, the igriar.mcc Dl' JnJstaIoo, mum: be bOth hDDesi                                                                    ,I  II

                                  • ,(lIIllual) '!l=t'llaliOlI8blc. The mJ,jority ofliull:riInes discuJ;....t aheM: do not ""loire
                                     : "'ed1k intcnt.. For instana; in the talie ofvioillfions ofp.eral aRli:ts, b,owiC:dgi:iS
                                     : ~ed. 'Mostoflho ..mi""'....... would likclybe milll>lC6 oflawmih8lthiiici::Oiied

                                                                                                                                                                                                      • I,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 I     "

   ,     ,', ".,'          t,        'wuuldwit bdirwe that the oondllctWU unlawfUL WhilemistahsofJaw 1m) geMnil1y
   ;, ;,;il ,,}i: :;~,}                    'a
                                     !,i!ot,                           'IIIIa~ of a. law may be a defense to show !he absen"" of a criminal                                                               -J(
   '; ~,~~:i:;li,:, ::;~,' '! lIDlc'of::lwhen lICIwll<IDwledgc is not nec~ to es1ab1:illh the offense. MJB,
                                                        / l e ,- " -


   " ' '1[" 'r }, ; Sctti:rin s\-I~L                                                                                                                                                                       i ,~:
          .;; ~ • .. f      .i                                                                                                                                                                               ;;1;
          'I                     ..   )-e~.                                                                                                                                                                  !~II

                                                                ,      "                                                                                                                                     I '. ~

                                                 ~ iIt is a defeu£e to any offiluse mccept killing 811 imIoccnt penon that the

                                          sCciIsed's;p:irticipafion in the offense was 1"!&lW!d by a rc..o""b1.. ~ntbat thc                                                                                  ;'~i
                                          ~ or~1b.c;( il:mo=lt p = would be iwnediJtcly killed or would
                                               ,         ,

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!'~~1W!            II           [
                  A"                                                        SEmWTINOFORN
"(:tit< . i.; ......i~.
             tnlf,I<.,ri';/,P-1IIIa"     iM*' ,. bodily iDjmy if1he 'lX"erl did          uo(   ClOIIIIDit the act This apprdlmsion
                                                 .        ...,..dnne tJ.oucbout ~ commission of the III:t. If !lie aa:uscd has any .
                                                     uppattwaily ID noid. COililuilliog tbc act wi1JIm4 subj~ & ~ 01"
                                                          po:ISCdl to die hIIrm da I :.6. Ibis dd"t:nse shaD. WJt apply. R.c.M-

           '."          "'."'~ :', :~ce1D Orden (MJB, Sl'etions 5-8-1 ud 5-1J..2)
               . , '1;.     i· ..   i~   Ittln. .~ vWrility flf obedj~e to ardt:n as a defense tum:. PIl the ditectives IDlIl
                  ·1       "~IiCY M1be sc::rv1cc mCDlbe:'s CIWn ofColJllDlllld. For exampJe, when the intcuogatw-
                          Jlj'. the ~D ofthc comIDlDd anploYl' the use ofphysi~ fotee as an intenogatlon
                     , .: :~'I rftdf,todj. ~e would certaiDly nlise.the dcfen6C of obedil:l\Cc to onicts. .l.'Iie questiOD.
                     : 1 ':, tt-:'becc$nes ODI': of degree. While thi,. UJJJ.Y be a l>1lCCessful'dcl'i=nse 10 simple assaults o:r
                          . I. biIttliries. it would unlikei)' be as success.fill 10 ·lIlO{e seriDus cbaIges !JD<:h 11.'1 maiming.          . 'I~,
                          ! nlanslmgiltt:l". lind maiming. Within the middlrl oftbe .'lpeatmnllay those ofhlces:ror                              I:,
                          • I whidl ~ c:fICctivr::no:s" oftbis d.d';'!!Be bocomes less cl"3l:. ThOse Often:;C6 wOuId~udc
                          , .";",dllC( uiJhrmmiog an officer, n:ckless eudangermeut, tllIclty. and negligent homicide.

                                              0beWcuce 10 orden; providc6 a yjable defense only to the ..xtart fhat the
                                                nn&t otdeI5, ;wd did not bow (DlJi would a pGrSOD of ordinuy lICIDSe have'
                                J¥i1Y1lJi th" imlla1l ~ UDIJ.wfiJJ.. Thns, the viability of this deffme is ~ 10 the

                            11111~5~pt:l~"il~"';S):kDoW'~lrngy, oftbe lawfulneosorder toordet.(oi'dt::I:ed)
                                              .   ,   ,
                                                        ~1e bdief that the
                                                             .'.   •
                                                                                     811d.~,the cmm.uon
                                                                                         employ such

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                                                                                                                                    ." ~


                                    AlIOther common 11l;W afiinDB.!ive dl'lf'enlle: is Que: Qf Dece8:rity. 1."his defense is
                 ~:~i ~lltIc:c)gl$il   II Dumber Qf &ta1es IIl!d is applicable wbm: 1) the bmm must be committed
                  I.             p l 8 _ ofphymeal at DIIiInl fOrce; rather !han hUlIlim fo..,r;; 2)tbe biUm.
                  , saugbt to be a:vnidcrJ i& greBW than (Ill" at least equ..d to) that hanD oougtrt to be -ptt:'Vt:nkd
                         the ti&w dGIiDiDg the o~~; 3) the.:JCto(rcasonably believes at the mom"""
                           his aCt is _lIlY lIlld is Cbigncd to avoid tim gmlter blum; 4) ~ acIm' IDII$I: be
                      wjt]lImItl~ultin- bringing about the mtuation; and 5) the hImn tbreatelJilld must be _
                                                                                                                                    l,          I
                    ;.;:!iIl1~~ lc:a'ViDgno a1tet:na1i~ bywbicb. to avoid the g.:c:ata harm.                                        , .
                                   . ~. mili1llIy courts lurve tJ;med the Dl!Ce8sity de!_ with dis&vor,                                  ",r-
                                     -  refu&ccl to aa:ept ___sity as .. peunil!1IJ"b1e dde:ose (tliBMCM                                 :!d
                                          · , . iiffiimatiVlli defome lIllda" RCM 916). "'The probhm with the
                                        '. .' - '. B-w:agbing;of ev:il infIjctrd ag:aiDst evil lMIiohld md
                                         ·            , 'The Courts also have b_ celuctaDt to cmbIaa: the .

             ,.:l;~~~~!~~i~~;:·~IbIt~.~pn~.~    ·
                                                                moral coda; will be SIlb&1ituted mle ·oflaw.n
                                                        II necessity ~tioo that swallows theiDr legislative UniJml
                                                          (tMA 1992).               -

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                                                                                       """'" Fax ,20:2 8620 'i 40'             Jun   82 b0416,09' """"'" 'p" .',' '6'"

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                                    NEW YORK TIMES                      Fax:2028620340                     Jun    8 2004        16:09   P,17

                       ',;. I.          I
                           , I

                                        IV.        COlUideratioDS Affecting Poliey

                                                                                                                                               ~   .' .

                                                                   ab;o 5tau:d tbIlt ''violation& of the CIlStom.aIy and b;elIty I.w
                                                             c:0Dducr of_ normaUy cwstitutl< a CCDCJW:nt 'I/iObtion oiffie
                                     "Ir~~ ~:2~~ IllSIice and Will be prosecuted tmdeJ: that code: 1lieirialiual           ft

                                     '-'   Y,I' , that it was ''the direct respoum'bility ofUie CnrnrriiriidtiiwfuSlire
                                                  "~iJi'""",.. m •..,peckd iu the coudnct of'warfluc by fiJIce:s in   his mminind ..
                                 :!i=:~~?J:~ inteo'oll,ldion tecJmiqueg oudlned inU,s. law md 811 COIiSttIiiUed
                                 ,i~       ODder iDfmptj"nallaw 8IId domestic
                                                                                  FM 30-15 were based ilpo1J.


                                                  (U),   Hi~caIly. ~ ~gaIIle ~Dfli?ex: (G2JS2) ~ the~ ~Y staff
                                           ~nsiblc 10r Ill! intdJig= fimctioJJs Wlthin the annwaud ArIICturI:. This
                                     r$pOnsibility iDduded intcaogation of CIlCWy prisoners of Will" (EPW), ciVilian ~.
                          " arid o k captmr.d or detained pe:l80I1S. In ~ intmugariOJl9. tb£ ~
    'It , "                         ~offic:c;r was p!&poosible fur iDsurlDg that these ac:tMtics """"'" cxccun:d. u:f ~
, ' ", '"                  ., '\Vith!inte:m3liomd aIlddorncstic U.S. taw, UuitM States GovczumeotpOliey. aiiChhc '
   , ,
                           I', 8ppJicable ~ IIIld .ticld rnannal& reg;nding tbe treatment md bandJfug ofEPWs,
   ,if "i, •                                             I
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                                                                               ..... Jun"s '2004" "6,09'"         .. 'ns"


                         , dU> liM 3()...lS !IbI1Df. a- mrelligau:e interrDg.w.tiom; IIl'e IW art involving the
                        - -               ad .........,hwtjoa DCa SOIJII:e in mdr:r to obtain the mmdmnm iIIIlODIlt of
                  .,     .-    .              -     IDImopliOll8 are of many type9, HUcius the inteJview. a debriefing,
                       .u           elicitation. However. the FM 1J1Ide. cIeaI: tIW: th~ pxiQciples Df objective,
                           ulitiative, 1lI'GUnICy, probibitiOllS ~ the 1llI" of fi>n;." lIIId seeuUty IIpply to aU type:'!
                       ;. ~f ~gations. The: tnaI1WLl indi~ that the goal is to rol.lect ll9able and Iclisble                  .!
                  • " .• : ~ in Il bI:rid manner, pItlOIl1tly, while m.eetiug the iutl::lligCl:K;e requireml!l1ts            .'j:1
'~~',,,_.. _,,_,,.. .• '. OfT1le enmmand

                                                          OllUlil2OOl9:44 AM
                          NEW YORK TIMES              Fax:2028620340                  Jun    8 2004    15:47              P. 21

                            ''broad IDd idealistic COCICqIts of dignity, ci~ standards. bl/lXlllnjl)', and deccney").
                          , Nevcrtbdea, certain pid""'" emerge from the SUprrmc Court's j1l1isprud<:nce.                                I

         '1 1
  4 ,\          ,~"Il' ~I ',',   (U) To delibeme inclif[e,reooo.; 8. pmOlle:l" must d~0D6t<3te "'that the
, !',~  "';:i;',:!bfficW~ ~l:!ftdi"l1e!y awan: of that".        FOl7IIl!J'"v. Bn"nan 511 U,S. 125 (1994): .As
  : :,; ii,' i, :ihc Sopmne CQUJt fiJrtheu'xplaioed:
    ;:'~1ii:~:i llw.,1wId... tIat" pIisou. official ca:onot be tb1lllci liable under the Eighth
     , al." ,:.,      "          Am...dmP'r!1: fur denying any inmate hllttlBD.e ronditions of confinement UDlcss !he
                                 ofticia/. i;ntlws of and regards an excessive risk: to ~ bealth or safety; the
                                 official must both be IlW"ll': of fads frnm. which Ihe infeJ:1mee can be dr.twn that a           , ,

                                 substantial risk. of serious b8Im exiI;ts and he must ~ the: infemnc",

                                                               ~ ...       ""
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