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					Introduction:
What is advertising? What are its important dimensions? First, advertising is a paid form of communication, although some forms of advertising, such as public service announcements, use donated space and time. Second, not only is the message paid for, but the sponsor is identified. Third, most advertising tries to persuade or influence the consumer to do something, although in some cases the point of the message is simply to make consumers aware of the product or company. Fourth and fifth, the message is conveyed through many different kinds of mass media reaching a large audience of potential consumers. Finally, because advertising is a form of mass communication, it also non-personal. A definition of advertising, then, includes all six features. Advertising is paid non-personal communication from an identified sponsor using mass media to persuade or influence an audience. The content of communication is composed of signs, symbols, and signals. The Nissan Frontier television advertisement consisted mainly of symbols and signals, with symbols dominating. For this discussion, signs will be described as words. The signs in the ad were the Nissan: Shift Logo with the company's words "toughness, power, capability, tradition, and utility" flashing at the bottom. Due to the heavy weight of visual stimuli in this ad shots, words were not as much emphasized to help with the context, as symbols were. "Symbols are motivated, which means that some element of perceived reality is reproduced in simplified form" (Adams). All of the eight objects described in the "The Ad" section, an anvil, mask, steak, "biker's leather jacket", sword, two large brass balls, a knife, and an

antiqued cannon, are symbols.

The anvil, used in shaping metals, The steak is

symbolizes form, shape, toughness, and innovation. A cast of a warrior's mask symbolizes war, violence, courage, and strength. notorious to be a man's food, thus portraying masculinity. Attitude, bad, rough, and tough guy are communicated by the leather biker's jacket. The sword and brass balls together were to symbolize the male genitalia, thus masculinity displayed in a physical/biological sense. has "big balls." The large, 100% brass balls, side by side are symbolizing the obvious: a "real man" The knife, Swiss Army, is a multi-purpose tool, communicating the versatility and "ruggedness" of the truck. The other "weapons" demonstrate power, strength, and self-reliance. The cannon symbolizes both a phallic symbol, therefore representing "masculinity," and also aggressive, explosive, and danger. The very setting of the advertisement, a foundry, symbolizes building and innovation, yet also tough, dirty, hot, and dangerous. All of these things melted create the Nissan Frontier; therefore the Frontier symbolizes all of the above mentioned descriptors. The ideas that if you drive this truck, then you will have adventure; and if you drive this truck then you have brass balls and are really a manly man, are signals. The ad signals the consumer to buy to product so that the consumer will attain the portrayed characteristics.

Functions of advertising:
Even though each ad or campaign tries to accomplish goals unique to its sponsor, advertising performs three basic functions:

 Provide product or brand information:
Although many ads are devoid of information, providing the consumer with relevant information that will aid decision making is still the main function of advertising. The information given depends on the needs of the target audience. In the case of purchasing a new suit, needed information might simply include price and outlet location. The American diary tells us to "drink milk". For technical products, the information is likely to be very detailed.

 provide incentives to take decision:
In most instances, consumers are reluctant to change established behavior. Even if there are somewhat dissatisfied with the current product or service, a habit has been established and learning about a new product is deemed difficult. Advertising provides the consumer with reasons to switch brands by presenting reasons through copy or graphics. Convenience, high quality, lower price, warranties, or a celebrity endorser are all possibilities.

 provide reminders and reinforcement:
It’s amazing how much advertising is directed at current customers. Consumers forget why they bought a particular brand of microwave or automobile. Advertising must remind the customer constantly about the name of the brand, its benefits, its value, and so forth. These same messages help reinforce the customers decision. Most television advertising seems to provide this function.

Types of Advertising:
Advertising is a form of selling. It tries to make consumers buy goods or services. Advertisers must be aware of the factors that influence

people's buying habits and then use advertising strategies based on this knowledge. Advertising can be classified in number of ways. According to one such way there exist four basic categories: lifestyle, testimonial, informative, or repetitive. Advertising may also be classified on basis of public relations practice as in-house ads, public service announcements and institutional advertising used for issues, advocacy and identity. Three other types are used less often, but do occur: specialty, cooperative and professional advertising. One should note the fact that these classifications are not distinct and may overlap each other. Let us look each individual category in details.

 In- house ads
In- house add is what an organization prepares for is in its own medium or in another medium controlled by the same owner. For instance, a newspaper that is a part of a chain of print and broadcast media might promote a special subscription offer or announce a new "lifestyles" section by running an add or promo o the chain's television stations. No money is exchanged, although space allotments or “budgets" are established.

 Public service announcements
Psas are sales or promotional pieces - not news stories - in the form of announcements. Generally, broadcast stations give unsold airtime for psas, which are prepared just like commercials, from organizations such as the united way, the American heart association.

Print psas are generally, but not always found toward the back of magazines and occasionally in newspapers. Leftover space is made available for free display ads. Commercial parternership with non profits are not new, but they have increased dramatically as advertising costs have accelerated while the ability to reach audiences has dropped. The intent is to serve the public, but the commercial partnership takes the message statement out of the realm of public service announcements and into the area of cooperative advertising and promotion.



Institutional advertising

The objective of some institutional advertising is to convey a particular message. Issue ads are used by an organization as a forum for its views on a topic or problem. Companies seeking public support for corporate policies and programs have begun to invest more in advocacy advertising. Advocacy ads are a form of lobbying to influence public opinion. They go beyond offering a general comment on issues to urging support for a position that benefits the organization specifically. Corporate advocacy advertising often looks like editorial copy, although it may be clearly identified as an ad. Some corporate advocacy is done in partnership with nonprofit organization and becomes a form of cooperative advertising. Specialty advertising: without looking can you recall the company whose name is on the pen you use or on your desk calendar? Advertising specialties are useful, inexpensive items, such as pens or calendars,

imprinted with an organizations name, logo or message. These are given away to customers or perhaps as souvenirs to those who attend a special event.

 Cooperative advertising
cooperative advertising offers almost as many advantages as advertising placed by a single organization. When one advertiser shares a message with other - such as when cheese dip manufacturer combines with a potato chip manufacturer to buy advertising space and time - it also shares the production and space / time costs. This enables each to participate in both the production and the exposure.



Advertising by professionals

Both advertising agencies and pr firms are now learning to deal with advertising by lawyers, dentists, doctors, and other professionals, who used to be prohibited by their professional codes of conduct from engaging in such commercial activities. As these professional codes of conduct from engaging in such commercial activities. As these professionals began putting their names in print and their faces on television, a new market for public relations practitioners opened.



Lifestyle advertising is used extensively

Attractive people are featured doing enjoyable or interesting things that either involve a particular product or service or somehow relate to it. For example, a television advertisement might open with a skiing scene healthy; good-looking people dressed in the latest ski styles and using the best equipment, swooping down a scenic mountain. Then the camera cuts to a soft drink nestled in the snow at the foot of the hill- the real star of the advertisement.

There are many variations of this type of advertising but the suggested message is basically the same: Use this product or service and you too will enjoy life as much as the people in the advertisement do. Smart consumers are not taken in by the unrealistic expectations these ads are designed to arouse.

 Testimonial advertising
Testimonial advertising uses celebrities, such as movie or television stars or professional athletes, to endorse products or services. The intention is to leave you with the impression that the item must be good if these famous people endorse it. Sometimes testimonial advertising features people whose appearance gives the impression of authority on a subject. For example, a woman in a white lab coat talking about a headache remedy could be assumed to be a doctor. Another variation of testimonial advertising involves ordinary people, interviewed at shopping malls or in their homes or workplaces, who claim that a certain product or service is better than competing ones. Institutions also sometimes endorse products. Ads for toothpaste, for example, might feature a statement by the Canadian Dental Association. Some advertisers purchase the right to display the five- circle world Olympic symbol in their ads, which signifies endorsement by the Olympic organizing committee. Informative advertising presents practical, and usually detailed,

information about a product or service, such as prices, guarantees, ingredients, and applications of the product. Sometimes this type of advertising involves a lot of text in a printed advertisement or television program that runs for half an hour or more. A toll-free number is usually

provided for placing orders, since many of the products and services promoted are not available through retail outlets. Called infomercials, when used on television, shorter versions of this type of advertising (usually 15 or 30s) are used to promote every imaginable type of product and service.

 Repetitive advertising
Repetitive advertising involves the frequent repetition of a product or business name or of the advertisement itself during a program. The advertiser's goal is to implant that name firmly in your. Mind. Companies that offer items that differ little from their competitors' often use repetitive advertising to "help" you remember their particular brand names.

Comparison

between

television

advertisement and print advertisement
Television advertisement:
It is a type of advertising done through television. In today’s time television has become most popular media of advertising. It has become medium of common man entertainment. Television advertisement can be done in two ways that is in between the programmes or through sponsored programmes having duration of 30 minutes to 1 hour. Its advantages and disadvantages are explained below.

Advantages:


Wide coverage

It has wide coverage through television advertising. Message can be given to millions of people at a time.



Demonstration is possible

In television advertising demonstration as possible. A person can see effects and advantages of the product.



Audio visual effect

It has audio as well as visual effects. People can see as well as hear the message. Due ton this advertisement remains for the long period in the mind of the prospects (customers).


Attractive

It is attractive specially when in colour. It attracts the prospects and creates the demand for the product.



Interesting

It is interesting type of advertisement as it can be telecasted as adding song, music, dialogues etc. it makes the people in the position to listen to the advertisement.



Popularity
modern world television is most popular medium of

In today’s television.

entertainment. Every producer wants to advertise his product through

Disadvantages:


Costly

It is very costly medium of advertising. All the producers cannot afford to advertise their products through television.



Interruption

Sometimes advertisement is an interruption in the entertainment of the people. Especially at the time when they are watching their favorite program.



Repetition

Television advertisement is repeated number of times in a day on different channels. This creates boredom for the people.



Clash of timings

There is clash of timings as every producer wants to advertise his products during the programme which are more popular. Due to which we have to pay more money to the authority.



Not suitable for industrial goods

Television advertisement is not suitable for the goods used by the producers like machinery, parts of machine etc. it is only suitable for consumer goods.



Results cannot be known

Results of the television advertising cannot be known. It is very difficult to know that how many people or customers become ready to buy the goods on seeing the television advertisement.

Print advertisement:
The final product may appear in poster or magazine form. However, it may be no smaller than 8X10. The print must be clear & professional looking. There can be no spelling or grammatical errors. Your final product must have at least a one inch margin on all sides & must include no less than two of the three elements of appeal. The advertisement must have aesthetic appeal. It may include reverse lettering, illustrations, the use of color, etc. Your final product must be accompanied by a type written paragraph stating the name of your book & its author. In addition, the paragraph should include a detailed explanation of your project & the way you attempted to successfully complete it. The presentation must reflect your adequate knowledge of the book you read. The conclusion of your presentation should motivate us to read your book.

Advantages:


Coverage

It has wide coverage as newspapers and magazines are published throughout the nation. Message can be sent to millions of people through popular newspapers and magazines.



Economical

It is an economical mean of advertising. Cost of advertising is less if done through local newspapers.



Attractive

It is more attractive on colour paper in the newspaper or magazine. This attracts the attention of the readers.



Suitable for all products

Press advertisement is suitable for all products. Whether producer goods or consumer goods. Detailed information can be given about the product.



Results can be known

If advertisement is done through newspapers or magazines, it is possible to know the results of the same.



Flexibility

It is flexible type of advertising. It is easy to change, reduce or add the matter. It can be given at any place as per the deal.

Disadvantages:


Not suitable for illiterate persons

Press advertising is not suitable for illiterate persons. Such persons cannot read the message given in the newspapers or magazines.



Costly

It is costly if done through popular newspapers or magazines. Especially when it is colour. Hence, it is not affordable by all the sellers.



Not attractive

It is not attractive as quality of paper may not be good. An advertisement when in black and white form does not attract the people.



Not interesting

It is not interesting as there is a dry message about the product given in the newspaper or magazines. There cannot be addition of songs, dialogues, expressions etc.



Not suitable for busy people

This type of advertising is not suitable for busy persons as they are interested in reading the headlines or the topic of their interest.



Limited

If the advertisement is given through local newspapers, it will reach limited number of persons only.

The Future of Advertising

You've waited all day to come home and relax. You're sitting on the couch watching your favorite football team with your feet propped up on the coffee table (just like mom told you not to do). Life is good. Then a little i pops up on your screen. What's that? It's interactive television and it's a whole new ball game for advertisers. You've seen commercials for Clorox and Purina Puppy Chow. But now you can see those commercials and get coupons at the same time. The interactive screen provides you with options to accept or decline an advertiser's special offer. And it doesn't stop there. ITV has several incentives over a PC. You can play along with game shows, vote in live polls, learn trivia tidbits, get game stats and purchase items just by pushing a button on your remote control. Some skeptics aren't buying the smart TV concept, though. They say an advertiser's going to follow their audience and interactive television isn't one of their destinations. Recent numbers disprove the claims that there's not a market for ITV. For example, during a Melissa Etheridge concert, 46 percent of viewers clicked through to learn more about a CD now.com discount. Critics also say there's a digital divide - a gap between levels of income and their spending dollars. In the past, high-income families were the only ones to have access to the latest technology. But tech costs are down and that digital divide is dissolving. In fact, the number of Internet users with an annual household income under $25,000 has grown almost 25 percent in the past year alone.

Studies show low-income families usually have more of a disposable income. They have more purchasing power because they don't have major bills like a mortgage or an expensive car payment. Research from the Institute of Information Policy at Pennsylvania State University consistently finds that the poor use five times more telephony and cable services than suburban families. Also, female head of households dominate as low-income subscribers to cable TV. Many believe the growth of cable TV is so parents can keep their kids at home with them. Supporting this theory would mean as more ITV programs are added, the switch to interactive television will increase. WebTV is doing their best to speed up that switch. They recently introduced their new Click-To-Video ads. When a WebTV subscriber clicks on a banner ad, they view a full-screen, full-motion commercial for the advertiser's product and are then taken to that company's Web site. Advertisers can submit their current banner ads and TV commercials and WebTV Networks converts their materials to the advertising product. Some of the current Click-To-Video advertisers are Ford, Maytag, Hewlett-Packard and Volvo Cars of North America. These new services are designed to attract both low- and highincome families. While the future of this new advertising medium remains to be seen, the digital divide seems to be taking a hit. The critics have their doubts. The true believers that this is a revolutionary product for advertisers and consumers are die-hard. As you form your own opinion, keep in mind, Xerox sold the rights to Windows because company execs didn't see a use for them in the consumer world.

Analysis of a Print advertisement of Hyundai Sonata.
It’s an advertisement to introduce Hyundai Sonata in the market. It signifies the fact that Hyundai aims at being perfect at anything that they do. The advertisement also emphasizes that the car is targeted towards upper middle class and above income category. It implies that the Hyundai Sonata is a work of art, designed to perfection. It also motivates the prospect to take a test drive at the nearest showroom. The copy reinforces the image communicated by the visual. The copy also provides details of product attributes. For eg. 2.0 litre, 16 valve DOHC (Dual Overhead Cam Shaft) RISIUS – II engine. Double wishbone suspension and gas shock absorbers insure precise steering and optimal road handling. The plush leather upholstered interior and cutting edge NVH (Noise, Vibration And Harshness) technology with multiple location insulation and hydraulic. Mounted engine insure a relaxed ride. You are further embraced in the lap of luxury by features like fully automatic air conditioning, with air purifier, Cd-charger. Hyundai and its communication to the customer are consistent with the brand image that it portrays. Hyundai as a brand has stood for safety and security that it provides to all its customers. This is evident from the copy of the advertisement i.e. ABS (anti-lock brake system), SRS (supplemental restraint system), driver airbag and TCS (Traction Control System. The advertisement also provides information on the contact points with the help of the web site addresses and the contact telephone numbers of the marketing offices. The purpose of this advertisement is to introduce a new Hyundai Sonata to its prospects and it has been successful in communicating the aforesaid.


				
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Description: This is a BMS readymade project made by a BMS students. It can also be used as a study notes,as contains the full informations.