A STUDY ON STRESS MANAGEMENT
IN National Thermal Power Corporation LTD Ramagundam
A PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED TO
In Partial Fulfillment of Requirement For The Award Of The
"Master of Business Administration"
By K.REK HA REDDY
(070 18C-l028) UNDER THE GUIDENCE OF
Mr. E. MANOHAR
DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT UNIVERSITY POST GRADUATE COLLEGE KAKATIYA UNIVERSITY,WARANGAL GODAVARIKHANI, KARIMNAGAR DIST -505209 2006-08
I hereby declare that this project „„STRESS MANAGEMENT” done in NTPC Ramagundam is original work by him for the award of partial fulfillment of the degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION in HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT to "UNIVERSITY P.G. COLLEGE‟‟ Godavarikhani “KAKATIYA UNIVERSITY” is record of bonified work carried out by me. I also declare that this project is a result of my own effort and that not been submitted to any other University / Institution for the award of any degree.
K. REKHA REDDY 07018C-1028
I am very thankful to management of the "National Thermal Power station, Ramagundam, for extending their-cooperation in completion of project work. I am thankful to Prof. Thirumala Rao Garu, Principal of University post Graduate College, and my Lecturer Mr. E. Manohar Sir, who constant guidance had given very valuable suggestions in completing my project successfully. It is my immense pleasure to thank Sri. P.Gopal Rao (Deputy GMRR) NTPC, Ramagundam who gave me an opportunity do my project work in an esteemed organization RSTPSINTPC Plant. My sincere thanks to Sri A.Monoharan, HR Manager (RR-ED) for making it convenient to undertake project work at NTPC, Ramagundam. I would like to express my deep sense of gratitude Sri Rajesham Sir, Officer (HR). My project guide who guide me precisely and without his timely instructions his report would not have seen light. I am also grateful to all the Executives and staff of the NTPC, Ramagundam, for having me an opportunity in their organization to carry on my project work & their support in bringing out this case study successfully.
K. REKHA REDDY 07018C-1028
UNIVERSITY POST GRADUATE COLLEGE KAKATIYA UNIVERSITY GODAVARIKHANI, PIN-505209
This is certifying that the project work entitled „„STRESS MANAGEMENT”, being submitted by.
K.REKHA REDDY 07018C-1028
In partial fulfillment for the award of "MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION" at UNIVERSITY POST GRADUATE COLLEGE, GODAVARIKHANI, KARIMNAGAR is a bonafide work carried out under my supervision.
E. MANOHAR Faculty Member Department of Business Management University Post-Graduate College, Godavarikhani-505209
Chapter-1 : Introduction Introduction of Stress Organizational Stress Sources of Stress Consequences of Stress Management of Stress Organization Profile Data Analysis & Interpretation
Chapter-2 Chapter-3 Chapter-4 Chapter-5
: : : :
Findings and Suggestions Conclusions 61-63 Questionnaire Bibliography
Stress has been called “the invisible”. It is a disease that may affect you, your organization, and any of the people in it, so you cannot afford to ignore it.
EVOLUATION OF STRESS:
The Garden of Eden began as a tranquil stress environment. However when Adam was given the tantalizing chance to eat the forbidden fruit, he was trust into mankind‟s first stressful situation. Adam was offered a choice and, as we know, decision-making is the breeding ground for conflict, frustration and distress.
DEFINITION: Stress in individual is defined as any interference that disturbs a persons‟ healthy mental and physical well being. It occurs when the body is required to perform beyond its normal range of capabilities. Stress is the way that you react physically, mentally and emotionally to various conditions, changes and demands in your life. High levels of stress can affect your physical and mental well being and performance. The results of stress are harmful to individuals, families, society and organizations, which can suffer from “organization stress”. Ivancevich and Matteson define stress as individual with the environment. Behr and Newman define job stress as “a condition arising from the interaction of people and their jobs and characterized by changes within people that force them to deviate from their normal functioning”. Stress is a dynamic condition, which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. Stress is associated with constraints and demands. The former prevent you from doing what you desire, the latter refers to the loss of something desired.
Stress is highest for those individuals who perceive that they are uncertain as to whether they will win or lose and lowest for those individuals who think that winning or losing is certainty. Canadian physician Hans Selye (1907-1982) in his book the stress of life 1956 popularized the idea of stress. According to Selye, the General Adaptation Syndrome consists of three phases. Ce level begins to decline irreversibly. The organism collapses.
Alarm Reaction: The first is the alarm phases. Here the individual mobilizes to meet the threat. The alarm reaction has two phases. The first phases includes in initial “stock shock phase” in which defensive mechanism become active. Alarm reaction is characterized by autonomous excitability; adrenaline discharges; increase heart rate, ulceration. Depending on the nature & intensity of the threat and the condition of the organization the period of resistance varies and the severity of symptoms may differ from “mild invigoration” to “disease of adaptation”. Resistance: The second is the phase of resistance. The individual attempts to resist or cope with the threat. Maximum adaptation occurs during this stage. The bodily signs characteristic of the alarm reaction disappear. It the stress persist, or the defensive reaction proves ineffective, it may overwhelm the body resources. Depleted of energy, the body enters the phase of third. Exhaustion: Adaptation energy is exhausted. Sings of the alarm reaction reappear, and the resistance level begins to define irreversibly. The organism collapses.
Pestonjee has attempted / identified three important sectors of life in which Stress originates. These are Job and the organization The social sector Intrapsychic sector Job and organization, refers to the totality of the work environment (task, atmosphere, colleagues, compensation, policies, etc.). The social sector refers to the other such factors. The Intrapsychic sector encompasses those things, which are intimate, and persona, like temperament, values, abilities and health. It is contended that stress can originate in any of these sectors or in combinations thereof. In the figure below it can be seen that the magnitude of stress emanating from the stress to learner limit of the individual to handle these stress. This indicates a balanced state.
ORGANIZATION-INDIVIDUAL NORMAL INTERACTION PATTERN S.T.L – STRESS TOLERANCE LEVEL
In the figure we find that job and organization loads have increased and have made a dent in the personality. In this stage, we find minor surface changes taking place, which are quite manageable.
MINIOR SURFACE CHANGES
Adaptation attempt a) b) c) d) Extra effort Excessive concern of task Worries Anxiety
In the stage three and the figure below, we find that job and organizational loads have become unmanageable and interact with intrapsychic loads. This is the stage at which he negative consequences of the stress become apparent. Most of the stress related diseases emerge at this point. When the situation persists we move into the next stage in which we start operating beyond the “stress tolerance limit”.
MAJOR SURFACE DISFIGURATION Frantic copying 1. Extra ordinary effort 2. Worry and anxiety about the self 3. Onset of physiological symptoms 4. Aggressive tendencies Several types of breakdowns and cracks are observable in this stage i.e., fourth stage. If unchecked the situation may culminate into the last and most intense phase wherein complete disintegration of personality takes place. At this stage, the individual requires proper psychological and medical care. The figure below depicts the fourth and fifth stage. STRESSORS OR LOADS
BREAKDOWNS AND CRACKS: FAILURE IN COPING
Work related symptoms Lack of concentration Affected clarity of thinking & decision – making Frequent absenteeism Affected team work Aggressive behavior Physiological symptoms Headache / Migraine Insomnia Lack of appetite Digestive disorders Sexual disorders Temperamental changes.
Pestonjee has also developed a model to explain how we cope with stress reactions. It is called the BOUNCE model because the behavioral decomposition taking place due to stress tense to get reflected in interpersonal reactions. The reactions are received & analyzed by the environment, which in turn, bounce back signals to the individuals to bring about a change either at the orgasmic level or at the response level. THE BOUNCE MODEL STRESSORS
BORNOUT STRESS SYNDROME (BOSS):Boss can lead to at least four types of stress related consequences such as, depletion of energy reverses, lowered resistance to illness, increased dissatisfaction and pessimism and increased absenteeism and inefficiency at work. Veningle and spradley have identified five distinct stages of BOSS. HONEYMOON STAGE:This stage can be describe as accounting for the euphoric feeling of encounter with the new job such as excitement, enthusiasm, challenge and pride. Dysfunctional features emerge in two ways first; the energy reverses are gradually depleted in coping with the demands of a challenging environment. Second, habits and strategies for coping with stress are formed in this stage which is often not useful in coping with later challenges. FUEL SHORTAGE STAGE:This stage can be identified as composed of the value feelings of loss, fatigue and confusion arising from the individual‟s overdraws on reverses of adaptation energy. Other symptoms are dissatisfaction, inefficiency, and fatigue and sleep disturbances leading to escape activate such as increased eating, drinking & smoking. CRISIS STAGE:When these feelings and physiological symptoms persist over period of time, the individual enters the stage of crisis. At this stage he develops “escape mentality” and feels oppressed. Heightened pessimism, selfdoubling tendencies, peptic ulcers, tension headaches, chronic backaches, blood pressure. HITTING THE WALL STAGE:This stage of BOSS is characterized by total exhaustion of one‟s adaptation energy, which may mark the end of one‟s professional career. While recovery from this stage elude may be resourceful to tide over the crises.
TYPES OF STRESS: It the stress for the day to day adaptability of man to his environment and results in the maintenance of internal steady state (homeostasis) it is know as neustress. For example, one produces neustress in order to breath, work. Stress is through of in negative terms. It is thought to be caused by something bad (for example the boss gives a formal reprimand for poor performance). It the stress response is unfavorable and potentially disease producing, this is known as distress. Constant worry in a susceptible individual can lead to ulcers. If the stress response is favorable and results is favorable and results in improvement in physical and / or mental functioning, it is called estruses. This is the positive, pleasant side of stress caused by stress caused by good things. For examples an employee is offered a job promotion at another I.
DEFINING STRESS AT WORK
Change in working practices, such as the introduction of new technology or the alternation of new technology or the alternative of targets, my cause stress, or stress may be built into an organizations‟ structure. Organizational stress can be measured by absenteeism and quality or work.
ORGANIZATIONAL STRESS:Stress affects as well as the individual within them. An organization with a high level of absenteeism, rapid staff turnover, deteriorating industrial and customer relations, a worsening safety record, or poor quality control is suffering from organizational stress. FOLLOWING THE PAT OF STRESS THROUGH IN ORGANIZATION:The below chart shows one example of the structure of a department in an organization, indicating typical causes of stress that may effect stress at certain levels in the structure, and particular.
Causes that are affecting individuals. Stress is contagious; anyone who is not performing well due to increases the amount of pressure on their colleagues, superiors, and subordinates. The cause may range from unclear or overlapping job descriptions, to lack of communication, to poor working conditions, including “sick building syndrome”.
POTENTIAL SOURCES OF STRESS:
There are three categories of potential stressors: Environmental factor Organization factor Individual factors Environmental factors: Just as environmental uncertainty influences the design of an organization. Changes in business cycle create economic uncertainties. Political uncertainties: If the political system in a country is implemented in an orderly manner, there would not be any type of stress. Technological uncertainties: New innovations can make an employee‟s skills and experiences obsolete in a very short period of time. Technological uncertainty therefore is a third type of environmental factor that can cause stress. Computers, robotics, automation and other forms of technological innovations are threat to many people and cause them stress. Organization factors: There are no storages of factors within the organization that can cause stress; pressures to avoid error or complete tasks in a limited time period, work overload are few examples. Task demands are factors related to a person‟s job. They include the design of the individual‟s job working conditions, and the physical work layout.
Role demands relate to pressures placed on a person as a function of the particular role he or she plays in the organization. Role overhead is experienced when the employees is expected to do more than time permits. Role ambiguity is created when role expectations are not clearly understood and employee is not sure what he / she is to do. Interpersonal demands are pressures created by other employees. Lack of social support from colleagues and poor. Interpersonal relationships can cause considerable stress, especially among employed with a high social need. Organizational structure defines the level of differentiation in the organization, the degree of rules and regulations, and where decisions are made. Excessive rules and lack of participation in decision that affect an employee are examples of structural variables that might be potential sources of stress. Potential sources Consequences
Organizational leadership represents the managerial style of the organizations senior executive. Some executive officers create a culture characterized by tension, fear, and anxiety. They establish unrealistic pressures to perform in the short-run impose excessively tight controls and routinely fire employees who don‟t measure up. This creates a fear in their hearts, which lead to stress. Organizations go through a cycle. They are established; they grow, become mature, and eventually decline. An organization‟s life stage - i.e. Where it is in four stage cycle-creates different problems and pressures for employees. The establishment and decline stage are particularly stressful. Individual factors: The typical individual only works about 40 hrs a week. The experience and problems that people encounter in those other 128 non-work hrs each week can spell over to the job. Family problems: National surveys consistently show that people hold family and discipline, troubles with children are examples of relationship problems that create stress for employee and that aren‟t at the front door when they arrive at work. Economic problems: Economic problems created by individuals overextending their financial resources are another set of personal troubles that can create stress for employees and distract their attention from their work.
CAUSES OF STRESS
Society the working world and daily life have changed almost beyond recognition in the past 50 years. These changes have contributed to a major increase in stress. Stress is caused from both outside & inside the organization & from groups that employees are influenced by & from employees themselves.
Stressors: The agents or demands that evoke the potential response are referred to as stressors. According to Syele a stressors is “Whatever produces stress with or without functioning hormonal or nervous systems”. Extra organizational stressors: Extra organizational stressors have a tremendous impact on job stress. Taking an open system perspective of an organization, it is clear that job stress is not just limited to things that happen inside the organization, during working hours. Extra organizational stressors include things such as social / technological change, the family, relocation, economic & financial conditions, race & class, residential or community conditions. Organizational stressors: Besides the potential stressors that occur outside the organization, there are also those associated with the organization itself. Although the organization is made up of groups & individuals, there are also more macrolevel dimensions unique to the organization that contains potential stressors.
MACRO-LEVEL ORGANIZATIONAL STRESSORS:
POLICIES Unfair, arbitrary performance reviews. Rotating works shifts. Inflexible rules. Unrealistic job descriptions. STRUCTURES Centralization; Lack of participation in decision making. Little opportunity for advancement. A great amount of formalization. Interdependence of departments. Line-Staff conflicts. PHYSICAL CONDITIONS Crowding & lack of privacy. Air pollution. Safety hazards. Inadequate lighting. Excessive, heat or cold. PROCESS Poor communication. Poor / inadequate feedback about performance. Inaccurate / ambiguous measurement of performance. Unfair control systems. Inadequate information.
GROUP STRESSORS: The group can also be a potential source of stress. Group stressors can be categorized into three areas. 1. Lack of groups cohesiveness:“Cohesiveness” or “togetherness” is a very important to employees, especially at the lower levels of the organizations. If the employee is denied the opportunity for this cohesiveness because of the task design, because the supervisor does things to prohibit or limit it, or because the other members of the group shut the person out, this can be very stress producing. 2. Lack of social support:Employees are greatly affected by the support of one or more member of a cohesive group. By sharing their problems & joys with others, they are much better off. It this type of social support is lacking for an individual, it can be very stressful.
Intra-Individual, interpersonal & inter-group conflict:Conflict is very closely conceptually or hostile acts between associated with in compatible or hostile acts between intra-individual dimensions, such as personal goals or motivational needs / values, between individuals within a group, & between groups.
INDIVIDUAL STRESSORS: In a sense, the other stressors (Extra organizational, organizational, & Group stressors) all eventually get down to the individual level. For example, role conflict, ambiguity, self-efficacy & psychological hardiness may all affect the level of stress someone experiences.
CONSEQUENCES OF STRESS
The effect of stress is closely linked to individual personality. The same level of stress affects different people in different ways & each person has different ways of coping. Recognizing these personality types means that more focused help can be given. Stress shows itself number of ways. For instance, individual who is experiencing high level of stress may develop high blood pressure, ulcers, irritability, difficulty in making routine decisions, loss of appetite, accident proneness, and the like. These can be subsumed under three categories: Individual consequences Organizational consequence Burnout Individual consequences: Individual consequences of stress are those, which affect the individual directly. Due to this the organization may suffer directly or indirectly, but it is the individual who has to pays for it. Individual consequences of stress are broadly divided into behavioral, psychological and medical. Behavioral consequences of stress are responses that may harm the person under stress or others. Behaviorally related stress symptoms include changes in productivity, turnover, as well as changes in eating habits, increased smoking or consumption of alcohol, paid speech, and sleep disorders. Psychological consequences of stress replace to an individual mental health and well-being from or felling depressed. Job related stress could cause dissatisfaction, infact it has most psychological effect on the individual and lead to tension, anxiety irritability, and boredom. Medical consequences of stress affect a person‟s well being. According to a research conducted, it revealed that stress could create changes in metabolism, increase heart and breathing rates, increases blood pressure bring out headaches and induce heart attacks.
Organizational consequences: Organizational consequences of stress have direct affect on the organizations. These include decline in performance, withdrawal and negative changes in attitude. Decline in performance can translate into poor quality work or a drop in productivity. Promotions and other organizational benefits get affected due to this. Withdrawal behavior also can result from stress. Significant form of withdrawal behavior is absenteeism. One main affect of employee stress is directly related to attitudes. Job satisfaction, morale and organizational commitment can all suffer, along with motivation to perform at higher levels. Burnout:A final consequence of stress has implementation for both people and organizations. Burnout is a general feeling of exhaustion that develops when an individual simultaneously experiences too much pressure and few sources of satisfaction.
Managing stress in the work place
Every responds to stress in a different way, it is only by understanding the nature of individual responses that you can start fighting stress yourself and others. Reduction or elimination of stress is necessary for psychological and physical well being of an individual. Efficiency in stress management enables the individual to deal or cope with the stressful situations instead of avoidance. Strategies like tie management, body-mind and mind-body relaxation exercise, seeking social support help individual improve their physical and mental resources to deal with stress successfully. Apart from helping employees adopt certain coping strategies to deal with stress providing them with the service of counselor is also useful. Many strategies have been developed to help manage stress in the work place. Some are strategies for individuals, and other is geared toward organizations. Individual coping strategies: Many strategies for helping individuals manage stress have been proposed.
Individual coping strategies are used when an employee under stress exhibits undesirable behavior on the jobs such as performance, strained relationship with co-workers, absenteeism alcoholism and the like. Employees under stress require help in overcoming its negative effects. The strategies used are:
Exercise:One method by which individual can manage their stress is through exercise. People who exercise regularly are known to less likely to have heart attacks than inactive people are. Research also has suggested that people who exercise regularly feel less tension and stress are more conflict and slow greater optimism. Relaxation:A related method individual can manage stress is relaxation. Copying with stress require adaptation. Proper relaxation is an effective way to adopt. Relaxation can take many forms. One way to relax is to take regular vacations; people can also relax while on the job (i.e. take regular breaks during their normal workday). A popular way of resting is to sit quietly with closed eyes for ten minutes every afternoon. Time management:Time management is an often recommended method for managing stress, the idea is that many daily pressures can be eased or eliminated if a person does a better job of managing time. One popular approach to time management is to make a list, every morning or the thins to be done that day. Then you group the items on the list into three categories: critical activities that must be performed, important activities that should be performed, and optimal or trivial things that can be delegated or postponed, then of more of the important things done every day.
ROLE MANAGEMENT:Some what related to time management in which the individual actively works to avoid overload, ambiguity and conflict.
SUPPORT GROUPS:This method of managing stress is to develop and maintain support group. A support group is simply a group of family member or friends with whom a person can spend time. Supportive family and friends can help people deal with normal stress on an ongoing basis. Support groups can be particularly useful during times of crisis.
BEHAVIORAL SELF-CONTROL:In ultimate analysis, effective management if stress presupposes exercise of self-control on the part of an employee. By consciously analyzing the cause and consequences of their own behavior, the employees can achieve self-control. They can further develop awareness of their own limits of tolerance and learn to anticipate their own responses to various stressful situations. The strategy involves increasing an individuals control over the situations rather than being solely controlled by them.
COGNITIVE THERAPY:The cognitive therapy techniques such as Elli‟s rational emotive model and Meichenbaum‟s cognitive strategy fir modification have been used as an individual strategy for reducing job stress. COUNSELING: Personal counseling help employees understand and appreciate a diverse workforce, the holistic approach adopted by the counselor gives him a comprehensive view of the employee as client and enable him to deal the issues of work related problems in a larger context with his awareness of the inter-relationship among problems in adjustment with self, other and environment and that a work concern will effect personal life and vice-versa, the employee would receive help regarding the problem in all life. One of the advantage of the individual interventions is the individual can use these skills to improve the quality of life in offer domains like family, social support and self, thus reducing the negative carry of experiences in these domains into the work life which might effect his occupation mental health.
ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGIES:The most effective way of managing stress calls for adopting stressors and prevent occurrence of potential stressors.‟ Two basic organizational strategies for helping employees manage stress are institutional programs and collateral programs.
Work Design Stress Management programs Work schedules Health promotions programs Culture Other programs Supervision Institutional programs:Institutional programs for managing stress are undertaken to established organizational mechanism for example, a properly designed job and word schedules can help ease stress. Shift work in particular can constantly have to adjust their sleep and relaxation patterns. Thus, the design of work schedules should be a focused of organizational efforts to reduce stress. The organization‟s culture can also used to help to manage stress. The organization should strive to foster a culture that reinforces a healthy mix of work and nonworking activities. Finally, supervision can play an important institutional role in overload. In managing stress. A supervisor is a potential manager source of overload. If made aware of their potential for assigning stressful amounts of work, supervisors can do a better job keeping workloads reasonable. COLLATERAL PROGRAMS: In addition to their institutional efforts aimed at reducing stress, many organizations are turning to collateral programs. A collateral stress program in an organizational program specifically created to help employees deal with stress. The organizations have adopted stress management programs, health promotion programs and other kinds of programs for this purpose.
Energy is important parameter in the overall economic development activity of any country. It has become synonymous with progress in all fields of activities. Its standard of living in the words of DAGLI is as follows it is said that the difference between a starving Indian peasant and a prosperous American farmer is that behind his elbow the India farmer has almost nothing while his American counterpart has thousands of hours power. This, it is energy, which is the dividing line between any substance economy and a highly developed economy. India is poor and American is rich because America consumes nearly 50 times as much energy as is consumed by India. Energy is at the heart of the modern industrial society. It could also be effective weapon in the battle against object poverty. There is a close correlation between energy consumption and level of economic development. Energy means “capacity of doing work”. There are various sources of energy but in India the important sources are coal, hydroelectricity. Oil and natural gas, nuclear fuels fire wood and animal wastes. Despites the development of various sources in the energy sector, the fact still remains that low last energy sources like fire wood, cattle drug and vegetable wastes account for as much at 45 percent of energy consumption in the country. Power development in India began in 1897 when a 200KW hydro station was first commissioned at Darjeeling, in 1899 a first steam station was set up in Calcutta with a total of 100kw. There after, a series of hydro and steam power station were commissioned. But the power development was not in a systematic and planned manner in the country. Therefore, in order to achieve the objective of promoting the co-ordination development and rationalization of generation, transmission and distribution of electricity on a regional basis throughout the country in the most efficient and economic way the state electricity board (SEBs) was constituted in the various states of the country under the provisions of the electricity (supply) act 1948. These SEBs, were to enjoy the monopoly in respect of generation, transmission and distribution of electricity in the country. After constitution of SEBs, there was phenomenal improvement in the development of installed capacity and power generation. The efficiency of working of power plant and their maintenance have been unsatisfactory as a result of which the power generating capacity already created could not have been fully utilized.
Power is the single factor, which changed the way of living. The National Thermal Power Corporation Limited, established on November 7th in 1975, has become the most important infrastructure input for improving the standard of living to meet the growing demand and to fulfill the needs of the country. Just in 29 years this company has grown to be the largest producer of power in the country. NTPC the NAVARATNA power giant today generates one fourth of the total power in the country and it is ranked 9th largest thermal power generating utility in the world. Keeping the significance of power supply in sight, NTPC has been chosen for the purpose of the study as it has many units under its control. Ramagundam Super Thermal Power Station (RSTPS) has been selected for the study. BRIEF HISTORY OF NTPC: “Power” The single factor which changed the way in which man lived for millions of years, has become the most important infrastructure input for improving the standard of living both directly as well as indirectly by way of contributing in the economic development to make available to the nation reliable & quality power in increasingly large quantities. NATIONAL THERMAL POWER CORPORATION LTD was formed in 1975; NTPC Ramagundam unit with approved capacity of 260MW and installed capacity of 21OOMW is the largest Thermal Power plant powering South India's growth. Ramagundam unit of NTPC credited with first ISP 14001 certified Super Thermal Power Station in our country. NTPC a front runner in the Indian Power sector in one of the larges & the best power utilities of the world, there by contributing of India's emergence as one of the world's leading economies. The World Bank, in its performance audit report on NTPC's projects observed that. "NTPC record in plant construction, cost containment & operating efficiency has been exceptional, while as an institution it has broken new ground in Organization & Management, successfully navigated the transition from constructions to operating company & generally coped quite well with the problems of rapid expansion". Two corporations The National Hydro Electric Power Corporation (NHPC) & National thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) were set in 1975 76 in the center sector as a step to achieve the objectives. The company
started functioning in March 1976 with the appointment of a chairman & Managing Director. LOCATION: The 2100 MW Ramagundam Super Thermal Project is located in Karimnagar District of Andhra Pradesh to the South of river Godavari. The project is linked to the south Godavari Coal field or the Singareni Collieries. NTPC ACTIVITIES: 1. Planning & Investigation of new sites, preparation of feasibility prospect report & the designing as well as engineering of power station. 2. NTPC also manages the 720 MW Badarpur Thermal Power Station in Delhi & 270 MW BALCO Captive power plant (M.P) 3. Operation & Maintenance of Power Stations. 4. Research & development in area related to power generation 5. NTPC also bagged a turnkey contract for the construction of21 Sub stations from Nepal electricity authority. 6. The R &D using of NT PC has been instrumental in enhancing the reliability of plant & equipment. OBJECTIVES OF NTPC: To add generating capacity with in prescribed time & cost. To operate & maintain power stations at high availability ensuring minimum cost of generation. It has planned massive growth to make itself a 40,000 MW company. To maintain the financial soundness of the company by managing the financial operations in accordance with good commercial utility practices. To function as a responsible corporate citizen & discharge social responsibility, in respect of environment protection and rehabilitation. The corporation will strive to utilize the ash produced at its stations to the maximum extent possible through production of ash bricks, building materials etc. To adopt appropriate human resources development policy leading to creation of team of motivated and competent power professionals. To introduce, assimilate & attain self sufficiency in technology, acquire expertise in utility mgt. Practices to disseminate knowledge essentially as a contribution to other constituents of the power sector in the country.
To develop R&D for achieving improved plant reliability To expand the consultancy operations & to participate in ventures abroad.
CORPORATE OBJECTIVES: To add generating capacity with in prescribed time & cost. To expand the constancy operations & to participate ventures aboard. To maintain the financial soundness of the company by m aging the financial operations in accordance with good commercial utility. To operate and maintain power stations at high availability ensuring minimum Cost of generation. To develop (R&D) for achieving improved plant reliability. To develop appropriate commercial policy leading to remunerative tariffs & minimum receivables. Implement strategic diversification in the areas of R&M. Hydro. LNG and Non conventional and eco-friendly fuels and explore new areas like transmission information technology etc. Promote consultancy. Make prudent acquisitions. Continuously develop competent human resources to match world standards. Be a responsible corporate citizen with thrust on environment protection rehabilitation and ash utilization. VISION OF NTPC: „„TO BE ONE OF THE WORLD'S LARGEST AND BEST POWER UTILITIES. POWER INDIA'S GROWTH‟‟ CORE VALUES (COMIT) Customer focus. Organizational pride. Mutual Respect and Trust. Initiative and speed total quality. Total Quality.
MISSION OF NTPC: Make available reliable, quality power in increasingly large quantities at appropriate tariffs, and ensure timely realization of revenues. Speedily plan and implement power projects, with contemporary technologies.
DISTRIBUTION OF POWER OF NTPC RAMAGUNDAM S.No State Distributed Capacity (MW) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Andhra Pradesh Tamil Nadu Karnataka Kerala Goa Pondicherry Unallocated 580 470 345 245 100 50 310 Percentage (%) 27.619 22.381 16.429 11.667 4.762 2.381 14.762
PERFORMANCES: NTPC stations & the NTPC manage Badarpur station has been accredited with “ISO 14001” for sound environment management system & practices. FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE: NTPC recorded a provisional turnover of Rs.30000 crores during 2004-05 as against Rs.25184 crores during 2003-04. The provisional net profit after tax for 2003-04 is Rs.4905 crores, as compared to Rs.5500 crores last year. The provisional Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) and Return on Net worth (RONW) are 12.31 % and 14.13% respectively for the year 2004-05. An interim dividend of Rs.400 Crores has been paid to the Government for 2003-04. The total out standings as on 31.10.2005 stood at Rs 26078.96 crores including a principal amount of Rs.16049.55 crores.
STATION HIGH LIGHTS: Record haulage of coal in single day of 78,720 MT on 29 June 1998 Asian record. Station recorded highest loading factor of 99.4% for the yr 1999 2000 Continuous run or VI unit (500MW) for 406 days, third best in the world. Ramagundam 500MW unit-7 (stage-III) has successfully completed one year of commercial operation on 25.03.06 without any tube leakage. The unit generated 3802.492 MUs @ a PLF of 86.81%. Considering the loss of generation of 297 MUs due to backing down, the deemed, PLF is 93.590/0. The unit also has achieved a continuous run of 97 days without tripping in the first year of operation itself. Ramagundam station achieved 47.94% (18.63 LMT) of Ash utilization during the financial year against the target of 47% (18.20 LMT). Ramagundam & Simhadri were recommended for commendation certificate for “storage commitment to Excel” by G1II. Ramagundam bagged “Innovative safety practices” award for the year 2005 from institution of Engineers. Ramagundam station bagged “Best Management award from Govt. of AI” fur the year 2004-05. NTPC – Ramagundam bagged golden shied for the financial years 2000-01, 2001-02, 2002-03 and 2003-04 for outstanding performance in power generation.
Installed capacity of NTPC Projects: Projects
NTPC OWNED COAL GAS/LIQ.FUEL ONED BY JVCs COAL
No. of Projects
Capacity power plant under JV with SAIL
Coal based projects: Sl.No. Coal Based 1. Singrauli 2. Kobra 3. Ramagundam 4. Farakka 5. Vidhyachal 6. Rihand 7. Kahalgoan 8. Dadri 9. Tacher Kaniha 10. Unchahar 11. Tacher Thermal 12. Simhadri 13. Tanda Total State Uttar Pradesh Chhattisgarh Andhra Pradesh West Bengal Madhya Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Bihar Uttar Pradesh Orissa Uttar Pradesh Orissa Andhra Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Commissioned Capacity 2,000 2,100 2,600 1,600 1,600 2,200 2,000 840 840 3,000 840 3,000 440 19,980
@ Capacity presently under implementation. Vindyachal 1000 MW Unchahar 210 MW Kahalgoan State II Phase I 1500 MW Phase II 1000 MW Gas Based Projects: 14. Anta Rajasthan 15. Auralya Uttar Pradesh 16. Kawas Gujarat 17. Dadri Uttar Pradesh 18. Jahanor-Gandhar Gujarat 19. Kayamkulam Kerala 20. Faridabad Haryana Total Grand total (Coal + Gas + JV) Capacity Power station managed State By NTPC 21. Badarpur Delhi
413 652 645 817 648 350 430 24,249 Installed (MW) 705
Sterling Performance of 2005-06:1. The company takes a new name “NTPC Limited” aligned to its new business plans. 2. The company market capitalization J11 crosses Rs. One trillion (Rs. 1,00,000 crore) and is one of the top three largest Indian companies in terms of market cap. 3. A highest ever generation of 170.88 BVs during 2005-06 registering an increase 017.40% over the generation of 159.11 BVs during 2004-05. 4. With 19.51% [including capacity of joint venture companies] share of the total installed capacity of the nation, NTPC contributed 27.68% electricity generated in the country during 2005-06. 5. Coal stations of NTPC achieved an operating availability of 89.95%. 6. Coal stations of NTPC recorded a PLF of 87.54%, which is the highest for any financial year since inception; Tilt PLF during previous year was 87.51%. 7. 100% realization for the third year in succession. 8. Provisional and un audited net sales of Rs. 2,59,928 million during the year 2005-06 as against Rs. 2,25,316 million for the year 2004-05. however, provisional and un audited Gross Revenue is Rs. 2,86,473 million during 2005-06 as against Rs. 2,55,460 million for the year 2004-05. 9. Provisional and un audited net profit after tax for the year 2005-06is Rs. 57,076 million a compared to Rs. 58, 070 million during the year 200405. 10. Total capacity added during the year four years of 10th plan period (2002-2006) increases to 4000 MW with another 500 MW getting added during the far company to 24,249 MW (including capacity of Joint venture companies). 11. Construction works on 9470 MW in progress. 12. Further projects with capacity of 3720 MW under bidding process. 13. Ratnagiri Gas and power supply Pvt Ltd formed \\ith NTPC having a stake of 28.33% for taking over and operating the Dabhol power project. 14. The Government allots 7 mort‟ coal mining blocks to NTPC for capacity use taking the total mines allotted to 8 with an expected output of 50 MT per annum. 15. A consortium comprising of NTPC and two other members allotted an exploration block in Arunachal Pradesh.
16. Capital expenditure incurred in 2005-06 on capital scheme was Rs. 71,879 million compared to Rs. 53,603 million in 2004-05 capital outlay for 2J0607 set at Rs. 1,13,250 million. 17. A USD 1 Bn medium Tern Note programme established. NTPC becomes the first Indian corporate since 1997 to make successful offering of 10 year fixed rate amounting to USD 300 million. 18. Standard & Poor‟s have revised outlook on the rating of the company from stable to positive while affirming the „BB+‟ issuer rating. 19. An interim divided o 20% for the financial year 2005-06 amounting to Rs. 16,491 million. 20. Government has assigned NTPC the consultant role to modernize and improve several plants across the country in the partnership „In Excellence‟ program of the government. 21. Collaborating the government in the Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojuna. 22. NTPC has also taken up Distribution Generation for rural electrification of remote villages through non-conventional energy sources. 23. Simhadri project receivers international project management award instituted by International project management Association (IMPA) NTPC is the only Asian Company that has received this award. 24. Ranked 3rd “Great Place to work for in India” by M/S Grow Talent and Business world 2005. 25. NTPC has achieved all the targets to be rated “Excellent” during 200506 for the nineteenth year since inception of the MOU system. NTPC ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS: The organizations design is one of the main factors, which ultimately determines the effectiveness of enterprises. The board of directors is the supreme policy making body, which give the direction to the activities of the organization. The head of this board is the chairman & managing director who is also the full time chief executive of the company. The members of this board are both full-time directors as well as senior level officers.
The basic divisions, which are accountable to CMD, Are: 1. Technical and Engineering division. 2. Corporate Commercial division. 3. Operation Services division. 4. Corporate Finance division. 5. Corporate Human resources division. 6. Corporate Projects Division. 7. Vigilance division. NTPC RAMAGUNDAM The foundation stone for RSTPS was laid on 14-11-1978 by Sri. Morarji Dessai then Prime minister of India. Ramagundam a vibrant 2600 MW station is a largest Thermal Power station in South India with three 200 MW & three MW and 1500 sets and also one of the largest in the country. Its emergency has put the Southern States one step ahead in their effort to meet their power requirement. Third in the series super Thermal Power Station set up by NTPC Ramagundam. It is situated in the interiors of Andhra Pradesh on the banks of Godavari River in Karimnagar District of Telangana, just across the old pitheads of Singareni Collieries. Ramagundam has been raising at this time & earned the proud destination of being the only station in the country to omission all the seven units ahead of schedule, constructed at a cost of Rs. 1702 crores, the station has been one of the largest recipient its of the world Bank. Its project implementation & financial control has earned a path from the World Bank “Ramagundam a be considered as the school for construction of Power projects”. The major external financing sources are IBRD, IDA & OPEC. Ramagundam generation proportion has achieved the Govt. of India meritorious productivity award as many four times. The beneficiaries of RSTOS are Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Goa and Pondicherry. The plant load factor for the year 2003-04 was 8.3% and it stood in the fourth place the NTPC station. To cater to the growing demand for power the seventh unit of 500 MW is being added. The station had required infrastructure facilities and the commitment of the employee. The project after completion will be the largest power station supplying power to the Southern Grid. The Honorable Union Minister of the Power Sri. Suresh Babu in the presence if Sri. N. Chandra Babu Naidu, Honorable Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh laid the foundation on 11th Jan 2002 and completed ahead of schedule.
COMPANY AT GLANCE Installed Capacity Unit Sizes Units Commissioned : : : 2600MW 3X200MW 4X500MW Unit- I October, 1983 Unit- II May, 1984 Unit- III December, 1984 Unit- IV June, 1988 Unit- V March, 1989 Unit- VI October, 1989 Unit- VII November 2000 2400 cks -400KV South Godavari Coal fields of Singareni Colleries Sri Ram Sagar Project Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala, Goa and Pondicherry. Rs. 3877.68 crores 8.6 million tones per annum 250 cusec (MGR) Merry-or-round system of 22.5 kms Indian Railway. 10,000 Acres.
Transmission System Source of Coal Water Sources Beneficiary States
: : : :
Approved investment Coal Consumption Water Consumption Coal Transportation Total Land
: : : : :
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Discuss the research design, research problems, important of the study, scope and significance of the study, source of data, questionnaire, sample design statistically techniques used, and objective of the study and limitations of the study. RESEARCH DESIGN: A research design is an arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research.
Purpose with economy in procedure. It is the conceptual structure within which research is conducted and it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. It includes an outline of what the researcher will do from within the hypothesis and its operational implications to the final analysis of data. The research design used for the study is descriptive design. Descriptive research design includes surveys and fact finding enquires of different kinds. The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs, as it exists at present. SOURCE OF DATA: The relevant data has been collected from the primary sources and secondary sources. The primary data is collected by a questionnaire from the employees. For this purpose of data collection, the questionnaire was circulated among the employees to collect information. The secondary data is collected by news paper company journals, magazines websites etc. QUESTIONNAIRE ADMINISTRATION: The questionnaire was prepared after counseling with the officer. Employee relations of the HR department of NTPC. The researcher prepared a set of questionnaire. A four point scale “strongly agree to strongly disagree” was used for this purpose. SAMPLE DESIGN: A sample of 150 respondents was taken using random sampling. The researcher contacted the executive personally and brief summary of the nature of the study and details in the questionnaire were narrated to them.
PERIOD OF STUDY: The present study had been undertaken for period of 6 weeks, in which it had divided into three stages as such. Stage I is of research problem and collection the literature of the topic chosen. Stage II is of analysis and interpretations by using different statistical tools, findings and recommendations. STATISTICAL TOOLS USED: For the purpose of present study percentage analysis was used. LIMITATIONS OF STUDY: 1. The sample size chosen is covered only a small portion of the whole population of NTPC, Ramagundam. 2. The study is confined to limited period i.e. Six weeks. 3. Accuracy of the study is purely based on the information as given by the respondents. 4. Data collected cannot be asserted to the free from crores, as the sample size restricted to the employees. HIERARCHY OF MANAGEMENT
How often do you say the word “I am busy or I am having hard time” At the work place? Options Very often often Rarely Very rarely Never Response ( % ) 9 26 28 25 12
30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Very Often Often Rarely Very Never rarely Response
Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (52%) rarely and very rarely says that they are busy at work place.
You think physical environment problem in the work place cause Stress? ( Temperature, lighting, gases, dust ) Options Strongly agree Agree Cannot say Disagree Strongly disagree Response ( % ) 26 36 16 16 6
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly agree Agree Cannot Disagree Strongly say disagree
Interpretation: Opinion of study reveal that, majority of the respondents (62%) agree with physical environment (Temperature, Lighting, Gases and Dust) causes Stress.
You feel time pressure to complete work? Options Strongly agree Agree Cannot say Disagree Strongly disagree Response ( % ) 10 41 13 28 8
45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly agree Agree Cannot say Disagree Strongly disagree
Interpretation: The finally yet importantly, the question asked about the employees, majority of the employees (51%) of the NTPC agree and strongly agree with above statement.
Do you feel lack of co-operation in office? Options Very often often Rarely Very rarely Never
45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly agree Agree Cannot Disagree Strongly say disagree
Response ( % ) 9 26 16 17 32
Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (68%) faced lack of co-operation in office remaining (32%) of employees never faced lack of co-operation in organization.
Family problems cause stress? Options Strongly agree Agree Cannot say Disagree Strongly disagree Response ( % ) 19 41 11 19 10
45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly agree Agree Cannot say Disagree Strongly disagree
Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (60%) strongly agree and agree with family problems causes stress.
Do you have problem of BP / sugar / any other health problems? Options Very often often Rarely Very rarely Never Response ( % ) 5 17 19 12 47
50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Very Often Often Rarely Very Never rarely
Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (47%) said don‟t love health problems like BP, sugar.
Physical exercise & yoga reduce the stress? Options Strongly agree Agree Cannot say Disagree Strongly disagree
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly agree Agree Cannot Disagree Strongly say disagree
Response ( % ) 39 36 11 9 5
Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (75%) agree with above statement that by doing physical exercise & yoga stress will be reduced.
Meditation & prayer to reduce the stress? Options Strongly agree Agree Cannot say Disagree Strongly disagree
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly Agree agree Cannot Disagree Strongly say disagree
Response ( % ) 40 37 14 6 3
Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (77%) agree with above statement that meditation & prayer to reduce the stress.
Lack of communication causes stress? Options Strongly agree Agree Cannot say Disagree Strongly disagree Response ( % ) 13 55 17 9 6
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Strongly agree Agree Cannot Disagree Strongly say disagree
Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (68%) agree with above statement i.e. lack of communication causes stress.
Spending time with your family reduces stress? Options Strongly agree Agree Cannot say Disagree Strongly disagree
45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly agree Agree Cannot Disagree Strongly say disagree
Response ( % ) 35 44 9 8 4
Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (79%) agree with above statement i.e. appending more time with family reduces stress.
Improving working conditions, reduces the stress? Options Strongly agree Agree Cannot say Disagree Strongly disagree
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Strongly agree Agree Cannot say Disagree Strongly disagree
Response ( % ) 26 56 8 7 3
Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (82%) Cannot agree with improving working conditions in office say will be stress Disagree reduce.
Strongly agree Agree
Rational allocation of work reduces the stress? Options Strongly agree Agree Cannot say Disagree Strongly disagree
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Strongly agree Agree Cannot Disagree Strongly say disagree
Response ( % ) 11 55 20 10 4
Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (66%) agree with rational allocation of work reduces the stress.
Financial motivations reduce the stress? Options Strongly agree Agree Cannot say Disagree Strongly disagree
45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly agree Agree Cannot say Disagree Strongly disagree
Response ( % ) 12 43 32 10 3
Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (55%) agree with above statement i.e. financial motivation reduces the stress.
Training & Development programs help to cope-up with new technology reduces the stress? Options Strongly agree Agree Cannot say Disagree Strongly disagree
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Strongly agree Agree Cannot Disagree Strongly say disagree
Response ( % ) 16 52 21 8 3
Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (68%) agree with above statement i.e. training and development with changes.
Need for family counseling is required? Options Strongly agree Agree Cannot say Disagree Strongly disagree
30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly agree Agree Cannot Disagree Strongly say disagree
Response ( % ) 11 29 28 19 13
Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (40%) agreed that family counseling is needed to plan and over come the stress.
Relaxation reduces the stress? Options Strongly agree Agree Cannot say Disagree Strongly disagree Response ( % ) 32 48 13 6 1
50 40 30 20 10 0 Strongly agree Agree Cannot say
Disagree Strongly disagree
Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (80%) agree with above statement i.e. relaxation (holydays, leaves, family, tours etc.) reduces stress.
Following safety precautions reduces the stress? Options Strongly agree Agree Cannot say Disagree Strongly disagree
25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly agree Agree Cannot Disagree Strongly say disagree
Response ( % ) 15 50 21 10 4
Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (65%) agree with above statement i.e. following safety precautions stress is reduced.
FINDINGS & SUGGESTIONS
The finding of the present revealed the following. Most of the respondent fall under law stress category. Thee is in significance relationship between stress & demography factors i.e. age, experience & designation. The following dimensions of personal policies & practices of the organization have contributed to stress among employees. Respondents who fall under the E2A & E5 grade are more stressed in comparison with the other grade. The organization falls a very tall structure of stress among hierarchy & this is one of the reasons for employees being stressed. There is no significancant difference of stress among employees working in plant & other departments. The employees working in the plat gave a positive response in answering the questionnaire
A Small percentage of the employees did have high stress. Person facing stress at the organizational level of lot of psychological problems in the form of decreased motivation, absenteeism low productivity targets not being achieving etc. as a reedy for the above said employees facing stress are advised to attend stress management courses which will help them to build coping strategies and cause out their stress. The stress management cause comprise of a package program consisting of: Relaxation Positive outlook towards works / responsibilities Self analysis through personality type testes Inter personal skill development Protection yoga cum meditation Time management Since T & D job related factors, performance appraisal & job satisfaction were perceived stressful by the employees, the employees should be counseled regarded the matter At the individual level the employees could practice a relaxing holiday (where in quality time is spent with the family) every fortnight or mouth
Realize excessive use of tea / coffee cigarette is not answer to stress Try to get 6-7 hrs of continuous sleep per day
CONCLUSION: The present study was conducted at NTPC in Ramagundam. The aim was to find the stress levels, personality type of the employees. This was done using a detailed questionnaire. The study reveled that fall under low stress category only a small percentage is highly stressed & needed prevailing in the organization to some extent. At the end of the study, we can conclude that through there are signs of stress among the employees & such stress is affecting their behaviors, it can be controlled & reduced effectively. This can be done by giving counseling & incorporating the suggestions given here in at individual & organization level.
How often do you say the word “I am busy or I am having hard time” At the work place? Very often ( ) Often ( ) Rarely ( ) Very rarely ( ) Never ( ) You think physical environment problem in the work place cause Stress? (Temperature, lighting, gases, dust) Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( ) You feel time pressure to complete work? Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( ) Do you feel lack of co-operation in office? Very often ( ) Often ( ) Rarely ( ) Very rarely ( ) Never ( ) Family problems cause stress? Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( ) Do you have problem of BP / sugar / any other health problems? Very often ( ) Often ( ) Rarely ( ) Very rarely ( ) Never ( ) Physical exercise & yoga reduce the stress? Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( ) Meditation & prayer to reduce the stress? Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( ) Lack of communication causes stress? Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( )
Spending time with your family reduces stress? Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( ) Improving working conditions, reduces the stress? Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( ) Rational allocation of work reduces the stress? Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( ) Financial motivations reduce the stress? Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( ) Training & Development programs help to cope-up with new technology reduces the stress? Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( ) Need for family counseling is required? Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( ) Relaxation reduces the stress? Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( ) Following safety precautions reduces the stress? Strongly agree ( ) Agree ( ) Cannot say ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly disagree ( ) Please offer suggestions if any for better management of work stress in NTPC.
Books for reference: Fred Luthans : “Organization Behavior” Mc Graw Hill International Edition. “Organization Behavior concept Controversies Applications” “A celebration called Life” Unique consultants (P) Ltd. “The management journal of power professionals” NTPC Articles. – &
Stephen P. Robin
V. Ashwatha Ramaiah
V. K. Jain