personality Development-project

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					Narsee Monjee College of Commerce And Economics

Project By Disha Agarwal 181 Bhakti Dave 192 Rajshree Goradia 197 Ashish Jain 202 Vikram Jain 203 Darshni Valia 239

Subject: Indian Management Thoughts & Practices Faculty Incharge: Professor B.K.Nair

Indian Management Thoughts & Practices

PERSONALITY “Personality” is a complex multi – dimensional construct and there is no simple definition of what personality is. However, we can examine personality in terms of a set of relatively stable characteristics and tendencies that determine our thoughts, feelings and behaviour and which has some continuity or consistency over time. The word “personality” has a different meaning than when used by psychologists. “Man is made by his beliefs. As he believes, so he is.” “Personality” is not external appearances or social images but it refers to organized permanent subjectively perceived entity, which is at the heart of all experiences, the internal structure of the individual. It is reflected in the characteristics pattern of behaviour responsive to external stimuli i.e. the way one affects others and so on. Human personality develops as a result of the meaningful interaction of the body, mind and spirit and evolves normally from a lower to a higher state. (i.e. Tamasic to saatvic). “Don‟t worry about knowing people, make yourself worth knowing.” In short, we can define “Personality” as the sum total of an individual consisting: i) ii) iii) iv) Physical health Emotional stability Intellectual ability Spiritual connectivity.


Indian Management Thoughts & Practices

(A) What is Personality according to Indian and Western thoughts?

Humans evolved from apes through the theory of evolution. Thus we still retain many of the values that apes are seen to observe even today. These include caring for the young, a sense of respect for elders, being part of a group etc.

Times have changed, but these core values still remain in all cultures. But over the last couple of hundred years/human values have changed dramatically. The institution of a capitalistic society has replaced love and trust, with profit and lust.

But in spite of these changes, when one looks at the value systems throughout the world one sees that they teach similar things They are as follows,

1. Love for one‟s neighbor and oneself 2. Honesty-Be truthful to oneself and others 3. Justice-Be it "An eye for an Eye" or "corrective" or "preventive" justice, the aim is to bring the guilty to book 4. Humanity-Helping others of our kind 5. Humility-Being humble 6. Self development-through social betterment


Indian Management Thoughts & Practices

7. Respect-respect for elders, parents and others Over a period of time differences are bound to occur in any society in values and to a greater extent between two cultures.

One of the biggest cultural differences is the amount of freedom that people in the West enjoy compared in those in the East

This freedom encompasses all spheres of life ranging from religious, political, social to artistic etc. In the West Freedom of thought and expression is looked upon as the ideal upon which the modern society is based, while in the East, people are expected to conform to centuries old customs and traditions. The capitalistic society has brought about a new way in which we perceive things. “Get rich quick and at any cost seems to be the mantra”

This has encouraged a whole generation of people to disregard all rules of society and carry out practices as long as they are within the law and not whether are "ethical or not" There is no better example than the corporate sector where "profits and not people " is the word.

In the East on the other hand Freedom is a gift that hast to be earned and is not given on a planer? After being earned it is to be used responsibly. There is concern for people over profits and the Family is still regarded as the cornerstone off one's life.


Indian Management Thoughts & Practices

People are warm to strangers and it is hot surprising that "the stranger is treated like God", (ATITHI DEVO BHAVA) in tune with the cultural values.

Thus one can say that there are two distinct paths, the Eastern and the western and trying to live both will differ.

These cultures and values are the base on which a person builds his personality and his character. Epics like Mahabharata and Ramayana, holy books like the Gita, Kuran, Bible teach an individual the way to life by enriching his personality. Similarly, personalities are built on these values and cultures. The base on which a personality is built are as follows: Eastern Culture Western Culture

1) Gives more importance to relations 1) More importance is given to and contacts 2) Very Conservative society 3) Demands respect for material concepts. 2) Very open society elders, 3) Not much concern for elders, teachers etc.

teachers etc.

4) Importance is given to well 4) Concern for profit only workers. 5) No concern-for time, things are 5) Time is valued, timeliness and granted and things are done tat c punctuality is excepted as well as convenience. appreciated.


Indian Management Thoughts & Practices

(B) Explain the different determinants of Personality. Personality is the sum total of what we are. It reflects our view, characters, beliefs, attitude, knowledge, and abilities etc. we act/behave/think in a particular way because that is values ethics and cultures determine to a very large extent our personality. An early argument  Personality was the result of heredity or of environment.  Personality appears to be a result of both influences. Heredity: The role of heredity in the development of personality is an old argument in the personality theory. Heredity refers to those factors, which were determined at conception. Physical stature, facial attractiveness, sex, temperament, muscle completion and reflexes, energy levels and biological rhythms are characteristics that are generally considered to be imported either completely or substantially of an individual‟s personality is the molecular structure of the genes, located in the chromosomes. The following classification of characteristics is said to be inherited by all humans: 1. Physical structure 2. Reflexes 3. Innate drives 4. Intelligence 5. Temperament Nevertheless, the role of heredity on personality development cannot be minimized totally. Physical attributes for instance may be largely attributed to heredity. Thus heredity plays a very important part in shaping the personality.


Indian Management Thoughts & Practices

Environment: Personality development owes as much to environment as it does to heredity. Environment is a broad term and includes such factors as culture. The methods by which an infant is fed and is toilet trained and makes transaction from adolescence to adulthood are all culturally determined. While growing the child learns to behave in ways expected by the culture of the family to which the baby was born. One of those expectations has to do with sex roles. Most cultures expect different behaviour from males than from females. The cultural sub-groups exerts its influences on personality. Although culture has significant influence on personality development, linear relationship cannot be established between personality and given culture for two reasons 1. The cultural impacts upon an individual is not uniform because they are transmitted by certain people, parents and others-who are not at all alike in their values and practices and 2. The individual has some experience that is unique. Each individual reacts in his own way to social pressures, difference in behaviour being caused by biological factors. A recent comprehensive review of research found that personality is more affected by environment than any other areas of human functioning but there are still questions to be answered. Heredity V/S Environment debate is still alive and no definite conclusions are yet possible.


Indian Management Thoughts & Practices

(C) What is the contribution of IMTP to personality development? FIVE DIMENSIONS INVOLVED IN DEVELOPING PERSONALITY For the overall development of one‟s personality, development of the following five dimensions is important:

1. Annamaya Kosa (Physical Self) 2. Pranamaya Kosa (Energy Self) 3. Manomaya Kosa (Mental) 4. Gyanamaya Kosa (Intellectual) 5. Anandamaya Kosa (Blissful)

Human personality develops as a result of the meaningful interaction of the body, mind and spirit and evolves normally from a lower to a higher state. “You have to grow from the inside out. None can teach you, none can make you spiritual. There is no other teacher but your own soul.” Indian Traditional Thoughts contributes towards the development of overall personality of human being through Yoga & meditation concepts. Indian thoughts believes that human body is a storeroom of unlimited power, which has to be awaken through proper awareness & procedure. And, one of such procedure is through yoga practices.



Indian Management Thoughts & Practices

THROUGH YOGA  Control over mind  Practical approach towards life  Develop positive attitude  To overcome mental &

 To concentrate  Be more creative  Develop rational thinking  To overcome mental stress & pressure  Look at things from every angle  Long perspective  Decreased anxiety.  Decreased depression.  Decreased moodiness.  Improved learning ability and memory.  Increased self-actualization.  Increased feelings of vitality and rejuvenation.  Increased emotional stability. irritability and

emotional barrier  Perfection in every job

 Increasing flexibility


Indian Management Thoughts & Practices

But these enormous benefits are just a “side effect” of this powerful practice. What yoga does is harmonize the mind with the body and this results in real quantum benefits. It is now an open secret that the will of the mind has enabled people to achieve extraordinary physical feats, which proves beyond doubt the mind and body connection.

Yoga through meditation works remarkably to achieve this harmony and helps the mind work in sync with the body. How often do we find that we are unable to perform our activities properly and in a satisfying manner because of the confusions and conflicts in our mind weigh down heavily upon us? Moreover, stress which in reality is the #1 killer affecting all parts of our physical, endocrinal and emotional systems can be corrected through the wonderful yoga practice of meditation.


Indian Management Thoughts & Practices

In fact yoga = meditation, because both work together in achieving the common goal of unity of mind, body and spirit – a state of eternal bliss. The meditative practices through yoga help in achieving an emotional balance through detachment. What it means is that meditation creates conditions, where you are not affected by the happenings around you. This in turn creates a remarkable calmness and a positive outlook, which also has tremendous benefits on the physical health of the body. Having seen this, it is educative to note why the ancient yogis performed yoga and the interdependence of yoga and meditation. The ultimate goal of the yogis was “self realization” or “enlightenment”, a concept, which perhaps is quite esoteric to you and me.
Meditation empowers us to realize our latent capabilities and to use them constantly so that we may live in peace with ourselves. It helps us maintain balance, and keep calm in the face of life's challenges. If we achieve this we have made advancements in our spiritual life.

A person who meditates for two and a half minutes purifying his mind surpasses one who has done a penance of Fasting for two days. The power of meditation is infinite because a pure state of mind is worth more than a thousand years or asceticism.


Indian Management Thoughts & Practices

(D) Compare & Differentiate between the personality traits of Indian and Japanese managers A leader of an organization has to develop sensitivity and avoid greed. Management is concerned with the art of creating wealth. But the problem lies in the retention and greed for wealth. An organization leader must have a value system based on the four principles of dharma (cosmic order), artha (wealth), kama (love) and moksha (liberation). This will help him understand the multidimensionality of the task at hand as well as the essential human concern of an organization. Personality traits developed by the managers are as follows:  Authoritarianism: The managers are generally known to be rigid, place high moral value systems.  Achievement Orientation: Managers generally strive to achieve the best.  Self-Esteem: They have a high self-esteem that help them undertake challenging jobs.  Straight forward and Simple: They are simple and straightforward and are flexible enough to adjust to the external environment.  Ability to judge and manipulate people.  Managers are said to be risk takers.


Indian Management Thoughts & Practices



Tasamic: Living with Values that are extremely selfish and ego

The managers believe in group development and not individual interest.

centered, meant to satisfy individual interests. Here the mangers treat other

Japanese managers treat others as equal, as a part of the family.

employees as subordinates Indian managers aim at job

Japanese managers aim at both mind as well as job enrichment

enrichment The Indian managers are

Japanese managers combine


authoritarian. Their decision is the final one. Tempations for unethical means of work is more as emphasis is more on individuals.

participative and authoritarian ways of management. Temptations for unethical means is less as emphasis is more on group development.

SIMILARITY BETWEEN INDIAN AND JAPANESE MANAGERS.  They have respect for all the employees irrespective of their age.  They do not trust the employees soon but once the trust is built, it is life long  They are emotional in nature  They are hard-working


Indian Management Thoughts & Practices

 They are simple and straightforward. Recent studies in management strategies have revealed that profit alone is not the be-all and end-all of an organization. The strategic direction of management really pertains to focusing the mind of managers. The mechanistic framework of an organization and its resources are mere materials to be manipulated or utilized by the direction of its people's minds. Those who talk of software, hardware, competitive strategies, learning organization, or self-organization are really referring to new directions of the mind. At the same time, they are also referring to a change in focus. By employing a focused mind, you become aware of new paths. And, finally, this becomes a natural way of behavior and action for a manager.

Every organization needs to energize its people. In doing so, it converts its inner strengths and draws within to finally act with boundless energy, completing tasks without appearing unnecessarily stressed. It binds the inner and outer strengths of its people and marshals the energy into completing tasks the natural way. Such an energizing also entails self-mastery and selfregulation.

Values are not uniform between individuals or between societies. They differ. Occasionally an individual/service values may change overnight because of some traumatic experience. These changes sometimes come out as a process of evolution, as a result of exposure to new ideas, events or practices elsewhere. Some of the values are given below.


Indian Management Thoughts & Practices

VALUES OF INDIAN MANAGERS  The Individual Must Be Respected.  Purification of the Mind- with the noble thoughts of compassion, friendliness, humility, gratitude.  Work-is-Worship- this can stimulate work-ethic in the healthiest way.  Containment of Greed- whether of tangibles, e.g. money, or intangibles.  The inspiration to Give: as opposed to the motivation to need, grab, etc, because giving is more fulfilling, it adds more meaning to work and life

VALUES OF JAPANESE MANAGERS  Loyalty to the firm is an extension of the same emotion, which binds a family.  The need to foster the competitive spirit to get the best out of t/ an individual is questionable. Why should the law of the jungle, of the survival of the fittest.  Praise and recognition for the individual need not be the principal anchor for his or her commitment and dedication.  In all aspects of life they blend power and skill with a feeling for beauty.  Fairness in work.


Indian Management Thoughts & Practices

(E) Explain the concept of holistic development of an individual. The holistic approach is based on the principle of unity, oneness, nondual or Advaita concept: Jiva, Jagat, Jagdish are one. Under The principle of unity, the universe is an undivided whole where every particle is interconnected with every other particle and forms a golden chain. Hence, entire humanity is one. The only dharma or law of life is the of services to others. „I cannot cheat you without cheating myself‟ is a holistic world. The management must recognize the oneness of Humanity. Respect the divine in all beings. See yourself in all selves. This is the yoga of the highest order. Let the inner being or higher consciousness assume the managerial leader ship to manage and lead effectively your physical, vital, medical, intellectual entities. Your inner being is the delegate of the divine. Such an integrated human personality of self developed manager and worker can assume best and component management of any enterprise involving collective works and efforts. The refined or higher consciousness will adopt holistic attitude. It will bring out the divine in man. It will achieve perfection or excellence in whatever we do. We shall achieve peace, harmony and prosperity in our internal world and in our external world simultaneously. This is the ideal of Indian Ethos „Atmao Mokshartham jagat Hitaya Cha‟ (For gaining perfection in individual life, as well as for the welfare of the world). This is the motto of the Ramakrishna Order founded by Swami Vivekananda.


Indian Management Thoughts & Practices

As Swami Vivekananda says, “The more we come out and do good to others, the more our hearts will be purified, and God will be in them.”

Qualities required for development of a personality (Sarvangi Vikas or Sarvatomukhi Pratibha) are: 1. Atamavishwas (self-confidence): Self-confidence is a must in each and every individual. “Can do” attitude must be developed in every individual. Adidas‟s recent campaign of „Nothing is impossible‟ is an excellent case in point. 2. Anushasan (Discipline): Self Discipline results in protecting ourself from external forces. Discipline is an art. A man skilled with discipline knows when to speak and when to keep silent. If he speaks out of turn he will break relationships; if he always keeps silent he will be taken for granted. 3. Ahinsa (Non violence): The practice of non-violence is based on the quality of compassion. When someone tortured Bhagwan Mahaveer, he would think the man was making him the instrument of his own disaster. Reflecting thus he would get absorbed in compassion for him and forget his own misery. 4. Sahas (Daring): An individual must have the daring to face challenges and accept everything that is new and sudden whether it is a new thought or a new circumstance. 5. Dhairya (Patience): „Slow and Steady wins the race‟. The attitude of “wait” must be developed. Results need not always come quickly. An


Indian Management Thoughts & Practices

individual should have the patience and must not do things in a hurry, as it will always lead to some sort of worry. 6. Nischavtmakta (Decisiveness): An individual must have the Nirnaya Shakti and Nischayatmak Buddhi to make the right and firm decisions. 7. Abhyasu Vrutti (Readiness to learn): Readiness to learn and curiosity to learn go hand in hand. They help an individual gain knowledge, resulting in the development of the individual. 8. Satata (Continuity): He must be a constant and consistent learner. 9. Audarya (Generosity): A person must have a big heart and not a narrow one. 10.Tanmavta (Dedication): He must be completely dedicated and engrossed in his work. 11.Tyagi (Sacrificing): He must be a Tyagi. He must learn to sacrifice his personal interests for a cause. 12. Sahanshilta (Tolerance): He must have the quality of tolerating any human being and any situation.

The other qualities include alertness and awareness, Appreciation, Compassionate, Sportsman spirit, Perseverance, Straightforwardness and simplicity and the like.


Indian Management Thoughts & Practices

Bibliography and References:

1. Finding your spiritual centre – Acharya Mahapragya (Pages 354-365, 320, 274, 226, 52, 64) – March 2003 Edition 2. Management By Values – Chakraborty (Pages 5-9, 1920, 23-24) – 1991 Edition 3. Ethics, Indian Ethos & Management – Balachandran, Raja & Nair (Pages 15-16) 4. MMK notes on IMTP

1. 2. 3.


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