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					A                                                                          accelerator

                                          Aa

A = ampere: Ñôn vò ño cöôøng ñoä                      abutment n. (a) part which
   doøng ñieän                                    another part comes up against so
AA = automotive association: Hieäp                that its motion is stopped; a more
   hoäi oâtoâ                                     formal word for ‘stop’: Ñieåm
AAA      =     american      automotive           döøng
   association: Hieäp hoäi oâtoâ nöôùc            (b) making of contact, especially
   Myõ                                            by gear teeth: Choã tieáp xuùc
A-arm n. US = wishbone: Caùnh tay                     abutting edge n. edge of a
   ñoøn hình chöõ A                               panel where it joins another:
abrasion      n. removal of surface               Goùc noái
   material from any solid, through                  AC = alternating current: Doøng
   friction action: Söï maøi moøn                 ñieän xoay chieàu
      abrasive n. substance used for           A/C = air-conditioning: Maùy ñieàu hoøa
   the removal of matter: Chaát lieäu             khoâng khí
   maøi moøn                                   ACC = accelerate (used mostly on
       abrasive cleaner = cleaner                 cruise control): Taêng toác (nuùt
   which removes a certain amount                 trong heä thoáng ga töï ñoäng)
   of the surface: Maùy maøi                          accelerate v. to go faster or
      abrasive disc = rotating disc of            make faster: Taêng toác
   sanding or grinding tool: Ñóa ñaù                 accelerated test procedure =
   maøi                                           test which has been made quicker,
      abrasive paper = paper with a               by leaving out or shortening
   rough surface for the removal of               certain items: Qui trình kieåm tra
   matter: Giaáy nhaùm                            nhanh (bôùt moät soá coâng ñoaïn)
ABS = anti-lock braking system: Heä                      accelerating      agent       =
   thoáng phanh choáng haõm cöùng                 accelerator: Chaân ga, baøn ñaïp ga
      ABS override button = button                    acceleration n. increase of
   which cuts out the anti-lock                   speed: Söï taêng toác
   braking system, for drivers who                      sluggish acceleration =
   want to take threshold braking into            increase speed slowly: Söï taêng
   their own hands: Nuùt ngaét heä                toác chaäm chaïp
   thoáng ABS                                          acceleration enrichment =
      ABS relay valve = electrically              providing a richer fuel/air mixture
   operated valve controlling the air             is needed to provide extra power
   pressure in an ABS system: Van                 and smooth response: Söï laøm
   rôle ABS                                       giaøu hoãn hôïp hoaø khí ñeå taêng toác
abut v. to make contact, especially of                accelerator n. (a) chemical
   gear teeth: Tieáp xuùc                         agent which makes a reaction
                                                  happen more quickly, for instance



                                          1
    in plastics production an additive          which promotes the hardening
accelerator pump                                          Ackermann steering

    process of resins: Taùc nhaân laøm      accident damage n. damage to the
    taêng nhanh hoùa hoïc                       body-work of a vehicle resulting
    (b) pedal which controls the                from an accident: Söï hö hoûng
    opening of the throttle: Baøn ñaïp          thaân xe do tai naïn.
    ga                                      accumulator n. (a) storage battery,
         depress the accelerator or             especially for an electrically
    step on the accelerator = cause             driven vehicle: Bình aéc quy
    the throttle to open to make the            (b) pressure reservoir for a
    vehicle go faster : Nhaán ga, ñaïp          suspension system with automatic
    ga                                          leveling: Tích aùp cho heä thoáng
        ease up on the accelerator =            treo töï ñoäng
    reduce the throttle opening to go           (c) part of a hydraulic system
    less fast: Giaûm ga                         which is charged by the fluid
          take one’s foot off the               pump, absorbs fluctuating fluid
    accelerator = close the throttle in         delivery, stores fluid at pressure,
    order to slow down: Buoâng chaân            and can provide a rapid flow of
    ga                                          fluid sure pressure: Boä tích aùp
    (NOTE: also called accelerator          accumulator battery n. = storage
    pedal or throttle pedal)                    battery: Bình aéc quy
       accelerator pump = carburetor               accumulator-drier n. device
    device that improves acceleration           on the low side of an air-
    by injecting an additional amount           conditioning system, usually at the
    of fuel when the accelerator pedal          evaporator outlet on the bulk-head
    is depressed: Bôm taêng toác                which store excess refrigerant; it
        acceptance test n. test of a            consists of a tank, a filter, a drying
    part or assembly for acceptable             agent and a vapour return tube:
    quality: Kieåm tra chaát löôïng chi         Bình chöùa vaø loïc gas (laïnh)
    tieát                                          accumulator system n.system
        access n. means of reaching             in an automatic transmission
    something: Söï tieán ñeán, söï daân         comprising         a        hydraulic
    leân.                                       accumulator controlled by a valve,
         access hole = hole through             and a running time throttle: Heä
    which something can be reach,               thoáng tích aùp (hoäp soá)
    also a hole through which sealant                accumulator valve n.valve
    is injected into cavities: Loã thoâng       controlling hydraulic accumulator:
accessories n. additional items of              Van tích aùp
    equipment which can be fitted to a      AC generator n. = ALTERNATOR:
    vehicle or used with a basic tool:          Maùy phaùt xoay chieàu
    Ñoà phuï tuøng                              acid rain       n. rain containing
                                                pollutants from industrial waste
                                                and vehicle exhaust              gases
   dissolved in       the atmosphere:          Ackermann steering      n. from of
   Möa axit                                       double-pivot steering in which
Ackermann angle                                                  active suspension

    the front wheels turn on kingpins              granular,         or     powdered,
    and are connected by inclined                  characterized by fine pores
    steering arms and a track rod, so              resulting in a very large surface
    arranged angle than the outer: Heä             area per unit volume, hence able
    thoáng laùi kieåu Ackermann                    to absorb gases, fluids, etc.: Than
       Ackermann angle = toe-out or                hoaït tính
    toe-in with the wheels in the                      activated carbon canister =
    straight-ahead position: Goùc ñaët             filter which absorbs fuel vapours
    baùnh xe kieåu Ackermann                       from the tank and fuel system
         Ackermann axle = fixed-                   when the engine is not running,
    position, steerable front axle                 and when the engine running is
    within two pivot points, one on                regenerated by purging the
    each end of the axle, with vertical            charcoal bed with hot air, using
    kingpin: Truïc Ackermann                       engine vacuum to draw the
across corners = A/C: Ngaõ tö                      released vapours into the intake
    across flats = A/F: Maët caét                  air stream: Baàu loïc hôi xaêng
    ngang                                          baèng than hoaït tính
acrylate n. polymer, such as ethyl             activated charcoal n. = activated
    acrylate,      used     in    rubber           carbon: Than hoaït tính
    toughening: Loaïi nhöïa daùn cao                    activated charcoal trap =
    su                                             activated carbon canister: Baàu loïc
acrylic (paint) n. paint with pigments             than hoaït tính
    mixed in a solution based on                        activator       n. material or
    acrylic resin: Sôn acrylic                     mixture added to an accelerated
        acrylic finish = finish using              curing system to enhance the
    acrylic paints, often a two-pack               effect of the vulcanization
    finish: Sôn boùng baèng sôn acrylic            accelerator in tyre production:
          acrylic      resin    =    any           Phuï gia ñaåy nhanh quaù trình löu
    thermoplastic synthetic polymer                hoaù (saûn xuaát voû xe)
    made by the polymerization of                      activated braking time        n.
    acrylic derivatives such as acrylic            time required to come to a
    acid,      ethyl     acrylate    and           standstill after the brakes have
    methacrylate, used for adhesives,              been applied, i.e not including the
    protective coatings, and finishes:             driver’s reaction time: Thôøi gian
    Nhöïa acrylic (duøng cho sôn loùt              kích hoaït phanh
    vaø sôn boùng)                                     active noise control (system)
ACT = air charge temperature: Nhieät               n. = anti-noise system: Heä thoáng
    ñoä khoâng khí naïp                            choáng tieáng oàn
activated carbon n. highly porous                       active safety       n. active
    carbon, usually in pellet from,                measures taken to prevent


                                           3
    accidents, such as more powerful                 active suspension n. suspension
    brakes and safer handling
    characteristics: An toaøn chuû ñoäng
actuate                                                           adjustable spanner

    system           which          uses           properties, such as upper cylinder
    microprocessors         to control             lubricant: Chaát phuï gia
    electronically adjustable shock            adhere v. to remain attached or stick
    absorbers            which     adapt           (to something): Baùm chaët, dính
    automatically to the road surface                 adhesion n. ability to remain
    and load: Heä thoáng treo chuû                 attached        (to     something),
    ñoäng                                          especially the ability of a tyre to
actuate v. to bring a part into                    grip the road surface: Söï baùm, ñoä
    operation: Khôûi ñoäng, ñöa vaøo               baùm
    hoaït ñoäng                                       adhesive n. substance used to
       an actuating lever or switch =              join together two or more solids so
    a lever or switch brings a part into           that they from a single piece, such
    operation: Coâng taéc (caàn) khôûi             as resins, formaldehyde, glue,
    ñoäng                                          cement, etc.: Chaát keát dính
        actuator      n. controlling or                adhesive bonding = joining
    operating device, e.g. a vacuum                together of two or more solids by
    mechanism for opening flaps in air             the use of glue, cement, or other
    conditioning systems: Cô caáu                  adhesives: Söï daùn
    chaáp haønh                                        adhesive tape = sticky tape
         actuator arm          = arm               usually with one shiny side and
    connecting the diaphragm to the                one side coated with adhesive:
    contact breaker platform in a                  Baêng keo
    vacuum advance mechanism: Caàn                    adhesive weight = a small lead
    daãn ñoäng (ñaùnh löûa sôùm aùp                weight used to balance a wheel:
    thaáp)                                         Troïng löôïng chì baám vaøo baùnh
adapter or adaptor n. device for                   xe ñeå caân baèng
    connecting two parts of different          adiabatic     a.    niether losing nor
    sizes, especially an accessory for             gaining heat, therefore thermally
    joining a socket and a drive                   efficient: Ñoaïn nhieät
    handle with different sizes drives:                adiabatic engine = engine
    OÁng noái, caây noái                           which makes the best use of
        adapter plate = plate which                combustion heat by reducing heat
    allows the mounting of a different             loss due to coolant: Ñoäng cô ñoaïn
    part from the original: Ñóa tieáp              nhieät
    hôïp, ñóa noái                             adjust v. to put (something) into the
additive n. substance added to fuel or             correct position: Ñieàu chænh
    engine oil to enhance its                          adjust the ignition timing =
    performance and to improve its                 cause the spark to occur at the



                                           4
    correct moment: Ñieàu chænh thôøi                 adjustable shock absorber =
    ñieåm ñaùnh löûa                               shock absorber which can be
        adjustable a. that can be                  made harder or softer: Boä giaûm
    changed or made different: Coù
    theå ñieàu chænh
adjuster spanner                                                       advance curve

    chaán coù theå ñieàu chænh ñöôïc               or reduce toe-out: Thanh ñieàu
        adjustable spanner = open–                 chænh goùc chuïm baùnh xe
    end spanner with a single smooth                  adjustment n. (a) altering or
    jaw that can be adjusted to fit nuts           correcting     the     position   of
    and bolts of different sizes: Moû              something or the position or valve
    leách                                          achieved: Söï ñieàu chænh
       adjuster n. device for moving               (b) possibility of altering or
    something into a different or the              correcting     the     position   of
    correct position: Thieát bò ñieàu              something; clearance or play:
    chænh (vò trí)                                 Khaû naêng thay ñoåi hoaëc hieäu
        seat adjuster = mechanism for              chænh vò trí cuûa moät vaät
    moving a seat backwards and                       there is no adjustment left =
    forwards: Cô caáu ñieàu chænh                  the adjusting screw or nut is at the
    khoaûng caùch gheá ngoài                       end of its travel: Chænh heát côõ
        adjuster cam = cam in a drum                 to take up the adjustment = to
    brake which acts on the shoes to               obtain the correct position, usually
    take up the adjustment, i.e. bring             by reducing a clearance: Hieäu
    the shoes closer to the drum: Cam              chænh ñuùng (khe hôû)
    chænh (phanh troáng)                       a-drier n. paint drier with heating
       adjusting gauge n. tool such as             elements below the stoving line:
    a feeler gauge used to check                   Boä saáy sôn
    distances and clearances between           adsorption n. bonding of a solid with
    parts for adjustment purposes:                 a gas or vapour which touches its
    Thieát bò ño khe hôû (laù côõ)                 surface: Söï huùt baùm
         adjusting screw = screw for               (NOTE: opposite is desorption)
    altering e.g. the idling speed of                 adsorption canister         n. =
    the engine or for brake                        ACTIVATED                  CARBON
    adjustment: Vít ñieàu chænh caàm               CANISTER: Baàu huùt hôi xaêng
    chöøng                                     advance 1 v. to cause (something) to
         adjusting shim = shim for                 occur earlier: Tröôùc, sôùm
    reducing clearances especially in                  to advance the spark or
    adjusting valve tappets: Shim                  ignition or timing = to cause the
    (mieáng cheâm) ñieàu chænh                     spark and therefore combustion to
    (suùpaùp)                                      occur earlier: Ñaùnh löûa sôùm .
        adjusting sleeve = sleeve on               2 n. extent to which the ignition
    the end of the tie rod which                   spark is made to occur earlier:
    shortens or lengthens it to increase           Goùc ñaùnh löûa sôùm


                                           5
        the ignition needs more                        advance curve      n. curve
   advance = the spark is occurring                showing how the amount of
   too late: Caàn ñaùnh löûa sôùm                  ignition advance increase with the
   (NOTE: opposite is retard)
      advance capsule n. = vacuum
   advance (unit): Boä ñaùnh löûa sôùm
   chaân khoâng
advance weight                                                 after-start enrichment

    inlet manifold: Ñöôøng ñaëc tính                power: Nhöõng chieác xe hôi coù
    ñaùnh löûa sôùm sôùm                            hình daùng khí ñoäng hoïc keùm laøm
          the ignition is (over-)                   laõng phí coâng suaát
    advanced = the spark is occurring               (NOTE: sense (a) is singular,
    (too) early: Ñaùnh löûa quaù sôùm               sense (b) is plural)
    (NOTE: opposite is retard)                 aerofoil n. wing-like structure, used
         advance weight n. either of               on racing cars to achieve negative
    the two weights in a centrifugal               lift or down-force: Caùnh giaûm löïc
    advance mechanism: Quaû vaêng                   naâng xe ñua
    cuûa cô caáu ñaùnh löûa sôùm ly taâm       A/F = air/fuel: Tæ soá giöõa gioù vaø
aeration n. foaming due to the                      nhieân lieäu
    introduction of air into hydraulic                       Three-way          catalytic
    fluid or the oil of a shock                     converters demand close a/f
    absorber: Söï taïo boït (giaûm xoùc)            control = the air/fuel mixture has
aerial     n.    long metal tube for                to be carefully controlled when
    receiving radio signals: Aênten                 using        three-way       catalytic
    (NOTE: US English is antenna)                   converters: Boä xuùc taùc TWC yeâu
aerodynamic a. 1 relating to the                    caàu hoaït ñoäng trong cheá ñoä ñieàu
    flow of air round a moving body:                khieån kín hoãn hôïp hoøa khí
    Khí ñoäng löïc thaân xe                    A/F (dimension) n. width across the
    2 (of a car, bodywork, etc .)                   flats (of a hexagon, square drive,
    streamlined, offering low wind                  etc.): Chieàu roäng maët caét ngang.
    resistance: Hình daùng khí ñoäng           A-frame n. a-shape chassis frame,
    löïc                                            typically of a trailer or caravan:
        aerodynamics n. (a) branch                  Khung xe hình chöõ A
    of dynamics dealing with the               afterburning n. completion of the
    motion of air and with the forces               combustion of incompletely burnt
    acting on bodies moving through                 mixture in the exhaust system: Söï
    the air: Khí ñoäng löïc hoïc                    chaùy tieáp.
    (b) aerodynamic properties: Ñaëc                    CO and HC levels can be
    ñieåm khí ñoäng löïc hoïc                       reduced by afterburning =
         The poor aerodynamic of                    emissions of carbon monoxide and
    early cars resulted in wastage of               hydrocarbons can be reduced by
    power = early cars had too much                 burning        incompletely     burnt
    wind resistance which wasted


                                           6
    mixture: Möùc CO vaø HC coù theå               systems,    regulated     by     the
    giaûm nhôø chaùy tieáp                         electronic control unit ; it is
       aftercooler n. heat exchanger               reduced either at a fixed rate or as
    in a diesel engine which cools the             engine temperature increases: Sö
    intake of air before it enters the
    cylinders: Boä giaûi nhieät khoâng
    khí naïp.
after-start     enrichment           n.
    enrichment of the air/fuel mixture
    on starting the engine, especially
    in electronic fuel injection
aged catalyst                                                        air-conditioning

    laøm ñaäm hoãn hôïp sau khi khôûi          aimer n. tool for aiming headlights:
    ñoäng                                          Duïng cuï caân ñeøn ñaàu
aged catalyst n. catalyst which has            aiming n. adjusting the direction of
    been used: Xuùc taùc ñaõ qua söû               headlight beams: Söï caân ñeøn
    duïng                                          ñaàu.
    (NOTE:       opposite     is   fresh       air n. mixture of gases forming the
    catalyst)                                      atmosphere: Khoâng khí
       age-hardening n. hardening of                   put some air in the tyres =
    aluminium or metal alloys as a                 inflate the tyres: Bôm baùnh xe.
    result of ageing: Söï ñoâng cöùng                 Here is too much air in the
         ageing         n. change of               mixture = the mixture is too
    characteristics in some metal after            weak: Hoãn hôïp loaõng.
    heat treatment or cold working:            air bag n. bag in the fascia region
    Söï thay ñoåi tính chaát khi xöû lí            which inflates on impact and thus
    nhieät                                         saves the occupants of the vehicle
aggressive agent or medium            n.           from injury caused by being
    corrosive material which attacks               thrown against the interior
    metals: Taùc nhaân (moâi tröôøng)              structure in a collision: Tuùi khí.
    aên moøn kim loaïi                                air bag module or unit = the air
agitation cup n. type of paint pot for             bag plus inflator and cover: Cuïm
    spray guns fitted with an integral             tuùi khí
    agitator: Coác troän (sôn)                          air bag restraint system =
       agitator n. device for mixing               system using an air bag to restrain
    paint by shaking: Bình troän sôn               occupants in a collision: Heä thoáng
    baèng caùch laéc                               baûo veä baèng tuùi khí
a.h. = AMPERE-HOUR                                 (NOTE: this is also called a
AH rim n. rim design able to run                   passive restraint system)
    with a flat tyre and with increased        air bellows n. rubber vessel or sleeve
    safety in case of sudden air loss:             filled with compressed gas or to
    Nieàng xe kieåu AH (coù theå chaïy             act as a compression spring in air
    khi xì voû)                                    suspensions: Giaûm chaán khí


                                           7
         air brake          n.     brake                air compressor n. device for
    mechanism in which compressed                   supplying compressed air, e.g. for
    air acting on a piston or diaphragm             paint spraying or in an air brake
    is used to apply the brakes; mainly             system: Maùy neùn khí
    found in commercial vehicles:                       air-conditioning n. system of
    Phanh hôi                                       filtering air and keeping it at a
       air charge temperature (act)                 desirable      temperature    and
    n. temperature of the air sucked                humidity level: Maùy ñieàu hoaø
    into the carburettor or          fuel           khoâng khí
    injection system: Nhieät ñoä khoâng
    khí naïp.
         air cleaner       n. = AIR
    FILTER: Loïc gioù
air-cooled                                                                air induction

air-cooled a. cooled by a current                    dirt and dust in the air drawn into
    of air as opposed to water, etc.:                the engine: Maøng loïc gioù
    Laøm maùt baèng khí                                 airflow n. flow of air past a
    (NOTE: opposite is liquid-cooled)                moving object, especially a
        air correction jet n. jet                    vehicle, or through a duct: Löu
    admitting air into the emulsion                  löôïng khoâng khí
    tube of a carburettor: Giclô khoâng                 airflow sensor = sensor in an
    khí (gioù)                                       electronically controlled fuel
       air cushion n. = AIR BAG:                     injection system which has a flat
    Tuùi khí                                         that is deflected by the intake air
       air dam n. spoiler under the                  and thus governs the amount of
    front bumper to reduce wind                      fuel delivered; it also incorporates
    resistance: Taám giaûm löïc caûn gioù            a temperature sensor: Caûm bieán
       air deflector n. US = AIR                     löu löôïng khoâng khí
    SHIELD: Taám chaén gioù                     air/fuel (A/F) a. relating to the
        air duct      n. any passage                  combination of air and fuel in the
    conducting air, particularly for                 charge for combustion: Tæ soá gioù
    heating and ventilation: OÁng daãn               vaø nhieân lieäu
    khoâng khí (heä thoáng ñieàu hoøa)                  a lean or rich air/ fuel mixture
       air filter n. device for filtering            = a mixture containing little or a
    dust and dirt out of the air drawn               lot of fuel in relation to air: Moät
    into the carburettor or fuel                     hoãn hôïp hoøa khí giaøu hoaëc
    injection system through the air                 ngheøo.
    intake: Loïc gioù                                   variations in the air/ fuel ratio
       air filter element = element of               = variations in the amount of fuel
    absorbent paper or felt inserted                 in relation to air,        more air
    into the air filter, which catches               resulting in a lean or weak
                                                     mixture, less air in a rich mixture:


                                            8
     Söï thay ñoåi cuûa tæ soá hoãn hôïp             pressure: Duïng cuï ñoùng suùpaùp
     hoøa khí                                        baèng khí neùn
air gulp system n. system in vehicles            air horn n. motor horn in which a
     with secondary air injection or                 blast of compressed air through a
     induction, which prevents an over-              reed: Keøn hôi.
     rich mixture being supplied to the                  air induction or injection
     inlet        manifold          during           system n. secondary air system
     deceleration, resulting in unburnt              without air pump, using aspirator
     fuel being carried over to the hot              valves and the pulse air principle
     exhaust system where it cause                   to introduce fresh air into the
     uncontrolled detonations:         Heä           exhaust system to promote
     thoáng caáp gioù khi giaûm toác.                afterburning      of      unburnt
air hold fitting n. special tool for                 hydrocarbons      and      carbon
     work on OHV-engine used to                      monoxide: Heä thoáng bôm khoâng
     keep valves closes by mean of air
air injection manifold                                                        air silencer

     khí vaøo oáng thaûi                              (b) compressed air supply for
        air injection manifold = duct                 inflating tyres, driving compressed
     inside or a tube outside the                     air tools, etc.: Bôm baùnh xe
     cylinder head feeling secondary                      air micrometer n. precision
     air into the exhaust ports: Ñöôøng               control for adjusting the air
     oáng daãn khoâng khí vaøo oáng thaûi.            quantity delivered by a spray gun:
        air intake n. opening through                 Boä chænh gioù trong suùng phun
     which air enters, especially for the                 air outlet n. opening from
     carburetor or fuel injection                     which air exits, especially for
     system, for the radiator or for the              ventilation and demiting: Cöûa
     heating and ventilating system:                  thoâng gioù
     Ñöôøng daãn khoâng khí                               air pressure       n. pressure
         airless spraying n. spraying                 exerted by air, e.g. on the
     process in which the coating                     diaphragm of a brake servo: Aùp
     material is not atomized by a                    löïc khoâng khí (leân maøng)
     stream of air, but is subjected to          air ratio n. air/air ratio, i.e. the ratio
     high pressure, which cause it to                 of the actual intake air volume to
     pass through a jet or nozzle                     the air volume theoretically
     allowing it to be atomized and                   needed for complete combustion
     projected: Phun sôn baèng aùp löïc               of the fuel content of air/ fuel
        air less spray gun = spray gun                mixture: Heä soá dö löôïng khoâng
     used for air–less spraying: Suùng                khí
     sôn neùn                                    air receiver n. = AIR TANK: Baàu
air line n. (a) pipe hose or duct which               chöùa khoâng khí, bình khí neùn
     conveys air or vaccum: OÁng daãn                     air select valve n. valve in a
     khí hoaëc chaân khoâng.                          two stage catalytic converter with
                                                      secondary air injection, which is


                                             9
     solenoid-operated and is triggered              intended to improve air-flow:
     by the electronic control module                Caùnh höôùng gioù
     to direct air to the exhaust valve              (NOTE: US English is air
     ports or to the catalytic converter,            defector)
     depending        on        operating               air shock absorber n. shock
     conditions: Van ñieàu khieån bôm                absorber incoporating a rubber
     khoâng khí (vaøo oáng thaûi)                    boot filled with compressed air
        air sensor n. sensor which                   serving as an auxiliary pneumatic
     monitors the air quantity inside                spring ; mainly used for lever
     the car, checks it for the presence             control purposes on the rear axle
     of pollutants, and operates flaps to            of a vehicle, e.g. when towing
     cut off the external air to the air             heavy trailers: Boä giaûm chaán khí
     conditioning system if the                         air silencer n. device usually
     pollutant concentration is too high:
     Caûm bieán khoâng khí trong xe
        air shield n. sloping panel on
     the roof of a vehicle, especially a
     commercial vehicle or trailer,
air spring                                                                           alloy

    incorporated in the air filter to cut            ignition system inoperative: Heä
    out induction hiss: Boä phaän giaûm              thoáng choáng troäm.
    thanh trong loïc gioù                        alarmed a. protected by an alarm:
        air spring      n.     =     AIR             Ñöôïc (gaén) choáng troäm
    BELLOWS: Giaûm chaán baèng khí               align v. to bring into line or be in line
        air suspension n. vehicle                    (with something): Canh thaúng
    suspension in which air or gas in                haøng
    compression is the principal or                     aligning punch n. tool use to
    only spring medium: Heä thoáng                   align holes, e.g. for inserting a
    treo khí                                         screw or bolt or to centre round
    (NOTE: also called pneumatic                     components with other parts: Muõi
    suspension)                                      ñoät canh loã
        air tank     n. container for                   alignment n. state of being in
    compressed air, especially for a                 line or act of bringing into line: söï
    compressor: Baàu chöùa khí neùn                  canh thaúng haøng.
       air volume n. quantity of air:                   alignment mark = mark, e.g.
    Theå tích khoâng khí                             on a timing gear or camshaft
Al = ALUMINIUM: nhoâm                                pulley, which must be brought into
alarm (system) n. theft protection                   line with another mark too give
    system, which typically provides                 the correct position: Daáu chæ thò,
    the following function : exterior                daáu caân chænh
    and interior protection; locking the         alkaline battery n. secondary battery
    boot and bonnet; making the                      using an alkaline electrolyte
                                                     (dilute potassium hydroxide) and


                                            10
    used for driving electric cars: Aéc         alligator clip n. US = CROCODILE
    quy kieàm                                        CLIP: Loaïi keïp caù saáu
         alkaline degreasing         n.         all-out braking         n.     using the
    removal of any greasy substances                 maximum         braking        effort
    with an alkaline solution: Dung                  available: Söû duïng heát khaû naêng
    dòch (kieàm) taåy.                               phanh
     all-alloy engine n.engine in                        the car loses directional
    which the cylinder head, block,                  stability under all-out braking =
    crankcase and sump are all of                    the car tends to swerve when the
    light alloy: Ñoäng cô hôïp kim                   brakes are applied as hard as
        all-aluminium body n. body                   possible: Xe bò maát höôùng
    shell made almost entirely of                    chuyeån ñoäng khi phanh heát côõ
    aluminium: Khung nhoâm                              alloy n. (a) any metallic
allen key n. key (in effect a spanner)               substance of various elements:
    for recessed hexagon screws and                  Hôïp kim
    bolts, consisting of a bar with a                (b) any light metal, typically
    right angle bend and six flats in                aluminium: Kim loaïi maøu saùng
    the end: Chìa khoùa luïc giaùc
       allen screw = type of recessed
    hexagon screw: Vít luïc giaùc
 alloy piston                                                    ambient temperature

        alloy piston = piston made                     all-wheather tyre       n. tyre
     primarily of aluminium: Pittoâng               suitable for use in rain and on
     hôïp kim nhoâm                                 snowy or icy roads as well as in
alloy wheel or (informal) alloys n.                 warm and dry conditions: Voû xe
     wheels made of light alloy, mainly             chaïy moïi thôøi tieát
     aluminium but also magnesium,                    all-wheel drive n. & a. = four
     for sports and other high-speed                wheel drive: Boán baùnh chuû ñoäng,
     cars: Baùnh xe hôïp kim                        xe hai caàu.
all-steel body n. body shell made                       all-wheel steering = four-
     almost entirely of steel, asopposed            wheel steering: Heä thoáng laùi boán
     to a body with a wooden frame                  baùnh.
     and panels made of steel or                alternating current (AC)         n.    a
aluminium: Khung theùp                              continuous electric current that
        all-terrain a. for use on any               periodically reverses direction:
     kind of surface: Cho moïi ñòa hình             Doøng ñieän xoay chieàu
     (xe)                                           (NOTE: opposite is direct current)
        all-terrain tyre = tyre mainly          alternator (ALT) n. generator which
     for off-road vehicles: Voû xe chaïy            produces three-phase alternating
     moïi ñòa hình                                  current inside its stator winnings:
         all-terrain vehicle = OFF-                 Maùy phaùt (xoay chieàu)
     ROAD VEHICLE: Xe ñòa hình                        alternator charging light =
                                                    warning light on the instrument


                                           11
    panel which comes on when the                       aluminium wheel        = alloy
    alternator is not charging: Ñeøn                wheel: Baùnh xe hôïp kim nhoâm
    baùo saïc (naïp)                                   aluminized       a. coated with
altimeter n. instrument showing                     aluminium or aluminium paint:
    height above sea level: Duïng cuï               Phuû nhoâm
    ño ñoä cao (so vôùi maët nöôùc bieån)               aluminium           n.  US =
alumina n. form of aluminium oxide                  ALUMINIUM: Nhoâm
    used as substrate for ceramic                ambient air       n. air outside and
    catalysts: alumin (moät daïng cuûa              surrounding the vehicle: Khoâng
    nhoâm oxit ñöôïc söû duïng nhö                  khí beân ngoaøi
    chaát xuùc taùc cho vaät lieäu goám).               ambient temperature           n.
       alumina beads = tiny beads of                outside temperature: Nhieät ñoä
    alumina used in some catalytic                  moâi tröôøng
    converters: Boät nhoâm cho boä xuùc               ambient temperature switch
    taùc                                            = switch which delays compressor
aluminium (AL) or US n. silvery                     action in an air-conditioning
    lightweight      metallic element               system      when      the   outside
    resistant to corrosion: Nhoâm                   temperature is low: Caûm bieán
         aluminium alloy = metal                    nhieät ñoä moâi tröôøng
    containing aluminium mixed with
    another metal or metals: Hôïp kim
    nhoâm
ambulance                                                             angle-nose pliers

ambulance n. vehicle designed for                   Ñieän löôïng cuûa moät doøng ñieän 1
   for carrying sick or injured                     ampere chaïy qua vaät daãn trong
   people: Xe caáp cöùu.                            1 giôø
ammeter n. instrument for measuring                    a 36 a.h. battery = a battery
   (in amperes) the electrical current              with a capacity of 36 ampere-
   flow in a circuit: Ampe keá                      hours: Dung löôïng cuûa aéc quy laø
amp = AMPERE                                        36 a.h
amperage (rating) n. strength of an                     ampere-hour capacity           =
   electric current in amperes, used                quantity of electricity which a
   e.g. for making fuses: Ñoä lôùn,                 battery can deliver under given
   cöôøng ñoä doøng ñieän.                          conditions such as temperature,
       ampere n. the basic unit for                 rate of discharge, and final
   measuring       electric    current,             voltage, depending on the number
   usually abbreviated to amp: Ñôn                  of plates used: Dung löôïng cuûa
   vò ño cöôøng ñoä doøng ñieän vieát               moät aéc quy (tính baèng
   taéc laø amp.                                    ampere/giôø).
      ampere-hour (a.h.) n. unit of              amplifier n. device used to produce
   the quantity of electricity flowing              a larger electrical signal, as to
   in one hour through a conductor                  amplify sound signals in radios,
   carrying a current of 1 ampere:                  etc.: Thieát bò khueách ñaïi.


                                            12
       ignition amplifier = device               ancillaries    n. components placed
    used to increase the electrical                  close to or fitted on the engine,
    signal in an electronic ignition                 such as alternator, power steering
    system: Boä khueách ñaïi tín hieäu               pump, supercharger, fuel pump
    ñaùnh löûa (IC ñaùnh löûa)                       and water pump, and driven by the
amplitude modulation (AM) n. form                    engine: Caùc thieát bò phuï treân
    of radio transmission in which                   ñoäng cô
    the frequency of the carrier wave            aneroid-type      thermostat          n.
    is uncharged, but its amplitude                  thermostat consist of a metallic
    varies in accordance with the                    bellows partially filled with
    input signal: Soùng AM trong                     acetone, alcohol or similar volatile
    radio                                            liquid: Van haèng nhieät loaïi khí
analogue cluster n. instrument panel                 aùp
    display using dials and numbers:             angle grinder n. power tool (either
    Baûng ñoàng hoà, tableau kim                     electric or driven by compressed
    (NOTE: opposite is electronic                    air) with abrasive discs, especially
    cluster)                                         for removing old paintwork and
anchorage n. fixing point for a seat                 smoothing the surface prior to
    belt , seat or other stress-bearing              spraying: Maùy maøi goùc
    item which is not part of the                        angle-nose pliers      n. pliers
    structure: Söï coá ñònh, söï ñònh vò.
anchor bolt       n.     = THROUGH
    BOLT: Bu-loâng ñònh vò, bu-loâng
    choát
angle of lock                                                            anti-corrosive

    with jaws having a right-angle                  angles to the shank: Tuoác nô vít
    bend, for gripping e.g. items in a              chöõ Z
    recess, etc.: Keàm muõi vuoâng.                     angular motion            n. =
      angle of lock n. angle between                ROTATION: Söï xoay voøng, quay
    the line through the centre of a             anneal v. to treat (a metal, alloy, or
    wheel seen from above when                      glass) with heat and then cool it to
    taking a corner and the same line               remove internal stress and to
    when going straight: Goùc laùi giôùi            make the material less brittle: Toâi
    haïn.                                           (theùp)
       angle parking n. parking at                     annealing furnace n. oven or
    an angle to the pavement or                     furnace       with      controllable
    parking line: Goùc ñaäu xe.                     atmosphere in which metal, an
    (NOTE: also called echelon                      alloy, or glass is annealed: Loø toâi
    parking)                                     annular a. in the form of a ring:
        angle screwdriver            n.             Hình voøng, hình khuyeân.
    screwdriver usually having two                     annular gap = circular gap:
    blades at either end, both at right             Khe hôû voøng.



                                            13
       annulus (gear)       n. hollow            ANSI (short for) American National
   gear-wheel in the form of a ring                  Standard Institute: Vieän tieâu
   with either internal teeth, as in                 chuaån quoác gia Hoa Kyø
   epicyclic         or       planetary          antenna n. US aerial: Anten
   transmissions, or external teeth:             anti-chip coating         n.     resilient
   Voøng raêng.                                      intermediate coat between the
anode n. positive electrode in an                    primer and the top coat, applies to
   electrolytic cell: Cöïc döông.                    the protect the body shell from
      anodic coating or film or oxide                chip-ping damage cause by gravel
   layer n. protective, decorative,                  or stones: Lôùp sôn loùt choáng traày
   or functional coating, formed in an                  anti-chipping primer or filler
   anodizing process: Maøng (lôùp)                   = a resilient primer protecting
   oxít ôû cöïc döông.                               paintwork from chipping cause by
      anodize v. to deposit a hard,                  gravle or stones: Lôùp sôn loùt
   non-corroding oxide layer on                      choáng traày
   (aluminium or light alloy): Lôùp                     anti-corrosion a. combating
   oxít hoùa anoát.                                  and protecting against corrosion,
      anodizing n. process by which                  especially rust: Choáng aên moøn
   a hard, non-corroding oxide layer                    anti-corrosion warranty = a
   is deposit on aluminium or light                  warranty, usually limited to
   alloys: Oxít hoùa anoát.                          corrosion damage, valid for an
      anodizing bath or tank = tank                  average of 6 years: Giaáy baûo
   in which the anodising process is                 haønh khoâng bò aên moøn
   performed: Boàn oxít hoùa anoát.                     anti-corrosive a. inhibiting
ANS = ANTI-NOISE SYSTEM: Heä
   thoáng giaûm thanh

anti-dazzle mirror                                          anti-thief (security) system

    corrosion: Haïn cheá söï aên moøn                  inside of panels to reduce noise
         anti-dazzle mirror        n. =                due to vibration or ‘druming ’:
    DIPPING       MIRROR:         Göông                Vaät lieäu choáng rung
    choáng choùi.                                antifreeze n. chemical, such as
        anti-dive (system) n. front                    ethylene glycol, added to the
    suspension     arrangement       that              cooling water of an engine to
    converts the down-ward force in                    lower its freezing point: Chaát
    the suspension links cause by                      choáng ñoâng.
    braking into a vertical force that           antifriction bearing n. any bearing
    tends to lift the body, thus                       supporting its load on rolling
    reducing dive under braking: Heä                   surfaces, such as balls, rollers or
    thoáng choáng chuùi ñaàu xe.                       needles, to minimize friction: Baïc
         anti-drum compound            n.        loùt giaûm ma saùt.
    sticky material, usually based on            anti-knock additive or agent           n.
    bitument or rubber, applied to the                 petrol      additive    preventing


                                            14
    premature ignition (i.e. knocking                  anti-spin regulation (ASR) n.
    or pinking ) of the mixture in the              control or prevention of wheel
    combustion       chamber,      e.g.             spin under power, normally by
    tetraethyl lead or tetramethyl                  means of electronic sensing and in
    lead: Chaát choáng kích noå.                    conjunction       with      anti-lock
        anti-knock index n. measure                 braking: Söï ñieàu khieån löïc keùo.
    of the antiknock properties of the                 anti-squat system        n. rear
    petrol, particularly in north                   suspension      arrangement       that
    american, where it is defined as                converts the downward force
    half the sum of the research                    cause by acceleration into a
    octane number and motor octane                  vertical force that tends to lift the
    number: Chæ soá choáng kích noå.                rear body, thus reducing ‘squat’
anti-rattle spring n. = SPREADER                    under acceleration: Heä thoáng
    SPRING: Loø xo choáng soác.                     naâng ñuoâi xe khi taêng toác
        anti-roll bar n. steel torsion                  anti-squeal shim n. shim
    bar running across the car as part              places behind the brake piston (or
    of the front and, less frequently,              behind the brake pad in disc
    rear suspension layout and used to              brakes) to reduce squeal: Mieáng
    reduce body roll during cornering:              ñeäm choáng oàn khi phanh
    Thanh choáng xoaén.                                anti-sway bar n. US = ANTI-
          anti-rust treatment        n.             ROLL BAR: Thanh choáng laéc
    treatment of iron and steel, i.e.               (ñaûo) xe
    using sealant, for the purpose of                  anti-thief (security) system n.
    corrosion protection: Söï choáng ræ             either an alarm system, or an
    seùt.
    (NOTE: also called rust proofing)
       anti-skid braking system (AS-
    BS)        n.    =    ANTI-LOCK
    (BRAKING) SYSTEM: Heä thoáng
    phanh choáng tröôït
anti-vibration mounting                                                       armature

    additional       locking      device            question to the chassis: Giaù
    (especially for the steering                    (khung) choáng rung.
    wheel), or an electric circuit              anvil n. heavy iron block on which
    immobilizing       the    car     by            something is placed for forging:
    disconnecting the start and /or                 Caùi ñe
    ignition: Heä thoáng choáng troäm                A-pillar or A-post n. upright
        anti-vibration mounting n.                  member in front of the front door,
    flexible      (typically     rubber)            a major structural part of the body
    mounting for an engine, gearbox                 frame: Truï ñô õ khung cöûa phía
    or other mechanical item, that                   cöûa tröôùc.
    reduces the amount of noise and
    vibration passed from the item in


                                           15
application        n.    use to which            arcing n. (a) sparking and discharge
    something is put : söï ñaët vaøo, söï            at the contact breaker points in the
    tra vaøo.                                        distributor, a cause of premature
       applicator n. tool for putting                wear of the points: Söï phoùng tia
    something onto a surface, such as                löûa treân vít löûa
    spreader for filler: Duïng cuï raéc,             (b) faulty spraying technique
    treùt                                            where the spray gun is not moved
       apply v. to put (something) on                along the panel surface at a
    (to something): Ñaët leân                        uniform distance, but is moved
apron        n.       panel extending                towards the panel when starting
    downwards, typically forming a                   and is moved away again towards
    skirt along the side of the car or an            the end of the panel ; this results
    air dam at the front: Taám chaén                 in an uneven thickness of paint
    buøn.                                            being applied: Sôn khoâng ñeàu
AQL (short for ) acceptable quality              arc welding         n. welding process
    level: Möùc chaát löôïng coù theå                widely used for do it yourself
    chaáp nhaän.                                     repairs (as the required equipment
aquaplaning       n. loss of contact                 is fairly cheap) in which the
    between the tyre and a wet road                  welding current is generated by a
    when it rides up on a layer of                   transformer, and the circuit is
    surface water: Söï tröôït treân                  closed when the electrode held in
    ñöôøng öôùt                                      the welding rod holder touches the
aqueous solution       n. water-based                metal surface ;the electrode burns
    solution: Dung dòch neàn.                        off as the rod holder is moved
arbor n. rotating shaft or spindle in a              along: Haøn hoà quang ñieän
    machine tool on which, for                   armature n. coil or coils of wire
    example, a grinding wheel or                     around a metal core in which
                                                     electric current is induced in a
    piece for machining is fitted: Truïc
                                                     generator, or in which the input
    chính, ñaàu laép
arc    v.     to jump across a gap,
    especially of an electric current
    forming a discharge: Hoà quang
    ñieän.
armature brake                                                         asymmetric rim

    current interacts with a magnetic                   armature shaft n. shaft on
    field to produce torque in a motor:              which the armature is mounted in
    Phaàn öùng                                       a starter or generator: Truïc (loõi)
       armature brake n. mechanical                  phaàn öùng.
    or electrical component in a                 armour-plated a. made bullet-proof,
    starter used to stop armature                    e.g. with extra-thick body panels
    movement after the starter motor                 and glass: Boïc theùp
    has been switched off: Cô caáu               articulated a. made in two separate
    haõm truïc phaàn öùng.                           sections, with a joint or coupling


                                            16
    between them; especially of                   assemble v. to put together or build
    commercial vehicles consisting of                 up (something) from a number of
    a tractor or towing unit and a                    parts: Laép raùp.
    trailer, having a swivelling                         assembled crankshaft = build
    coupling           giving       better            up crankshaft: Truïc khuyûu ñöôïc
    manoeuvrability: Khôùp noái, baûn                 raùp töø nhieàu ñoaïn
    leà.                                                 assembly n. the process or
         articulated bus = bus in two                 result of putting together a number
    sections, usually a single-decker,                of components: Söï laép raùp, quaù
    with passenger accommodation in                   trình laép raùp
    both sections: Xe buyùt hai                          assembly line = production line
    khoang                                            where a vehicle is progressively
asbestos-free a. Khoâng coù amiaêng                   built up from its individual
ASBS= ANTI-SKID BRAKING                               components: Daây chuyeàn laép raùp
     SYSTEM                                           asymmetric(al) a . not having
ASC see ANTI-SPIN REGULATION                          parts that correspond, not uniform
ascending stroke n. = UP-STROKE:                      (especially      in    distribution):
    kyø ñi leân.                                      Khoâng ñoái xöùng.
ASD=AUTOMATIC SLIP-CONTROL                              asymmetric power distribution
    DIFERENTIAL: Vi sai töï ñoäng                     or split = transmitting         more
    kieåm soaùt tröôït                                power to the front or rear wheels
aspect ratio n. ratio between the                     in a four wheel drive: Söï phaân
    height and the width (e.g. of a                   phoái coâng suaát khoâng ñoái xöùng
    tyre): Tæ soá giöõ chieàu cao vaø                       asymmetric beam = a
    chieàu roäng loáp xe.                             headlight beam which has greater
aspiration n. sucking in of the air/                  intensity on one side than the
    fuel mixture or breathing process                 other: Chuøm aùnh saùng khoâng ñoái
    of an internal combustion engine:                 xöùng
    Söï huùt (hoãn hôïp hoøa khí)                         asymmetric rim = wheel rim
aspirator valve n. check valve in air                 where the well is located outside
    induction systems: Van huùt.                      the centreline of the wheel:
ASR = ANTI-SPIN REGULATION:                           Nieàng xe khoâng ñoái xöùng
    Heä thoáng oån ñònh xe.                           (NOTE: opposite is symmetric
ATC                                                                             automatic

   rim)                                           ATF           =         AUTOMATIC
ATC = AUTOMATIC TEMPERA-                             TRANSMISSION FLUID: Daàu
   TURE CONTROL: Ñieàu khieån                        hoäp soá töï ñoäng
   nhieät ñoä töï ñoäng                           atmospheric corrosion n. gradual
ATDC (short for ) After Top Dead                     destruction or alteration of metals
   Center: Sau ñieåm cheát treân                     or alloys by contact with substance
ATE      =     AUTOMATIC         TEST                present in the atmosphere, such as
   EQUIPMENT: Thieát bò kieåm tra                    oxygen, carbon dioxide, water
   töï ñoäng                                         vapour, and sulphur and chlorine


                                             17
     compounds: Söï aên moøn hoùa hoïc             authorized dealer n. firm selling and
     trong khoâng khí                                  servicing a particular make of
         atmospheric pressure            n.            vehicle,      appointed       by      the
     pressure      exerted      by     the             manufacture: Ñaïi lyù uûy quyeàn
     atmosphere at the earth’s surface:            auto 1 n. & a. = AUTOMATIC n. :
     Aùp suaát khí quyeån                              Töï ñoäng
atomize n. to produce a fine spray,                    2 US = AUTOMOBILE: OÂtoâ, xe
     e.g. of paint: Söï taùn nhuyeãn,                  hôi
     phun.                                                auto bonnet = car cap: Capoâ
          atomizer n. device for                       oâtoâ
     producing a fine spray e.g. on a                     autochoke n. = AUTOMATIC
     spray gun: Cô caáu laøm mòn tia                   CHOKE: Caùnh böôùm gioù töï
     phun (sôn)                                        ñoäng.
          atomizing pressure             n.        autoclave n. sealable high-pressure
     pressure needed to atomize a                      container used for polymerisation
     liquid such as a paint: Aùp suaát taùn            and in tyre production: Noài haáp
     nhuyeãn (sôn)                                     (trong coâng nghieäp nhöïa vaø loáp
atramentizing n. corrosion protection                  xe)
     process in which steel is coated              automatic n. colloquial short form
     with phosphate using a zinc                       for automatic transmission, or a
     phosphate solution at 900C: Phuû                  car with automatic transmission:
     keõm                                              Töø vieát taét ñeå chæ hoäp soá töï ñoäng
attachment n. a fitting or accessory                   hoaëc xe coù hoäp soá töï ñoäng
    to be used in conjunction with a                         automatic air conditioning
     tool such as a grinding disc for use              (system)        =      air-conditioning
     with an electric drill: Ñoà gaù                   system        which       automatically
attack n. example of corrosion or                      maintains a preset temperature:
     another damaging, especially                      Heä thoáng ñieàu hoøa khoâng khí töï
     chemical, action: Söï taùc ñoäng.                 ñoäng
attenuation n. reduction, especially                         automatic air recirculation
     of noise or emissions: Söï caét                   (control) system = heating and
     giaûm oâ nhieãm hoaëc tieáng oàn                  ventilation       subsystem       which
ATV = ALL-TERRAIN VEHICLE:
     Xe ñòa hình.
automatic choke                                              automatic transmission fluid

    automatically switch to the                        doors again to let some fresh air
    recirculation mode when the                        in, even if its quality is still
    pollutant levels of the air inside                 questionable: Heä thoáng tuaàn
    the vehicle exceed certain levels                  hoaøn khoâng khí töï ñoäng.
    (e.g. in rush-hour nose-to-tail                       automatic choke = device in
    traffic), but after a certain period               the carburetor intake which
    of recirculation (typically after 3                positions   the     choke   valve
    minutes), opens the intake air                     automatically in accordance with


                                              18
    engine temperature or time:                       automatic locking differential
    Böôùm gioù töï ñoäng                              developed by Mercedes-Benz: Cô
       automatic closing system =                     caáu khoùa vi sai töï ñoäng.
    system         which automatically                    automatic speed control =
    closes doors windows and sunroof:                 cruise control: Ñieàu khieån ga töï
    Heä thoáng ñoùng cöûa töï ñoäng                   ñoäng.
        automatic frequency control                          automatic        temperature
    = automatic retuning of stations on               control (ATC) = device for
    the FM waveband when subject to                   maintaining           a       constant
    drift: Doø ñaøi FM töï ñoäng                      temperature in the vehicle
       automatic gearbox = gearbox                    interior: Thieát bò ñieàu khieån
    in an automatic transmission                      nhieät ñoä töï ñoäng (ñieàu hoøa)
    system       which changes gear                        automatic test equipment
    automatically: Hoäp soá töï ñoäng.                (ATE) = usually electronic
        automatic level control or                    equipment for testing ignition,
    levelling system = suspension                     wiring, fuel injection systems, etc:
    system that automatically adjust                  Thieát bò kieåm tra töï ñoäng.
    front and rear ride heights to                automatic       transmission             n.
    compensate for changes in axle                    transmission which changes the
    loads ; this can either be achieved               gear ratio without assistance from
    by adding air absorbers to a                      the      driver       and      without
    conventional suspension system,                   interruptionof power flows, the
    or by incorporating the system in a               changes being governed              by
    sophisticated         pneumatic or                factors such as engine load and
    hydropneumatic             suspension             vehicle road speed (although the
    system: Ñieàu khieån ñoä cöùng heä                driver usually has a manual
    thoáng treo töï ñoäng.                            override): Hoäp soá töï ñoäng
       automatic muting = car radio                       automatic transmission fluid
    circuit       which automatically                 (ATF) = special oil used
    cancels noise output during                       inautomatic transmissions: Daàu
    tuning: Maïch trong radio töï
    ñoäng loaïi boû nhieãu khi doø ñaøi
          automatic seat belt =
    INERTIA REEL SEAT BELT:
    Ñai an toaøn töï ñoäng.
            automatic        slip-control
    differential          (ASD)         =
    electronically             controlled,
automatic volume control (AVC)                                       auxiliary drive shaft

    hoäp soá töï ñoäng.                               to the noise level in the car: Söï
automatic volume control (AVC) n.                     ñieàu chænh aâm löôïng töï ñoäng.
    car       ratio     circuit which                     automic wear adjuster         n.
    automatically adjusts the volume                  device       that      compensates


                                             19
    automatically for wear, e.g. in the                     automotive electronics =
    brakes or clutch: Cô caáu ñieàu                  applications of modern electronics
    chænh ñoä moøn töï ñoäng (phanh, ly              to the motor vehicles: Ñieän töû
    hôïp)                                            oâtoâ.
        automatic wire stripper n.                          automotive electrician =
    wire striper that automatically                  electrician working on and
    adjusts to the size of the wire to be            designing systems for motor
    stripped       and removes the                   vehicles: Thôï ñieän oâtoâ.
    insulation without damaging the                      automotive emissions = all
    wires inside: Kìm tuoát daây töï                 types of release            into the
    ñoäng.                                           atmosphere from motor vehicles,
automobile n. dated or formal word                   including exhaust gas, fuel and
    for motor car in British english,                crankcase fumes, and noise: Chaát
    but still widely used in american                thaûi oâtoâ.
    english: Xe hôi, oâtoâ.                             automotive engineering = the
            automobile association =                 design and construction of motor
    major motoring organization,                     vehicles: Kyõ thuaät (coâng ngheä)
    specially        the       automobile            oâtoâ
    association (AA) in great British                   automotive tool = tool for use
    and the american automobile                      in the construction or repair of
    association (AAA): Hieäp hoäi oâtoâ.             motor vehicles: Duïng cuï söûa
           automobile engineering =                  chöõa oâtoâ (ñoà ngheà)
     automotive engineering: Kyõ                 AUX = AUXILIARY: Thieát bò phuï,
    thuaät oâtoâ                                     phuï tuøng.
        automobile industry = motor                  (NOTE: an abbreviation often
    industry: Coâng nghieäp oâtoâ.                   used to label fused)
          automobile manufacture =               auxiliary a. additional, upplementary:
    motor manufacture: Nhaø saûn xuaát               Thieát bò phuï.
    oâtoââ.                                                 auxiliary brake lights =
       automobile mechanic = motor                   additional brake lights mounted at
    mechanic: Thôï söûa chöõa oâtoâ.                 eye level in the rear window to
       automobile polish = car polish:               reduce the risk of being run into
    Söï ñaùnh boùng oâtoâ.                           from behind: Ñeøn phanh phuï.
automotive a. relating to or                                auxiliary drive shaft =
    occurring in motor vehicles:                     secondary drive shaft driving for
    Thuoäc veà oâtoâ, trong oâtoâ                    example, the fuel or water pumps
            automotive adhesive =
    adhesive used in the manufacture
    of motor vehicles: Keo söû duïng
    trong saûn xuaát oâtoâ

auxiliary driving lamp                                                        axle shaft

    or distributor: Baùn truïc phuï.


                                            20
        auxiliary driving lamp = lamp            axle n. transverse bar, tube, shaft or
    suplementing the light from the                  beam which carries wheels at
    headlamps, such as a fog lamp or                 their end: Truïc, vi sai (caàu xe).
    spot lamp: Ñeøn laùi phuï.                             axle casing = external,
         auxiliary gearbox =        extra            basically       tubular       housing
    gearbox used in conjunction with                 containing the differential and
    the main (manual) gearbox to                     half-shafts and with bearings at
    provide an additional range of                   either end for the hubs: Voû vi sai.
    speeds: Hoäp soá phuï.                                 axle housing = AXLE
        auxiliary leaf = helper leaf (in             CASING: Voû caàu xe (vi sai).
    a leaf spring): Laù nhíp phuï                       axle load = AXLE WEIGHT:
AVC = AUTOMATIC VOLUME                               Taûi troïng caàu xe.
    CONTROL                                              axle stand = tripod which is
average 1 n. mean value or rate: Tyû                 adjustable for height and used for
    leä trung bình (giaù trò trung bình).            supporting the vehicle for longer
    2 v. to achieve a certain mean                   jobs: Con ñoäi cheát 3 chaân
    value or rate: Ñaït giaù trò trung                    axle tramp = rocking or
    bình.                                            oscillation of an axle under heavy
    3 a. found by calculating the                    acceleration or braking due to
    mean value or rate: Giaù trò trung               inadequate damping: Söï rung
    bình                                             ñoäng cuûa caàu khi taêng toác hoaëc
          average speed or fuel                      phanh
    consumption = the distance                          axle tube = that part of the axle
    covered divided by the time taken                casing enclosing the half-shaft, or
    or the fuel used: Toác ñoä trung                 the tube forming a tubular rigid
    bình (möùc tieâu thuï nhieân lieäu               axle: Voû caàu (vi sai) phaàn baùn
    trung bình).                                     truïc
aviation fuel n. fuel suitable for                      axle weight = that part of the
    aircraft: Nhieân lieäu cho maùy bay.             weight of a vehicle resting on the
awl n. tool with a sharp point and a                 wheels of an axle: Taûi troïng caàu
    fluted blade for piercing holes:                 xe.
    Caùi duøi.                                            axle drive n. final drive:
awning n. roof of canvas or similar                  Truyeàn ñoäng cuoái cuøng.
    material stretched out from e.g. a                    axle shaft n. short shaft
    caravan for protection from the                  connecting the differential and the
    sun and rain: Maùi che, mui xe.                  drive shaft on each side in an
axis n. centreline about which a body                independent suspension layout:
    can or could rotate, or which                    Baùn truïc caàu xe.
    divides a figure into two
    symmetrical parts: Truïc (quay)




                                            21
Babbitt metal                                                            back-voltage


                                            Bb
Babbitt metal n. alloy of tin, copper,           backing light       n. US = REAR
   antimony,        and    lead     still           WINDOW: Kính sau.
   occasionally used for bearing                          US backing heater or
   surfaces: Hôïp kim choáng maøi                   defogging system = heated rear
   moøn trong beà maët baïc loùt                    window: Kính söôûi, heä thoáng
baby seat n. seat for babies weighing               xoâng kính.
   up to about 20lbs, normally                         back panel n. = REAR PANEL:
   installed facing backwards on the                Taân sau xe
   front seat and allowing a half                backplate       n. fixed heavy-gauge
   upright seating position: Gheá daønh             metal plate attached to the
   cho treû em                                      suspension and carrying the brake
BAC = Blood Alcohol Content: Noàng                  shoes      and    brake   operating
   ñoä coàn trong maùu.                             mechanism of a drum brake, or the
back axle n. rear axle, usually on a                plate carrying the brake pad in a
   four wheel vehicle: Caàu sau.                    disc brake: Maâm phanh
        back axle ratio = FINAL                     (NOTE: US - English is backing
   DRIVE RATIO: Tæ soá truyeàn                      plate)
   ñoäng cuoái cuøng.                            back pressure n. any pressure holding
backbone chassis n. chassis based on                back the flow of the gases in an
   a single central spine carrying or               exhaust system: AÙp suaát ngöôïc
   containing the drive train, the body             cuûa khí thaûi
   shell being mounted on outriggers:            backrest n. back of a seat: Löng gheá
   Khung chính                                   back up v. US = REVERSING: De
backfire 1 n. explosion either at the               xe, luøi xe.
   wrong time in the cylinder, or of             back up alarm n. US reverse
   unburnt or only partly burnt                     warning signal: Keøn baùo luøi xe.
   mixture in the exhaust system,                        back-up light n. US =
   causing a loud bang: Tieáng noå ôû               REVERSING LIGHT: Ñeøn luøi xe.
   oáng thaõi                                    back-voltage n. voltage which
   2 v. to make a loud bang as a result             opposes the current when the
   of unburnt or only partly burnt                  current in an inductive circuit
   mixture exploding in the exhaust                 changes and the magnetic fields
   system or in the cylinder: Gaây ra               cuts the conductors: Ñieän aùp
   tieáng noå lôùn ôû poâ                           ngöôïc.
backlash n. excessive play in a                         self-induction back-voltage =
   mechanical system such as gears                  back-voltage produced by self-
   or linkages, due to looseness                    induction; this induced electro-
   or flexing: Khoaûng cheát, khe hôû.              motive force opposes the change


                                            21
badge                                                                                  ball

   in current and enhancing it if the                 control which adjusts the level of
   current is decreasing: Ñieän aùp                   the left and right speakers of a
   ngöôïc töï caûm.                                   stereo system: Nuùt caân baèng aâm
badge n. typically, the maker’s logo                  thanh giöõa loa traùi vaø phaûi.
   in coloured enamel on chrome                           balance disc n. balance device
   plate but can also be letters or                   in centrifugal pumps, in the front of
   symbols indicating a particular                    a disc fitted to the pump shaft,
   type or model, such as V-12, 16V,                  which lifts when a force is
   fiesta, etc.: Bieåu töôïng, huy hieäu.             generated on the underside of the
baffle (plate) n. usually transverse                  disc, leaking pressure until the
   steel plate reducing the flow or                   axial forces are balanced: Ñóa caân
   motion of gases or liquids, e.g. in a              baèng (bôm ly taâm)
   silencer, in the sump of an engine                     balance pipe n. in a twin
   or in a fuel tank: Taám chaén (giaûm               carburetor layout, a pipe joining
   doøng chaûy)                                       the inlet tracts or choke tubes of
bake v. to dry or cure (a paint or other              the two carburetors to even out
   finish) using heat: Nung, saáy.                    differences in flow: OÁng caân baèng
bakelite n. proprietary, hard, brittle                (boä cheá hoøa khí).
   plastic used in the early days of                       balance shaft n. additional
   plastic engineering, esp. for                      rotating shaft in the crankcase
   electrical parts because of its good               fitted with counterweights, esp. in
   insulating properties: Nhöïa caùch                 single and twin cylinder engines,
   ñieän, nhöïa bakeâlit.                             to reduce vibration: Truïc caân
balance 1 n. state in which weight is                 baèng.
   evenly distributed: Söï caân baèng.                    balance weight n. small lead
   2 v. to fix weights, e.g. to the rim               weight fitted to the wheel rim to
   of a wheel or to a crankshaft in                   restore wheel balance: Mieáng chì
   order to correct weight distribution               baám nieàng xe
   and thus reduce vibration: Laøm                        balancer n. wheel balancer:
   caân baèng.                                        Thieát bò caân baèng baùnh xe.
          balance       crankshaft      =                  balancing n. adjustment of
   crankshaft with extended webs to                   incorrect and uneven weight
   form      counterbalances      or     a            distribution: Ñieàu chænh ñeå caân
   vibration damper: Truïc khuyûu ñaõ                 baèng ñoäng.
   ñöôïc caân baèng ñoäng (nhôø ñoái                      balancing weight = balance
   troïng)                                            weight
       balanced engine = engine in                bald tyre n. tyre on which the tread
   which all reciprocating parts such                 is completely worn away: Loáp xe
   as pistons and connecting rods are                 quaù moøn
   adjusted to exactly the same                   balk ring n. =baulk ring: Voøng caûn
   weight: Ñoäng cô ñaõ caân baèng                ball n. (a) spherical part, e.g. in a ball
      balance control n. knob or slide                bearing or a ball socket joint: Bi


                                             22
ballast ignition system                                                         banger

    (b) = TOWBALL: Khôùp noái caàu.                  giaùc coù voøng bi.
        ball and nut steering n. =                      ball joint n. mechanical coupling
    recirculating ball steering: Heä                 in which ball on the end of one part
    thoáng laùi kieåu bi tuaàn hoaøn                 moves freely within a recessed
       ball and socket (joint) n. = ball             spherical socket in the end of
    joint: Khôùp caàu.                               another, often used in suspension
ballast ignition system n. ignition                  and steering linkages: Khôùp caàu.
    system       incorporating a ballast                ball joint separator = tool for
    resistor connected in series with                forcing out ball or tapered joints,
    the coil primary winding and                     either in the from of the simple
    bypassed when the starter is                     fork with wedge–shaped jaw
    operated, ensuring improved cold                 which is struck with a hammer to
    starting performance and spark                   separate the joint,or a tool using
    efficiency: Heä thoáng ñaùnh löûa coù            direct pressure from a screw–
    ñieän trôû phuï.                                 activated lever action to split the
         ballast resistor = resister in              joint: Thieát bò thaùo khôùp caàu.
    which the resistance increase as             ball peen hammer n. hammer with a
    the current passing through it                   head having one flat and one
    increases, use in motor vehicles to              rounded end: Buùa ñaàu troøn.
    control the output from the coil at                 ball socket n. recessed spherical
    high engine speeds and provide a                 socket for receiving the ball in a
    better spark for starting: Ñieän trôû            ball joint: Hoác caàu.
    phuï.                                                ball valve n. non-return valve
ball bearing n. most common type of                  comprising a recessed spherical
    antifriction bearing, comprising                 seating into which a ball fits to
    two rings or races between which                 cover a hole, closing if the flow of
    hardened steel balls run in tracks,              liquid is reversed: Van bi caàu
    and able to absorb both axial and                (moät chieàu)
    radial loads: Baïc ñaïn bi, voøng bi,        bal res = BALLAST RESISTOR:
    oå bi                                            Ñieän trôû phuï.
        ball bearing puller = puller for         band brake n. brake consisting of a
    removing ball bearings that sit on a             steel band with a friction lining
    shaft and in a housing: Caûo oå bi               passing round a drum, which
    (baïc ñaïn)                                      contracts and grips the drum, when
         ball cage n. circular frame                 the brake is applied: Ñai phanh
    which holds the balls in place in a              (phanh)
    ball bearing: Voøng (reá) bi.                bandwidth n. range of audio
        ball end hexagon screwdriver                 frequencies an audio component
    n. screwdriver with a ball type                  such as a car stereo can handle:
    hexagon tip allowing it to be used               Baêng taàn (radio).
    at an angle of up to 300 from the            banger n. (informal) old, cheap and
    screw head: Tua nô vít ñaàu luïc                 well-worn car, which may however


                                            23
banger racing                                                    basic ignition setting

   still be serviceable: OÂtoâ cuõ                 of the hands and prevent skin
      banger racing = racing beat-up               infections or allergic reactions
   old saloons from which the glass                when working with substance such
   and trim has been removed on                    as oils, thinners, paints, etc.: Kem
   small tracks, with aggressive                   baûo veä da.
   driving and frequent contact                         barrier effect n.the effect
   between the car: Cuoäc ñua oâtoâ cuõ.           produced by coatings sheilding
banjo n. (a) type of right-angled union            especially metal surfaces from
   for a pipe or flexible hose,                    corrosive agents: Taùc duïng choáng
   comprising a ring–shaped piece on               aên moøn
   the end of the pipe through which a                barrier paint n. primer which
   threaded hollow bolt is passed: Ñai             isolates a top coat from a surface
   sieát oáng                                      or other finish with which it is
   (b) drum-shaped central part of an              incompatible: Sôn loùt.
   axle casing containing the                   base n. lowest supporting part of a
   differential: Baùn caàu vi sai.                 usually upright member, or bottom
       banjo axle = rear axle with a               layer or coating in a paint system:
   drum-shaped differential casing:                Neàn, ñeá, beä, caên baûn
   Voû caàu vi sai daïng baùn caàu.                   base coat n. first coat in a paint
bar n. unit of pressure; one bar equals            system,either an undercoat or
   100 kilopascals or 14.5 pound-                  primer, or a coloured coat to be
   force per square inch: Ñôn vò ño                cover in a coat of clear lacquer:
   aùp suaát.                                      Lôùp sôn loùt
bar clamp n. tool with a fixed head                   base material n. material under
   and a sliding foot for clamping                 a coating or which is to be coated:
   purposes: Thanh keïp.                           Vaät lieäu neàn
barometric pressure sensor or baro                     base metal n. metal under a
   n. sensor in an engine management               coating or which is to be coated:
   system providing information on                 Kim loaïi neàn, kim loaïi cô baûn
   ambient barometric pressure for                    base metal attack = corrosion
   the adjUStment of mixture etc.,                 of the metal under a finish: Söï aên
   which is important for the                      moøn kim loaïi neàn
   maintenance         of good engine                 baseplate n. strong metal plate
   performance at different altitudes:             which forms the base of
   Caûm bieán ño aùp suaát khí quyeån.             something: Taám ñeá kim loaïi.
barrel n. main tubular section of a             basic ignition setting or timing n.
   carburetor including the air intake             position to which the ignition is set,
   and choke tube: Hoïng khueách taùn              which is then varied by the
   boä cheá hoøa khí.                              automatic advance system: Thôøi
barrier cream         n. special cream             ñieåm ñaùnh löûa cô baûn
   recommended for use when                            basic price n. minimum list
   working on cars to reduce soiling               price of a centain car model, to


                                           24
basic timing                                         battery discharge controller

    which must be added any tax or              saïc, naïp bình.
    extras, the charge for delivery,            (NOTE: also called state of
    number plates, etc.: Giaù goác              charge)
    (chöa thueá vaø phí)                             battery charge indicator =
        basic timing n.=basic ignition          instrument showing the state of
    timing: Thôøi ñieåm ñaùnh löûa cô           charge of the battery: Ñeøn baùo saïc
    baûn                                           battery charger = device which
  batch      n. 1 number of things              can be plugged into the mains and
    produced as a group: Moät löôït,            connected to a store battery to
    moät ñôït.                                  restore its state of charge: Maùy
    2 mixture of natural and/ or                (cuïc) saïc bình.
    synthetic rubbers, and vulcanizing               battery charging station =
    agents, used in tyre production:            centre with high capacity battery
    Hoãn hôïp cao su vaø chaát löu hoaù         chargers for recharging batteries,
bath n. process of immersion or the             esp. of electric cars: Traïm saïc
    container used: Boàn, beå, chaäu.           bình.
battery n. on most cars, a lead-acid                  battery compartment n.
   storage-battery, usually of 12               separate space provided for the
   volts: Aéc quy, bình ñieän                   battery, usually under bonnet but
       the battery is flat or dead =            sometimes below the rear seat or
   there is no current left in the              in the boot: Ngaên ñaët aéc quy.
   battery: Aéc quy heát ñieän                      battery condition n.= battery
      check the battery and top up if           charge: Tình traïng aéc quy.
   necessary = check the level of the               battery connector n. plug on
   battery acid in the battery cells and        battery-powered vehicle to connect
   add distilled water to restore the           the batteries to a charging station:
   level if needed: Kieåm tra möïc              Daây noái bình.
   dung dòch vaø chaâm nöôùc                         battery cover n. one-piece
battery acid n. fluid in the cells of a         cover permanently sealed to the
   car battery, in fact sulphuric acid:         battery case and with common
   Dung dòch ñieän phaân                        batteries provided with one
      battery capacity n. = ampere              opening for each of the individual
   hour capacity: Dung löôïng aéc quy           cells for filling and topping-up
      battery case n. housing make              purposes, such openings are
   of      polypropylene      used    to        usually closed by plugs but are
   accommodate the cells of a battery           absent on modern maintenance–
   with their plates and seperators,            free batteries: Naép ñaäy bình ñieän
   and the battery acid: Voû bình ñieän,           battery discharge controller n.
   voû aéc quy.                                 device on vehicle with electric
      battery charge n. condition of            motor drive, which triggers a
   the battery in relation to the               warning indicator and/ or turns off
   amount of current stored unit: Söï           the power supply when the battery


                                           25
battery earth                                                                       bead

   voltage drop bellow a certain                     battery charge indicator
   minimum level: Thieát bò baûo veä                    battery terminal n. terminal on
   aéc quy khoûi söï phoùng ñieän                    the battery either in the front of a
       battery discharge indicator =                 post or a lug with a hole; also used
   instrument on vehicles with                       sometimes to mean the clamp on
   electric    motor      drive     which            the end of the cable: Cöïc aéc quy
   indicates battery charge condition                   battery tester n. voltage meter
   in percent of full charge: Ñoàng hoà              or hydrometer for checking the
   baùo ñoä phoùng ñieän                             state of charge of a battery: Thieát
      battery earth n. earth provided                bò kieåm tra aéc quy.
   by a braided earth strap or a heavy                   battery tray n. metal ledge
   –duty cable leading from the                      supporting the battery, usually on
   negative           terminal         (or           the side of the engine bay: Khay
   exceptionally, in positive earth                  ñöïng aéc quy.
   systems,     from      the     positive        baulk ring n. part in a synchromesh
   terminal) to a suitable point on the              gearbox which prevents a gear
   body or chassis: Noái mass aéc quy                being engaged too soon: Voøng
      battery filler n. device with a                ñoàng toác.
   suction ball which can suck up                 bayonet cap n. cylindrical base of an
   liquid and discharge it into the                  electric light bulb, usually with two
   battery: Thieát bò chaâm dung dòch.               pins projecting on either side,
      battery fluid n. = battery acid:               which engage in j-shaped slots to
   Dung dòch ñieän phaân                             lock the bulb securely in its socket:
       battery ignition (system) n.                  Ñuoâi ñeøn
   general term for any battery-                         bayonet fitting or socket =
   powered ignition system where                     socket with either twin contacts or
   battery voltage by an ignition coil               a single contact and j-shaped slots
   or transistorized ignition unit: Heä              on either side to receive the pins of
   thoáng ñaùnh löûa baèng aéc quy.                  the bulb: Raõnh chuïp ñuoâi ñeøn
        battery master switch n.                  BDC = BOTTOM DEAD CENTRE:
   switch which disconnects the                      Ñieåm cheát döôùi.
   battery completely and cuts off                bead n. (a) the part of a tyre which is
   power to all electrical components:               shaped to fit the rim, made of steel
   Coâng taéc ngaét mass aéc quy.                    wires wrapped and reinforced by
      battery post n. round terminal                 the plies of the tyre: Tanh (gaân)
   on a battery to which cable is                    voû xe.
   attached, USually by a clamp: Coïc                (b) any small ball-like part, such as
   bình.                                             the glass beads used in bead
   (NOTE: to avoid confusion, the                    blasting or the pellets used in
   positive post is usually of larger                contains catalytic converters: Haït
   diameter than the negative post)                  xuùc taùc.
      battery state indicator =                     bead base n. the part of the tyre


                                             26
bead blasting                                                           bearing separator

   bead in contact with the rim bead                    bearing, as in the main bearings of
   seat: Tanh chính.                                    an engine: Naép ñaàu to thanh
        bead blasting n. cleaning                       truyeàn (bieân).
   process using glass beads that is                 bearing clearance n. space between
   fairly slow, but gives a high quality                the bearing surface and its journal:
   finish       since       paint        and            Khe hôû giöõa bieân vaø baïc loùt.
   contamination can be removed                            check the con rod for big-end
   without affecting the critical                       bearing clearance = check the
   tolerances of parts being blasted:                   gap between big-end and crankpin:
   Söï xöû lí beà maët (sôn)                            Kieåm tra khe hôû giöõa ñaàu to
      bead core n. ring of steel wires                  thanh truyeàn vaø coå truïc khuyûu.
   in the tyre bead: Loõi tanh voû.                        bearing cone n. = taper roller
bead seat mat n. seat cover made of a                   bearing: OÅ bi coân
   network of wood beads: Thaûm boïc                        bearing cup = bearing shell:
   gheá baèng caùc mieáng goã nhoû                      Baïc loùt hai nöûa
beam axle n. now used for any rigid                        bearing housing n. housing for a
   axle, but the original sense was a                   bearing, such as the centre section
   nondriven axle form of an I-section                  of a turbocharger which supports
   beam: Daàm caàu bò ñoäng daïng chöõ                  compressor and turbine housings
   I.                                                   and the shaft to which the
beam indicator          n. light on the                 compressor and turbine wheels are
   instrument panel which comes on                      attached: Thaân ñôõ baïc loùt (taêng
   usually only when the main                           aùp)
   headlight beam is in use: Ñeøn baùo                     bearing material n. metal layer
   ñeøn pha                                             forming the surface of a plain
bearing n. device which supports or                     bearing, typical of white metal:
   positions a usually rotating or                      Lôùp kim loaïi beà maët baïc loùt.
   reciprocating part such as a shaft,                     bearing puller n. tool used to
   esp. in such a way that little or no                 remove different types of bearings
   friction results: Baïc loùt, oå bi.                  by pulling action: Duïng cuï thaùo
bearing assembly n. assembly of                         baïc ñaïn
   more than one bearing for the                            bearing race n. in balls or
   same component, where more than                      rollers bearings, one of two steel
   one load has to be supported: Cuïm                   rings between which the balls or
   oå bi (2 voøng trôû leân)                            rollers run in tracks: Voøng (trong
       bearing cage n. circular frame                   hoaëc ngoaøi) baïc ñaïn
    which holds the balls or rollers in                    bearing separator n. special
    place in a ball or roller bearing:                  tool used to separate double
   Voøng caùch oå bi.                                   bearings or close fitting gear, esp.
          bearing       cap     n.     rigid,           when a conventional jaw-type
   semicircular part which encloses                     puller cannot be used, having
   and holds the outer shell of a shell                 bevelled edges which allow


                                                27
bearing shell                                                           belted bias tyre

   insertion behind the bearings and
   gears to be separated: Duïng cuï              beetle n. (informal) the original rear
   thaùo baïc ñaïn ñaëc bieät.                       engined volkswagen: Teân goïi cuûa
      bearing shell n. one of a pair of              xe Volkswagen.
   thin semicircular steel cups lined            bell housing n. circular housing
   with an alloy such as copper-lead                 between the crankcase and
   or lead-indium, which together                    gearbox containing the flywheel
   enclose a shaft or other rotating                 and clutch, or the torque converter
   member, and are held in a circular                in the case of automatic
   housing which can be divided into                 transmission: Caùcte baùnh ñaø hay
   two halves: Baïc loùt hai nöûa                    ñaàu traâu hoäp soá.
       bearing spread n. diameter                belt n. (a) loop of strong material
   slightly greater than that of the                 passed round two or more pulleys
   housing with which almost all main                and transmitting drive from one to
   and       big-end     bearings     are            the other, such as a fan belt or
   manufactured; this means that the                 timing belt: Daây ñai (truyeàn
   bearing shell has to be force into                ñoäng)
   place, and so can not rotate; there               (b) = seat belt: Daây ñai an toaøn
   is also total contact between its                 (c) reinforcing layer or layers of
   back and the housing: Söï caêng                   steel or nylon strands in the carcass
   löng baïc loùt.                                   of a radial fly tyre: Lôùp boá voû xe.
      bearing surface n. area of the                    belt anchorage n. point where
   bearing actually in contact with the              the end of a seat belt is attached to
   shaft or other member being                       the body of a car: Maáu giöõ ñai an
   supporting: Beà maët tieáp xuùc cuûa              toaøn
   baïc loùt.                                    belt drive n. system for transmitting
bed n. flat area used as a support:                  power by means of a belt passing
   Neàn moùng.                                       round pulleys: Truyeàn ñoäng daây
       bed in v. to make parts fit                   ñai.
   together accurately: Chaïy raø.               belted bias tyre n. hydrid tyre which
      it take a while for new brake                  is a mixture between cross-ply and
   pads to bed themselves in = new                   radial-ply designs, with added
   brake pads have to wear slightly to               belts (as in radial tyres) on
   be a perfect fit on the discs: Toán               diagonal body plies (as in cross-ply
   thôøi gian ñeå nhöõng boá phanh aên               tyres), resulting in stiffer sidewalls
   khôùp hoaøn toaøn vôùi ñóa phanh.                 than with straight radial tyres:
      bedding-in oil n. engine oil for               Loaïi voû vôùi lôùp boá xieâng (cheùo)
   use when run in new bearings:                        belt end n. part of the seat belt
   Daàu chaïy raø maùy.                              carrying the buckle and attached to
beefed up          a. (informal) made                the floor pan, increasing replaced
   stronger, e.g. for heavy loads:                   by buckle attached directly to the
   Maïnh ñeå taêng taûi                              car seat: Ñaàu giöõ ñaây ñai an toaøn


                                            28
belt mounting                                                                 binnacle

belt mounting n. = belt anchorage:                  test bed and run for a period of
   Maáu giöõ ñai an toaøn                           time ;checks being made with the
      belt retractor n. device which                aid of instruments on e.g. power
   automatically pulls the seat belt                output , fuel consumption and
   back into its reel: Cô caáu ruùt ñai             emission levels: Kieåm tra ñoäng cô
   an toaøn                                         treân baêng thöû
       belt sander n. power sanding              bench vice n. vice for mounting on a
   tool with a rotating belt lined with             workbench: Baøn eâtoâ.
   abrasive: Maùy ñaùnh boùng baèng              bending pliers n. pliers with flat
   baêng vaûi nhaùm.                                smooth jaws used to hold sheet
       belt slacker n.looseness of a                metal in place,e.g. for welding:
   drive belt: Söï giaõn daây ñai                   Kìm moû cong duøng trong kyõ
       belt slip n. slipping of a drive             thuaät haøn
   belt on its pulleys due to                           bending strength n. ability of a
   insufficient tightness, so that no               material to resist the bending
   power is transmitted: Söï tröôït ñai.            moment: Söùc (ñoä) chòu uoán
       belt tensioner n.arrangement              Bendix drive n. form of drive mainly
   for tightening a drive belt, often               used for starter motors, where a
   comprising an idler pulley whose                 pinion is mounted on a shaft with a
   position can be adjusted: Thieát bò              helical screw and rushes down the
   caêng ñai.                                       shaft into engagement with the
       belt transmission n. = BELT                  starter teeth in the flywheel when
   DRIVE                                            the shaft is spun: Truyeàn ñoäng
      belt up n. to put on one’s seat               baèng baùnh raêng Bendix trong
   belt: Khoaùc daây ñai an toaøn                   maùy khôûi ñoäng.
   (NOTE: US English is buckle up)                  (NOTE: also called inertia drive,
      belt webbing n. strong webbing                due to the heavy piston moving
   material used for seat belts: Ñai                along the shaft under the
   vaûi                                             momentum of its own weight or
bench n. workbench, also used to                    inertia when the shaft turns inside
   mean a test bed for engines: Baøn                it)
   thôï maùy, baêng thöû ñoäng cô                        Bendix screw = the form of
      bench grinder n. power grinder                helical screw on the shaft of a
   for mounting on a workbench, with                starter motor: Raõnh xoaén oác (ñeà)
   two grinding wheels for grinding                     Bendix starter = starter motor
   and sharpening purposes: Baøn                    with a bendix drive: Maùy khôûi
   maùy maøi.                                       ñoäng söû duïng baùnh raêng Bendix.
bench seat n. seat in one piece                  benzene (C6H6) n. fluid constituent of
    tretching across the full width of              petrol: Benzen-loaïi hydrocacbon
    the car: Gheá daøi trong xe                     thôm, maïch voøng
bench test n. stationary test, esp. of an        binnacle n. cluster of instruments
   engine, in which it is mounted in a              and/or switches mounted in a


                                            29
bio-degradable                                                              bihexagonal

   usually circular casing fixed on or           bias belted tyre n. = cross–ply tyre:
   near the steering column: Duïng cuï               Voû coù lôùp boá xieân
   ño hay coâng taéc ñaët treân voâ laêng        bicycle carrier n.device attached to
   laùi                                              the rear of a car, often supported
bio-degradable a. cable of being                     on a towbar, for carrying a bicycle:
   made to rot by bacteria: Coù theå bò              Giaù treo xe ñaïp (treân xe hôi)
   thoái röõa do vi khuaån                       big-block engine n. US typical large
bit n. part of a tool for boring or                  american V-8 engine of the 1960s
   cutting, esp. the interchangeable                 and 70s, with a simple and robust
   tip of a drill or the blade of a                  design including cast-iron block
   screwdriver: Muõi (caét, xoaùy)                   and heads and conventional
        bit adapter or holder = tool                 carburetors, and giving ample
   with a female square drive at one                 power and enormous torque: Ñoäng
   end to accept hexagon bits: Boä                   cô lôùn cuûa Myõ
   phaän gaù tuyùp                               big end n. end of the connecting rod
bevel differential       n. differential             which fits round the crankpin: Ñaàu
   which bevel gear for its main                     to thanh truyeàn
   element, which allows the input                       big-end bearing = bearing of
   and output shaft to be at right                   the connecting rod on the crankpin,
   angles to one another: Boä vi sai                 now nearly always in the form of
   baùnh raêng noùn                                  replaceble shell bearings, but
bevel drive shaft n. shaft with a bevel              formerly of white metal deposited
   gear at one ends, used esp. for                   on fixed shells: Baïc loùt ñaàu to
   driving an overhead camshaft:                     thanh truyeàn
   Truïc daãn ñoäng baùnh raêng noùn                     big-end bolt = one of the bolts
   bevel gear n. gear shaped in the                  fixing the big–end cap to the
   form of a frustum of a cone, used                 connecting rod: Buloâng ñaàu to
   to transmit motion through an                     thanh truyeàn
   angle: Baùnh raêng noùn (coân).                       big-end cap = the detachable
           bevel    gear     drive     or            end of the connecting rod which
   transmission       =      form      of            fits on the crankpin: Naép ñaàu döôùi
   transmission used to drive shafts                 thanh truyeàn
   which do not align with the output            bihexagon n. & a. (figure) having
   shaft: Söï truyeàn ñoäng vuoâng goùc.             twelve angles ; the shaft of some
beverage holder n. circular clip for                 nuts, botls heads and their
   holding a beaker or glass, typically              corresponding sockets: Coù möôøi
   on the centre console: Voøng giöõ                 hai caïnh.
bezel n. circular metal surround or rim                   bihexagon socket = socket
   of an instrument, headlamp: Ñai                   which will it a standard hexagon
   giöõ.                                             bolt head or nut: Tuyùp möôøi hai
BHP = BRAKE HORSEPOWER:                              caïnh.
   Coâng suaát phaùt ñoäng (haõm).                       bihexagonal a. (of a nut, bolt


                                            30
bimetallic corrosion                                   blood alcohol (level or content)

    head, etc.) having twelve angles or                   bladed impeller n. rotating
    points: Coù möôøi hai caïnh.                     member of a centrifugal pump
bimetallic corrosion n. corrosion of                 fitted with blades or vanes: Caùnh
    two different metal exposed to an                bôm.
    electrolyte while in electrical                     blanking plug n. rubber plug for
    contact: Söï aên moøn ñieän hoùa cuûa            filling holes in the floorpan: Nuùt
    löôõng kim.                                      bòt baèng cao su
binding n. (a) rubbing of brake shoes            blast cleaning n.remove of corrosion,
    against the drum or of brake pads                dirt, scale, etc., by a blast of
    against the disc: Söï boù phanh.                 abrasive particles: Söï laøm saïch
    (b) strip material turned over along             baèng chaát nhaùm.
    the edge of a carpet or mat: Rìa             bleed v. to drain fluid from (a
    bao, vieàn                                       hydraulic system) usually to
bituminuos paint n. black or dark                    remove any air which may have
    coloured tarry paint which contain               found its way in: Xaû gioù.
    bitumen ; used for the protection of                 bleed(er) screw = screw which
    exposed metal parts: Sôn coù chöùa               when slacked off allows hydraulic
    nhöïa                                            fluid to escape: Vít xaû gioù.
black box n. (informal) (a) = crash                      bleed(er) valve = valve which
    recorder: Hoäp ñen                               when opened allows hydraulic
    (b) = control unit: Cuïm ñieàu khieån            fluid to escape: Van xaû gioù.
         black chromium plating n.               blind rivet n. = pop rivet: Ñinh taùn
    electrolytic deposition of a black               ñaàu chìm.
    chronium layer for decorative                        blind spot n. area not visible
    purpose: Maï croâm ñen                           from the driver’s seat: Ñieåm muø.
          blackening        n. = bulb            blister n. bubble in the paintwork
    blackening: Boùng ñeøn hoûng (ñen                cause by trapped moisture or air
    tim)                                             under the paint or by rust: Bong
blade n. straight, narrow flat part,                 troùc, gioäp leân, phoàng leân (sôn).
    such as the end of a screwdriver,            blistering n. formation of blisters due
    the part of the windscreen wiper in              to rust or air or moisture trapped
    contact with the windscreen, or one              under the paint: Söï bong troùc.
    of the vanes of a rotor or impeller:                  blocking ring n. = baulk ring:
    Löôõi, caùnh, maùi, phieán                       Voøng ñoàng toác.
        blade connector = plain metal            block n. = cylinder block: Khoái
    tongue for forming electrical                    xylanh.
    connections: Phieán giaéc noái (daây                 block sanding n. sanding the
    ñieän)                                           bodywork with a sanding block
        blade rubber = rubber strip                  which       gives     even      sanding
    fitted into the arm of a windscreen              pressure: Phun caùt
    wiper: Mieáng cao su lau kính (laù           blood alcohol (level or content) n.
    mía).                                            amount of alcohol in the blood due


                                            31
blooming                                                                   blow-out

   to drinking: (Noàng ñoä) coàn trong           exhaust port opening and transfer
   maùu.                                         port opening: Söï queùt khí.
blooming        n. formation of an                  blowdown period = in a two-
   undesired thin surface film or a              stroke engine, the period between
   milky white haze or mist on                   exhaust port opening and transfer
   paintwork, which can occur when               port opening which should be
   paint is applied during humid, cold           sufficiently long to drop below
   conditions and is caused by                   time for the cylinder pressure, so
   moisture being trapped in the wet             that the exhaust gases can be
   film: Söï ngöng tuï hôi nöôùc treân           expelled more easily: Chu kyø
   lôùp sôn khi sôn xe trong thôøi tieát         queùt khí.
   laïnh aåm                                         blower n. (a) (informal ) =
blow 1 v. to become defective, either            SUPERCHARGER: Boä taêng aùp
   by leaking or burning through: Bò             (neùn khí)
   hö vì roø hoaëc chaùy                         (b) fan for an interior heating and
   2 n. leak of air or gases,e.g. from           ventilation system, or more rarely
   the exhaust: Söï roø ræ khí thaûi             for an air-cooled engine: Quaït gioù
       the silence or exhaust gasket is          (giaøn laïnh)
   blowing = gases are leaking from                 blower switch = switch for the
   the silencer or exhaust gasket: Khí           fan of a heating and ventilation
   thaûi ñang roø ræ töø oáng giaûm thanh        system: Coâng taéc quaït gioù
   (poâ)                                            blow gun n. pressure–fed spray
        the short circuit caused the             gun with a wide nozzle used to
   fuse to blow = the fuse burnt                 blow out crevices, dust off large
   through because of the overload               areas, etc.: Suùng thoåi saïch (ñeå
   caused by the short circuit: Ngaén            sôn)
   maïch gaây ra ñöùt caàu chì.                       blowlamp n. tool giving an
        blowback n. forcing back of              intense flame for burning off paint,
   some of the air/fuel mixture                  brazing and soldering , and heating
   through the carburetor due to a               lead filter: Ñeøn ñoát sôn
   sticking valve or as a result of the          (NOTE: US English is blow torch)
   inlet valve closing late: Noå doäi.              blow-off valve n. spring-loaded
         blow-by       n. leakage of             valve that prevents excessive boots
   compressed air/ fuel mixture and              pressure in a turbocharger or
   gases (from combustion) past the              supercharger: Van xaû khí (taêng
   piston rings into the crankcase: Söï          aùp)
   loït khí.                                        blow out v. to clean (a blocked
        blowdown n. escape of gases              pipe,etc.) by blowing or passing air
   between the opening of the                    under high pressure through it:
   exhaust valve and the piston                  Thoåi vôùi aùp suaát cao (ñeå thoâng
   reaching bottom dead centre, or in            oáng)
   a two-stroke engine between                      blow-out n. puncture in which


                                            32
blue smoke                                                                   body roll

   the tyre bursts and often leaves the           thaân xe.
   rim: Noå voû.                               body construction n. manufacture
blue smoke         n. exhaust smoke               of a vehicle body: Söï cheá taïo thaân
   indicating too rich a mixture: Khoùi           xe.
   xanh (hoãn hôïp quaù giaøu)                        body fire n. hand tool for
BMC        =     BRITISH       MOTOR              smoothing      body     panels     by
   CORPORATION                                    removing material from the
BMW n. German make of car, the                    surface, e.g. on filled areas,
   letters standing for bayerishe                 consisting of a file blade held in an
   motorenwerke: Xe hôi cuûa Ñöùc (               adjustable holder that may be
   vieát taét cuûa chöõ Bayerishe                 adapted to convex or concave
   Motoren Werke).                                surfaces: Duïng cu laøm phaúng beà
board n. = printed circuit board: Bo              maët
   maïch in                                          body filler n. filler: Thôï treùt
      board test = test of the printer            ma tít
   circuit board: Kieåm tra bo maïch                 body framing n. assembly of
   in                                             the body components: Söï laép raùp
bodge 1 n. (informal) a hasty botched-            khung xe.
   up repair, not carried out with the                body glass n. windows and
   proper tools or materials: Söï söûa            windscreen of a car: Kính xe.
   chöõa taïm thôøi, chaép vaù                       body hammer n. hammer for
   2 v. (informal) to do work badly,not           knocking out dents: Buùa goø thaân
   using the proper tools or materials:           xe.
   Söûa chöõa voäi vaõ                                body-in-white n. bare body
body n. (a) main visible upper                    shell after welding but before
   structure of a vehicle, as opposed             painting: Thaân xe tröôùc khi sôn
   to the chassis and running gear:                  body jack n. hydraulic device
   Thuøng, thaân xe.                              for proving the force to push or
   (b) main part or housing, e.g. of a            pull damaged body part into shape,
   silencer: Voû boïc, thaân                      either directly or via straightening
   (c) shank of a bolt: Thaân buloâng.            equipment, e.g. pulling beams:
      body assembly n. building up of             Con ñoäi duøng naén khung
   the body from its various                          body repair n. repair to the
   components and panels: Söï laép                bodywork of a car made necessary
   thuøng xe.                                     by accident damage or corrosion:
       body builder n. coach-builder:             Söûa chöõa thaân xe (laøm ñoàng)
   Thôï laøm ñoàng xe.                               body repair shop = workshop
      body-coloured a. (of bumpers,               specializing in the body repairs:
   etc.) painted in the same colour as            Xöôûng söûa chöõa thaân xe (xöôûng
   the body: Sôn cuøng maøu thaân xe              ñoàng sôn)
      body component n. structural                   body roll n. rolling a vehicle’s
   part of the body: Thaønh phaàn                 body when cornering: Söï laéc


                                          33
body shell                                                              bonnet release

    nghieâng thaân xe.                           bolt n. piece of metal bar with a screw
       body shell n. the bare skeleton              thread and a usually hexagon head,
    of a vehicle, stripped of all running           for use with a nut or for screwing
    gear, fittings, accessories and                 into a part with a matching female
    detachable panels: Boä khung xe.                thread: Buloâng.
       body shop n. (a) body assembly            bond 1 n. state of adhesion: Traïng
    shop in a factory: Xöôûng laép raùp             thaùi gaén chaët.
    thaân xe.                                       2 v. to join by means of an
    (b) = body repair shop: Xöôûng laøm             adhesive: Daùn, lieân keát, noái.
    ñoàng sôn                                           bondung agent n. material that
       body stripe n. ornamental strip              provides adhesive properties:
    along the bottom of the side of the             Chaát keát dính
    body usually on sports cars and                     bonding method n. method of
    including the make and / or model               joining two parts together with an
    name in large letters: Ñöôøng vieàn             adhesive: Phöông phaùp keát dính
    thaân xe.                                    bonnet n. hinged cover over the
        body tub n. bare body shell                 engine bay, usually of metal but
    minus all removable panels such as              now often of fibreglass: Naép capoâ,
    doors and wings on cars featuring a             naép ñaäy maùy.
    separate chassis which is lowered               (NOTE: US English is hood)
    onto the chassis during assembly:            bonnet badge n. badge usually stating
    Boä khung xe (tröø caùc chi tieát coù           the make in sometimes the model
    theå thaùo ñöôïc).                              of vehicle in the centre of the front
        bodywork n. complete body                   edge of the bonnet: Bieåu töôïng
    structure mounted on the chassis of             haõng treân naép capoâ.
    vehicles with separate chassis, and          bonnet bump rubber or bonnet
    the complete assembly of sheet                  bump n. rubber buffer mounted on
    metal panels for car of unitary                 the vertical panel onto which the
    construction: Thaân xe.                         bonnet is lowered: Ñeäm naép capoâ.
bogie n. assembly of four wheels on              bonnet liner n. sound-absorbing
    two      axles     with      common             material attached to the inside of
    suspension, usually on heavy                    the bonnet to reduce engine noise:
    commercial vehicles and trailers:               Lôùp caùch aâm trong capoâ.
    Rô mooùc                                     bonnet lock n. locking mechanism
boil v. to bubble and change party to               comprising a notched peg fixed to
    vapour due to heat, said of engine              front underside of the bonnet,
    coolant and colloquially of a car or            which fits into a hole with a sliding
    its engine, also of brake fluid:                latch in the panel above the grille:
    Laøm soâi.                                      Cô caáu khoùa naép capoâ.
       boiling point n. temperature at                  bonnet release n. cable with a
    which a liquid boils: Ñieåm soâi                handle inside the vehicle which
    (nhieät ñoä)                                    releases the bonnet lock: Choát môû


                                            34
bonnet (support) stay                                                             bore

   capoâ (beân trong xe)                            indicated boost pressure: Thieát bò
      bonnet (support) stay n. rod                  ño aùp suaát taêng aùp.
   which engages in a hole in the                       boost pressure n. pressure in
   bonnet to hold it in the open                    the intake system of the
   position: Thanh choáng naép capoâ.               superchargered engines when the
       bonnet tape n. double piping                 superchargered operates: Aùp suaát
   with fabric covering used to keep                taêng aùp
   bonnet of on older-style cars from                  boost sensor n. sensor located
   rubbing in the paintwork of the                  in the choke tube which sends a
   panels beneath them: Ñöôøng vieàn                signal to the ignition control unit
   naép capoâ.                                      according to pressure conditions,
booming n. low-pitched resonance,                   and the control unit then adjusts
    esp. in the exhaust: Tieáng noå                 the ignition timing for optimum
    vang ôû oáng thaûi.                             performance: Caûm bieán aùp suaát
boost 1 n. addition power, pressure or              taêng aùp
   charge, esp. the pressure from a                      boost valve n. valve in a
   supercharger: Söï taêng aùp, taêng               hydraulic system which amplifies
   coâng suaát.                                     pressure: Van taêng aùp (trong heä
   (NOTE:        also    called     boost           thoáng thuûy löïc)
   pressure)                                     boot n. (a) separate area for lugguage
   2 v. to increase (power, charge,                 behind the rear seats and mostly
   pressure, etc.), amplify (an audio               behind the rear window, or below
   signal, etc.): Taêng, khueách ñaïi.              the rear window in the case of
      boost control valve = blow-off                fastback designs, with a hinged
   valves: Van ñieàu khieån taêng aùp.              cover: Ngaên haønh lyù (capoâ sau)
      booster n. amplifier unit which               (b) = DUST BOOT: Voû chaén buïi,
   increase the audio signal level at               voû chuïp.
   the loudspeakers, fitted between                 (c) = WHEEL CLAMP: Caùi keïp
   the radio or stereo unit and the                 baùnh xe.
   speakers, often mounted in the                       booted version n. subsequent
   boot: Boä khueách ñaïi (aâm ly)                  saloon version with boot of a
       booster battery n. additional                model originally launch as a
   battery connected in series to give              hatchback: Ngaên haønh lyù rieâng
   added power for starting: AÉc quy                bieät.
   ñöôïc maéc noái tieáp ñeå khôûi ñoäng                boot handle n. handle for
      booster cable = n. jump lead:                 opening the bootlid: Tay caàm môû
   Daây noái aéc quy                                ngaên haønh lyù (capoâ sau)
       booster coil n. addition coil                   bootlid n. hinged cover for the
   which increase the strength of the               boot: Naép ngaên haønh lí phía sau.
   spark: Cuoän daây phuï ñeå taêng              bore 1 n. (a) diameter of a cylinder,
   ñieän aùp ñaùnh löûa                             especially of a cylinder in an
      boost gauge n. instrument                     internal      combustion     engine:


                                            35
bossing mallet                            36                            bottoming

   Ñöôøng kính xylanh ñoäng cô.                cuøng.
   (b) internal wall of a cylinder:            3 v. (a) (of suspension) to reach the
   Vaùch xylanh.                               bottom end of its travel causing a
   2 v. to bore and stroke an engine =         jolt: Ñaït ñeán ñieåm cuoái.
   to increase the bore and stroke of          (b) (of a low part of vehicle) to
   an engine: Laøm taêng ñöôøng kính           make contact with the ground:
   vaø khoaûng chaïy cuûa piston               Ñieåm tieáp xuùc vôùi maët ñöôøng.
       to bore out an engine = to                 bottom dead centre (BDC) n.
   increase the bore of an engine:             lowest point of travel of the piston
   Taêng ñöôøng kính xylanh (leân coát)        in a (vertical) piston-operated
      bore/ stroke ratio n. relation of        combustion engine, from which the
   the piston stroke to the diameter of        piston starts to move up-wards
   the cylinder of an engine, which            again until it reaches the upper
   provide information as to whether           point of travel (top dead center):
   the engine is a short stroke or a           Ñieåm cheát döôùi.
   long stroke unit: Tæ soá giöõa                 the inlet valve closes 600 after
   khoaûng chaïy vaø ñöôøng kính               bottom dead centre or BDC = the
   xylanh.                                     inlet valve closes 600 after the
bossing mallet n. mallet with a pear-          piston‘s lowest point: Van naïp
   shaped wooden head commonly                 ñoùng sau ñieåm cheát döôùi 600.
   used for shaping and stretching             (NOTE: opposite is top dead
   metal over a sandbag or wooden              centre; the corresponding point (to
   block: Caùi voà ñaàu loài.                  BDC) in a horizontally opposed or
botch 1 n. very badly executed piece           ‘flat’ engine is that furthest from
   of work: Söï laøm hoûng, söï laøm           the combustion chamber, also
   vuïng veà.                                  called outer dead centre)
   2 v. to do (a piece of work) very              bottom end n. (a) all moving
   badly: Laøm hoûng, laøm vuïng veà.          part in the crankcase and their
       botched-up job = (informal)             bearings, or more narrowly, the
   very badly executed repair which            end of the connecting rod attached
   is unlikely to last very long: Söûa         to the crankshaft (the big end):
   chöõa quaù toài                             Ñaàu to thanh truyeàn.
bottle jack n. small hydraulic jack in         (b) lower range of engine
   the shape of a bottle: Con ñoäi hình        revolutions: Voøng quay ñoäng cô
   chai.                                       thaáp.
      bottleneck n. narrow stretch of              bottom end torque = pulling
   road, or point on a road where              power at low engine speed:
   traffic is held up: Choã ñöôøng heïp        Moâmen xoaén taïi toác ñoä thaáp.
   deã bò taét ngheõn                              bottom gear n. first gear: Soá
bottom 1 a. lower or lowest: Thaáp             moät
   nhaát.                                         bottoming n. contact between a
   2 n. lowest point: Phaàn ñaùy, döôùi        low part of a vehicle and the


                                          36
bottom tank                                                               brake adjuster

   ground: Ñieåm tieáp xuùc vôùi maët              brace n. part providing support or
   ñöôøng.                                            reinforcement between two or
bottom tank n. bottom radiator tank                   more components: Giaù, khung,
   in a thermosyphon water-cooling                    truï choáng, thanh giaèng.
   system: Thuøng chöùa döôùi (cuûa boä                  bracing n. (a) (action) stiffening
   taûn nhieät)                                       by mean of braces: Söï gia coá
bounce v. (a) (of valves or contact                   (b) brace; part used to provide of
   breaker points) to chatter or                      support: Thanh giaèng.
   bounce instead of closing properly              bracket n. support usually made from
   at high speeds: Naûy leân, baät leân               metal strip for a part carried on or
   (b) to put down and release a                      suspended from a vehicle, such as
   conner of a vehicle : Söï haï xuoáng               a fog lamp or exhaust system: Giaù
   vaø baät leân cuûa moät goùc xe                    ñôõ, daàm coângxoân.
bowden cable n. control cable                      braided hose n. usually rubber pipe
   consisting of a wire cable in a                    covered in woven material or
   sheath, used especially for choke,                 braided wire, for fuel lines or
   clutch, and accelerator cables: Caùp               brake hoses: OÁng beän boá.
   ñieàu khieån                                    brake 1 n. (a) mechanism for slowing
bowser       n. tanker for refuelling                 or stopping a vehicle in motion, or
   especially military vehicles and                   for holding it when standing still:
   aircraft: Thuøng tieáp teá nhieân lieäu.           Cô caáu phanh, phanh.
box n. = silencer: Hoäp giaûm thanh.                  (b) device for measuring the power
       box spanner n. spanner in the                  of an engine: Thieát bò ño coâng
   form of a tube with one or two                     suaát ñoäng cô.
   hexagonal socket ends for fitting                  (c) = SHOOTING BRAKE: Phanh
   over nuts and bolt heads, and with                 bò ñaâm.
   holes in the sides to accept                          to put on or apply the brakes =
   crossbar called a tommy bar: OÁng                  to brake: Ñaïp phanh.
   tuyùp                                                   to stand on the brakes =
       box van n. van with a large                    (informal ) to brake hard: Keït
   square-sectioned enclosed area for                 phanh.
   goods behind the driver’s cab: Xe                     to test an engine on the brake
   coù thuøng chöùa haøng hoùa                        = to find out how much power an
        box wrench n. US = ring                       engine develops: Ño coâng suaát
   spanner: Khoùa voøng.                              ñoäng cô.
B-pillar or B-post n. upright member                  (NOTE: the device used nowadays
   behind the front door supporting                   is called a dynamometer)
   the roof and carrying the striker                  2 v. to operate the brakes in order
   plate for the front door and, in the               to slow down: Ñaïp phanh.
   case of four-door models, the                          brake adjuster n. device in a
   hinges for the rear door: Truï giöõa               drum brake system for moving the
   ôû khung cöûa xe.                                  shoes in relation to the drum: Cô


                                              37
brake adjusting spanner                                                   brake fluid

   caáu ñieàu chænh phanh (phanh                   phanh.
   troáng)                                             brake cylinder n. = wheel
       brake adjusting spanner =                   cylinder: Xy lanh phanh.
   special spanner with a square                      brake disc = flat metal disc in a
   cutout to fit over a square adjuster            disc brake system, mounted on a
   projecting     from     the     brake           wheel hub and rotating with the
   backplate: Khoùa ñieàu chænh                    wheel until acted on by the brake
   phanh.                                          pads: Ñóa phanh.
   (NOTE: US English is brake                      (NOTE: US English is disc brake
   wrench)                                         rotor)
       brake adjusting tool = lever-                  brake dive n. dipping of a car’s
   tyre tool for use on drum brakes                front end or lifting of the rear end
   with star wheel adjustment, which               when the brakes are applies, due
   fits through a slot in the backplate            to a load transfer from the rear to
   to turn the star wheel and adjust               the front suspension: Söï chuùi ñaàu
   the clearnce between the brake                  xe khi phanh.
   shoe and the drum: Duïng cuï ñieàu              (NOTE: opposite is squat)
   chænh phanh.                                        brake drum n. metal drum
       brake band n. device used to                mounted on a car hub to from the
   hold one of the three turning                   outer shell of the brake, against
   members of the planetary gear set               which the brake shoes press to
   in an automatic gearbox stationary              slow or stop rotation of the drum
   in order to change gear ratios,                 and wheel: Troáng phanh.
   being replaced in more modern                      brake fade n. loss of friction in
   designs by, for example, and                    the brakes and thus of stopping
   multiple-disc clutches: Ñai phanh.              power due to overheating: Söï
       brake bleeder n. workshop                   tröôït phanh (do quaù nhieät)
   equipment used to bleed air from                    brake failure       n. complete
   hydraulic brake, clutch or steering             failure of the brakes to function:
   system on vehicles: Duïng cuï xaû               Hö hoûng phanh.
   gioù phanh.                                  brake fluid n. special thin oil used in
      brake cable n. wire cable used               hydraulic brake systems to transmit
   to operate the brakes in some                   force through a closed system of
   mechanical brake systems, still                 pipes (i.e. brake lines): Daàu
   used for trailers and for the                   phanh.
   handbrake on most cars: Daây caùp                  brake fluid reservoir = usually
   phanh.                                          a translucent plastic tank located
       brake caliper n. assembly in a              either directly on top of the master
   disc brake system fitting over the              cylinder or on a higher lever for
   disc and containing the piston                  easier access, which contains two
   which act on the brake pads, which              chambers in dual-circuit braking
   in turn press on the disc: Boä keïp             systems, and may include a lever


                                           38
brake horsepower                                                          brake shoe

   sensor: Bình daàu phanh.                            brake pad wear indicator =
brake      horsepower        n.    power           either a mechanical system which
   developed by an engine which is                 produce screeching, squealing, or
   measured by a brake or                          scraping noise when the pads are
   dynamometer; often abbreviated                  worn, as the metal indicators
   as bhp: Coâng suaát ñoäng cô.                   contact the brake discs, or an
        brake hose          n. flexible,           electrical system in which worn
   reinforced high-pressure hose,                  pads close an electric circuit that
   used to connect the fixed brake                 illuminates a warning light on the
   pipes to the brake assemblies that              instrument panel: Thieát bò baùo
   move up and down with the                       moøn phanh.
   wheels: OÁng daãn daàu phanh.                       brake pedal n. pedal on the
      brake light n.red rear light                 floor of a vehicle in front of the
   activated when the foot brake is                driver which operates the brake:
   applied; usually integrated in a tail           Baøn ñaïp phanh.
   light assembly: Ñeøn phanh.                         spongy brake pedal = lack of
   (NOTE: also called stop light)                  normal resistance when the pedal
       brake lining n. curved strip of             is pressed often due to air in the
   friction material usually containing            hydraulic system: Baøn ñaïp phanh
   asbestos attached to a brake shoe:              bò troâi.
   Boá phanh.                                           brake panel travel = free
        riveted or bonded brake                    movement of the brake pedal
   linings = brake linings attached to             before resistance is felt: Ñoä rô
   the brake shoes with rivets or                  baøn ñaïp phanh.
   glued on with adhesive: Boá phanh                   brake pulling n. pulling to left
   ñöôïc taùn riveâ hoaëc daùn                     or right as a result of uneven
      brake mean effective pressure                braking effort: Phanh bò ñaâm
   (BMEP) n. average pressure in the               (sang traùi hoaëc sang phaûi)
   cylinders of an engine divided by                   brake rotor n. US = BRAKE
   its mechanical efficiency, i.e. the             DISC: Ñóa phanh.
   ratio of the power actually                        brake servo (unit ) n. apparatus
   delivered at an output shaft to                 which supplement the driver’s
   power developed in the cylinders;               physical effort in providing most of
   used as an indication of torque: AÙp            the force required for braking,
   suaát (tæ leä giöõa coâng suaát ôû truïc        usually using vaccuum from the
   ra baùnh xe vaø coâng suaát phaùt ra            inlet manifold: Boä trôï löïc phanh.
   töø xy lanh) hieäu quaû trung bình.                 brake shoe n. curved part in
       brake pad n. pad of friction                drum brake systems with T-shaped
   material on a steel plate that is               cross section, made of sheet steel
   brought into contact with the disc              or an alloy casting, to which the
   under heavy pressure in a disc                  brake lining is riveted or bonded
   brake: Boá phanh.                               with adhesive: Guoác phanh.


                                              39
brake test                                                               break down

   (NOTE: the term brake shoe is                  and rear wheels: Phaân boá löïc
   often used for the complete shoe-              phanh giöõa baùnh tröôùc vaø sau
   and-lining assembly)                              braking system = complete set
       brake shoe return spring =                 of braking equipment: Heä thoáng
   spring whose ends are attached to              phanh.
   two brake shoes, bringing them              brass punch n. brass tool used to
   back into the off position after the           drive bearing races, bushes, etc. in
   brake has been applied: Loø xoø                and out: OÁng loùt.
   guoác phanh.                                        braze v. to join two metal
      brake test n. test of braking               surfaces by fusing a layer of brass
   efficiency, typically as part of a             or high-melting solder between
   roadworthiness test: Kieåm tra                 them: Haøn baèng hôïp kim ñoàng
   hieäu quaû phanh.                           break v. (a) to separate into several
       brake warning light n. light               parts: Raõ (maùy)
   which can serve several purposes,              (b) to separate: Taùch ra
   such as indicating a low fluid lever              to break (up) a car for spares =
   in the brake fluid reservoir, a                to take a car to piece so that the
   malfunction in one of two separate             part can be used to repair other
   braking circuits, executive wear of            cars: Raõ chieác xe ra thaønh nhöõng
   brake pads or linings, or when the             boä phaän
   handbrake is applied with the                      point break 50 before TDC =
   ignition switch on: Ñeøn baùo                  the contact breaker points open
   phanh.                                         (and the spark occurs) 50 before
      brake wrench n. US =brake                   top dead centre: Vít löûa môû ra
   adjusting spanner: Khoùa ñieàu                 tröôùc ñieåm cheát treân 50
   chænh phanh.                                break away v. (of a vehicle) to leave
braking n. operation or functioning of            the desired line of travel due to
   the brake: Söï phanh.                          loss of adhesion, especially when
       braking distance = distance                cornering: Tröôït ngang khi quay
   required for a vehicle to come to              voøng
   rest from the point where the               break down v. (a) (of a mechanism or
   brakes are first applied: Quaõng               vehicle) to cease to operate:
   ñöôøng phanh                                   Hoûng, hö.
       braking effort or force =                  (b) (of insulation) to lose its
   retarding power of a brake or                  effectiveness: Maát hieäu quaû.
   brakes: Löïc phanh.                               breakdown n. (a) failure of a
         braking performance =                    mechanism or a vehicle: Söï hoûng
   behaviour of the brakes when                   hoùc (maùy moùc hoaëc xe coä).
   operated or amount of braking                  (b) (of insulation) loss of
   effort available: Ñaëc tính phanh              effectiveness: Maát hieäu quaû.
      braking ratio = distribution of                breakdown across the sparking
   braking effort between the front               plug insulator cause missing = if


                                          40
breakdown recovery (service)                41                             breathalyse

   the insulation of the sparking plug              system with a pulse generator
   becomes faulty, that cylinder will               instead of a contact breaker: Boä
   stop     firing     or     fire  only            chia ñieän khoâng coù vít löûa
   intermittently: Söù caùch ñieän cuûa                   breakerless transistorized
   bougie hoûng thì söï ñaùnh löûa seõ              ignition (system) = electronic
   döøng laïi hoaëc dieãn ra khoâng lieân           ignition system with a pulse
   tuïc.                                            generator such as a magnetic or
      breakdown recovery (service)                  Hall effect pick-up instead of a
   n. towing or transporting broken-                contact breaker, processing the
   down vehicles to a garage for                    signals generator in an electronic
   repair or the owner’s home: Keùo                 control unit: Heä thoáng ñaùnh löûa
   xe hö veà söûa chöõa                             baùn daãn khoâng coù vít löûa (tieáp
       breakdown truck = vehicle                    ñieåm)
   equipped for towing or sometime               break in v. US = RUN IN: Chaïy thöû
   transporting disabled vehicles: Xe               ñoäng cô coøn môùi.
   chuyeân duïng ñeå keùo caùc xe hoûng          breakover n. area of a dent in a panel
   hoùc.                                            where the sheet metal is actually
breaker n. (a) person who breaks up                 buckled into the opposite direction
   cars and sometimes other vehicles                of the normal shape: Choã moáp,
   which are worn out or no longer                  thuïng
   roadworthy and will sell any                  break time n. period during which the
   reusable parts: Thôï raõ xe ñeå baùn             contact breaker points remain
   phuï tuøng.                                      open: Thôøi gian vít môû.
   (b) = contact breaker: Vít löûa,                 (NOTE: opposite is dwell period)
   coâng taéc tieáp ñieåm.                       break up v. to dismantle a vehicle and
      break-triggered transistorized                sell the parts: Thaùo raõ (xe)
   ignition (system) = transistorized               (NOTE: US English is part out)
   ignition system whose distributor is          breathalyse or breathalyze v. to give
   the same as that of a coil ignition              (a driver) a breathalyser test:
   system, but whose contact breaker                Kieåm tra löôïng röôïu ñaõ uoáng
   switch only the control current;                 qua hôi thôû.
   usually not fitted as original                       breathalyser or breathalyzer
   equipment: Heä thoáng ñaùnh löûa                 n. device into which a driver blows
   baùn daãn coù vít ñieàu khieån                   to determine the amount of alcohol
breaker cam n. cam that turns on the                in his breath (and thus in his
   distributor shaft and has as many                blood): Thieát bò kieåm tra löôïng
   lobes as there are engine                        röôïu ñaõ uoáng qua hôi thôû
   cylinders: Cam vít löûa                              breathalyser or breathalyzer
        breakerless        a. having no             test = test given by the police to
   contact breaker: Khoâng coù vít löûa             find out how much alcohol a driver
         breakerless distributor =                  has drunk: Kieåm tra löôïng röôïu
   distributor in an electronic ignition            ñaõ uoáng.


                                            41
breather                                                                     bulb holder

breather n. passage to the open air              bucket seat n. rigid seat with slightly
   from an enclosed space, especially                raised sides to give the passenger
   the     crankcase,       to    provide            or driver lateral support ; mainly
   ventilation: OÁng thoâng hôi (cacte)              used in sports cars: Gheá coá ñònh.
bridge igniter n. device for detonation          buckle n. locking metal clasp of a seat
   the air bag: Kíp noå tuùi khí.                    belt: Khoùa gaøi daây ñai an toaøn
bright a. (of finish or plating) shiny                   buckle up v. ( informal US) =
   and reflecting much light: Saùng                  BELT UP: Khoùa ñai an toaøn.
   choùi.                                        buffeting n. sort of severe, pulsating
   (NOTE: opposite is matt)                          draught as experienced when
brinell harness n. hardness measured                 driving at high speeds with the
   in a test by hydraulically pressing a             windows open, or in convertibles
   hard ball under standard load into                with the top down: Söï rung laéc.
   the specimen: Ñoä cöùng Brinell.              buffing n. smoothing and polishing of
brush n. (a) paintbrush: Coï, choåi sôn              a surface by means of a rotating
   (b) rubbing electrical contact for                flexible wheel to the surface of
   use with rotating members,                        which fine, abrasive particles are
   especially commutator in starters,                applies in liquid or past form: Söï
   alternators or generators: Choåi                  ñaùnh boùng.
   than                                          build      quality    n.    quality     of
       brush holder = in a starter                   workmanship and materials in the
   motor, generator or alternator the                construction of a vehicle: Chaát
   part holding the carbon brushes                   löôïng laép raùp
   and providing guidance for the                           built-up     crankshaft       =
   spring loaded brUShes to maintain                 crankshaft made from separate
   their contact with the commutator                 parts rather than cast or forged in
   or slip ring: Ñeá choåi than                      one piece: Truïc khuyûu gheùp
      brush spring = spring holding a            bulb n. gas-filled, glass envelope
   carbon brush in contact with the                  (often pear- shaped if not actually
   commutator or slip ring: Loø xo                   pear-sized) containing a thin metal
   choåi than                                        filament which lights up when an
BSF = BRITISH STANDARD FINE                          electric current is passed through
      BSI = BRITISH STANDARDS                        it: Boùng ñeøn
   INSTITUTION                                          bulb blackening = blackening of
      BSW = BRITISH STANDARD                         the bulb glass due to metal vapour
   WHITWOTH                                          deposition, often indicator that the
BTDC =           Before      Top    Dead             bulb is about to fail: Boùng ñeøn bò
   Centre:Tröôùc ñieåm cheát treân                   chaùy
B thread n. = internal thread: Ren                       bulb holder = usually a bayonet
   trong.                                            socket for a lighter bulb: Chui ñeøn
bubble       n. small blister in the                 (NOTE: US English is lamp
   paintwork: Choã doäp sôn (nhoû)                   socket)


                                            42
bulkhead                                                                     burr walnut

bulkhead n. panel at the rear of the                     bumping hammer = hammer
    engine compartment that spans the                for coarse hammer work on bodies,
    full width of the body and extends               Used with dollies: Buùa goø
    vertically from the scuttle down to           bump start n. method of starting a car
    the front edge of the floorpan or                with a flat battery, by pushing it or
    the toeboard ; also used for the                 letting it run down a hill and then
    panel behind the rear seat                       letting in the clutch in second gear:
    separating the passenger cabin                   Khôûi ñoäng baèng caùch ñaåy hoaëc
    from the boot: Vaùch ngaên.                      cho xe xuoáng doác roài caøi soá 2 khi
    (NOTE: US English is dash panel)                 aéc quy bò heát ñieän
bull bar n. upward extension of a                    (NOTE: only possible on a car with
    bumper to protect lights and (at the             a manual gearbox)
    front of the car) the grille: Thanh                 bump steer n. effect observed
    caûn.                                            when the movement of the
bump and rebound n. the two stages                   suspension caused by hitting a
    of suspension movement requiring                 bump or hole in the road acts on
    damping: Hai traïng thaùi chuyeån                the steering to turn the wheels
    ñoäng cuûa heä thoáng treo chaïm                 slightly sideways, which makes the
    xuoáng vaø naûy leân                             car veer to one side ; this can be
bumper n. previously a separate metal                felt by the steering wheel: Söï
    bar or blade at the front or rear of a           nghieâng tay laùi khi gaëp oå gaø
    vehicle, now a reinforced impact-                    bump stop n. rubber buffer
    absorbing plastic moulding faired                which limits the extent a vehicle
    in to the bodywork and absorbing                 suspension can move on hitting a
    impacts, at least at low speeds: Caùi            bump: Caùi giaûm va ñaäp baèng cao
    caûn, caùi chaén xe.                             su treân nhuùn
       bumper bar = usually tubular or            burning n. (a) erosion or eating away,
    curved section separate bumper:                  especially of contact breaker or
    Thanh chaén xe.                                  sparking plug points or exhaust
        bumper bracket = mounting                    valves: Söï baøo moøn
    bracket for the bumper assembly,                 (b) = combustion: Söï chaùy
    fixed to the body or chassis, now             burnishing n. polishing process for
    often designed to give way to a                  metal, usually a fine abrasive on a
    certain extent on impact: Caùi giaù              buffing wheel: Söï ñaùnh boùng (kim
    thanh chaén.                                     loaïi)
       bumper iron = bumper bracket:              burnt a. (of points or valves) eroded
    Caùi giaù thanh chaén                            or eaten away: Bò baøo moøn
bumping out n. first step in the panel            burr n. rough edge or other small
    beating process, in which the panel              projection on metal: Gôø, rìa.
    is roughly brought back into shape                    burr walnut n. wood veneer
    with a straightening hammer: Goø                 used for dashboards and door
    thoâ (laøm ñoàng)                                cappings in luxury cars: Daàu


                                             43
burst                                                                      bypass valve

   ñaùnh boùng goã trang trí treân caùc          butt joint or weld n. welded joint
   xe sang troïng                                   where the panels or other parts to
burst v. (of tyre) to explode and lose              be joined do not overlap: Moái haøn.
   all its air very suddenly: Söï noå voû        button head n. = round head (bolt):
   xe                                               Buloâng ñaàu troøn.
bus n. (short for omnibus) vehicle for           bypass 1 n. (a) road going round and
   carrying a fairly large number of                thus avoiding a town or other
   passengers, usually for payment,                 congested area: Ñöôøng voøng.
   over a set route and with a fixed                (b) means such as a passage
   time schedule: Xe buyùt.                         through which the flow of a liquid
       single decker bus = bus with                 or gas is redirected in place of its
   one story or deck: Xe buyùt moät                 original or main course: Ñöôøng
   taàng.                                           taét.
       double decker bus = bus with                 2 v. to go round (an object) so as to
   two storeys or decks: Xe buyùt hai               avoid it: Ñi voøng, loái reõ.
   taàng.                                               bypass air screw n. screw on
busbar n. rod or other electrical                   the airflow sensor of a fuel
   conductor carrying a large current               injection system, for adjusting the
   at a constant voltage and                        amount of air in the mixture: Vít
   connecting several circuits: Daây                chænh hoãn hôïp (treân boä ño gioù)
   ñieän vôùi doøng lôùn vaø ñieän aùp                 bypass filter n. type of oil filter
   khoâng ñoåi (daây caùp ñieän)                    through which only part of the total
bus or US busing n. thin metal sleeve               lubricant passes (approximately
   fitted into a circular hole and                  10-20 %), the rest being supplies
   acting as a bearing for a shaft or               directly to the lubricating points:
   similar inserted into it: Sô mi, oáng            Boä loïc reõ.
   loùt, baïc                                           bypass valve n. valve which,
butterfly nut n. = wing nut: Ñai oác coù            when open, directs the flow of a
   caùnh (oác böôùm)                                liquid or gas through a bypass;
        butterfly (valve) n. throttle               such as the wastegate in the
   valve in a tube, especially a                    exhaust of a turbocharger system:
   carburettor air intake, comprising a             Van reõ, van xaû.
   disc pivoted along its diameter:
   Böôùm ga.




                                            44
C                                                                    cadence braking


                                           Cc
C     (a)    (short of)      Celsius or            connecting cable to their terminals,
centigrade: Ñoä baùch phaân.                       especially battery cables to the
   (b) = COULOMB: Culoâng (ñôn vò                  terminal posts: Ñaàu keïp daây caùp.
   ño ñieän tích).                                    cable clamps should be tight on
   (c) = COMFORT: Söï tieän nghi.                  the terminal posts and free of
       C-4 System n. = COMPUTER                    corrocable covering = outer layer,
   CONTROLLED              CATALYTIC               now nearly always of plastic,
   CONVERTER: Heä thoáng maùy                      serving as electrical insulation for
   tính ñieàu khieån boä xuùc taùc (hoaù           cables: Ñaàu daây caùp phaûi ñöôïc
   khöû khí thaûi) baèng maùy tính                 sieát chaët treân coïc aéc quy vaø
Cab n. (a) = TAXI (CAB ): Xe taéc xi.              khoâng bò phuû bôûi oxít
   (b) enclosed part at the front of a                cable brake = mechanical brake
   commercial vehicle for the driver               operated by levers and a cable,
   and passenger(s): Buoàng laùi.                  either unsheathe or a bowden type,
        cabin     n.     =    passenger            now only used for a handbrake or
   compartment:        Khoang      haønh           on a trailer.: Daây caùp phanh
   khaùch.                                              cable guide = tube section
         cabin forward design =                    bolted or spot-welded to a part of
   passenger car design with a                     the body such as the floor pan for
   relatively short front end, and                 routing an operating cable, e.g. for
   footwells extending up to the front             a bonnet release: OÁng daãn höôùng
   axle, providing added passenger                 daây caùp
   space: Thieát keá xe ñeå cabin roäng                cable-operated = brought into
cable n. (a) assembly of insulated                 operation by a cable: Hoaït ñoäng
   electrical    conductors,     usually           nhôø caùp
   wires, laid together, often around a               cabriolet n. convertible with a
   central core and surrounded by a                soft top and windows, usually a
   heavy insulation, for heavy duty                four-seater: Xe mui traàn
   applications such as battery cables:         CACIS =           CONTINUOUS AC
   Daây caùp, daây ñieän to.                       IGNITION SYSTEM: Heä thoáng
   (b) assembly of wire strands                    ñaùnh löûa xoay chieàu lieân tuïc
   twisted together used for a pulling          CAD (short of)          computer-aided
   or sometimes a pushing or twisting              design: Söï thieát keá treân maùy
   action, either without a sheath ( as            tính.
   in some brake cables), or with a             cadence braking          n. emergency
   sheath as in control cables and                 braking method in which the driver
   drives such as speedometer cables:              rapidly depresses and release the
   Caùp beän, daây caùp meàm                       brake pedal: Söï nhòp phanh khi
      cable clamp = device for                     phanh khaån caáp


                                           45
cadmium-plated                                                           cam roller

cadmium-plated a. covered in a                    Daây ñai (curoa) cam
    coating of cadmium: Maï catmi.                    cam chain n. = TIMING
CAE       (short for)      computer-aided         CHAIN: Xích (seân) cam.
    engineering: Kyõ thuaät vôùi söï hoã             cam      design n. = CAM
    trôï maùy tính                                PROFILE: Bieân daïng cam.
        CAL (shot for) computer-aided                cam face n. surface of a cam:
    lighting: Heä thoáng chieáu saùng vôùi        Beà maët cam.
    söï hoã trôï cuûa maùy tính                       measure the cam face from
calibration n. marking the measuring              nose to heel = measure the cam’s
    units on an instrument or checking            surface from the highest point to
    their accuracy: Söï ñònh côõ, ñieàu           the lowest: Ño beà maët cam töø
    chænh, caân chænh                             ñieåm cao nhaát ñeán ñieåm thaáp
caliper or calliper n. (a) measuring              nhaát
    tool with two legs usually mounted               cam follower n. (a) part of the
    in a slide on a measuring bar, for            valve stem-possibly equipped with
    internal           and       external         a roller mechanism-in a manner to
    measurement; some designs allow               prevent lateral forces acting on
    depth and step measurement a                  either the pushrod or valve stem:
    well; the different types include             Baùnh xe tieáp xuùc vôùi cam.
    vernier calipers, dial calipers, or           (b) = TAPPET: Con ñoäi
    digital calipers: Thöôùc keïp                    cam heel n. lowest point of a
     (b) = BRAKE CALIPER: Boä keïp                cam opposite the lobe: Ñeá cam
    phanh ñóa.                                    (NOTE: also called base circle)
caliper frame = casting that holds the               cam lobe n. projecting part of a
    brake caliper, either directly bolted         cam which pushes an a pushrod,
    to the suspension or to an adapter:           valve stem, or follower, etc.: Vaáu
    Maâm phanh                                    cam.
        caliper gauge n. = caliper:                  cam lubricator n. device, often
    Thöôùc keïp                                   in the from of a wick, for
cam n. (a) rotating part with a                   lubricating the contact breaker
    projection or projections (called             cam in the distributor: Baác boâi
    lobes) used to push another part at           trôn cam (trong boä chia ñieän).
    precisely defined intervals: Cam                 cam profile n. exact shape of
    (bieán chuyeån ñoäng quay thaønh              the cam face which determines the
    chuyeån ñoäng thaúng).                        rate and extent of valve lift, i.e.
    (b) (informal for ) camshaft: Truïc           how fast and how far the valve
    cam                                           opens, and all other aspects of
       twin cam engine = engine with              valve behaviour during the
    two camshafts: Ñoäng cô cam keùp.             opening and closing process: Bieân
       cam angle n. = DWELL: Goùc                 daïng cam.
    ngaäm.                                           cam roller n. rotating wheel
       cam belt n. = TIMING BELT:                 acting as a cam follower: Baùnh xe


                                             46
camber                                                                         candela

   quay tieáp xuùc vôùi cam.                        truïc cam.
camber n. (a) angle formed by the                      camshaft drive = connection
   plane of the wheel to the                        between crankshaft and camshaft –
   perpendicular as viewed from the                 either via gears, chain, drive belt,
   front: Goùc nghieâng cuûa baùnh xe               shaft or eccentric shaft – that
   khi nhìn höôùng vuoâng goùc töø phía             ensures the require speed ratio of
   tröôùc.                                          1:2: Söï truyeàn ñoäng cam (qua
   (b) slightly arched contour of a                 truïc khuyûu).
   road or other surface: Söï voàng leân,              camshaft drive belt = timing
   choã loài leân                                   belt: Ñai (curoa) truyeàn ñoäng
   (c) curvature of a leaf spring: Ñoä              truïc cam.
   cong cuûa nhíp xe.                                    camshaft drive sprocket =
       positive camber = wheel                      sprocket     mounted       on    the
   leaning outwards at the top: Goùc                crankshaft to drive the camshaft
   camber döông (baùnh xe coù                       via the timing chain: Baùnh xích
   khuynh höôùng ngaõ ra ngoaøi) khi                treân coát maùy trong truyeàn ñoäng
   nhìn töø treân                                   truïc cam baèng xích
        negative camber =           Goùc                camshaft end play = free
   camber aâm.                                      lateral movement of the camshaft:
camper n. motorized caravan, with a                 Khe hôû doïc cuûa truïc cam
   body in appearance like a van,                      camshaft housing = housing for
   built on a small to medium-sized                 one of the camshaft of a twin
   commercial vehicle chassis and                   overhead       camshaft       engine
   offering sleeping, cooking and                   mounted on top of the cylinder
   other facilities: Xe kieåu nhaø löu              head, and containing the camshaft
   ñoäng.                                           and usually also the tappets: Naép
       camping trailer n. (a) trailer               truïc cam.
   containing camping equipment or                     camshaft journal = part of the
   fitted      with a tent which can                camshaft running in one of its
   erected on arrival at the desired                bearings: Coå truïc cam.
   camping site: Toa mooùc theo nhaø                   camshaft pulley = pulley on the
   löu ñoäng.                                       end of the camshaft for the
   (b) US = caravan: Xe lôùn duøng                  camshaft drive belt: Puli cam.
   laøm nhaø löu ñoäng.                                 camshaft sprocket = sprocket
camshaft n. shaft carrying the cams                 mounted on the camshaft driven
   which operate the valves usually of              by the timing chain which in turn
   a four-stroke engine and rotating at             driven by the crankshaft: Baùnh
   half engine speed: Truïc cam, coát               xích (nhoâng) treân truïc cam.
   cam.                                          can n. tube in a canned motor pump
       camshaft bearing = bearing                   which insulates the motor winding:
   (usually a plain bearing) which                  Bình nhoû.
   supports the camshaft: Baïc loùt               candela n. basic unit of luminous


                                            47
candy paint job                                                                   captive

   intensity: Ñôn vò ño cöôøng ñoä aùnh             transformer when a thyristor is
   saùng.                                           triggered at the ignition point: Heä
candy paint job n. (informal us)                    thoáng ñaùnh löûa ñieän dung (baèng
   custom      paintwork      using     a           tuï).
   transparent colour medium applied             capacity n. (a) amount which can be
   over the base coat, which adds                   contained in a container such as a
   translucence and richness to the                 fuel tank, sump, radiator, etc. and
   paint, especially all shades of red:             by extension the swept volume of
   Lôùp sôn laøm boùng.                             an engine: Dung tích
cannibalize v. to the take parts from               (b) output of an electric motor or
   (a vehicle) to fit to another                    other electrical apparatus: Coâng
   vehicle: Ñoåi phuï tuøng (laáy töø xe            suaát ngoû ra cuûa thieát bò ñieän
   naøy gaén qua xe khaùc).                         (c) volume of fluid handle through
cantilever spring n. (a) leaf spring                a pump, usually in gallons per
   mounted upside down and fixed to                 minute: Löu löôïng tính baèng theå
   the vehicle at its mid-point, (now               tích (cuûa bôm).
   obsolete): Nhíp ngöôïc (xe cuõ).                      capacity rating n.= rated
   (b) quarter elliptic leaf spring:                capacity: Dung löôïng ñònh möùc
   Nhíp daïng moät phaàn tö elip.                   cuûa aéc quy
can trail n. = roof rail: Thanh ñôõ              capillary (tube) n. tube with a very
   mui xe.                                          small bore used for temperature
canvas top n. US soft top for an open               gauges: OÁng mao daãn
   car, especially one made of a                 cap nut n. nut whose outer end is
   natural fabric: Mui baèng vaûi baït.             closed, covering the thread: Ñai oác
cap n. (a) protective cover, usually                moät ñaàu bòt
   round and such as can be screwed              capping n. see door capping: Mieáng
   or twisted on, e.g. radiator cap,                roong cöûa
   petrol cap: Caùi naép ñaäy (thuøng            capstan screw n. screw with a round
   xaêng, keùt nöôùc).                              head with a hole or holes passing
   (b) base of a light bulb which fits              through it, into which a tommy bar
   into the socket: Ñuoâi ñeøn                      is inserted for tightening or
capacitor n. assembly of one or more                loosening: Ñinh oác coù loã noái caàn
   pairs of conductors separated by                 sieát
   insulators, able to store an electric         capstat n. wax-type thermostat at the
   change where there is a voltage                  base of the jet of a SU carburetor,
   difference: Tuï ñieän.                           which expands and reduces fuel
       capacitor discharge ignition                 flow when the under bonnet
   (CDI) (system) = electronic                      temperature rises: Boä ñieàu chænh
   ignition system whose ignition                   nhieân lieäu theo nhieät ñoä baèng saùp
   energy is store in the electrical             captive a. permanently located in
   field of a capacitor, which                      the desired position: Coá ñònh, baét
   discharge     via      the    ignition           chaët (vaøo vò trí mong muoán).


                                            48
captive nut                                                                  car theft

      bolt with captive plain washer               and preserving especially the
   = bolt with a plain washer trapped              bodywork and interior: Caùc saûn
   under its head: Bu loâng vôùi voøng             phaåm chaêm soùc xe (lau chuøi,
   ñeäm giöõ chaët ñaàu                            ñaùnh boùng).
captive nut = nut insert in a sheet                   car cover = cover shaped to fit
   metal cage spot-welded to the                   a car, usually waterproof for use
   body in an inaccessible position,               outdoors, but can also be for
   so that the item fixed to it can                protection against dust and
   easily be removed: Ñai oác coá ñònh             condensation during storage: Taám
   (haøn vaøo khung).                              boïc xe.
car n. (a) US = TRAMCAR: Xe                           car crash see CRASH: Tai naïn
   ñieän                                           xe hôi.
   (b) = PASSENGER CAR: Xe du                           car insurance      =      motor
   lòch                                            insurance: Baûo hieåm xe hôi.
      car accident = car crash: Tai                   car key = key for the ignition,
   naïn xe hôi.                                    boot, doors or petrol cap, etc.:
       car alarm (system) = alarm                  Chìa khoùa xe.
   system: Heä thoáng baùo ñoäng treân                 car park = area or building
   xe hôi.                                         where cars may be parked: Baõi
      car banger = (informal ) person              ñaäu xe.
   or organization that fakes car                     car phone = cellular telephone
   accident and repair bills in order to           installed in a car: Ñieän thoaïi
   get the repair money               from         trong xe.
   insurance companies: Ngöôøi nguïy                   car polish = polish for the
   taïo tai naïn xe coä (laáy baûo hieåm).         exterior paintwork of a car: Söï
        car banging = (informal)                   ñaùnh boùng xe.
   insurance fraud involving fake car                 car sponge = large sponge for
   accidents and repair bills: Söï giaû            washing a car: Xoáp lau xe.
   maïo tai naïn xe coä ñeå laáy tieàn baûo           car stereo = combination of a
   hieåm.                                          stereo radio with a cassette player
       car blind = blind for the rear              or sometimes with a CD player,
   window to prevent dazzle from                   for use in a car: Heä thoáng aâm
   following vehicles’ head–lights:                thanh xe.
   Maøn che choáng choùi phía sau xe.                 car tax = tax add to the price
      car burglar = person who steals              of a new car, or tax payable
   things from cars: Keû troäm ñoà töø             annually or six-monthly for using a
   xe hôi.                                         caron the road: Thueá xe.
      car cap = waterproof cover for                  car test = road test: Kieåm tra
   the roof, windscreen and windows:               xe treân ñöôøng tröôøng
   Taám che xe.                                       car theft n. stealing cars or
      car care produce = preparation               stealing items from cars: Söï aên
   or article for cleaning, polishing              caép xe hoaëc ñoà vaät trong xe


                                              49
car thief                                                                carbon knock

       car thief = person who steals                    carbon brush          n. rubbing
   cars: Keû troäm xe.                             electrical contact in the form of a
       car tyre = tyre suitable for a              carbon block or rod which bears
   passenger car: Voû xe.                          against another member, such as a
        car wash = (a) drive-in,                   commutator, collector ring or slip
   automatic facility for washing a                ring, to provide passage for an
   car: Traïm röûa xe töï ñoäng.                   electric current, e.g. from an
    (b) car cleaning agent for adding              external source to the armature of
   to water, containing a detergent                a motor, as in a starter, or form the
   and usually a wax: Chaát phuï gia               rotor of an alternator via slip rings
   ñeå röûa xe                                     to an external circuit: Choåi than.
      car wax = non abrasive polish                   carbon brush spring = BRUSH
   containing wax for protecting a                 SPRING: Loø xo choåi than.
   car’s finish: Saùp ñaùnh boùng xe.           carbon build-up or deposits            n.
caravan n. mobile home especially                  residues of burnt oil deposited in
   for recreational purpose, for                   the combustion chamber, on the
   towing behind a car commercial                  piston top and elsewhere in the
   vehicle, usually with two wheels:               course of the combustion process:
   Nhaø löu ñoäng keùo theo xe.                    Muoâïi than (baùm trong buoàng
   (NOTE: US English is camping                    ñoát)
   trailer, mobile home)                        carbon-core leads n. HT or ignition
      caravanning n. traveling with                leads with a tiny diameter core of
   a caravan, usually as a holiday: Ñi             carbon or graphite: Daây phin than,
   du lòch vôùi nhaø löu ñoäng.                    daây cao aùp vôùi loõi cacbon.
carb n. = CARBURETTOR: Boä cheá                         carbon dioxide (CO2)           n.
   hoøa khí.                                       colourless, odourless, non-toxic
carbon n. (a) black material with good             gas, a natural constituent of the
   electrical        properties       of           atmosphere and a product of
                                                   breathing and some combustion
   conductivity: Than coác.
                                                   processes: Khí CO2.
   (b) deposit with forms in the
   combustion chamber, on the piston            carbon fibre n. thin, light and very
   crown and to a lesser extent in the             strong fibre of pure carbon, used as
   inlet and exhaust ports, resulting              reinforcement with resins, metal
   form      incomplete      combustion            and other materials: Sôïi cacbon.
   especially of oil: Muoäïi than.              carbon fouling n. blockings of the
       carbon black n. engineering                 points of a sparking plug by
   material, used as filler in plastic             carbon, often causing intermittent
   mouldings and in tyres, where it                firing or complete failure: Söï ñoùng
   improves        the       mechanical            chaáu bougie.
   properties of tyre rubber and                      carbon knock n. type of engine
   produces, as a side effect, the                 knock in internal combustion
   typical black colour: Moà hoùng                 engines, caused by uncontrolled


                                           50
carbon monoxide (CO)                                                        carpeting

   ignition as a result of carbon                 air passage through the carburetor:
   deposits in the combustion                     Loã gioù chính
   chamber, especially in old engine:                  carburettor engine n. engine
   Söï roùc maùy (kích noå) vì muoäi              fitted with a carburettor as opposed
   than.                                          to fuel injection: Ñoäng cô söû duïng
        carbon monoxide (CO) n.                   cheá hoøa khí.
   poisonous but colourless and                   (NOTE: opposite is fuel injection
   odourless gas resulting from                   engine)
   incomplete         oxidation      or               carburetor icing n. formation
   combustion of carbon, which is one             of ice deposits in the carburettor
   of the three major pollutants found            intake during very damp and cool,
   in the exhaust of spark ignition               but not freezing weather: Söï ñoùng
   engines: Khí CO.                               baêng trong boä cheá hoøa khí.
      carbon pin n. spindle-shaped                       carburettor      throat     or
   carbon brush in the centre of the              carburettor venturi see venturi:
   distributor cap, bearing on the                Hoïng khueách taùn boä cheá hoøa khí
   centre of the contact breaker arm:          carburization n. process of increasing
   Choát than trong naép boä chia                 the carbon content of steel to
   ñieän.                                         produce a desired degree of
      carbon tracking n. formatting               hardness, yielding high carbon
   of a leakage path for current,e.g.             steel: Taêng haøm löôïng cacbon
   inside the distributor cap, where              trong saûn xuaát theùp.
   there are carbon deposits: Raõnh roø        carcass n. basic of a tyre consisting
   ñieän cao aùp.                                 various plies of cord (made of
carburation or US carburetion n.                  rayon, nylon, polyester or steel),
   mixture of fuel which has been                 which are impregnanted with
   vaporized with air in the correct              rubber: Lôùp boá (voû xe).
   proportions for combustion in an            cardan joint n. most of common tyre
   internal combustion engine: Cheá               of a universal joint, in which two
   hoøa khí                                       yokes mounted on the two parts to
        carburetion       n.    US =              be coupled, usually a shaft and a
   CARBURATION                                    driving or driven member, are
carburetor = CARBURETTOR: Boä                     connected with pivots to the arm of
   cheá hoøa khí.                                 a cross-shaped piece: Khôùp caùc
carburettor or carburetter or US                  ñaêng.
carburetor        n.      conventional,               cardan shaft n. shaft fitted
   mechanical device in the engine                with universal joints at each end:
   fuel system, mixing fuel with air to           Truïc caùc ñaêng.
   produce a combustible mixture               cargo area n. US load area of an
   which is supplied to inlet manifold:           estate car or pick-up truck: Vuøng
   Boä cheá hoøa khí.                             chòu taûi.
      carburettor barrel n. the main           carpeting n. carpet made to fit the


                                          51
carriage bolt                                                                        castor

    front and rear footwells, and also              alloy made by pouring the molten
    the boot      in    better equipped             metal into a sand or metal mould:
    models: Thaûm loùt chaân.                       Hôïp kim nhoâm ñuùc.
carriage bolt n. mushroom-headed                 cast iron n. iron with a high carbon
    bolt with a square neck which                   content and also containing much
    holds it in position in a square                cementite or graphite, so that it is
    hole: Bu loâng thaân xe (ñaàu hình              unsuitable as wrought iron: Gang.
    naám, coå vuoâng).                           castle nut or castellated nut n.
 cart spring n. (informal) = LEAF                   hexagon nut with slots cut in the
    SPRING: Loø xo laù, nhíp xe.                    top of each face, two of which are
carvac n. small, easily portable                    lined up with a hole in the bolt or
    vacuum cleaner that can be                      stud and a split pin inserted to
    plugged into the cigarette light of a           prevent loosening: Ñai oác coù loã ñeå
    car: Maùy huùt buïi mini.                       gaøi choát.
casing n. (a) cover passing all the                      castle section n. panel with
    way round a piece of equipment,                 fairly shallow strengthening humps
    such as an electric motor: Voû boïc.            that are, however, deeper than
    (b) tyre, especially in its basic               normal stiffening ribs, e.g. in floor
    form before the tread has been                  pans featuring beaded or offset
    moulded on: Caïnh voû.                          areas: Phaàn gaân (thaân xe).
cassette compartment n. built-in                         castor or US caster n. (a)
    cassette storage space: Ngaên chöùa             inclination or angle from the
    caùt xeùt.                                      vertical of the kingpin or steering
        cassette player = unit for                  axis on the ground between the
    playing audio cassettes, usually                extended vertical axis through the
    incorporated in a stereo unit: Maùy             wheel centre and the point where
    caùt seùt.                                      the extended steering axis would
cast 1 v. to produce (metal part) by                meet the ground: Goùc nghieâng tay
    pouring molten metal into a sand                laùi, goùc caster.
    or metal mould: Ñuùc                            (NOTE: also called castor angle)
    2 a. produced by pouring molten                 (b) distance on the ground when
    metal into sand or metal mould:                 viewed from the side, between the
    Ñöôïc ñuùc                                      point of contact of the tyre (which
        cast-alloy wheel = one-piece                is also the extended vertical axis
    wheel, as oppesed to two–piece                  through the wheel centre) and the
    and three–piece forged wheels,                  point where a line through the
    produced using the low-pressure                 inclined kingpin (or the extended
    die casting process, which offers a             steering axis) would meet the
    great degree of design flexibility              ground: Khoaûng caùch giöõa ñieåm
    as to the styling of the wheel disc:            tieáp xuùc cuûa voû xe vaø ñöôøng keùo
    Baùnh xe vôùi maâm ñuùc.                        daøi cuûa truï quay laùi treân maët ñaát,
       cast aluminium = aluminium                   hay coøn goïi laø goùc caster trail.


                                            52
castor action                                                           catalytic layer

   (NOTE: also called castor offset,               contaminating deposits: Söï laøm
   trail)                                          baån chaát xuùc taùc.
      castor action n. self-centering                     catalyst degradation or
   action resulting from castor which              deterioration n. loss of catalytic
   springs the steered wheels back to              efficiency: Söï maát taùc duïng xuùc
   the straight ahead position: Taùc               taùc.
   duïng cuûa goùc caster (tay laùi                   catalyst efficiency n. catalyst
   thaúng trôû laïi).                              efficiency: Hieäu quaû xuùc taùc.
       castor angle n. = CASTOR:                       catalyst indicator n. indicator
   Goùc caster.                                    light in the instrument panel that
       castor offset n. = CASTOR:                  illuminates after a certain mileage,
   Goùc caster                                     e.g. after 25,000 miles, to remind
cat n. (informal) = catalytic                      the driver that the catalytic
   converter: Boä xuùc taùc.                       converter should be replaced;
catalyst n. (a) substance that changes             some older designs used a
   the rate of a chemical reaction                 mechanical signal: Ñeøn baùo thay
   without itself being used up; in a              boä xuùc taùc.
   catalytic converter the element                    catalyst substrate or support n.
   which reduces the toxicity of the               base material carrying the catalytic
   exhaust gases: Chaát xuùc taùc trong            layer or coating: Söôøn ñôõ chaát xuùc
   boä hoaù khöû khí thaûi.                        taùc.
   (b) special agent added to a plastic         catalytic converter n. device shaped
   body filler or resin or two-pack                like a silence for exhaust emission
   paint to speed up the setting                   control installed in the exhaust
   process of the basic material                   system as close to the engine as
   applied: Chaát xuùc taùc laøm hình              possible, in which a catalyst-coated
   thaønh nhanh lôùp sôn loùt.                     substrate is enclosed in a sheet
      catalyst bed n. layer of catalyst-           metal canister of stainless steel,
   coated material such as pellets or              protect against vibration by wire
   ceramic in a catalytic converter                mesh, its lower shell being
   through which the gases pass: Lôùp              provided with a heat shield: Boä
   xuùc taùc.                                      xuùc taùc.
       catalyst charge n. catalyst-             catalytic activity n. rate at which a
   coated materials such as pellets or             given catalytic converter purifies
   ceramic in a catalytic converter:               the exhaust gas stream, usually
   Khung phuû chaát xuùc taùc.                     expressed as a conversion rate: Söï
      catalyst coating n. = catalytic              hoaït ñoäng cuûa chaát xuùc taùc.
   layer: Lôùp xuùc taùc.                                catalytic efficiency          n.
         catalyst container n. =                   effectiveness of the catalyst in
   converter housing: Voû boä xuùc taùc.           purifying the exhaust gases: Hieäu
      catalyst contamination n. loss               quaû cuûa chaát xuùc taùc.
   of catalytic efficiency caused by            catalytic layer n. very thin layer of a


                                           53
cathode                                                                                cell

   catalyst, usually        consisting of            inhibitors: Chaát bòt loã.
   platinum metals, supported by a                CB (a) = CONTACT BREAKER:
   ceramic or metal carrier material:                Vít löûa.
   Lôùp chaát xuùc taùc.                             (b) = citizens’ band: Baêng taàn
cathode n. negative electrode in an                  phoå bieán.
   electrolytic cell: Cöïc aâm, catoát.           CBR process n. controlled burnt rate,
cathodic     electro       painting     or           a method of improving fuel
   cataphoretic painting n. process                  economy        by     controlling     /
   used to apply the first coat of paint             accelerating the fuel burn rate:
   to car bodies involving positively                Phöông phaùp kieåm soaùt quaù trình
   charging paint particles, in which                chaùy.
   the cleaned metal parts to be                  CC = CUBIC CENTIMETRES: Cm3.
   coated are immersed in a tank of               C-clamp n. screw-activated clocking
   electrode position paint, and the                 clamp with long, C-shaped jaws:
   current is then turned on, so that                Caùi keïp hình chöõ C.
   the positively charges particles are           CCS           =         CONTROLLED
   attracted by the negative metal                   COMBUSTION SYSTEM: Heä
   parts: Sôn tónh ñieän.                            thoáng ñieàu khieån quaù trình chaùy.
cathodic protection n. protecting a               CDI = CAPACITY DISCHARGE
   metal      from       electrochemical             IGNITION: Heä thoáng ñaùnh löûa
   corrosion by using it as the cathode              ñieän dung.
   of a cell with a sacrificial anode:            CD player n. device for playing
   Söï baûo veä (choáng aên moøn) catoát.            compact disc: Maùy haùt ñóa
caustic etching n. removal of metal by               compact.
   dipping aluminium parts in caustic             CD value n. coefficient of drag, a
   soda: Laøm saïch nhoâm baèng xuùt.                characteristic      indicating     the
cavitation        n.     formatting and              resistance of a given car body to
   subsequent collapse of vapour-                    air flowing against its front, at high
   filled cavities in a liquid, such as              speed, which is measured in a
   bubbles, vapour-filled pockets or a               wind tunnel, and unlike drag as
   combination of both: Söï baøo moøn                such, depend only on the shape or
   (do boït khí).                                    outline of the body, not on the
cavity n. (a) empty space in a body                  cross-sectional area, and being a
   structure, either in a box section or             coefficient has no unit of
   a double-skinned area: Khoang,                    measurement: Heä soá caûn gioù (khí
   hoác.                                             ñoäng).
   (b) holder and contact for fuses:              cell n. (a) a system of negative and
   Raõnh gaén caàu chì.                              positive plates for storage of
       cavity sealant n. sealant used                electricity, either used singly or in
   for protecting cavities against rust,             combination to form a battery: Hoäc
   usually consisting of film-forming                bình ñieän, pin.
   oils, waxes, solvents and rust                    (b) combustion chamber of a rotary


                                             54
cellular phone                                                           centre gear

    piston engine: Buoàng chaùy cuûa             central position in relation to
    ñoäng cô piston quay (Wankel).               another part: Trung taâm, taâm.
cellular phone n. portable, wireless                to centre the clutch = to align
    telephone, introduce in 1983 in the          the centre hole in the clutch plates
    USA and mainly used as a car                 with the end of the crankshaft, so
    phone: Ñieän thoaïi di ñoäng söû             that the gearbox shaft will fit easily
    duïng treân xe hôi.                          into the splines: Ñònh taâm boä ly
         cellulose putty = filler for            hôïp.
    minor surface imperfections: Treùt              centre console n. centre section
    matit choã moùp nheï                         of the dashboard which is extended
cementite (Fe3C) n. iron carbide, a              downwards, with space for a radio
    very hard substance found in cast            or stereo unit and storage for
    iron: Haït cementit.                         cassettes and the like: Khu vöïc
    central gear change n. usual                 trung taâm cuûa tableau.
    arrangement with the gear lever in                 centre differential           n.
    the centre of the floor: Caàn soá            differential located between two
    ñaët ôû trung taâm.                          drive axles to balance the speed
       central chassis lubrication n.            differences between the two axles,
    lubrication      of    all    chassis        mainly used in vehicles with
    component with oil or grease from            permanent four-wheel drive: Vi sai
    one central point: Boâi trôn caùc chi        trung taâm.
    tieát khung xe töø moät choã.                   centre drive n. engine design
       central locking n. locking of             with power take off between the
    all doors by operating an electronic         cylinders rather than at the end of
    device or by turning the key in the          the crankshaft: Ñoäng cô vôùi ñaàu
    lock of the driver’s door: Khoùa             truyeàn taûi giöõa caùc xy lanh
    cöûa trung taâm (chính)                            centre drive plate =
         central-locking hub        n. =         INTERMEDIATE                  (DRIVE)
    splinted hub: Choát khoùa trung              PLATE: Ñóa truyeàn ñoäng trung
    taâm.                                        gian.
       central locking wheel = wheel                centre electrode          n. (a)
    with splines in its centre which             electrode projecting out of the
    made with splines on the outside of          insulator nose of a sparking plug
    the hub, usually of the wire-spoke           typically a compound electrode
    type fixed with one central nut:             with a copper core, or a silver
    Baùnh xe daïng nan hoa vôùi moät oác         platinum electrode: Ñieän cöïc
    giöõ                                         trung taâm.
       central reserve or reservation            (b) = centre terminal: Cöïc trung
    n. strip that separates the two              taâm.
    sides of a motor-way or dual                     centre gear = SUN GEAR:
    carriageway: Con löôn.                       Baùnh raêng trung taâm, baùnh raêng
       centre v. to place (a part) in a          maët trôøi.


                                            55
centreline                                                    cetane rating or number

      centreline n. imaginary straight              which the friction elements are
   line passing through the centre of,              brought in contact with the clutch
   e.g. a vehicle, from front to rear:              face by centrifugal force again the
   Ñöôøng taâm.                                     friction plate as the clutch turns
      centre locking disc n. = HUB                  faster: Boä ly hôïp ly taâm.
   CAP: Naép troøn ñaäy truïc baùnh xe.                 centrifugal force n. force with
       centre lock nut = SPINNER:                   pushes a body outwards that is
   Ñai oác khoaù chính.                             rotating about a centre: Löïc ly
      centre of gravity n. point about              taâm.
   with a weight of a body with act or                  centrifugal governor n. device
   pivot: Troïng taâm.                              controlling speed by means of
      centre pillar n. = B-PILLAR:                  centrifugal force in automatic
   Coät truï trung taâm.                            transmissions          and       other
       centre punch n. tool with a                  applications: Boä ñieàu toác ly taâm.
   sharp conical steel tip for punching                centrifugal oil filter n. filter in
   an indentation where a hole is tube              which suspended solids are
   drilled: Muõi ñoät daáu.                         removed from the oil by
      centre section damage n. type                 centrifugal force created by
   of frame damage where the car is                 spinning the oil at high speed in
   hit from the side approximately in               the rotating element: Loïc daàu
   the middle, causing the centre part              kieåu ly taâm.
   of the car around the b-pillar to             centrifugal pump n. impeller pump in
   move inwards so that, seen from                  which the liquid is forced, by
   the top, the frame is no longer                  either atmospheric or other
   straight, but appears curved like a              pressure, into a set off rotating
   banana: Söï phaù huûy phaàn giöõa xe.            vanes constituting an impeller:
        centre terminal n. spring–                  Bôm ly taâm.
   loaded carbon pin or carbon brush             centrifugal weight         n. weight in
   contact in the centre of the                     governor or other controlling
   distributor cap acting and on                    device with is thrown outwards by
   forming contact with the rotor:                  centrifugal force as speed increase
   Cöïc trung taâm (than naép delco).               and thus causes a control rod to be
         centrifugal advance           n.           moved or pressure to be exerted:
   automatic mechanical ignition                    Troïng löôïng ly taâm, quaû vaêng.
   advance by mechanism inside the               ceramic honeycomb n. interior of a
   distributor,       controlled      by            monolithic       converter      which
   centrifugal force supplies by                    supports the catalyst: Giaù ñôõ kieåu
   advance weights which trunk the                  toå ong trong boä hoaù khöû.
   distributor cam via yokes to                  cetane rating or number n. measure
   advance the spark: Cô caáu ñaùnh                 of the ignition quality of diesel
   löûa sôùm ly taâm.                               fuel, or how high a temperature is
      centrifugal clutch n. clutch in               required to ignite it (the lower the


                                            56
CFCS                                                                           change

   cetane number, the higher the                   object such as engines consisting
   temperature required): Chæ soá                  of a chain and a block and tackle:
   xeâtan.                                         Caàn truïc xích.
CFCS or          CFC gases         n. =               chain run = section of a drive
   CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS:                            chain that runs between the
   Khí laøm laïnh (coù haïi cho taàng              sprockets: Böôùc xích.
   ozone)                                             chain tensioner = component
cfm (short of ) cubic feet per minute              usually comprising a spring steel
   = ft3/min.                                      strip pressing on the chain, used
chafer(strip) n. area between the                  mainly on four-stroke engines with
   bead and sidewall of a tyre: Vuøng              a chain-driven camshaft and
   hoâng baùnh xe (veø).                           responsible for maintaining the
      chafing n. wearing away by                   proper chain tension: Boä caêng
   rubbing: Moøn vì coï xaùt.                      xích.
 chain n. series of flexibly connected                  chain wrench =          tool for
   links formed into a loop so that it             loosening and tightening round or
   can be passed over sprockets                    irregularly shapes objects, having
   whose teeth engage in the spaces                chain which is passed around the
   between the links, in order to                  object, and lever or key which at
   transmit motion: Xích, seân                     the same time tightens and the
       chain case n. metal causing                 chain and turns the object: Khoùa
   completely enclosing a drive chain              xích duøng ñeå sieát, nôùi caùc vaät
   and its sprockets: Hoäp xích.                   troøn.
        chain drive = form of                   chamber n. combustion chamber of a
   transmission using a chain passing              rotary piston engine, particularly
   over sprockets: Truyeàn ñoäng xích.             where non-cylindrical, as in a
   (NOTE: chain drive is still the                 Wankel engine: Buoàng chaùy
   most common form of transmission             chamfered a. with a symmetrically
   on motorcycles)                                 beveled surface on an edge or
      chain filter wrench = chain                  corner: Vaït caïnh, maët vaït.
   wrench whose chain passed round              chamois leather n. piece of soft
   and grips the body of an oil filter:            bleached leather from sheep,
   Caùi môû loïc nhôùt duøng xích.                 goats, etc. used especially for
       chain guard = inverted L-                   drying paintwork, chrome and
   section metal guard placed usually              glass after washing: Da thuù duøng
   over the upper run of a chain: Voøm             lau khoâ xe.
   baûo veä xích.                                  (NOTE: also called informally
       chain pipe wrench = chain                   shammy leather)
   wrench whose chain passes round              change 1 v. (a) to select and engage
   and grips a pipe: Caùi môû oáng baèng           a gear: Chuyeån, sang (soá).
   xích.                                           (NOTE: also more fully to change
      chain hoist = hoist for heavy                gear)


                                           57
change-speed gearbox                                                 charging current

   (NOTE: US English is to shift                   tính.
   gear)                                        charge 1 n. (a) amount of air/ fuel
       to change up or down = to                   mixture supplied to the cylinder
   engage a higher or lower gear:                  that is available for combustion:
   Sang soá cao hay soá thaáp.                     Naïp.
      to change into second or top =               (b) definite quantity of electricity,
   to engage second or top gear:                   such as that contained in a storage
   Chuyeån sang soá hai hay soá cao                battery: Ñieän löôïng.
   nhaát.                                          2 v. to supply electrical charge to
   (b) to take away and put something              (a battery): Naïp ñieän vaøo bình
   new or different in its place: Thay             ñieän.
   theá                                               charge air n. air in the air/
   2 n. engage of another gear: Söï                fuel mixture: Söï naïp khoâng khí.
   sang soá.                                              charge air cooling =
        change-speed gearbox          n.           INTERCOOLING:           Laøm     maùt
   gearbox containing sets of gears                khoâng khí naïp (trong ñoäng cô
   which can moved in and out of                   taêng aùp).
   different ratios between the speeds                charge air recycling (system) =
   of the input and output shaft: Hoäp             device on some turbocharger
   soá nhieàu caáp.                                systems which serves to maintain
       change valve n. valve use to                the speed of the compressor while
   change gear in an automatic                     no boost is being delivered, so that
   gearbox, operated by rising oil                 boost is more instantly available on
   pressure at the vehicle speed up:               demand: Heä thoáng tuaàn hoaøn khí
   Van sang soá.                                   naïp trong heä thoáng taêng aùp.
   (NOTE: US English is shift valve)                   charge changing or exchange
Chapman strut n. form of McPherson                 process n. removal of exhaust port
   strut used in the rear suspension of            an admission of a fresh charge
   some car chapman: Heä thoáng treo               through the transfer port in a two-
   sau kieåu Chapman.                              stroke engine: Quaù trình queùt vaø
characteristic map n. usually three-               naïp khí trong ñoäng cô hai thì.
   dimensional representation of                       charger n. = BATTERY
   several interdependent quantities,              CHARGER: Maùy naïp bình.
   in most of which engine speed and                    charger characteristic         n.
   load correspond to the x- and y-                charger characteristic showing the
   axes, and the third quantity, which             dependence of the current on the
   depends on the first two, is                    voltage during charge: Ñaëc tính
   measured against the z- axis: Baûn              naïp.
   ñoà ñaëc tính ñoäng cô (naïp vaøo                   charging current n. electric
   ROM cuûa ECU).                                  current supplies to the battery
charcoal canister n. = activated                   when the charging system is
carbon canister: Baàu loïc than hoaït              operative: Doøng ñieän saïc (naïp).


                                           58
charging efficiency                                                                check

       charging efficiency n. figure                 panel does not have a jointing
   indicated the mass of           charge            flange: Giaù ñôõ ñeå haøn khung
   retained in the cylinder of a two-                    chassis dynamometer = test
   stroke engine after the ports close,              stand for a complete car to
   divided by the actual swept                       determine, for example, its
   volume: Hieäu suaát naïp.                         emission characteristics under a set
       charging piston n. additional                 of defined driving conditions:
   piston formerly fitted to some two-               Baêng thöû coâng suaát oâ toâ.
   stroke     engines,     design       to              chassis frame = frame usually
   precompress the fresh charge and                  consisting of two longitudinal side
   to supply it at excess pressure into              members joined by a member of
   the engine cylinders: Naïp khoâng                 cross-members, to which the
   khí baèng piston (hai kyø).                       suspension and axles are attached,
       charging point n. = battery                   in goods vehicles and formerly in
   charging station: Traïm saïc bình.                cars: Khung söôøn xe.
        charging pressure         n.     =              chassis number = formerly the
   BOOST PRESSURE: AÙp suaát                         manufacturer’s number identifying
   taêng aùp                                         a vehicle: Soá khung xe.
       charging rate n. amount of                    (NOTE: now called vehicle
   current, usually in amperes,                      identification number)
   delivered by the charging system:                     chassis section = box or
   Möùc saïc ñieän (doøng toái ña cuûa heä           channel section forming part of the
   thoáng naïp).                                     chassis: Boä phaän khung xe.
        charging stroke             n. =          chatter v. to move jerkily especially
   INDUCTION STROKE: Thì naïp.                       at high speed, making only
   chassis n. originally, and today                  irregular contact: Rung ñoäng ôû toác
   still in heavy goods vehicles, a                  ñoä cao.
   separate structure consisting of a             check 1 n. inspection to see whether
   frame, springs and axles forming                  something is all right: Söï kieåm
   the lower part of a vehicle, to                   tra.
   which the bodywork is fitted, but                     an engine oil level check =
   with modern unitary construction                  looking at the dipstick to see if
   there is no separate chassis and                  there is enough oil in the sump:
   the term is used to refer to the                  Kieåm tra möïc daàu ñoäng cô.
   running gear, i.e. suspension,                    2 v. to inspect (something) to see
   including control arms, spring,                   whether it is all right: kieåm tra.
   shock       absorbers         steering               Check the plugs, and replace if
   component, etc.: Khung gaàm oâtoâ.                necessary = take the sparking
       chassis bracket set = set of                  plugs out and see whether they are
   brackets to be welded under sill                  in good condition, if not fit new
   prior to straightening the accident               ones: Kieåm tra bougie neáu hö thì
   damage when the standard sill                     thay theá.


                                             59
check ball                                  61                                chromate

       check ball n. ball in a ball-                 cöûa sau
    type check valve: Bi trong van               child restraint system n. general
    moät chieàu                                      term for child seats and
       check engine warning light n.                 accessories, often used at a
    light which indicates a malfunction              synonym for child seat: Gheá treû
    of the engine system: Ñeøn baùo                  em
    kieåm tra ñoäng cô.                          child seat n. combination of a seat
       check point n. (a) particular                 shell, a belt system and / or an
    point on a piece of equipment                    impact cushion, especially suited
    where it is possible to check if                 for children of the age groups 1
    there is any malfunction: Ñieåm                  and 2: Gheá daønh cho treû em.
    kieåm tra.                                   chip v. (of stones) to cause damage to
    (b) place on a road where vehicles               (paintwork) in the form of small
    are stopped, e.g. at a frontier or on            pits: Laøm bong vuøng sôn nhoû.
    a rally: Traïm kieåm tra.                             chipping        n.   damage to
        check routine n. series of                   paintwork in the form of small pits
    checks to be made when tracing a                 cause by stones being thrown
    fault or when inspecting a new                   against it: Laøm hö sôn do ñaù
    vehicle at the factory: Loä trình                vaêng.
    kieåm tra xe môùi raùp.                      chisel n. simple steel tool with a
check valve n. (a) non-return valve                  sharpen end used with a hammer
    permitting flow in one direction                 to cut through metal and other
    only, widely used in emission                    materials: Caùi ñuïc.
    control systems: Van moät chieàu.            chlorofluorocarbons          n. gaseous
    (b) residual pressure valve in a                 compounds used especially as
    brake master cylinder: Van aùp                   propellants for aerosol cans and in
    suaát dö trong xy lanh caùi cuûa heä             refrigerants: Khí CFC
    thoáng phanh.                                    (NOTE: usually called CFCs)
chemical brightening or polishing n.             chock n. = WHEEL CHOCK: Caùi
    improvement         of        surface            loùt truïc baùnh xe.
    smoothness of a metal by                     choke n. (i) device which restricts
    immersion in a suitable solution:                the amount of air entering the
    Söï laøm boùng baèng dung dòch hoùa              carburetor in order to enrich the
    hoïc.                                            mixture when starting the engine
        chemical toilet     n. portable              and running cold: Böôùm gioù. (ii)
    toilet for use in caravans or when               choke knob: Nuùt keùo böôùm gioù.
    camping: Nhaø veä sinh trong xe                       choke control = system for
    nhaø löu ñoäng.                                  actuating a non-automatic choke,
childproof lock n. lock on rear doors                usually a cable with a knob on the
    which when activated prevents the                fascia: Söï ñieàu khieån böôùm gioù.
    door from being opened from                        choked = (a) (of engine) running
    inside the car: Khoaù choáng môû                 with the choke in operation: Ñoäng


                                            60
choke knob                                                                  chunking

   cô hoaït ñoäng vôùi böôùm gioù hoaït           caùch theâm croâm
   ñoäng                                              chrome-plated or chromed =
   (b) clogged: Böôùm gioù keït                   CHROMIUM-PLATED:                 Maï
       choke knob = knob on the                   croâm.
   fascia for operating the choke:                   chrome steel = steel containing
   Nuùm keùo böôùm gioù.                          chromium for extra hardness an
      choke tube = CARBURETOR                     rust resistance: Inox (theùp croâm).
   VENTURI: Hoïng khueách taùn.                        chrome work = all the
      choke valve = valve restricting             chromium-plated items on a car
   the amount of air or liquid                    body: Caùc chi tieát maï croâm treân
   admitted     especially      on    a           xe.
   carburettor: Van gioù                             chromic acid n. electrolyte used
chop shop n. us workshop or factory               in    anodising     processed     for
   specializes in replacing the                   producing non-transparent, non-
   standard steel roof of cars or pick-           metallic oxide layers: Axit croâmic
   up trucks with a convertible top:              (dung dòch maï).
   Xöôûng laøm mui xe.                               chromium n. hard grey metallic
chromate 1 n. salt or ester of                    element used in electroplating and
   chromic acid, often used as                    in steel production for extra
   pigment: Croâmat.                              hardness and rust resistance:
   2 v. to treat with a solution of a             Croâm (Cr).
   chromium compound to produce a                    chromium-plated = coated with
   protective coating of metal                    a thin layer of chromium by electro
   chromate: Maï croâm.                           deposition for protection against
      chromate (conversion) coating               corrosion, also with a thicker layer
   = conversion coating produced by               for wear resistance: Ñöôïc maï
   chromating: Phuû croâm.                        croâm.
        chromate treatment            =              chromium-plating = process of
   treatment of metal with a solution             coating metal with a layer of
   of a chromium compound to                      chromium and also the result: Lôùp
   produce a protective coating of                maï croâm.
   metal chromate: Quaù trình xöû lí                   satin chromium plating =
   baèng maï croâm.                               chromium plating with a soft matt
   (NOTE: not to be confused with                 sheen: Lôùp maï croâm mòn.
   chroming)                                          chromium steel = CHROME
      chromatize v. = CHROMATE                    STEEL
      chrome 1 n. = CHROMIUM                   chubby screwdriver n. screwdriver
   2. to plate with chromium: Maï                 with a very short handle and blade
   croâm.                                         for use in confined spaces: Tua vít
      chrome-hardened = (of steel)                cöïc nhoû.
   hardened by the addition of                 chunking n. breaking away of pieces
   chromium: Laøm cöùng theùp baèng               of the tread of a tyre: Söï maát gai


                                          61
CI                                                                               clamp

   voû.                                             excess current flow: Boä ngaét ñieän
CI (a) = COMPRESSION IGNITION:                      duøng ñeå baûo veä.
   Söï chaùy baèng caùch neùn (Diesel).                  circuit diagram = diagram
   (b)      =     COIL       IGNITION               showing the complete wiring
   (SYSTEM): Cuoän daây ñaùnh löûa,                 system of a vehicle: Sô ñoà
   boâbin.                                          maïch ñieän.
CIH (short of) camshaft in head: Truïc                  circuit tester = tool often
   cam ñaët treân naép maùy.                        similar in appearance to a
      CIH engine = type of overhead                 screwdriver, with a light in the
   valve (OHV) engine with the                      handle and a crocodile clip which
   camshaft enclosed in, not on top of,             can be attached to a suitable earth
   the cylinder head: Ñoäng cô vôùi                 while the point touches the part or
   truïc cam ñaët treân naép maùy.                  the wire which is to be tested; if
   (NOTE: not to be with an overhead                the light comes on, the circuit is
   camshaft (OHC) engine)                           live at that point: Duïng cuï kieåm
CIM (short of) Computer-integrated                  tra maïch ñieän (baèng ñeøn).
   manufacturing: Heä thoáng saûn xuaát         circular headlamp n. tradition shape
   ñieàu khieån baèng maùy tính.                    of headlamp as opposed to the
   circlip n. retaining ring in the                 modern rectangular headlamp:
   form of an incomplete circle and                 Ñeøn pha kieåu hình troøn.
   made of spring steel, often with             circulating pump n. centrifugal pump
   eyes either side of the gap so that              designed to generate forced
   it can be opened for removal:                    circulation of a liquid in a closed
   Voøng chaën, caùi phe.                           system, e.g. a water pump in an
   (NOTE: US English is snap ring)                  internal combustion engine: Bôm
      circlip plies = special plies with            tuaàn hoaøn.
   jaw tips coming to point so that             CIS = CONTINUOUS INJECTION
   they can engage in the eyes of the               SYSTEM: Heä thoáng phun xaêng
   circlip in order to expand it for                lieân tuïc kieåu K-jetronic.
   removal: Keàm môû phe                        Citizens’ band see CB RADIO
      circuit n. (a) course forming a           city car n. very compact car; usually
   complete loop over which races                   10-12 feet in length: Xe hôi loaïi
   are held: Chu vi.                                nhoû.
   (b) series of electrical connections                city cycle n. = URBAN CYCLE
   forming a complete path for the              CL (short of) comfort luxe, denoting a
   current to flow through: Maïch                   model more luxurious than ‘L’ but
   ñieän.                                           not as grand as ‘GL’: Kieåu xe
        circuit breaker = protective                sang troïng nhöng khoâng baèng
   device which can be reset; it                    kieåu GL.
   breaks an electric circuit to prevent        clamp n. fastening which holds an
   damage when the circuit is                       item or items in its jaws by strong
   overloaded or overheated by                      pressure: Caùi keïp


                                           62
clamping load                                                 click-type torque wrench

       clamping load n. pressure on the              the lubrication points of engine, as
    plates in a clutch or coupling: Taûi             in some two-stroke engines: Söï
    troïng eùp.                                      boâi trôn baèng daàu saïch.
       class a-thread n. = EXTERNAL              clearance n. gap between two parts:
    THREAD: Ren ngoaøi.                              Khe hôû
       class b-thread n. = INTERNAL                     piston clearance = gap between
    THREAD: Ren trong.                               the piston and the cylinder: Khe
classic car n. specially applies to cars             hôû giöõa piston vaø xylanh.
    of the postwar era up to about 1970                   valve clearance         =     gap
    or even 1980, but also used as a                 between the top of the valve stem
    general term for all old cars: Xe                and the tappet when the valve is
    hôi coå                                          closed and the tappet is not
        a classic car meeting = a                    pressing on it: Khe hôû xuùpaùp.
    meeting to which enthusiasts bring                   clearance height n. (a) =
    their old cars to look at them and               ground clearance: Khoaûng caùch
    discuss them, often with a                       gaàm xe vôùi maët ñaát.
    competition to decide which is the               (b) maximum height of a vehicle
    smartest (a concours): Ngaøy hoäi                such that it can pass under a bridge
    cuûa ngöôøi chôi xe coå.                         or similar obstruction: Khoaûng
        restoration of classic cars =                saùng gaàm xe.
    putting old cars back as near as                    clearance (market) lamp n.
    possible into as new condition: Söï              lamp mounted on the roof of vans,
    taân trang xe hôi coå                            lorries and other large vehicles at
classified (ad) n. small advertisement               the left-hand and the right-hand
    in a newspaper or magazine,                      corners to show the maximum
    usually put in by a private person,              height and width of the vehicle:
    e.g. with a car for sale: Muïc rao               Ñeøn baùo chieàu cao vaø beà roäng xe.
    vaët (baùn xe).                                      clearance volume n. space
claw hammer n. hammer with two                       remaining above the piston of an
    curved prongs at the back of the                 engine when it is at top dead
    head for extracting nails, etc.: Buùa            centre: Theå tích buoàng ñoát.
    nhoå ñinh.                                   clear coat or lacquer n. top coat of
clay model n. mock-up of a new                       base and clear systems: Laøm saïch
    design made before an actual                     lôùp sôn ngoaøi.
    prototype is built: Moâ hình maãu            click-type torque wrench n. torque
    xe môùi baèng ñaát seùt.                         wrench        design      to     apply
clean oil n. fresh engine oil supplied               predetermined torque, to which it
    to engine from a container: Daàu                 is preset, automatically releasing
    saïch töø bình chöùa.                            once the setting is reached; the
          clean oil lubrication =                    release      action    is    normally
    lubrication system in which clean                accompanied by an audible click
    engine oil is supplied directly to               and/ or visible signal: Caàn sieát löïc


                                            63
climate control                                                             cloth upholstery

    töï ñoäng(baùo hieäu khi sieát ñuû löïc).            kim ñoàng hoà.
climate control n. lever or similar                  clog v. to become obstructed with
    that controls the heater and/ or air-                debris, sludge or other matter:
    conditioning system: Ñieàu khieån                    Laøm taéc ngheõn.
    khí haäu (kieåm soaùt ñoàng thôøi söôûi          close coils n. coils at the end of a
    vaø ñieàu hoøa nhieät ñoä).                          spring which are closer together:
         climate control system             =            Phaàn cuoái loø xo.
    combined       heating      and      air-        closed loop n. chain of control in
    conditioning system: Heä thoáng                      which feedback, usually from a
    ñieàu hoaø nhieät ñoä töï ñoäng.                     sensor or sensors, is used to
          climatic chamber n. test                       regulate mixture strength, dwell
    chamber which can reproduce                          angle and other engine functions
    extremes of temperature and                          by electronic means: Cheá ñoä ñieàu
    humidity, as well as artificial                      khieån voøng kín (hoài tieáp).
    ultraviolet rays: Buoàng khí haäu                close–loop control = electronic
    nhaân taïo (ñeå thöû nghieäm).                       control system using feedback to
climbing ability n. performance                          maintain correct mixture strength,
    when climbing steep gradient:                        etc.: Cheá ñoä ñieàu khieån kín (duøng
    Khaû naêng leo doác.                                 caûm bieán oxi)
clip-on weight n. small lead weight                  close-ratio gearbox n. gearbox in
    used to balance a wheel by                           which there is relatively little
    clipping it onto the rim opposite a                  difference between the gear ratios,
    heavy spot of the tyre/ wheel                        so that fast changes can be made:
    assembly: Mieáng chì baám vaøo                       Hoäp soá coù söï cheânh leäch tæ soá
    baùnh xe.                                            truyeàn nhoû.
clock 1 n. (a) instrument showing                            closing cam/ rocker n. cam/
    time: Ñoàng hoà baùo giôø.                           rocker which is used to close the
    (b) (informal) = odometer or                         valve in desmodromic valve
    speedometer: Ñoàng hoà ño quaõng                     operation; unlike conventional
    ñöôøng toång hoaëc toác ñoä xe.                      valve control systems, in which the
    2 v. to record (a speed or time), or                 valves are closed by the valve
    to time (a car): Ghi laïi toác ñoä hay               spring: Caùc cam/ coø duøng ñeå
    thôøi gian.                                          ñoùng suùpaùp
        clocking n. putting back the                          closing force           n. force
    mileage on a car’s odometer, so                      necessary for closing the valves,
    that it shows a lower mileage than                   provide by the valve spring: Löïc
    the car has in fact done (an illegal                 ñoùng van (löïc loø xo)
    practice): Traû ngöôïc chæ soá km.                      closing panel n. panel that
c/locking = central locking: Khoùa                       covers a gap in the body
    cöûa trung taâm.                                     framework: Taám bít (thaân xe)
clockwise ad. in the same direction                  cloth upholstery           n. upholstery
as the hands of a clock: Cuøng chieàu                    covered in a fabric as opposed to


                                                64
cluster gear                                                           clutch release

    vinyl or leather: Neäm baèng vaûi                clutch drag n. failure of the
cluster gear n. lay shaft and/or the              clutch to disengage completely
    set of gears mounted on it: Cuïm              when the pedal is depressed, with
    truïc vaø baùnh raêng                         the result that gear changes
clutch n. mechanism for connecting or             become difficult as the driven
    disconnecting the drive between               plate and input shaft continue to
    two shafts while they are rotating            rotate: Söï tröôït ly hôïp.
    or at rest, placed between the                   clutch facing n. = CLUTCH
    engine and gearbox in vehicles                LINING
    with manual transmission, and                      clutch fork n. clutch release
    usually mounted on the flywheel:              lever with a forked end which
    Boä ly hôïp.                                  presses on the release bearing to
clutch aligning set n. selection of               disengage the clutch: Caàn nhaû ly
    different tools used to align the             hôïp (daïng næa)
    clutch plate with the flywheel,                   clutch housing n. = BELT
    usually containing a shaft, pilot             HOUSING: Voû boä ly hôïp vaø baùnh
    bearing adapters, and tapered                 ñaø.
    universal sleeves: Boä duïng cuï ñeå                clutch judder         n. faulty
    caân ly hôïp.                                 condition in which the clutch does
       clutch aligning tool = special             not take up smoothly but judders
    tool, either in the form of a bar or a        during engagement: Söï rung laéc ly
    disc, with the aid of which clutch            hôïp.
    plate and flywheel can be                        clutch lining n. ring of friction
    precisely aligned on single disc              material on the clutch plate: Beà
    clutches: Duïng cuï caân ly hôïp.             maët ñóa ma saùt ly hôïp
        clutch brake n. device for                    clutch pedal n. pedal which
    slowing down the clutch plate and             operates the clutch usually either
    hence the gears on the input shaft            mechanically via a cable,           or
    in order to enable faster and                 hydraulically: Baøn ñaïp ly hôïp.
    quieter engagement of gears:                     clutch plate n. part of the clutch
    Phanh ly hôïp.                                assembly which carries the clutch
       clutch cable n. operating cable            lining and is squeezed between the
    from the clutch pedal to the clutch           flywheel and pressure plate when
    release lever: Caùp ly hôïp.                  the pedal is released,            thus
        clutch cover n. bowl-shaped               transmitting power to the gearbox
    cover house the rotating elements             input shaft: Ñóa ly hôïp.
    of a friction clutch, anchors the             (NOTE: US English is clutch disc)
    clutch spring(s), and is normally                   clutch release or thrust
    attached to the flywheel: Naép                bearing n. bearing (usually a
    (baàu) ly hôïp.                               roller bearing) that can be moved
       clutch disc n. US = CLUTCH                 by the release lever through clutch
    PLATE: Ñóa ly hôïp.                           pedal action to disengage the drive


                                             65
clutch release lever                                                      coarse pitch

   from      the     engine    to    the         coach n. a single-deck bus, usually
   transmission: Baïc ñaïn ñaåy ly hôïp.            with a luxurious specification, for
   (NOTE: US English is throw out                   carrying passenger over long
   bearing)                                         distances, either from city to city
      clutch release lever = lever one              regular schedules or in groups on
   end of which presses on the clutch               tours: Xe khaùch ñöôøng daøi.
   release bearing, the other being              coach bolt n. bolt with a mushroom
   actuated        mechanically       or            head underneath which it has a
   hydraulically by the clutch pedal:               square neck which holds it in a
   Caàn ñaåy ly hôïp.                               matching square recess, e.g. in
   (NOTE: US English is throw out                   wood, so that a spanner is only
   fork, lever)                                     needed for the nut: Bu loâng chìm.
       clutch shaft n. short gearbox             coachbuilder n. firm specializing in
   input shaft, rotating at engine                  the production of special bodies for
   speed and coaxial with but not                   motor vehicles: Nhaø chuyeân saûn
   connected to the main shaft, which               xuaát thaân xe.
   transmits power from the clutch to                   coach construction = vehicle
   the gearbox: Truïc boä ly hôïp.                  layout incorporating a separate
         clutch slip n. incomplete                  chassis frame which serves as a
   engagement of a clutch, so that                  carrier of all drive train and
   not all the drive torque            is           suspension parts, the vehicle body
   transmitted even whenthe clutch                  itself not forming       an integral
   pedal is fully released and the                  structural part of the vehicle: Caáu
   driven plate does not rotate as fast             truùc toång thaønh
   as the flywheel, engine speed                 coach lining n. thin, precisely
   increase but road speed open does                contoured lines, especially along
   not: Söï tröôït ly hôïp.                         the whole side of the vehicle, also
      clutch spring n. one of the coil              an motorcycle tanks, the most
   springs (generally mounted in the                common colours being gold and
   clutch cover) which press the                    black: Ñöôøng vieàn chính.
   pressure plate against the driven                    coachwork n. = bodywork:
   clutch plate to transmit the drive:              Thaân xe.
   Loø xo ly hôïp.                               coarse(-cut) file = file for the rapid
       clutch stop n. = CLUTCH                      removal of large amounts of
   BRAKE                                            material in a first rough shaping
C-matic transmission n. trade name                  stage: Caùi giuõa thoâ.
   for a semi-automatic transmission                (NOTE: opposite is smooth file)
   developed by Citroen: Hoäp soá baùn                 coarse pitch n. construction of
   töï ñoäng.                                       a gear or screw thread with
CNG = COMPRESSED NATURAL                            relatively wide gaps between the
   GAS: Khí thieân nhieân neùn                      teeth or threads: Raêng hoaëc ren
CO = CARBON MONOXIDE                                thoâ.


                                            66
coarse-thread                                                cold-condensate corrosion
       coarse-thread = screw thread               coil chimney n. = COIL TOWER
    with relatively wide gaps between                    coil coating n. process of coating
    the threads, and hence fewer                      continuous metal strips with an
    threads for a given length of                     organic finishing system for
    screw: Böôùc ren thoâ.                            decoration and protection: Daùn
coast v. to run without any drive being               ñöôøng vieàn.
    transmitted to the wheels, either in          coil ignition (CI) (system)             n.
    neutral or with the clutch out:                   inductive ignition system with an
    Chaïy baèng quaùn tính (khi ñaïp ly               ignition coil which stores the
    hôïp)                                             primary current from the battery
coat 1 n. layer of material, usually                  and steps it up to ignition (high
    applied in liquid form, cover a                   tension) voltage, which is then
    surface: Lôùp, maøng.                             transferred to the sparking plugs
    2 v. to apply a layer of usually                  via the distributor and HT (high
    liquid material: phuû (sôn).                      tension) leads in the engine firing
         coating     n.   (a) action of               order: Heä thoáng ñaùnh löûa ñieän
    applying a layer of material to a                 caûm.
    surface: Söï taïo maøng.                      coil lead n. HT lead form the coil to
cock      n.     tap or shut-off valve                the distributor : daây phin (cao aùp).
    controlling the flow of water: Caùi               (NOTE: US English is coil wire)
    voøi nöôùc.
cockpit n. area comprising the driver’s                  coil spring n. spiral of spring
    seat and all instruments and                     steel wire, used in suspension
    controls especially in a racing car:             systems and clutches and as valve
    Buoàng laùi.                                     springs: Loø xo cuoän (xoaén).
       coefficient of friction n. ratio of              coil spring clutch = clutch in
    the force needed to slide one                    which a ring of coil springs hold
    surface over another to the force                the pressure plate in position: Ly
    preventing the motion: Heä soá ma                hôïp loaïi loø xo cuoän.
    saùt.                                                 coil spring compressor =
cog n. (informal ) gear: Baùnh raêng                 spring compressor: thieát bò neùn loø
       cog-swapping = gear changing:                 xo.
    Söï sang soá.                                       coil tower n. top of the standard
       cogged belt n. toothed belt: Ñai              type of ignition coil in which the
    raêng.                                           socket for the ht lead to the
coil n. (a) device for generating high               distributor is found, projecting
    tension voltage consisting of                    upwards: Ñaàu thöù caáp cuûa boâbin.
    primary and secondary windings                      coil wire n. US = COIL LEAD
    around a laminated iron core:                 coke n. CARBON: Than coác.
    Cuoän daây (boâbin ñaùnh löûa)                       coked up a. covered with a
    (NOTE: also called ignition coil)                thick carbon deposit: Ñoùng muoäi
    (b) FIELD COIL/ WINDING:                         than daøy
    Cuoän daây kích töø                           cold-condensate corrosion             n.


                                             67
cold cranking ability                                                    colour–coded

   corrosion of the inside of exhaust               working in much the same way as
   systems by direct chemical attack                a choke on a carburettor: Kim
   resulting from an acidic, aqueous                phun khôûi ñoäng laïnh.
   solution that condenses from the             collapsible spare tire n. US =
   exhaust gas at the cooler rear                   SPACE           SAVING        SPARE
   portions of the exhaust systems:                 WHEEL: Voû xe döï tröõ.
   Söï aên moøn do ngöng tuï ôû poâ.                    collapsible steering column n.
cold cranking ability n. criterion for              steering column designed to fold or
   assessing the performance of a                   telescope in a case of frontal
   battery based on its ability to                  impact: Truïc tay laùi xeáp .
   supply the considerable amount of                   collar n. (a) washer fitted under
   current need to turn the engine                  the head of a bolt or screw: Voøng
   when cold: Khaû naêng khôûi ñoäng                ñeäm.
   laïnh.                                           (b) raised area on a shaft to hold it
       cold galvanizing n. galvanizing              in position, usually against a
   with zinc-rich paint or similar, or              bearing: Phaàn nhoâ cuûa truïc phía
   by electroplating with zinc: Söï maï             gaén oå bi
   keõm nguoäi.                                 collector’s car n. usually older car
      cold sparking plug n. sparking                which is value to collectors: Xe
   plug with a short insulator nose,                cuûa ngöôøi söu taäp.
   which absorbs less heat and                  collet n. removable collar fitting in a
   dissipates heat quickly: Bougie                  groove to hold, for example, the
   nguoäi (laïnh)                                   valve spring on the stem: Voøng
       cold spraying      n. spraying               giöõ (loø xo suùpaùp)
   method in which the paint is                 colour chart n. booklet containing
   diluted with so much solvent                     details of paint name; codes and
   evaporating after painting: Phöông               samples of exact colours, for the
   phaùp phun sôn vôùi nhieàu dung                  customer        to    choose   from:
   moâi                                             Cataloge maøu
cold starting n. starting the engine                     colour coat n. coat of paint
   from cold: Khôûi ñoäng laïnh.                    which has desired final colour,
cold start enrichment n. increasing                 often but not always the top coat
   the fuel content of the air /fuel                (in the case of two-pack finishes a
   mixture      to  compensate       for            clear lacquer is applied on top of
   condensation losses in the intake                it): lôùp sôn cuoái.
   system when the engine is cold: Söï                  colour–coded a. (a) finished in
   laøm giaøu hoãn hôïp khi khôûi ñoäng             the same colour as the main part of
   laïnh.                                           the bodywork: Truøng maøu vôùi
cold start injector n. device in fuel               thaân xe
   injection systems which injects                  (NOTE: also called colour-keyed
   additional fuel during starter                   or colour-matched)
   operation when the engine is cold,               (b) (of wiring, etc.) finished in


                                           68
colour scheme                                                              commutator

   different      colours      to     aid           the cylinder head, in which the air/
   recognition: Ky ùhieäu maøu daây.                fuel mixture is burned: Buoàng
       colour scheme n. combination                 chaùy.
   of colours, on the outside or inside                combustion chamber recess =
   of the vehicle: Toå hôïp maøu trong              area when combustion occurs in a
   vaø ngoaøi thaân xe                              rotary piston engine: Vuøng chaùy
column (gear) change n. gear change                 trong ñoäng cô Wankel.
   mechanism in which the gear lever                   combustion pressure = pressure
   is on the steering column, just                  created during the combustion of
   below the steering wheel: Cô caáu                the air/ fuel mixture in the
   sang soá treân voâ laêng.                        cylinder, measure in pounds per
   (NOTE: also called column shift                  square inch: AÙp suaát cuûa quaù
   especially in the USA)                           trình chaùy.
       combination pliers n. typical                   combustion residue(s) = carbon
   general purpose pliers with                      and other deposits resulting from
   serrated jaws, an oval recess and a              combustion: Saûn phaåm baùm laïi
   wire cutter, in the USA they also                khi chaùy.
   have a slip joint so that the jaws            CO meter n. device for checking
   can be opened wider: Kìm ña                      exhaust gas for carbon monoxide,
   naêng.                                           a high lever of which indicates an
         combination spanner n.                     over-rich mixture as well as
   spanner with a ring spanner at one               causing pollution: Thieát bò ño khí
   end and an open end of the same                  CO.
   size at the other: Chìa khoùa voøng           comet head n. head with a swirl
   mieäng.                                          chamber for indirect injection
       combination valve n. pressure                diesel engines: Naép maùy vôùi
   regulating valve in braking                      buoàng xoaùy loác.
   systems incorporating a failure               comfort (C) n. fairly basic car model
   warning switch and comprising two                specification: Xe loaïi tieän nghi.
   or more of the fowling valves;                      Comfort Luxe (CL) = slightly
   pressure       differential     valve,           more luxurious specification than
   metering valve, proportioning                    comfort: Tieän nghi vaø sang troïng.
   valve: Van toå hôïp (heä thoáng               commercial vehicle = vehicle for
   phanh)                                           carrying goods or large number of
combustion n.extremely rapid (but not               passenger for money: Xe kinh
   explosive) burning of the air/ fuel              doanh (chôû haøng hoaëchaønh
   mixture timed to occur when the                  khaùch)
   piston is at the top of its stroke, so        commutator n. series of copper bars
   that it is forced down to turn the               at one end of the dynamo or starter
   crankshaft: Söï chaùy.                           motor      armature,      electrically
       combustion chamber = space                   insulated from one an other by
   between the top of the piston and                mica: Coå goùp ñieän.


                                            69
compact car                                                comprehension insurance

compact car n. american car category              either a single piece, such as a
   with a length of 14 ft 5 ins -17 ft            brush, or an assembly such as a
   and taking five passengers: Xe hôi             starter or a fuel pump: Thaønh
   loaïi nhoû 5 choã.                             phaàn, chi tieát
company car n. car provided by an              component sharing = the use of the
   employer for an employee’s                     same components (including major
   business or private use: Xe coâng              components such as engines) in
   ty.                                            different models and even in
         company logo n. emblem                   models           from        different
   forming the whole or part of a                 manufacturers: Söï laép laãn chi tieát.
   company’s trademark: Bieåu töôïng           composite propeller shaft               n.
   cuûa coâng ty.                                 innovative, single-piece propeller
compass (display) n. instrument with a            shaft made of fibre-reinforced
   magnetized needle which always                 epoxy in which the fibres are
   point to the magnetic north: La                usually glass and/ or carbon: Truïc
   baøn.                                          caùnh quay baèng vaät lieäu
compensating          bar     n.     =            composite.
   COMPENSATOR                                 compound carburettor n. carburettor
       compensating jet n. jet in a               with more than one choke
   fixed jet carburetor which supplies            (normally two-a small throttle
   other extra air or extra fuel to               openings and a larger one for large
   maintain the correct mixture                   throttle openings), but for fitting to
   strength: Gíclô phuï.                          a single port: Boä cheá hoøa khí keùp
compensation port n. small hole in                (2 hoïng)
   the wall of the tandem master                     compound (centre) electrode
   cylinder with connect the brake                n. electrode for a sparking plug
   fluid reservoir to the pressure                with a copper core and a jacket of
   chamber: Loã buø (phanh)                       a nickel-based alloy: Ñieän cöïc
compensator n. horizontal bar which               trung taâm baèng hôïp kim.
   is pulled forward when the                        compound glass n. = laminated
   handbrake is applies at its central            glass: Kính haït löïu.
   point, which is pivoted, while it is              compound motor n. DC electric
   connected, at each end to the                  motor with two separate fields
   handbrake cable, enabling equal                windings, one in parallel and the
   force to be exerted on each rear               other in series with the armature
   brake: Thanh caân baèng trong                  circuit; used as a starter motor:
   phanh tay.                                     Moâtô ñaáu hoãn hôïp.
competition car n. car specially               comprehension          insurance        n.
   construct for taking part in                   insurance against most ricks,
   competitions, such as races, hill              including third-party liability, fire,
   climbs and rallies: Xe hôi ñua.                theft, and damage: Baûo hieåm toaøn
component n.part which may be                     dieän.


                                          70
compress                                                            compression tester

compress v. to place under pressure                  ño söùc neùn.
   or to squeeze into a small space:                    compression ignition n. system
   Ñeø, neùn, eùp                                    on which the diesel engine works,
       compressed air = air at a                     where ignition is caused by the
   higher than atmospheric pressure,                 heat of compression and not by a
   used to drive tools and machinery:                spark: Söï chaùy nhôø neùn (diesel)
   Khí neùn.                                            compression ignition = DIESEL
       compressed-air spray gun =                    ENGINE: Chaùy nhôø neùn (Ñoäng
   spray guy which atomizes the                      cô diesel).
   coating material and projects it                     compression leakage n. loss of
   against a surface by mean of the                  compression due to the escape of
   negative pressure occurring when                  gases usually part the piston and
   a stream of air enters a pipe of                  due to wear of the bores and
   smaller diameter: Suùng phun sôn.                 piston rings: Söï giaûm söùc neùn do
      compressed natural gas (CNG)                   hôû baïc…
   see NATURAL GAS: Khí thieân                            compression moulding           n.
   nhieân neùn.                                      shaping of moulding by softening it
      compression n. (a) compressing                 under pressure and the action of
   of the air/ fuel mixture drawn into               heat, and forcing it through a hole
   the combustion champer before                     into a hollow space which it
   ignition takes place, either by the               completely fills: Söï ñuùc baèng aùp
   piston during its upward travel, or               suaát.
   in the case of rotating engines by                   compression ratio (CR) n. ratio
   the reduction of the volume in the                of the volume between the piston
   area between the rotor and the                    and cylinder head when the piston
   epitrochoid housing: Söùc neùn.                   is at the top of its stroke (top dead
     check the engine’s compression                  centre): Tæ soá neùn.
   = turn the engine and check that                      compression ring n. upper
   adequate resistance is felt when it               piston ring of an internal
   piston reaches the top of its                     combustion engine: Baïc löûa,
   compression stroke; alternatively                 seùcmaênng khí
   use a compression tester: Kieåm                      compression stroke n. upward
   tra söùc neùn ñoäng cô.                           stroke of the piston with both
     the      shock      absorber          is        valves closed;        as the piston
   adjustable in both compression                    ascends, the air/ fuel mixture (in
   and rebound = it is possible to                   diesel engines air only) is
   adjust the resistance of the shock                temperature of the charge before
   absorber to both pressure and                     ignition: Thì neùn.
   rebound: Boä giaûm chaán coù theå                       compression tester            n.
   ñieàu chænh söï neùn vaø söï baät laïi.           instrument for measuring engine
      compression gauge n. =                         compression when the running or
   COMPRESSION TESTER: Maùy                          cranking the engine,           usually


                                                71
compressor                                                                   condenser

  inserted in the plughole on petrol               with an integral microprocessor
  engines: Thieát bò ño söùc neùn.                 determining the correct timing
       compressor n. (a) pump for                  using information from crankshaft
  increase pressure used e.g. in air–              and camshaft sensors: Thôøi ñieåm
  conditioning or in forced induction              ñaùnh löûa ñöôïc ñieàu khieån baèng
  (supercharging or turbo charging):               maùy tính.
  Maùy neùn (taêng aùp)                                   concealed      headlight     n.
     compressor impeller = impeller                headlight which are hidden under
  of a turbocharger driven by the                  covers until required, when they
  turbine at speed to 160.000 rpm,                 are raised into position: Ñeøn pha
  which accelerates by centrifugal                 xeáp.
  force the charge air which enters                (NOTE: also called pop-up
  axially and leaves radially at very              headlight)
  high velocity: caùnh turbine taêng            concept car n. car incorporating new
  aùp.                                             ideas, of which only one example
  (b) tool for compressing a coil                  is usually made primarily as a
  spring, such as a valve spring:                  design exercise, but also to
  Thieát bò neùn loø xo.                           impress the public: Xe thöû nghieäm
Compress        (pressure         wave)            (thöôøng laø model môùi ñeå tröng
  supercharger n. supercharger                     baøy)
  using the pressure waves reated by            concourse n. a meeting to which
  the expanding exhaust gases to                   enthusiasts bring their classic cars
  compress the inlet charge: Heä                   to show, including a competition
  thoáng taêng aùp baèng soùng aùp suaát           to decide which is the smartest:
  computer aided a. (of process) in                Ngaøy hoäi xe hôi coå ñieån.
  which computers are used for                  condensation n. liquid, especially
  calculations, etc.: Hoã trôï baèng               water, formed due to cooling of
  maùy tính.                                       moist air or vapour, also the
         computer controlled a.                    process of its formation: Söï ngöng
  regulated by a computer: Ñieàu                   tuï.
  khieån baèng maùy tính.                               condense v. to increase in
      computer controlled catalytic                density and (of a vapour) to
  converter = system in which                      become a liquid: ngöng tuï.
  exhaust emissions are controlled                      condensed water = water
  by close regulation of the a/ f ratio            resulting from condensation: nöôùc
  and by the use of a three-way                    ngöng tuï.
  catalytic converter: Boä xuùc taùc                   condenser n. device in an air-
  ñieàu khieån baèng maùy tính.                    conditioning system mounted in
  (NOTE: opposite is open-loop                     front of the car’s radiator with coils
  catalytic converter)                             and turns to liquid: Boä ngöng tuï
       computer controlled ignition                (giaøn noùng)
  timing = electronic ignition system              (NOTE: opposite is evaporator)


                                           72
conductive                                                                      contact

conductive a. capable of conducting             con rod          n.      ( informal)   =
   or carrying electricity: Daãn ñieän.            CONNECTING ROD
   (NOTE: opposite is resistivity)              console n. small fascia and/ or storage
        conductor n. material which                space between the front seats in a
   conducts electricity due to the fact            car, which may serve as a support
   that it has many free electrons:                for additional instruments: Khung
   Vaät daãn ñieän.                                ñeå gaén tableau.
   (NOTE: opposite is insulator)                constantan       n. nickel and copper
cone clutch n. early type of clutch in             alloy, used as resistance wire or in
   which the driving and driven                    thermocouples: Hôïp kim cuûa
   elements have conical surfaces,                 ñoàng vaø nikel
   still used in the synchronizing              constant-mesh gearbox n. most
   mechanisms        of    synchromesh             commonly used transmission type
   transmissions: Ly hôïp coân.                    in which forward            gear pairs
configuration n. arrangement of part               remain in mesh all the time, the
   in relation to one another: Caáu                driving pair being engaged by a
   hình.                                           clutch mechanism incorporating a
conical a. in the shape of a cone;                 hub and sleeve, today almost
   tapered: Hình noùn.                             invariably       laid    out    as   a
        conical seat or seating =                  synchromesh mechanism: Hoäp soá
   circular seating, e.g. for a valve or           kieåu luoân aên khôùp.
   sparking plug, with slopping sides:                constant power distribution or
   Beä hình coân.                                  split n. system with ensures that
connecting rod n. bar forming the link             the same amount of the power is
   between piston and crankshaft, and              always transmitted to the front and
   transmitting the force exerted by               rear wheels in a four wheel drive
   the piston to the crankshaft: Thanh             vehicle: Söï phaân boá ñeàu coâng
   truyeàn (tay deân).                             suaát treân xe hai caàu.
      connecting rod bearing = BIG-             constant velocity joint (CV joint) n.
   END BEARING: Baïc loùt thanh                    universal joint in which the driven
   truyeàn                                         shaft rotates at a constant speed
         connecting rod shank =                    regardless of the angle adopted,
   longitudinal, usually I-section, part           given a constant input shaft speed:
   of the connecting rod: Thaân thanh              Khôùp noái ñoàng toác (Ñaàu laùp)
   truyeàn                                      consumption n. process of using up
connection n. joining of two parts,                or amount used, especially of fuel
   especially       parts    connecting            or oil: Söï tieâu thuï (nhieân lieäu,
   electricity: Söï keát noái (noái daây           daàu nhôùt)
   ñieän)                                       contact n. (a) touching of two parts:
       connector n. part which joins               Söï tieáp xuùc.
   two or more parts together: Giaéc               (b) part carrying electricity made
   noái.                                           to touch another such part for


                                           73
contact area                                      continuously variable transmission

                                                   baùn daãn khoâng tieáp ñieåm.
   passing current, e.g. in a switch or                contact patch n. parts of a tyre
   a contact breaker: Caùi coâng taéc,             in contact with the road surface:
   tieáp ñieåm.                                    Phaàn tieáp xuùc cuûa voû xe vôùi maët
contact area n. = CONTACT                          ñöôøng
   PATCH: Vuøng tieáp xuùc.                        (NOTE: also called footprint)
       contact arm n. arm in the                      contact pattern n. wear pattern
   distributor or which the moving                 visible at point where two parts
   contact is mounted: Caàn vít buùa               touch: Veát moøn.
   (vít löûa)                                          contact point n. = CONTACT
        contact bounce         n. rapid            BREAKER POINT
   opening and closing of electrical                    contact set n. replacement
   contacts     causing     intermittent           contact breaker assembly for
   functioning of the circuit: Hieän               fitting when new points are
   töôïng rung tieáp ñieåm (vít)                   required: Nguyen boä vít löûa ñeå
        contact breaker (CB) n.                    thay theá
   mechanical switch as the part of                     contact spring        n.   spring
   the distributor of breaker-triggered            pressing on a contact to hold it in
   ignition systems which breaks the               engagement, in a switch, bulb
   primary current at the ignition                 holder, etc.: Loø xo tieáp xuùc (ñuoâi
   point to provide a spark, consisting            ñeøn, coâng taéc)
   of a fixed contact or point and an           contaminant        n.     dirt or other
   arm with a moving contact or                    undesirable substance or pollutant:
   point: Tieáp ñieåm (Vít löûa).                  Chaát gaây oâ nhieãm, hoaëc laøm baån
         contact breaker gap =                  Continental-type fuse n. ceramic fuse
   POINTS GAP: Khe hôû vít löûa                    with conical and caps, colour-
      contact breaker plate = plate                coded for different values: Caàu
   on which the the contact breaker                chì söù.
   assembly is mounted, and which               Continuous AC Ignition System
   can be rotated slightly by the                  (CACIS) n. fundamentally new
   vacuum or centrifugal advance                   ignition system, where a high-
   mechanism: Maâm xoay vít löûa.                  energy AC arc burns for the entire
        contact breaker point =                    power stroke: Heä thoáng ñaùnh löûa
   individual contact of a contact                 xoay chieàu lieân tuïc
   breaker: Ñieåm tieáp xuùc cuûa vít           continuous injection system (CIS) n.
   löûa                                            mechanical fuel injection system
        contact chatter          n.   =            giving a constant supply of fuel :
   CONTACT BOUNCE                                  Heä thoáng phun xaêng lieân tuïc
       contactless electronic ignition             (kieåu K).
   (system) n. = BREAKERLESS                                continuously         variable
   TRANSISTORIZED            IGNITION              transmission           (CVT)         n.
   (SYSTEM): Heä thoáng ñaùnh löûa                 transmission system in which the


                                           74
control                                                                   control valve

    speed ratio of driving and driven               thermostatically controlled air
   elements is infinitely variable over             cleaners,      (iv) very lean A/F
   the required working range, or is                mixtures, (v) high idle speed, (vi)
   varied over a very large of number               severely retarded ignition timing,
   fixed ratios, either automatically or            (vii) TCS and TVS: Heä thoáng
   by manual control: Hoäp soá voâ caáp.            kieåm soaùt quaù trình chaùy.
control 1 n. (a) device used to                  controlled vehicle n. vehicle fitted
   regulate the functioning of system,              with a system for reducing exhaust
   either operated by the driver by                 emissions, such as a catalytic
   mean of a lever, knob or switch, or              converter, egr, air injection or fuel
   operating automatically: Thieát bò               evaporative emission control: Xe
   ñieàu khieån, kieåm soaùt                        ñöôïc kieåm soaùt khí thaûi.
   (b) ability of the driver to make the                control plunger n. device in a
   vehicle perform as required: Söï                 fuel injection system whose up-
   ñieàu khieån (xe)                                and- down movement             in the
   2 v. to make do what is required:                metering         unit of the fuel
   Ñieàu khieån.                                    distributor controls the open cross
      control arm n. suspension arm                 sectional area of the metering
   controlling       wheel        camber,           ports and thus the quantity of fuel
   especially the upper or lower wish               supplies      to     the    individual
   born: Thanh giaèng.                              cylinders: Van ñieàu khieån nhieân
      control box n.(a) box containing              lieäu.
   voltage regulators and cut-out:                      control pressure n. pressure in
   Hoäp ñieàu khieån ñieän.                         fuel injection systems; pressure in
   (b) = CONTROL UNIT: Cuïm ñieàu                   an automatic transmission which
   khieån.                                          acts on the commands valves and
      control cable n. cable usually in             is derived from line pressure or
   an outer sheath, running from a                  from throttle pressure: Aùp suaát
   knob or lever to the device which it             ñieàu khieån .
   operates or regulates: Caùp ñieàu                       control stalk n. spindle
   khieån.                                          projecting from the steering
   (NOTE: US English is control                     column just below the steering
   wire)                                            wheel, on which are grouped
controlled burn rate see CBR                        controls for some or all the
   PROCESS: Toác ñoä chaùy ñöôïc                    following; light, windscreen wipers
                                                    and washers, direction indicators
   kieåm soaùt
                                                    and horns: Coâng taéc toå hôïp tr6en
controlled combustion system (CCS)
   n.General Motors term covering a                 vuøng tay laùi
   set of emission control measures,                   control unit n. = ELECTRONIC
   including (i) modified combustion                CONTROL UNIT: Cuïm ñieàu
   champer design,            (ii) high-            khieån ñieän töû.
   temperature coolant systems, (iii)                  control valve n. valve regulat-


                                            75
control valve assembly                                                   converter top

   ing or operating a system,                       neàn (sôn).
   especially a hydraulic or vacuum                      conversion rate n. rate at
   control system: Van ñieàu khieån.                which a given catalytic converter
        control valve assembly =                    purifies the exhaust gas stream,
   casting located in the sump of an                governed by various parameters
   automatic gearbox, which contains                such as operating conditions and
   most of the valves for the hydraulic             converter design: Toác ñoä hoaù khöû.
   control system: Cuïm van ñieàu                converter       n. (a)     = TORQUE
   khieån.                                          CONVERTER: Boä bieán moâ.
        control wire         n. US =                (b) = CATALYTIC CONVERTER:
   CONTROL CABLE                                    Boä xuùc taùc.
conv n. = CONVERTIBLE                               (c) = ADAPTER: Ñaàu chuyeån
conventional ignition system n.                     tieáp
   ignition system consisting of                       converter case n. assembly in
   battery, ignition switch, ballast                an automatic gearbox comprising
   resistor, ignition coil, distributor             the impeller with the converter
   and capacitor, contact breaker,                  cover welded to it, containing the
   centrifugal or vacuum advance                    converter fluid and vane wheel s
   unit, sparking plug and ignition                 and connected to the crankshaft via
   cables: Heä thoáng ñaùnh löûa                    the drive plate and revolving at
   thöôøng (vít löûa)                               engine speed: Voû boä bieán moâ.
conventional spare wheel n. spare                       converter cover n. part in an
   wheel identical with the standard                automatic gearbox welded to the
   wheels on a car: Baùnh xe döï                    pump, with which it constitutes the
   phoøng.                                          converter case: Voû bôm boä bieán
conversion n. (a) changing from on                  moâ.
   state into another, e.g. of toxious                   converter housing n. (a)
   gases into harmless gases: Söï                   stationary outer part of the
   chuyeån ñoåi traïng thaùi                        automatic gearbox casing which
   (b) altered state of a particular                houses the converter case: Voû hoäp
   system, or set of parts needed to                soá.
   achieve it: Traïng thaùi ñaõ thay ñoåi           (b) housing of a catalytic
   cuûa moät heä thoáng                             converter: Voû boä xuùc taùc.
      manual choke conversion (kit)                 (NOTE: also called converter
   = parts needed to change an                      shell)
   automatic choke into a manually               convertible n. car with a hood that
   operated choke: Phuï tuøng ñeå                   can be folded down or a hard top
   chuyeån böôùm gioù töï ñoäng sang                which can be removed: Xe mui
   böôùm gioù tay.                                  xeáp (mui traàn)
      conversion coating n. metal                   (NOTE: also called open car)
   surface coating consisting of a                       converter top (US) = soft
   compound of the base metal: Lôùp                 foldable top of an open car, top of


                                            76
coolant                                                                       core plug

   an open car, made of canvas or               copolymer n. polymer produce from
   vinyl and usually including a PVC               two different monomers: Hôïp chaát
   rear window: Mui xeáp                           cao phaân töû ñöôïc saûn xuaát töø hai
coolant n. mixture of water and anti-              ñôn theå
   freeze (usually now with corrosion           copper core n. central electrode of a
   inhibitors) in the cooling system:              sparking plug or the wires of an
   Nöôùc laøm maùt ñoäng cô                        HT lead made of copper, which is
      coolant level warning light n.               an excellent conductor electricity:
   light on the instrument panel with              Loõi ñoàng cuûa ñieän cöïc bougie
   comes on when there is too little               hoaëc daây cao aùp
   coolant in the cooling system: Ñeøn                   copper-core      lead         =
   baùo möïc nöôùc laøm maùt                       (unsuppressed) HT lead with a
       coolant pump n. = WATER                     copper core: Daây phin loõi ñoàng.
   PUMP: Bôm nöôùc laøm maùt                            copper-faced hammer            n.
      coolant temperature sensor n.                hammer with a round head made
   sensor usually on the bottom of the             of copper, used on items which
   radiator     connected      to   the            would be damaged by the use of a
   temperature gauge: Caûm bieán                   harder steel hammer, such as
   nhieät ñoä nöôùc laøm maùt                      knock-off hubcaps or spinners:
cooling fan n. large and powerful fan              Buùa ñaàu ñoàng.
   on an air cooled engine, usually of                copper plating n. applying a
   the axial flow type, driven via a v-            thin layer of copper by electrolytic
   belt from the engine crankshaft,                deposition, especially on parts in
   with supplies a large volume of                 the electrical system        such as
   cooling air to the cooling fins of              terminals and contacts: Maï ñoàng
   the engine, and adds significantly           cord n. strong thread usually of nylon
   to engine noise: Quaït laøm maùt                used in the carcass of a tyre: Loõi
   keùt nöôùc                                      voû xe.
      cooling fins n. protruding strips         core n. (a) central part which is
   of flat metal cast on the cylinder of           entirely enclosed, as in an ignition
   air cooled engines (and sometimes               coil, a sparking plug, an electrical
   other component) to increase the                lead or a tyre valve: Loõi, cöïc
   available cooling surface, and to               (b) main part of a radiator below
   improve heat dissipation: Caùnh                 the header tank, consisting of
   taûn nhieät.                                    numerous small            tubes with
      cooling jacket n. = WATER                    cooling fins and gaps between for
   JACKET: Aùo nöôùc                               the air to pass through: Væ laøm maùt
cooling system n. system for keeping               trong keùt nöôùc.
   the temperature of an engine down                   core plug n. sheet metal disc
   to a desirable level, usually by the            inserted in a hole in the water
   circulation of water with additives:            jacket of the cylinder block to
   Heä thoáng laøm maùt                            prevent it from cracking if the


                                           77
cornering                                                                     countersink

    coolant should freeze due to                       formed at a result of corrosion:
    insufficient anti-freeze, the core                 Chaát ñöôïc hình thaønh trong quaù
    plug being forced out by the                       trình aên moøn
    pressure created by the expansion                     corrosion resistance = ability of
    of the water when frozen: Nuùt                     metals to withstand corrosion: Khaû
    choáng nöùt loác maùy (baèng kim                   naêng choáng aên moøn.
    loaïi, ñaët beân ngoaøi aùo nöôùc)                     corrosion warranty = ANTI–
    (NOTE: US English is freeze-                       CORROSION WARRANTY
    plug)                                                 corrosive a. causing corrosion:
cornering n. negotiation of a corner                   Laøm aên moøn
    or bend: Söï quay voøng                         cost-effective a. worthwhile in terms
       good/ poor cornering (ability)                  of tangible benefits produced by
    = ability / inability of a car to go               money spent: Hieäu suaát ñaàu tö coù
    round corners safely at a                          hieäu quaû lôïi nhuaän
    reasonable speed, without body                  cost option n.option extra for a new
    roll and breakaway: khaû naêng                     car available on payment of an
    quay voøng toát / xaáu                             additional sum: Chi phí gaén theâm.
         cornering forces =           forces        cotter n. tapered pin or wedge
    exerted on a tyre by the slip angle                inserted through holes in two parts
    when taking a corner: Löïc taùc                    such as a or wheel or other part
    duïng leân baùnh xe khi quay voøng                 on a shaft, so us to hold the two
       corner speed = speed at which                   parts firmly in position relative to
    a corner is taken: Toác ñoä quay                   one another: Choát giöõ.
    voøng                                                 cotter pin = (a) SPLIT PIN
 corrode v. (a) to suffer corrosion,                   (b) COTTER
    especially rust: AÊn moøn.                      coulomb (C) n. unit of electric charge
    (b) to cause corrosion in: Laøm aên                being the amount of electricity
    moøn.                                              conveyed in one second by a
       corrosion n. chemical process in                current of one ampere: Culoâng
    which a metal is eaten away, such               countershaft n. US = LAY SHAFT:
    as the oxidation of iron and steel,                Truïc trung gian
    otherwise known a rusting: Söï aên              countersink v. to enlarge the part of a
    moøn (hoaù hoïc).                                  hole on the surface of the material
            corrosion        control      or           so that a conical recess is formed
    prevention or protection =                         to take the correspondingly shaped
    minimizing corrosion by coating                    heat of a screw, which will then be
    with a protective metal, an oxide,                 flush with the surface: Maët vaùt loã
    or similar substance, or with a                    ren.
    protective paint, or by rendering                      countersunk bolt or screw =
    the metal passive: Kieåm soaùt                     bolt or screw the back of whose
    (choáng) söï aên moøn                              head is angled to conform with the
       corrosion inhibitor = substance                 angle (countersink angle) of the


                                               78
countersunk hole                                                 crankcase breather

   sides of the hole into which it is              behind the rear door and to either
   fitted: Ñinh vít hoaëc bu loâng chìm            side of the rear window,
      countersunk hole = enlarged                  connecting the rear of the roof to
   hole with slopping sides: Loã vaùt.             the side of the body: Truï ñôõ phía
       counterweight n. (a) weight                 sau khung cöûa sau.
   added to the crankshaft of an                CR or cr = COMPRESSION RATIO:
   engine to improve smoothness of                 Tyû soá neùn
   running at low engine speeds as              cracking n. forming of cracks, e.g. in
   well as even increase or decrease               the sidewalls of a tyre due to
   of speed, usually in the form of an             hardening of the rubber, or in
   extension of the crank web on the               paintwork due to weathering of an
   opposite side from the crankpin:                excessively deep coat: Söï nöùt (voû
   Ñoái troïng (truïc khuyûu)                      xe hoaëc sôn)
   (b) = BALANCE WEIGHT: Troïng                 crank 1 n.(a) arm incorporating a right
   löôïng caân baèng                               angle, often mounted on a shaft:
coupe n. car with closed two-door                  Caùi tay quay
   bodywork usually having a boot                  (b) = CRANKSHAFT: Truïc
   (i.e. not a hatch back) and sleek               khuyûu
   and sporty lines, the rear seat often           2 v. to turn (the engine) by means
   being rather cramped: Xe 2 cöûa                 of the starter or with a handle:
coupling n. part for joining two parts,            Khôûi ñoäng
   especially shafts: Khôùp noái                        cranking enrichment           =
       coupling sleeve = sleeve or                 posision of a richer mixture for
   collar moved along the main shaft               starting the engine: Laøm giaøu hoaø
   of a gearbox by a selector fork                 khí khi khôûi ñoäng.
   engaging in a groove of its centre                  cranking speed = speed at
   and having dog clutches at either               which the starter turns the engine:
   end: OÁng truïc dòch chuyeån theo               Toác ñoä khôûi ñoäng.
   truïc chính cuûa hoäp soá coù cô caáu              crankcase n. part of the engine
   ñònh vò                                         that house the crankshaft (and
courtesy light n. interior light which             usually the oil pump) and carries
   comes on when the door is opened:               the sump, typically made of cast
   Ñeøn traàn.                                     iron and in one piece with the
cowl n. (a) part of the bodywork with              engine block: Cacte
   protects      and/     or    provides               crankcase breather = vent
   streamlining      for     a   usually           which allows fumes and blowby
   projecting component: Taám caûn                 gases to escape, and reduces
   tröôùc ñaàu xe                                  condensation, usually connected to
   (b) US = SCUTTLE                                the air intake of the carburettor so
cowling n. = COWL                                  that the fumes can be burnt in the
C-pillar or C-post n. third vertical               combustion champer: Loã thoâng
   pillar of a typical saloon body shell           hôi cacte


                                           79
crankcase compression                                                         crash

      crankcase compression or pre-               connecting rods which converts the
   compression = initial compression              reciprocating or up and down
   of the fuel/ air/ oil mixture in a             motion of the pistons into rotary
   two-stroke engine in the area                  motion used to provide the drive to
   below the pistons to enable more               the wheels via the clutch and
   fresh charge to be fed into the                transmission: Truïc khuyûu
   cylinder: Neùn tröôùc trong ñoäng                  crankshaft journal = term
   cô hai thì.                                    usually applied to the journals
          crankcase     emissions     =           running in the main bearings as
   pollutants allowed to escape into              opposed to those for the big-end
   the      atmosphere     from     the           bearings: Coå truïc chính truïc
   crankcase: Söï oâ nhieãm do hôi                khuyûu
   cacte                                              crankshaft position sensor =
      crankcase half = one side of the            sensor which transmits data on the
   crankcase where it is split down               exact position of the crankshaft to
   the middle, especially in single-              the engine management system for
   cylinder motorcycle engines: Nöûa              accurate ignition timing: Caûm
   naép cacte (trong xe gaén maùy).               bieán vò trí píttoâng
      crankcase scavenging = system                  crankshaft pully = pully on the
   in a two–stroke engine where the               nose of the crankshaft which may
   fresh charge is induced into the               be toothed for use with a cogged
   cylinder via the crankcase and the             belt for driving the crankshaft, or
   transfer ports: Heä thoáng naïp khí            recessed to accept a v-belt, or
   qua cacte ( trong ñoäng cô hai thì)            slotted to take a ribbed belt for
         crankcase ventilation =                  driving the alternator or dynamo
   circulation of air through the                 plus sometimes the fans and water
   crankcase of a running engine to               pump, it may also carry timing
   removed water, blow–by and other               marks: Puli truïc khuyûu
   gases and thus prevent oil dilution               crankshaft sprocket = sprocket
   and       contamination,     sludge            mounted on the nose of the
   formation and pressure build-up:               crankshaft driving the camshaft via
   Thoâng hôi cacte                               a timing chain: Baùnh raêng truïc
      cranked a. having an elbow or               khuyûu (truyeàn ñoäng xích)
   right angle shape in it, e.g. a                     crank throw n. distance
   starting handle or wheel brace:                between the crankpin and the axis
   Tay quay                                       of rotation or centreline of the
      crankpin n. journal on which the            crankshaft, which is equal to half
   connecting rod of a piston engine              the stroke: Baùn kính khuyûu.
   is mounted: Coå truïc gaù laép ñaàu               crank web n. one of the pair of
   thanh truyeàn                                  arms which carry the big-end
      crankshaft n. part of the engine            journal: Maù truïc khuyûu
   connected to the pistons by                 crash n. collision either with another


                                          80
crash barrier                                                  crimping pliers or tool

   car or into some usually stationary             daønh cho xe chaïy chaäm
   object: Söï ñuïng xe.                        crazing n. development of a network
        crash barrier = barrier with               of fine cracks on or just under the
   longitudinal members designed to                surface of paintwork: Söï phaùt
   prevent a vehicle which is out of               trieån cuûa nhöõng veát nöùt sôn.
   control from leaving a road or race          crease n. ridge produced by folding of
   track, or on a motorway from                    the metal either as part of the
   crossing the central reserve: Con               design or as a result of accident
   löôn, haøng raøo phaân ranh giôùi.              damage: Veát moáp.
         crash gearbox n. gearbox               creep n. tendency of a vehicle with
   without any synchromesh, thus                   automatic transmission to edge
   requiring double declutching: Hoäp              forwards when idling with drive
   soá khoâng coù boä ñoàng toác.                  engaged unless held on the brake:
   (NOTE: also informally called                   Söï tröôøn xe ôû toác ñoä caàm chöøng,
   crash box)                                      khoâng phanh (coù hoäp soá töï ñoäng)
crash recorder n. electric device                       creepage n. spreading of
   that measure the speed and                      corrosion, especially rust, under
   direction of a motor vehicle, as                paintwork causing blistering and
   well as brake and indicator                     flaking: Söï lan gæ döôùi lôùp sôn
   activity: Hoäp ghi döõ lieäu xe khi                creeper n. low flat trolley made
   xaûy ra tai naïn.                               of wooden slats with castors, used
        crash sensor = sensor which                by mechanics to lie on when
   triggers the air bag when a certain             working under a vehicle: Xe goã
   degree      of      deceleration   is           duøng ñeå chui gaàm (söûa chöõa)
   exceeded, i.e. in a severe frontal           crescent n. (in internal gear pumps)
   crash: Caûm bieán va chaïm (ñieàu               part between the inner and outer
   khieån goái hôi)                                gears: Hình löôõi lieàm (phaàn naèm
       crash test = controlled test in             giöõa baùnh raêng trong vaø ngoaøi
   which a vehicle is propelled into a             cuûa bôm baùnh raêng)
   wall or another vehicle at a given           crest n. highest point of a screw
   speed, in order to study the effect             thread: Ñænh ren
   on its structure, the effectiveness             (NOTE: opposite is root)
   of safety belts, etc.: Thöû nghieäm          crimping n. creation of corrugations in
   va chaïm.                                       two thin metal parts as they are
crawler n. (informal) slow-moving                  pressed tightly together in order to
   vehicle: Xe ruøa, xe chaïy chaäm                join them, a method often used in
       crawler gear = extremely low                place of soldering for electrical
   gear mainly for off-road use: Soá               connections: Neáp gaáp choå noái daây
   cöïc thaáp.                                     vôùi ñaàu giaéc caám
       crawler lane = separate lane             crimping pliers or tool = tool in the
   for heavy lorries and other slow-               form of pliers with serrated jaws
   moving vehicles on a hill: Laøn                 especially for creating electrical


                                           81
critical speed                                                     cross-spoke wheel

    connections: Kìm boùp daây                     therefore wider than it is high,
 critical speed n. engine or shaft                 permitting a lower bonnet line: Boä
    speed at which some unwanted                   taûn nhieät vôùi doøng nöôùc chaûy
    phenomon such as vibration sets                nagng
    in: Toác ñoä tôùi haïn                             cross-head screw n. screw
crocodile clip n. spring clip with                 whose head has a double slot in the
    serrated      jaws       for     making        shape of a cross, design to accept a
    temporary electrical connections,              special screw-driver: Vít ñaàu chöû
    as on jump leads: Keïp caù saáu                thaäp
    (ñieän)                                              cross-head screwdriver =
    (NOTE: US English is alligator                 screwdriver such as the Phillips or
    clip)                                          pozidriv type with cross-shaped
crossbar n. (a) any transverse bar,                ridges in its point for cross-head
    especially a tie rod across the                screws: Tua nô vít ñaàu chöõ thaäp
    chassis, also specifically the top             (pa ke)
    tube of a cycle or motorcycle                     cross member n. any structural
    frame: Thanh ngang                             main body or chassis member
    (b) US = TOMMY BAR                             mounted transversely, i.e. linking
        cross coat n. paint spraying               left- and right- hand side members:
    technique in which consecutive                 Thanh ngang (khung)
    coats are sprayed at right angles to              cross-ply tyre n. tyre in which
    one another: Kyõ thuaät sôn chöû               the plies are laid diagonally,
    thaäp                                          running across the carcass and
       cross - country vehicle n. = off-           crisscrossing one another at an
    road vehicle: Xe ñòa hình.                     angle of about 300-400 : Voû xe lôùp
       cross-draught carburettor n.=               boá xieân.
    side draught carburettor: Boä cheá                cross point screwdriver n. =
    hoaø khí huùt ngang.                           cross head screwdriver: Tua nô vít
        cross flow cylinder head n.                ñaàu .
    cylinder head design (especially in               cross scavenging n. scavenging
    an OHC–engine) with the inlet                  in a two-stroke engine with flow
    manifold on one side and the                   across the cylinder assisted by a
    exhaust manifold on the other side             wedge-shaped piston crown: Söï
    of the head, so that inlet and                 queùt khí thaúng.
    exhaust valves are arranged on                     cross section     n. view of an
    opposite sides of the combustion               object when cut transversely at
    champer, giving a wider engine                 right angles across its centre: Maët
    but better gas flow: Naép qui laùt coù         caét.
    oáng goùp huùt vaø thaûi ñoái xöùng                cross shaft n. any transverse
       cross flow radiator n. radiator             shaft: Truïc ngang.
    in which the water flows sideways                  cross-spoke wheel n. modern
    instead of vertically, and which is            design of alloy wheel which


                                              82
cross-threaded                                                    cup-shape wire brush

   imitates the appearance of the                    overrides the system by braking or
   classical wire wheel: Maâm ñuùc                   accelerating, or by shutting it off:
   giaû caêm                                         Heä thoáng ñieàu khieån ga töï ñoäng.
      cross-threaded a. (of a bolt)                     cruising speed n. constant speed
   damaged by being inserted in a                    at which a car can be driven
   threaded hole at an angle: Bò treøo               without strain: Toác ñoä chaïy theo
   ren.                                              trôùn.
      crosswind n. wind blowing at                crumple zone n. front end (and also
   the side of the car: Gioù ngang (xe)              sometimes the rear end) of a car
      crown n. (a) top part, especially              which is so designed that it gives
   of a piston: Ñænh, ñaàu (piston)                  way in a crash in order to absorb as
   (b) outward curvature of an                       much as possible of the impact:
   apparently flat sheet metal panel:                Caûn xe.
   Ñöôøng cong bieân (thaân xe)                   crusher n. machine which crushes
      crown wheel n. large of two                    scrapped cars into small blocks:
   gears in a bevel gear drive with                  Maùy eùp xe pheá thaûi.
   teeth round its periphery facing               cubby hole n. glove compartment on
   sideways: Baùnh raêng noùn chuû                   older cars, often without a lid:
   ñoäng (caàu)                                      Ngaên chöùa ñoà ôû xe ñôøi cuõ.
      crown wheel and pinion = pair               cubes n. (informal) US = CUBIC
   of gears the final drive of a                     INCHES
   vehicle, always found in the back                   cubic capacity n. volume of any
   axle of a rear-wheel drive layout                 enclosed space, including a
   where the pinion is on the end of                 cylinder or an engine: Dung tích
   the propeller shaft driving the                   (xy lanh).
   crown wheel mounted on the                          cubic centimetre n. usual unit
   differential at right angles to it, and           of measure for the capacity of an
   also in front wheel drives where                  engine, almost always abbreviated
   the engine is not transversely                    to cc: Cm3
   mounted: Voøng raêng vaø baùnh                      cubic inch n. unit of measure for
   raêng noùn chuû ñoäng (caàu)                      the capacity of an engine used in
      cruciform frame n. frame with                  north America, equal to 16.387 cc:
   it X-shaped bracing either a                      Inch khoái.
   chassis frame, or in a monocoque                  (NOTE: abbreviated as cu .ins)
   as strengthening for the floor:                cup seal n. synthetic rubber seal with a
   Khung hình chöõ thaäp.                            single lip used for sealing
cruise v. to drive at a constant speed,              hydraulic and pneumatic pistons:
   using a fairly small throttle                     Phoát (duøng cho piston thuûy löïc
   opening: Chaïy theo trôùn                         hoaëc khí neùn)
       cruise control n. computer                        cup-shape wire brush            n.
   controlled system which maintains                 circular wire brush on an arbor for
   a preset speed unit the driver                    use with an electric drill: Baøn chaûi


                                             83
curb                                                                            cylinder

   saét ñeå ñaùnh boùng.                                cut-in speed n. speed at which
curb n. US = KERB: Leà ñöôøng.                       the dynamo has to rotate to
cure v. (of a plastic) to harden: Toâi,              produce a voltage which is greater
   laøm cöùng.                                       than that across the battery
      curing time n. time required for               terminals: Toác ñoä phaùt ñieän (maùy
   a plastic such as a filler or coating             phaùt)
   to harden: Thôøi gian toâi.                            cut-out n. circuit-breaker,
current regulator n.device for                       especially one in the charging
   controlling the current output of a               circuit of a dynamo, whose points
   dynamo (which increases with                      open when the dynamo output is
   engine speed) by opening a switch                 less than the battery voltage, so
   when the current exceeds a certain                that the battery does not drain into
   value, thus protecting the dynamo                 the dynamo: Caàu dao caét ñieän.
   from damage due to excess                         cutting compound n. relatively
   current: Boä tieát cheá doøng ñieän               abrasive paste used to bring up the
   (cho maùy phaùt moät chieàu)                      shine of paint finishes which dry
custom a. individually made to suit the              dull or have gone dull due to
   requirements and tastes of the                    neglect: Boät nhaùm laøm boùng sôn
   owner,       especially as regards                   cutting disc n. abrasive wheel
   appearance: Söï thay ñoåi theo yù                 of an angle grinder: Ñóa caét.
   chuû xe.                                             cutting line n. line established
       custom wheel = special wheel                  by the factory along which weld-up
   with attractive styling, usually                  assemblies must be cut when
   alloy, available as an aftermarket                replacing a sheet metal part, in
   accessory, fitted mainly to make a                order to maintain structural
   car look more sporty: Baùnh xe                    strength in the finished repair:
   kieåu theå thao.                                  Vaïch caét.
      customize v. to alter a car to suit                cutting torch n. oxyacetylene
   the requirements and tastes of the                torch for cutting through metal,
   owner,       especially as regards                used by emergency services and
   appearance: Laøm thay ñoåi theo yù                people dismantling vehicles: Moû
   chuû xe.                                          haøn caét.
cut and shut a. (of a car) shortened             CV      joint    n.   =    CONSTANT
   by cutting out a section of the                   VELOCITY
   chassis and/ or bodywork: Caét                CVT          =       CONTINUOUSLY
   ngaén thaân xe                                    VARIABLE TRANSMISSION
       cutaway a. (of a drawing or               CWT = HUNDREDWEIGHT
   model) with part of the external              cycle n. sequence of changes of state
   cover or causing removed to show                  after which the system is in its
   the internal parts and how they                   original state again: Chu kyø, chu
   work: Moâ hình caét boå (hìnhveõ                  trình.
   hoaëc vaät thaät)                              cylinder n.tubular chamber which


                                            84
  cylinder bank                                                                cylinder wall

    accommodates a reciprocating                            cylinder head bolt or nut = bolt
    piston, a in an engine or a                         or nut holding the cylinder head
    hydraulic system: Xy lanh.                          down: Bu loâng vaø ñai oác naép quy
       cylinder bank n. one half of the                 laùt.
    V in a V-engine; i.e. one of the two                    cylinder head gasket = gasket
    rows of four cylinders in the case                  locatted between the cylinder
    of a V-8: Daõy xylanh.                              block and cylinder head to seal the
         cylinder barrel n.external                     combustion chamber and to
    casing of a cylinder forming a                      prevent compression and coolant
    separate unit, especially of an air-                leaks, usually more than one
    cooled engine: Phaàn boïc xylanh                    material: Roong naép maùy, roong
    trong ñoäng cô laøm maùt baèng gioù                 quy laùt
cylinder block n. cast-iron or, less                cylinder head tester n. device used to
    frequently,       cast-alloy      casing            detect cylinder head leakages
    containing the cylinders of an                      which cause combustion gases to
    internal combustion engine, with a                  appear in the cooling system:
    water jacket if water-cooled or                     Duïng cuï kieåm tra hieän töôïng
    cooling fins if air-cooled, and                     thoåi roong
    usually in one piece with the                        cylinder hone n. special tool for
    crankcase: Khoái xy lanh.                            use with an electric drill or air
       cylinder block heater = electric                  tools to hone and polish engine,
    heater element in the water jacket                   clutch or brake cylinders, with a
    connected to the mains which                         number of hone stones that adjust
    warms the coolant before the car is                  to     different    cylinder     bore
    used, ensuring better starting and                   diameters by spring tension: Duïng
    faster engine and heater warm-up:                    cuï xoaùy vaø ñaùnh boùng xy lanh.
    Söï laøm noùng nöôùc laøm maùt baèng                      cylinder liner n. hard metal
    ñieän trôû nhieät ñeå deã khôûi ñoäng                insert in the cylinder block
       cylinder charge n. quantity of                    forming the cylinder wall, and in
    fresh mixture          fed into the                  which the pistons run: Sômi, oáng
    combustion chamber prior to                          loùt.
    combustion: Löôïng khí naïp.                         (NOTE: also called cylinder
        cylinder head n. casting on                      sleeve )
    earlier engines of cast iron and on                      cylinder wall n. internal face of
    most modern           engines of cat                 the cylinder or bore: Thaønh xy
    aluminium, bolted on top of the                      lanh
    cylinder block, usually containing
    part of the combustion chamber(s)
    with the valves and the sparking
    plugs: Naép quy laùt (naép maùy)




                                               85
D                                                                                    dBA


                                            Dd
D (a) = DIESEL: Ñoäng cô Diesel.                    taøi xeá, baûng ñieàu khieån
   (b) = DRIVE: Tay soá D.                             dashboard gear change n. gear
   (c) = mark on the output (live)                  change layout with the gear lever
   terminal on a dynamo: Kyù hieäu                  mounted in and protruding from
   cöïc ra maùy phaùt.                              the dashboard: Hoäp ñieàu khieån
damp v. to reduce the oscillations of (a            sang soá.
   spring, carburetor piston, etc.) or                   dashboard plaque n. metal
   the vibration in (a crankshaft, etc.):           plate, typically made of brass or
   Laøm giaûm dao ñoäng, laøm giaûm                 chromium-plated steel, awarded
   rung                                             for attendance or winning a prize
       damper n. any device which                   at a rally or other event, or with
   reduces      oscillations     (either            the supplier’s name and address:
   mechanical or electrical) or                     Baûng danh döï (cho ngöôøi thaéng
   vibration, such as a shock absorber              cuoäc ñua xe)
   in the suspension, or a vibration                     dash panel n. (a) structural
   damper on the crankshaft: Boä                    panel with bracings across the
   giaûm rung, giaûm dao ñoäng (caû cô              width of the car on the inside of
   vaø ñieän)                                       the       bulkhead       below      the
       damper piston = piston in a                  windscreen that provides the
   cylinder whose movement is                       mounting        locations    of     the
   restricted by a liquid or gas, which             dashboard: Khung tröôùc voâ laêng
   thus also restricts the movement of              ñeå gaén caùc ñoàng hoà vaø caùc boä
   another member to which it is                    phaän ñieàu khieån.
   connected: Piston boä giaûm xoùc.                (b) US = BULKHEAD: Taám ngaên
      damper springs = springs in a                 buøn, taám chaén.
   clutch plate providing a cushion              dashpot n. small housing for a damper
   against sudden loads due to abrupt               piston moving in oil, such as that of
   engagement: Loø xo giaûm chaán (ly               an SU carburetor: Boä giaûm chaán
   hôïp)                                            nhoû (gaù laép treân boä cheá hoøa khí,
      damper strut = suspension strut               coù taùc duïng laøm caàn ga giaûm töø
   whose hub carries is attached to                 töø)
   the spring element rather than to             dazzle n. glare from the headlights of
   the damper tube: Thanh choáng boä                on coming traffic which can
   giaûm chaán (heä thoáng treo)                    momentarily blind a driver: Söï
        damping force or rate n.                    choùi maét (töø ñeøn pha cuûa xe chaïy
   amount of damping applied by a                   ngöôïc chieàu)
   shock absorber: Löïc taét daàn cuûa           dBA n. measurement of the level of
   boä giaûm chaán                                  sound pressure with reference to a
dash (board) n. = INSTRUMENT                        particular circuit on a sound-level
   PANEL: Baûng ñoàng hoà tröôùc maët               meter which reacts in a similar


                                            86
DC                                                                     decompressor

   way to the ear: Ñôn vò ño cöôøng               kim loaïi)
   ñoä aâm thanh.                                     deburring n. removing burrs
DC = DIRECT CURRENT: Doøng                        from a metal surface: Söï maøi
   ñieän moät chieàu                              nhaün.
        DC generator n. US =                   decal n. type of transfer bearing a
   DYNAMO: Maùy phaùt ñieän moät                  model name or logo or other
   chieàu                                         wording: Nhaõn, maùc, tem (xe).
DC rim n. = DROP-CENTRE RIM:                   decarbonize v. to remove carbon
   Raõnh loõm treân nieàng xe.                    deposit from the piston top and
dead battery n. (informal) = FLAT                 combustion chambers of an
   BATTERY: AÉc quy cheát, aéc quy                engine: Khöû carbon, laøm saïch
   heát ñieän.                                    muoäi than (piston, buoàng ñoát)
      dead axle n. axle that supports          decelerate v. to slow down by taking
   weight and attached parts, but does            one’s foot off the throttle: Giaûm
   not deliver power to a wheel or                toác ñoä
   other rotating member: Truïc, caàu             (NOTE: opposite is accelerate)
   coá ñònh                                          deceleration n. slowing down:
       dead centre n. position of the             Söï giaûm toác ñoä
   piston either at the top or the                    deceleration fuel cut-off = in
   bottom of its stroke: Ñieåm cheát              an        electrically      controlled
   (piston)                                       carburetion or fuel injection
       dead pedal n. footrest to the              system, cutting off the fuel supply
   left of the clutch on some vehicles:           when the engine is at operation,
   Baøn ñeå chaân                                 the throttle is closed, and engine
      dead space n. space below the               speed is above tick-over: Cheá ñoä
   piston      available     for   pre-           caét nhieân lieäu khi giaûm toác
   compression of the incoming fresh           deck n. (a) floor of a commercial
   charge of the two-stroke engine:               vehicle, especially a bus: Taàng
   Khoaûng troáng döôùi piston trong              noùc, taàng treân.
   ñoäng cô 2 kyø                                 (b) in an engine, top face of the
dealer n. person whose business is                cylinder block on which the
   buying and selling cars: Ñaïi lyù              cylinder head rests: Beà maët khoái
   mua baùn xe.                                   xy lanh (tieáp xuùc vôùi naép maùy)
death rattle n. (informal) noise from                 deck panel n. = REAR DECK
   an engine which indicates that it is           PANEL: Taám ngaên phía sau.
   likely to break down at any                 declutch v. to disengage the clutch:
   moment: Tieáng khöïng cuûa ñoäng               Nhaû ly hôïp
   cô (chuaån bò cheát maùy)                   decoke v. = DECARBONIZE: Khöû
debugging n. eradicating faults in a              carbon, laøm saïch muoäi than.
   system: Söï söûa chöõa loãi.                decompressor        n.    valve,    often
deburr v. to remove burrs from a                  manually operated and mostly on
   metal surface: Maøi nhaün (beà maët            old or diesel engines, which


                                          87
dedicated                                                                      dehumidifier

   releases compression in a cylinder                  engines: Keát caáu ñaëc bieät cuûa
    by allowing air to escape in order                 piston ñoäng cô 2 kyø ñeå queùt khí.
    to facilitate manual starting (or                     deflector piston = now obsolete
    kick-starting of a motorcycle): Van                piston design, featuring a profiled
    xaû khi khôûi ñoäng tay (ñoäng cô cuõ)             crown intended to help direct the
    dedicated a. designed for a                        incoming fresh mixture upwards to
    specific use or for a specific                     expel the burnt exhaust gas from
    vehicle:Chuyeân duïng.                             the cylinder: Píttoâng ñaàu coù phaàn
De Dion axle n. rear-wheel drive                       daãn höôùng doøng khí queùt.
    layout with virtually semi-                     defogger n. US = DEMISTER: Boä
    independent suspension, having a                   phaän laøm tan baêng, boä xoâng
    solid tubular cross member                         kính.
    attached to both wheel carriers and             deformation n. alteration of shape or
    a single pivot point forward of the                dimensions of a body caused by
    axle, the differential being                       stresses, expansion or contraction
    attached to the chassis and thus                   due to temperature or moisture
    part of the sprung mass of the                     change,         or   chemical       or
    vehicle: Caàu xe kieåu De Dion.                    metallurgical change: Söï bieán
defect n. fault in a system or flaw in                 daïng.
    materials or a finish: Khuyeát taät,                  deformation zone = CRUMPLE
    choã sai                                           ZONE: Vuøng bieán daïng.
        defective a. faulty or flawed:              defroster n. US = DEMISTER: Boä
    Coù thieáu soùt, coù khuyeát taät                  phaän laøm tan baêng, boä xoâng
defensive driving n. taking into                       kính.
    account the likelihood of mistakes              degradation n. deterioration in the
    that could be made by other                        condition of a material: Söï thoaùi
    drivers and driving accordingly:                   hoùa vaät lieäu
    Caån troïng vôùi loãi cuûa caùc taøi xeá        degrease v. to remove the oil and
    khaùc                                              grease from the surface (of a part):
deflated a. (of a tyre) having lost all its            Taåy nhôøn (daàu, nhôùt)
    air; containing no air: Xì hôi, noå                   degreasing n. removal of grease
    loáp.                                              or oil from surfaces : Söï taåy nhôøn.
        deflation n. loss of air from a                   degreasing agent = usually a
    tyre: Söï noå loáp, söï xì loáp.                   solvent, but can also be an alkaline
deflection n. movement of a member,                    solution or steam, used for
    especially part of the suspension,                 removing oil and grease: Chaát taåy
    when subjected to a load: Ñoä                      nhôøn.
    voõng, söï voõng xuoáng (heä thoáng             dehumidifier n. device which absorbs
    treo)                                              moisture from the air, e.g. in a
          deflector n. special piston                  garage or in an air-conditioning
    profile used to achieve cross                      system: Maùy huùt hôi aåm, laøm khoâ
    scavenging in earlier two-stroke                   (khoâng khí); giaûm ñoä aåm


                                               88
de-ice                                                                               dent

de-ice v. to remove ice from the from             delta configuration n. triangular
    of an windscreen or rear window:                  connection of the three stator
    Laøm tan baêng.                                   windings of an alternator: Ñaáu daây
de-icer n. liquid usually in the form of              kieåu tam giaùc (maùy phaùt)
    an aerosol spray for removing ice             de luxe (DL) a.better in its quality or
    from wind-screens and windows:                    level of equipment than the basic
    Dung dòch choáng ñoùng baêng,                     version: Haïng sang, sang troïng.
    dung dòch laøm tan baêng.                     demist v. to clear the windscreen or
de-ionized water n.water from which                   rear window when they have
    impurities have been removed by                   misted up (or when ice has formed
    a special process, for topping up                 on the outside) (it takes longer to
    batteries: Nöôùc caát.                            clear fronts or ice on the outside
delay valve n. valve used in vacuum                   than internal condensation): Gaït
    or hydraulic systems whose closing                söông.
    or opening action is delayed, e.g.                   demister n. device or system for
    delaying vacuum signals by about                  clearing a windscreen or rear
    10-30 seconds in the lines                        window which is misted up or
    connected to the distributor                      covered in ice: Heä thoáng xoâng
    vacuum advance: Van trì hoaõn,                    kính, gaït söông.
    van laøm treã.                                    (NOTE: US English is defogger,
deliver v. (a) (of a pump, etc.) to                   defroster)
    pump or discharge (a liquid): Bôm             demonstrator n. car used by a dealer
    hoaëc ñaåy chaát loûng                            for test drives and sold at a
    (b) to drive (a new car) from the                 reduced price after a year or less
    factory to the distributor or dealer:             of use: Xe ñeå khaùch haøng chaïy
    Giao xe cho ñaïi lyù                              thöû vaø baùn haï giaù sau ñoù
       delivery n. (a) discharging of a                  ex-demonstrator for sale = car
    liquid from a pump, etc.: Ñaåy chaát              for sale which has been used as a
    loûng baèng bôm                                   demonstrator: Xe ñeå khaùch haøng
    (b) driving a new car from the                    chaïy thöû ñöôïc ñem baùn
    factory to the distributor or dealer:         demountable rim = DETACHABLE
    Söï phaân phoái xe ñeán ngöôøi baùn.              RIM: Nieàng xe rôøi.
        delivery pipe/ side = outlet              Denovo tyre n. special tyre (fitted to a
    pipe/ side: OÁng phaân phoái.                     special rim) which used to be
        delivery valve = valve on the                 made by Dunlop, and which can be
    outlet side of a pump: Van ôû ñaàu                run flat for up to 100 miles at up to
    ra cuûa bôm                                       50 mph Denovo: Loáp xe Denovo.
        delivery mileage only = has               density n. compactness of a substance,
    only been driven from the factory                 expressed as the quotient of its
    to the dealer who is selling the car:             mass and its volume, or mass per
    Chæ chaïy töø nhaø maùy laép raùp ñeán            unit volume: Tyû troïng
    ñaïi lyù                                      dent 1 n. hollow or dip, e.g. in part


                                             89
dent puller                                                                detachable rim

   of the body, caused by a sharp                     depth measurements: Vi keá ño
   blow or impact: Veát loõm, veát                    chieàu saâu.
   thuïn.                                                 depth of thread n. distance
       to hammer out a dent = to                      from thread crest to root, measured
   hammer a panel from behind                         perpendicular to the axis of the
   where it has been dented so that                   thread: Chieàu saâu ren.
   the metal surface regains its                   derust v. to remove the rust from
   correct shape: Goø cho baèng laïi.                 (metal parts): Caïo ræ seùt.
   2 v. to cause a dent in (a body                 derv n. diesel oil when used as a
   panel, etc.): Laøm thuïn vaøo, laøm                fuel for road vehicles: Nhieân lieäu
   loõm vaøo.                                         duøng cho ñoäng cô Diesel.
        dent puller n. tool with a                    (NOTE: stands for diesel-engine
   powerful suction cup to pull dented                road vehicle)
   doors, wings, bonnets, etc. back                descaling n. removal of scale or
   into shape: Maùy keùo choã thuïn                   metallic oxide from metallic
   (thaân xe)                                         surfaces by pickling: Söï caïo saïch
deposit 1 n. (a) coating of material,                 lôùp oxít baèng caùch goõ
   especially unwanted, or layer or                design 1 n. arrangement of parts;
   sediment at the bottom of a tank:                  form of construction: Caùch saép
   Chaát baùm, muoäi than.                            xeáp, caùch trình baøy, söï saùng taïo,
   (b) sum of money paid in advance                   söï thieát keá.
   as part payment: Tieàn ñaët coïc.                  2 v. to arrange the parts or
   2 v. to apply (a coating of metal,                 construction of (a car, an engine,
   etc.): Pheát vaøo, taùc ñoäng vaøo, aùp            etc.): Thieát keá.
   duïng, öùng duïng.                                      design engineer = designer
             zinc        is      deposited            responsible for mechanical parts:
   electrolytically = a layer of zinc is              Ngöôøi thieát keá chi tieát cô khí
   applied by electrolysis:          Keõm                 design feature = particularly
   ñöôïc phuû baèng ñieän phaân                       good or unusual aspect of a
depreciation n. loss of value due to                  vehicle, etc.: Ñaëc ñieåm thieát keá.
   age or deterioration: Söï giaûm giaù,                  designer n. person responsible
   söï suït giaù do cuõ hoaëc hö.                     for the concept of a new car, etc.:
depression        n.    restricted airflow            Ngöôøi thieát keá, veõ kieåu xe môùi.
   causing low pressure and a partial              desmodromic a. (of valves, valve
   vacuum: doøng khí naïp vaøo ít                     operation) closed as well as
depth gauge n. measuring tool for                     opened by mechanical means:
   depth measurements: Thöôùc ño                      ñoùng môû baèng cô khí.
   chieàu saâu.                                    desorption      n. removing adsorbed
         depth micrometer                n.           material: Söï taùch ra.
   micrometer used for precise                        (NOTE:          the    opposite       of
   measuring         of     hole   depths,            adsorption)
   recesses, keyways, and other                    detachable rim n. rim which is bolted


                                              90
detergent                                                              dial diagonal belt

   to the wheel spider and can be                   chænh laïi ñeå chaïy ñöôøng tröôøng
   removed         to    facilitate  tyre        dewax v. to remove the wax from
   changing, now mainly seen on                     (bodywork): Ñaùnh saïch lôùp saùp
   lorries: Vaønh baùnh xe (nieàng) coù             (sôn)
   theå thaùo rôøi.                              dew point n. temperature at which
detergent n. additive used in oil or                vapour begins to condense: Ñieåm
   petrol which either removes                      ngöng tuï, nhieät ñoä ngöng tuï
   deposits or holds the contaminating           DFC = DIGITAL FREQUENCY
   materials in suspension (which                   CONTROL
   prevents them coating sensitive               diagnostic centre n. part of a garage
   surfaces such as pistons): Chaát                 or workshop where diagnostic
   phuï gia ñöôïc cho vaøo xaêng daàu               testing is under-taken: Phoøng
   ñeå taåy caùc lôùp baùm                          chaån ñoaùn hö hoûng.
detonation n. condition in the                            diagnostic       computer        =
   combustion chambers that gives                   computer used for diagnostic
   rise to knocking or pinking, which               testing: Maùy chaån ñoaùn hö hoûng.
   occurs when fuel is ignitedtoo                       diagnostic link = connection
   early and/ or spontaneously, due to              between the diagnostic socket on
   excessive ignition advance or low                the        vehicle         and       an
   octane fuel; this results in colliding           engine
   flame fronts and shock waves                     analyzer: Giaéc chaån ñoaùn.
   which can in turn cause over-                        diagnostic socket = socket on
   heating and mechanical stress: Söï               the vehicle connected to a
   kích noå                                         diagnostic system to which an
       detonation sensor = sensor                   engine analyzer can be attached:
   mounted near the cylinder bores in               Giaéc (loã) ñeå noái maùy chaån ñoaùn.
   the cylinder block, used to detect                  diagnostic system = system of
   engine knocking and to retard the                electronic devices on the vehicle
   ignition correspondingly in order to             which alert the driver when a fault
   prevent engine damage: Caûm                      occurs, and to which an engine
   bieán kích noå                                   analyzer can be connected: Heä
detoxed vehicle n. = CONTROLLED                     thoáng chaån ñoaùn.
   VEHICLE: Xe ñöôïc ñieàu khieån.                     diagnostic testing = testing of a
detuned a. (of an engine) intentionally             vehicle system such as the
   adjusted so as to reduce power,                  electrical system or fuel injection
   either for economy or for greater                to detect faults, usually by means
   flexibility: Coá tình chænh giaûm                of     a     computerized       engine
   coâng suaát ñeå tieát kieäm xaêng                analyzer: Söï kieåm tra baèng maùy
      a detuned road-going version =                chaån ñoaùn.
   a version of a car used for racing            diagonal belt         n. = SHOULDER
   which has less power and is                      BELT: Ñai cheùo (ñai an toaøn)
   suitable for road use: Xe ñua ñöôïc                 diagonal split braking (system)


                                            91
dial                                                                               die-cast

   n. dual-circuit braking system in                 chaân khoâng)
   which each circuit brakes one front                     diaphragm clutch          n.      =
   wheel and the diagonally opposite                 DIAPHRAGM SPRING CLUTCH:
   rear wheel, so that in case of                    Boä ly hôïp coù loø xo maøng
   failure of one circuit reasonably                        diaphragm link n. arm
   balanced braking can be achieved:                 connecting the diaphragm and the
   Heä thoáng phanh daïng maïch                      distributor base plate in a vacuum
   cheùo.                                            advance mechanism: Thanh noái
   dial n. usually circuit face of a                 cuûa maøng (sôùm chaân khoâng)
   measuring instrument such as a                        diaphragm pump n. glandless
   gauge or speedometer: Maët ñoàng                  reciprocating pump which a
   hoà.                                              flexible diaphragm is moved
      dial caliper n. slide-type caliper             backwards and forwards by a
   with dial-type indicator: Thöôùc                  solenoid or mechanically, used
   keïp coù ñoàng hoà                                typically as a fuel as a fuel pump
         dial gauge n. precision                     on an engine: Bôm maøng
   measuring       tool     for    taking                  diaphragm spring n. large
   measurements in hundredths of a                   metal disc with spring fingers
   millimetre or thousandths of an                   formed by cutting internal radial
   inch, having a plunger or contact                 slots, used in clutches: Loø xo daïng
   arm and a dial face with needle to                laù (ly hôïp)
   register measurement, and used,                        diaphragm spring clutch =
   for example, to measure taper in                  most common type of clutch used
   engine cylinders, run out of gears,               in modern vehicles with manual
   or the trueness of a shaft: So keá.               transmission, in which a diaphragm
      dial torque wrench n. torque                   spring keeps the pressure plate in
   wrench which measures torque                      contact with the frictions plate: Boä
   applied while the nut or bolt is                  ly hôïp coù loø xo laù (daïng maët trôøi)
   being tightened and indicates the              dickey (seat) n. extra folding seat in
   value on a calibrated dial: Caàn                  the back of a two-seater, common
   sieát löïc coù ñoàng hoà hieån thò löïc           in the 1920s: Gheá phuï phía sau.
   sieát                                             (NOTE: US English is rumble
diameter n. length of a straight line                seat)
   through the centre of a circular               die n. (a) tool for cutting shapes in
   object connecting two directly                    metal, especially outside threads
   opposite        points       on     its           on pieces of round bar or similar:
   circumference: Ñöôøng kính                        Duïng cuï caét ren ngoaøi
diaphragm n. thin, flexible membrane                 (b) metal mould for casting:
   displaced under pressure, e.g. in                 Khuoân ñuùc
   vacuum units, often connected to                       die-cast = manufactured by
   a rod or other member to transmit                 forcing       molten      metal     (e.g.
   movement: Maøng (bôm, boä sôùm                    aluminium) into a die: Ñuùc


                                             92
dielectric                                                                 diffusing lens

dielectric n. material which is an                    function, acting simply as a
    electrical insulator or in which an               mechanical separator: Boä loïc
    electric field can be sustained with              muoäi than trong khí thaûi ñoäng cô
    a minimum loss of power: Chaát                    diesel.
    ñieän moâi, chaát khoâng daãn ñieän                   diesel rattle n. = DIESEL
diesel 1 n. (a) = DIESEL ENGINE:                      KNOCK: Tieáng goõ cuûa ñoäng cô
    Ñoäng cô Diesel                                   Diesel.
    (b) diesel-engine car = DIESEL                die stock n. tool used to hold and
           FUEL: Xe duøng ñoäng cô                    operate dies when cutting outside
           Diesel                                     threads: Baøn ren.
    2 v. = RUN ON: Ñoäng cô vaãn noå              differential or (informal) diff n. gear
    sau khi taét coâng taéc maùy                      assembly between two drive shafts
diesel cycle n. usually four-stroke                   that permits one shaft to turn at a
    cycle according to which a diesel                 different speed from the other,
    engine operates, in which air is                  while transmitting power: Boä vi
    sucked into the cylinder and                      sai.
    compressed at a ratio of up to                        differential cage or carrier =
    24:1: Chu kyø ñoäng cô Diesel                     rotating metal frame that encloses
diesel engine n. compression ignition                 the differential side gears and
    engine named after its German                     pinion gears inside the axle casing:
    inventor Rudolf Diesel (1858 –                    Hoäp vi sai
    1913), operating on the diesel                       differential casing or housing =
    cycle and burning diesel fuel                     casing for a differential, often
    rather than petrol: Ñoäng cô Diesel               forming part of the axle casing of a
diesel fuel n. light oil fuel with a                  live beam axle: Voû ngoaøi boä vi sai
    relatively         low        ignition            vaø baùnh raêng chuû ñoäng
    temperature: Nhieân lieäu Diesel                      differential lock = mechanism
       dieseling n. = RUNNING-ON                      which eliminates the action of the
        diesel knock n. noise caused by               differential, so that both wheels
    the rapid rise in pressure in a                   can be driven for better adhesion
    diesel engine, especially at low                  on slippery surfaces: Khoùa boä vi
    speeds and when cold: Tieáng goõ                  sai
    cuûa ñoäng cô Diesel.                                  differential pinion = bevel
        diesel oil n. = DIESEL FUEL:                  pinion in the differential: Baùnh
    Daàu cho ñoäng cô Diesel                          raêng nhoû boä vi sai
         diesel particulate filter n.                     differential side gear = bevel
    filter removing particulates from a               gear on either side of the
    diesel     exhaust,      similar    in            differential into the centre of
    appearance to a honeycomb-type                    which the axle shaft fits: Baùnh
    catalytic                                         raêng coân truïc caàu xe
     converter, but unlike the catalytic          diffusing lens n. lens in a headlamp
    converter without any catalytic                   glass to help focus the beam: Thaáu


                                             93
digital caliper                                                                    dipstick

    kính hoäi tuï aùnh saùng.                          alternating current to direct current
digital caliper n. slide-type caliper                  for charging the battery: Ñioát.
    with digital read out: Thöôùc keïp             dip v. to switch (headlights) to the
    hieän soá                                          lower beam: baät sang ñeøn coát.
          digital frequency control                        dipped beam n. lower beam
    (DFC)         n.     system       which            directed at the road closer to the
    automatically stabilizes and/ or                   front of the vehicle than the main
    tunes the frequency of a selected                  beam in order not to dazzle drivers
    radio station: Heä thoáng doø ñaøi töï             of oncoming vehicles, and also to
    ñoäng (radio)                                      the near side to illuminate the side
           digital     speedometer       n.            of the road; achieved by switching
    speedometer which only has a                       to a second filament in the
    digital display of the current                     headlight bulb which is closer to
    speed, with no dial: Ñoàng hoà toác                the upper half of the reflector: ñeøn
    ñoä hieän soá.                                     coát.
dimmer (control) n. device giving                      (NOTE: US English is low beam)
    gradual fading of brightness, e.g.                     dipper (switch) n. = DIP-
    for      the     instrument       panel            SWITCH: Coâng taéc ñeøn coát.
    illumination: Cô caáu chænh ñoä                          dipping mirror n. mirror
    saùng cuûa ñeøn (tableau)                          reducing annoying dazzle from the
        dimmer (switch) n. US = DIP-                   headlights of following vehicles
    SWITCH: Coâng taéc pha - coát.                     which consists typically of two
DIN (short for) German Industrial                      glass panes, one a mirror and one
    Norm:          German        Industrial            clear, the clear glass being tilted
    Standard(s): Tieâu chuaån coâng                    by moving a small control under
    nghieäp Ñöùc.                                      the mirror which then deflects the
        DIN bhp = officially obsolete                  headlight      glare    downwards:
    unit of measurement for engine                     Göông giaûm choùi (töø ñeøn xe chaïy
    power, but still frequent in                       sau)
    everyday usage, the measurement                         dipswitch n. switch usually
    method being comparable to SAE                     incorporated in the control stalk
    net bhp: Coâng suaát ñoäng cô theo                 but sometimes foot-operated,
    tieâu chuaån coâng nghieäp Ñöùc.                   which changes the headlights from
dinging        n.     (principally     US)             main to dipped beam (and vice
    straightening a damaged panel                      versa): Coâng taéc chuyeån ñoåi pha
    using hammer and dolly to bring it                 - coát
    back into shape, after initial                     (NOTE: US English is dimmer
    roughing out: Söï goø, naén laïi.                  switch)
diode n. solid-state electronic device             dipstick n. metal rod which when
    that allows the passage of an                      pushed home on its seating enters
    electric circuit in one direction                  the oil with its bottom end, so that
    only, used in alternators to change                when withdrawn it indicates the


                                              94
dipstick tube                                                                  disc brake

   level of the oil: Caây ño möïc daàu                tieáp
   boâi trôn                                      directional stability       n. vehicle’s
       dipstick tube = tube on the                    ability to continue moving in a
   engine block or gearbox which                      straight line with a minimum of
   holds the dipstick: OÁng giöõ que ño               steering control, even under
   möïc daàu.                                         adverse conditions such as
   direct-acting shock absorber =                     crosswinds: Söï oån ñònh höôùng di
   TELESCOPIC                     SHOCK               chuyeån.
   ABSORBER: Boä giaûm chaán kieåu                        directional tread pattern n.
   oáng loàng                                         tyre tread pattern designed to
      direct current (DC) n. electric                 rotate in one direction only: Hoa
   current flowing in one direction                   gai (voû xe) theo moät höôùng
   only: Doøng ñieän moät chieàu                  direction indicator n. winking signal
   (NOTE: opposite is alternating                     light on either side of the vehicle
   current)                                           at front and rear used to indicate
        direct damage n. damage                       that the driver is about to turn right
   caused directly by the impact of an                or left: Ñeøn baùo tín hieäu höôùng
   obstacle, i.e. more or less the                    queïo, ñeøn baùo reõ
   damage in the actual impact area:                       direction indicator warning
   Söï hö hoûng khi ñuïng tröïc tieáp                 light = light on the instrument
   vaøo chöôùng ngaïi vaät                            panel which flashes when the
   (NOTE: opposite is indirect                        indicators are being operated;
   damage)                                            usually in the shape of a green
        direct drive n. transmission                  arrow: Ñeøn baùo reõ baûng tableau.
   mode in which engine, gearbox                            direction of rotation n.
   and propeller shaft rotate at the                  direction in which a wheel, shaft or
   same speed, bypassing the                          similar turns: Chieàu quay.
   reducing stages of the gearbox: Söï                   direction of travel n. direction
   truyeàn ñoäng tröïc tieáp (ñoäng cô                in which a vehicle is traveling:
   vaø truïc hoäp soá cuøng toác ñoä)                 Höôùng ñi (cuûa xe)
       direct ignition (system) (DIS)             disabled a. (a) (of vehicle) unable to
   n. = DISTRIBUTOR LESS                              be driven due to a breakdown or
   IGNITION         (SYSTEM):         (Heä            accident damage: Khoâng hoaït
   thoáng) ñaùnh löûa tröïc tieáp                     ñoäng ñöôïc (vì hö)
      direct injection n. fuel injection              (b) (of driver) lacking the use of a
   directly into the combustion                       limb: Söï thuï ñoäng (cuûa taøi xeá)
   chamber,       especially in diesel                   disassemble v. = DISMANTLE:
   engines, and requiring very high                   Thaùo rôøi.
   injection system pressure to                   disc n. flat circular plate as used for
   overcome the pressure inside the                   instance in disc brakes and some
   combustion chamber at the time of                  clutches: Maâm, ñóa.
   injection: Söï phun nhieân lieäu tröïc                disc brake n. brake in which


                                             95
four-wheel disc brakes                                                        disengage

    brake pads, in a vice-like caliper                  discharging current n. current
    which is either mounted on the hub               supplied by a storage cell or
    in order to slow it down or to stop              battery, whose direction is
    it: Phanh ñóa                                    opposite to that of the charging
        four-wheel disc brakes = disc                current: Doøng ñieän phoùng.
    brakes fitted to both front and rear         discolour v. to alter the colour of (a
    wheels: Phanh ñóa boán baùnh.                    finish, metal, etc.) to a colour
         disc brake gauge = tool for                 which is not wanted: Laøm leäch
    measuring thickness, wear, and                   maøu (sôn).
    score depth on brake discs: Duïng            disconnect v. to remove the
    cuï ñoä moøn ñóa phanh.                          connection to (a mechanical or
        US disc brake rotor = BRAKE                  electrical device): Caét rôøi, ngaét
    DISC: Ñóa phanh.                                 ra.
discharge 1 v. (a) to lose or give out                    disconnect the battery =
    electric current, as from a battery:             remove the battery terminals:
    Phoùng ñieän                                     Thaùo coïc aéc quy.
    (b) to pour out (a liquid) as from a         disc sander n. round, rubber disc
    pump: Ñaåy ra.                                   powered by an electric drill and
     2 n. giving out of electric current             covered with abrasive paper for
    or pouring out of liquid: Söï phoùng             rough sanding work: Ñóa maøi.
    ñieän, söï chaûy ra.                                 disc valve n. type of rotary
          discharged battery = flat                  valve that allows the passage of
    battery: AÉc quy bò phoùng ñieän.                fluid through an arc-shaped slot:
          discharge indicator n. =                   Van daïng ñóa.
    BATTERY                DISCHARGE                     disc wheel n. simple, most
    INDICATOR: Ñeøn baùo saïc.                       common form of wheel on
        discharge pipe n. outlet pipe of             passenger       cars     and     light
    a pump: Ñöôøng oáng ra                           commercial vehicles, consisting of
          discharge pressure           n.            a pressed steel disc the centre of
    pressure exerted in a liquid                     which is bolted to the hub, and
    pumped, expressed in psi: Aùp suaát              which has fixed to its periphery,
    ra (bôm)                                         the rim serving as a seat for the
         discharge rate n. amount of                 tyre: Maâm baùnh xe.
    current discharged, expressed in             disengage v. to move (a gear, dog
    amps: Toác ñoä phoùng ñieän.                     clutch, etc.) so that it is no longer
        discharge side n. = OUTLET                   in mesh with another matching
    SIDE: Beân xaû.                                  part: Taùch ra, taùch ly hôïp
        discharge valve n. valve on                     to disengage the clutch = to let
    the outlet side of a reciprocating               out the clutch by pressing on the
    pump: Van xaû, van ra (bôm                       clutch pedal, so that there is no
    piston)                                          connection between the engine
    (NOTE: opposite is suction valve)                and the gearbox: Caét ly hôïp.


                                            96
dished                                                                         dished

dished a. offset so that the centre (of a        the        centrifugal        advance
    wheel or similar) is not in line with        mechanism and the contact
    the rim, but recessed: Loõm loøng            breaker: Thaân boä chia ñieän.
    maâm baùnh xe                                    distributor cam = cam at the
disk n. = DISC                                   top of the distributor shaft with as
dismantle v. to take (a car, engine,             many lobes as there are cylinders,
    etc.) to pieces: Thaùo rôøi caùc boä         acting on the heel of the contact
    phaän (xe, ñoäng cô).                        breaker arm: Cam ñoäi vít löûa
displacement n. term used particularly               distributor cap = removable
    in America for cubic capacity:               cover of the distributor, having a
    Dung tích xylanh                             high-voltage centre tower for the
       displacement volume = SWEPT               lead from the coil, and as many
    VOLUME: Theå tích xylanh.                    regularly spaced outer towers as
distance piece n. part such as a collar          there are cylinders, each of these
    placed between two parts to keep             corresponding to a contact on the
    them the correct distance apart:             inside of the cap and receiving the
    OÁng keïp ñònh vò                            HT lead for one of the sparking
distilled water n. especially pure               plugs on the outside: Naép boä chia
    water that has been freed of                 ñieän (naép Delco)
    dissolved or suspended solids and                 distributor clamp = clamp
    organisms by distillation, used, for         which holds the distributor in
    example, to top up batteries: Nöôùc          position, and which can be
    caát.                                        loosened in order to turn the
distortion n. bending and twisting out           distributor relative to its shaft to
    of shape: Söï meùo moù                       adjust the ignition timing: Keïp giöõ
distributor n. assembly which                    (chaân) boä chia ñieän.
    distributes the ignition voltage                  distributor rotor (arm) =
    generated in the ignition coil to the        ROTOR ARM: Moû queït chia ñieän
    sparking plugs in the firing order           (con quay)
    of the engine: Boä chia ñieän                    distributor shaft = drive shaft
    (Delco)                                      to the distributor that rotates at haft
        distributor baseplate = fixed            engine speed and has at its top end
    plate in the body of the distributor         the distributor cam and rotor arm:
    on which the contact breaker or              Truïc boä chia ñieän (truïc Delco)
    triggering device is mounted, and                    distributor      tower       =
    through the centre of which the              TERMINAL TOWER: Ñieän cöïc
    distributor shaft passes: Maâm vít           trung taâm treân naép boä chia ñieän.
    löûa.                                           distributor weight = one of the
        distributor body = bowl-like             weights used in a centrifugal
    part containing the distributor shaft        advance mechanism: Quaû ly taâm
    with the rotor arm at its top end,           (ñaùnh löûa sôùm)
    and, in the conventional version,                     dished        =       wrench


                                            97
distributorless ignition (system)                                             domestic

    designed for loosening and                    DIY (short for) do-it-yourself: Töï
    tightening the distributor clamp                  laøm, töï söûa chöõa.
    bolts and/ or lock nuts, when                         DIY mechanic = unqualified
    adjusting, removing or installing                 person who does his own repairs
    distributors: Côø leâ duøng cho boä               on his car: Ngöôøi söûa chöõa xe
    chia ñieän (chænh löûa)                           mình
            distributorless      ignition         dlr (short for) dealer: Ñaïi lyù.
    (system) (DIS or DLI) n.                      dog guard n. grid made of tubular bars
    electronic ignition system without                or wire mesh to keep a dog in the
    a conventional rotating distributor,              luggage compartment of an estate
    using multi-spark ignition coils or               or hatchback: Boä giöõ ngaøm (coáp
    one ignition coil per sparking plug:              xe)
    (Heä thoáng) ñaùnh löûa khoâng coù boä               dogleg pillar n. = C-PILLAR:
    chia ñieän                                        Truï ñôõ khung cöõa sau.
dive n. = BRAKE DIVE: Söï phanh                            dogleg section = irregular
    bò chuùi.                                         shaped part of the leading edge of
diversification        n. varying and                 the rear quarter panel of a four-
    extending a firm’s range of models                door saloon        along the wheel
    and products: Söï ña daïng hoùa (xe)              cutout and up to the waistline:
divert v. to make (air, a liquid, traffic,            Phaàn uoán khuùc.
    etc.) follow a different course:                  DOHC or dohc            = DOUBLE
    Laøm chuyeån höôùng (khoâng khí,                  OVERHEAD CAMSHAFTS: Hai
    chaát loûng, xe coä)                              truïc cam treân naép maùy.
       diversion n. alternative route             dolly     n. (a)     metalworking tool,
    which traffic has to follow due to                available in a variety of shapes
    closure of a stretch of road for                  and sizes, comprising a curved
    repairs, etc.: Söï chuyeån loä trình              polished block of cast iron or
    khaùc vì söûa ñöôøng                              forged steel, used to assist in
divided propeller shaft or propshaft                  forming three-dimensional shapes
    n. propeller shaft, usually in long               and in straightening dented panels,
    chassis rear-wheel drive vehicles,                usually by holding the dolly behind
    which is divided into two section                 the metal to be shaped and
    with a bearing and CV joint                       hammering the metal: Caùc ñe (ñeå
    mounted on a chassis cross                        laøm ñoàng xe)
    member at the central point: Truïc                (b) trolley that supports the front
    phaân phoái.                                      wheels when a disabled vehicle is
divider n. measuring tool with two                    being towed: Khung ñôõ baùnh
    straight pointed arms used to mark                tröôùc (khi keùo xe)
    off and transfer measurements,                dome lamp          n. US dome-shaped
    e.g. on sheet metal or other metal                interior light: Ñeøn mui xe
    components: Duïng cuï ño söï leäch            domestic a. (of product) made in the
    höôùng.                                           country in question: Noäi ñòa (xe)


                                             98
donor car                                                       door pillar switch

   (NOTE: opposite is foreign)                     door glass n. glass pane filling
donor car n. car from which parts               the top half of a door, which can be
   are used to repair another one of            lowered and raised: Kính cöûa.
   the same type or to build a special              door handle       n. interior or
   or kit car: Xe ñeå thaùo phuï tuøng          exterior handle for opening a door:
   thay theá                                    Tay naém môû cöûa.
door       n. hinged panel or flap                 door hinge n. part by which the
   allowing access or exit: Cöûa xe.            door is attached with a pivot to the
       five-door version = hatchback            door pillar, and which allows it to
   version with two doors either side           swing open or shut: Baûn leà cöûa.
   and a rear tailgate: Kieåu xe 5 cöûa.             door hold-open spring         n.
       door alignment n. accuracy of            spring fitted to door hinges to
   fitting of the door in the door              provide a spring load to keep the
   aperture: Söï caân chænh cöûa.               door in an open position: Loø xo
      door aperture n. opening into             giöõ cöûa môû.
   which the door fits: Khung cöûa.                door latch n. part of the door
        door beam        n. = SIDE              lock which contacts the striker
   IMPACT BAR: Thanh caûn phía                  plate as the door is closed, and
   cöûa.                                        springs back when the door is fully
       door bottom n. lower door                shut to hold it in the closed
   area, both of the door skin and of           position: Choát cöûa.
   the door frame, also the narrow                  door lock n. mechanism for
   horizontal lower panel of the door           opening and closing the door, with
   frame that incorporates the drain            a lockable cylinder for holding the
   holes: Beä cöûa.                             door closed until opened by a key:
         door capping n. moulding               Cô caáu khoùa cöûa.
   between the door trim panel and                   door lock de-icer = fluid,
   the window glass: Roong cöûa.                usually in an aerosol, for melting
        door check arm or strap n.              ice in a door lock: Chaát laøm tan
   device which controls the full open          baêng loã khoùa cöûa.
   and holding positions of a door and             door mirror n. exterior, door-
   prevents it from being opened too            mounted,       rear-view      mirror;
   far: Baûng giaèng cöûa khoâng cho            nowadays adjustable from inside
   môû lôùn                                     the car: Göông chieáu haäu treân
        door frame      n. (a) bare             cöûa.
   skeleton of the door to which the               door pillar or post n. one of
   door skin and door trim are fitted           the vertical members of the body
   (b) DOOR APERTURE: Khung                     shell ahead of and behind the
   cöûa.                                        doors, which also support the roof
       door gap n. gap all round the            structure and reinforce the body as
   edge of the door: Khe hôû meùp               a whole : Truï choáng cöûa.
   cöûa.                                             door pillar switch = small


                                           99
door pocket                                                       double-decker (bus)

   switch, typically in the lower                   section forming the door aperture:
   portion of the A-pillar, whose main              Ñöôøng vieàn bao quanh cöûa.
   function is to switch on the                         door trim (panel) n. panel
   courtesy lighting when the door is               covered in vinyl or other material
   opened: Coâng taéc cöûa (ñeøn)                   and fitted to the inside of the door:
       door pocket n. container now                 Taám boïc cöûa (beân trong)
   usually mounted on, rather than                     door well n. cavity enclosed by
   in,the door trim, for maps, dusters,             the door frame, door skin and trim
   cloths, etc.: Hoäc nhoû treân cöûa               panel, containing the window
   (ñöïng baûn ñoà …)                               winding mechanism and into which
        door protector n. strip of                  the window glass is lowered: cöûa
   rubber or plastic which fits over                xe.
   the edge of the door to protect it            DOT (short for) (a) GB Department
   from damage when opened                          of Transport : Boä Giao thoâng
   carelessly: Ñeäm cao su baûo veä                 (b)       US        Department of
   cöûa.                                            Transportation
      door seal n. weather-strip fitted                 DOT 4 (brake fluid) = brake
   to the door surround to form a seal              fluid made to a particularly high
   when the door is closed: Ñeäm laøm               specification: daàu phanh
   kín cöûa.                                             DOT code = code on tyre
       door shut (face) n. edges of a               sidewalls made up of the letters
   door which are not visible from the              and numbers giving information on
   outside or inside when the door is               the production date of a tyre: Maõ
   shut: Caùi meùp cöûa.                            ghi ngaøy saûn xuaát treân voû xe
       door sill n. = SILL: Ngöôõng              double-acting n. (of a shock absorber
   cöûa.                                            or pump) having a piston with
       door skin n. large sheet metal               fluid on both sides so that in a
   panel of the door visible from the               pump one piston end performs the
   outside: Taám cöûa (phaàn theùp)                 suction stroke while the other
       door speaker n. loudspeaker                  discharges the liquid, and in a
   for a car stereo mounted in the                  shock absorber both upward and
   door trim: Loa ñöôïc ñaët taïi cöûa.             downward         movements        are
      door stay n. device incorporated              damped: Taùc duïng keùp (bôm
   in door hinges that keeps the door               hoaëc giaûm xoùc)
   in an open position and prevents it                 double-barrel carburetor n. =
   from closing under its own weight:               TWIN-CHOKE CARBURETOR:
   Baûng giaèng cöûa giöõ cho cöûa môû.             Boä cheá hoøa khí hai hoïng khueách
      door step n. top part of the outer            taùn.
   sill, visible when the door is                      double-decker (bus) n. bus with
   opened: Baäc cöûa.                               two decks or storeys, used mainly
      door surround n. faces of the                 in large owns: Xe buyùt 2 taàng
   door step, door pillars and roof                 hoaëc 2 khoang


                                           100
double-declutch                                                     doughnut coupling

      double-declutch or US double-                 the exhaust valves: Hai truïc cam
   clutch v. to change gear using the               treân naép maùy.
   following technique: declutch,                   (NOTE: also called twin overhead
   move the gear lever into neutral,                camshafts)
   let in the clutch, press the                          double overhead camshaft
   accelerator (when changing down)                 engine = engine with two
   to raise the engine and gearbox                  overhead camshafts, a relatively
   rpm to the level needed in the                   costly arrangement used on high
   lower gear, let out the clutch again             performance engines: Ñoäng cô hai
   quickly and move the gear lever                  truïc cam treân naép maùy.
   into the lower gear (before the                      double - pivot steering n.
   gearbox shaft rpm drop too far);                 steering in which the steered
   when changing up there is no need                wheels are pivoted on kingpins,
   to depress the accelerator when in               which is the usual arrangement on
   neutral, but it is often necessary to            motor vehicles: Heä thoáng laùi 2
   pause in order to let the gearbox                baùnh
   shaft speed drop to the right level:                 double reduction gearing n.
   Nhaû soá keùp.                                   gearing in which the ratio is
      double-ended spanner n. open-                 reduced in two stages, used
   ended or ring spanner with jaws or               especially     in    heavy     goods
   rings at both ends for two different             vehicles: Boä baùnh raêng giaûm toác
   sizes of hexagon: Côø leâ 2 ñaàu.                keùp
       double filament bulb n. light                   double roller chain         n. =
   bulb with two filaments, either a                DUPLEX CHAIN: Xích con laên
   headlamp bulb with one for the                   keùp.
   main beam and another above it                      double-tube shock absorber n.
   for the dipped beam, or a stop and               older design of hydraulic shock
   tail light bulb with one for the                 absorber using two concentric
   brake light and one for the rear                 tubes, one serving as the working
   light: Boùng ñeøn 2 tim.                         cylinder, the other as the reservoir:
      double helical gear n. gear with              Boä giaûm chaán keùp.
   two rows of inclined teeth, each                    double wishbone suspension n.
   forming an open V or chevron:                    form of independent suspension
   Baùnh raêng coù raêng hình chöõ V.               most frequently used at the front of
   (NOTE: also called herringbone                   a vehicle, with upper and lower
   gear)                                            wishbones of equal length: Heä
      double hexagon socket n. = 12-                thoáng treo caùnh tay ñoøn keùp.
   POINT SOCKET: Ñai oác 12 caïnh.               doughnut coupling or joint n. flexible
       double overhead camshafts                    coupling made of rubber and
   (DOC, DOHC) n. two camshafts                     shaped like a ring doughnut, used
   mounted on the cylinder head, one                for instance between the front of
   operating the inlet valves and one               the propeller shaft and the


                                           101
dowel (pin)                                                               draining tray

   gearbox: Khôùp noái meàm (coù                    tailgate: Truï ñôõ khung cöûa phía
   ñeämcao su)                                      cöûa haäu.
dowel (pin) n. pin projecting from one           drag 1 v. (of clutch) to fail to
   of two mating surfaces which fits                disengage completely; (of brakes)
   into a corresponding hole in the                 to fail to come off completely
   other, to ensure correct location                when the brake pedal is released:
   during assembly: Choát ñònh vò;                  Tröôït (ly hôïp), troâi (phanh).
   then nhoû ñeå gaøi.                              2 n. (a) = CLUTCH DRAG (b) =
   down draught carburetor            n.            BINDING (c) characteristic of a
   carburetor with a vertical barrel, at            car body, indicating the resistance
   the top of which is the air intake:              which the body offers to the air
   Boä cheá hoøa khí hoïng khueách taùn             stream: Söùc caûn (gioù)
   ñöùng.                                        drag link n. rod which connects the
downflow radiator n. traditional type               drop arm or idler arm in a steering
   of vertical radiator, with header                system with the steering arm: Ñoøn
   tank and bottom tank and a system                keùo doïc, thanh laùi.
   of small tubes and cooling fins in-           drag racing n. form of acceleration
   between, the hot water entering at               test in which two cars at a time
   the top and exiting at the bottom:               accelerate down a measured
   Boä taûn nhieät vôùi nöôùc laøm maùt             quarter-mile strip: Cuoäc kieåm tra
   töø treân xuoáng.                                khaû naêng taêng toác cuûa xe
downforce n. downward pressure                   drain 1 v. to empty (the sump,
   provided, for example, by a                      radiator, etc.) of a liquid: Xaû,
   spoiler: Löïc höôùng xuoáng.                     thaùo.
       down pipe n. front section of                 2 n. passage or piece of tube
   the exhaust system connected to                  which takes water away from
   the exhaust manifold: Coå oáng poâ.              places in the bodywork where it
         downshift        n. US =                   tends to accumulate, such as the
   DOWNWARD CHANGE: Söï                             edge of the sunroof: OÁng xaû nöôùc.
   xuoáng soá.                                          drain cock n. = DRAIN TAP:
        down stroke n. downward                     Voøi xaû bình chöùa nhieân lieäu,
   movement of the piston, either the               maùng daàu, bình hôi, duøng xaû bôùt
   induction stroke or the power                    chaát baån.
   stroke in the four-stroke cycle:                    drain hole n. hole drilled in the
   Haønh trình ñi xuoáng (piston)                   bottom of a box section or a door,
        downward change n. gear                     to     allow    water      that  has
   change into a lower gear: Söï                    accumulated to escape so as to
   xuoáng soá.                                      prevent or delay rusting: Loã xaû
   (NOTE: US English is downshift)                  nöôùc.
D-pillar or D-post       n. rearmost                   draining tray n. container used
   vertical pillar in the body of an                to catch oil when draining the
   estate car, on either side of the                sump, gearbox, etc.: Khay xaû daàu.


                                           102
drain plug                                                                             drive

       drain plug n. usually threaded                      drift punch = tapered tool for
    plug at the lowest point of the                    use with a hammer to remove and
    sump, gearbox, cooling system,                     install pins, shafts, rivets, etc.; also
    etc., which is removed in order to                 used to align holes when inserting
    drain the oil or coolant, and                      screws and bolts: Caùi ñuïc, caùi ñoät.
    typically has a recessed hexagon                   (b) = FOUR-WHEEL DRIFT
    head: Nuùt xaû                                 drill 1 n. (a) usually power-driven
        drain plug key or spanner or                   tool for making holes in metal,
    wrench = tool for removing and                     wood, plastic, etc., with a chuck
    tightening drain plugs, e.g. on                    that will accept bits of different
    gearboxes and engine sumps,                        sizes: Maùy khoan
    either as a multi-purpose tool with                 (b) = DRILL BIT: Muõi khoan.
    a number of different drives in the                2 to make (a hole) with a drill:
    form of hexagonal or square                        Khoan loã.
    projections at the either end for                     drill bit n. piece of rod with
    different drain plugs, or as a                     spiral recesses cut in it and a
    special tool for one specific size of              hardened steel tip, made in
    drain plug: Chìa khoùa vaën nuùt xaû.              different     sizes     for     drilling
       drain tap n. tap on the cylinder                different-sized holes, and inserted
    block or, on older cars, at the                    in the chuck of a drill: Muõi khoan.
    bottom of the radiator for draining            drip moulding n. moulding running
    the cooling system: Voøi xaû                       along either side of the roof,
draught n. unpleasant current of air                   functioning as a gutter to take
    intruding into the interior of a car:              water to the front or rear of the
    Söï thieáu gioù gaây ngoät ngaït trong             car, and prevent it from dripping
    xe                                                 into the car when the door is
drawbar n. two converging bars                         opened: Raõnh thoaùt nöôùc.
    forming a V- or an A-frame at the                  (NOTE: US English is drip rail)
    front of a trailer or caravan, which           drivability     n.    general operating
    carry the coupling for attachment                  characteristics of a vehicle, usually
    to the towing vehicle: Thanh keùo                  rated from good to poor, and of
dress v. to give (a rough surface,                     concern to the average driver, such
    flanges, etc.) the right shape by                  as flexibility and smoothness,
    grinding or a similar process: Maøi                acceleration, ease of starting and
    giuõa, maøi nhaün.                                 quick warm-up, as well as handling
drier n. (a) = DEHUMIDIFIER (b) =                      and comfort: Tính naêng vaän haønh
    DRYING OVEN: Maùy saáy, maùy                       cuûa xe
    laøm khoâ                                             drivable a. (of a vehicle) in a
drift n. (a) piece of bar or a punch                   state in which it can be driven: coù
    used with a hammer to drive                        theå chaïy
    components in and out of place for                    drive 1 v. (a) to travel in a car:
    removal and installation: Caùi ñuïc                Chaïy xe


                                             103
drive belt                                                                     drive pinion

    (b) to control and guide (a                         drive of sockets for the turning
    vehicle): Laùi xe                                   operation: Caàn sieát
    (c) to make (a wheel, shaft, etc.)              drive layout n. configuration of
    turn or rotate; to propel (a                        engine, gearbox and driven
    vehicle): Laøm quay                                 axle(s): Phaàn ñoäng löïc cuûa xe
    (d) the position (D) on the gear                    bao goàm: ñoäng cô, hoäp soá, laùp.
    selector of an automatic gearbox                       driveline n. = DRIVE TRAIN:
    for the forward gears: Tay soá D.                   Ñöôøng truyeàn löïc
    2 n. (a) journey in a car: Söï laùi xe.                     drive        module         n.
    (b) means of transmitting power                     interchangeable unit providing
    or motion: Söï truyeàn ñoäng.                       motive power, either in the form of
       a petrol-driven generator = a                    an electric motor and ancillaries,
    generator for which the motive                      or an internal combustion engine
    force is a petrol engine: Maùy phaùt                with all necessary components, for
    ñieän keùo baèng ñoäng cô xaêng.                    alternative use in the same vehicle
       drive belt n. belt passing round                 according to needs and conditions:
    two or more pulleys, transmitting                   Module truyeàn ñoäng.
    motion from one to the other(s):                       drive motor n. electric motor
    ñai truyeàn ñoäng .                                 providing motive power in an
        drive chain n. chain passing                    electric vehicle      Ñoäng cô ñieän
    round two or more sprockets,                        trong xe ñieän
    transmitting motion from one to                        driven a. made to rotate by the
    the other(s): Xích truyeàn ñoäng .                  engine or some other source of
         drive end n. end of an                         motive power: Bò daãn, bò ñoäng.
    alternator, dynamo, etc., where the                    driven axle or wheels = axle or
    pulley or gear accepting the drive                  wheels to which power is
    is situated: Ñaàu daãn ñoäng.                       transmitted to drive the vehicle:
         drive end bracket = cover                      Caàu xe hay baùnh xe bò ñoäng.
    housing the bearing at the drive                        driven plate = central clutch
    end of an alternator, dynamo, etc.:                 plate carrying clutch linings and
    Naép che phía daãn ñoäng cuûa maùy                  held under pressure between the
    phaùt                                               flywheel and the pressure plate
         drive gear       n. gearwheel                  when the clutch pedal is released,
    transmitting the drive on a                         and transmitting power to the
    component such as an oil pump:                      gearbox input shaft via splines:
    Baùnh raêng daãn ñoäng, baùnh raêng                 Ñóa bò ñoäng (ly hôïp)
    chuû ñoäng.                                            drive pinion n. small bevel gear
drive handle n. tool, typically in the                  on either side of the differential in
    form of a bar, for turning sockets                  mesh with the two differential
    to loosen and tighten nuts and                      pinions, and into the centre of
    bolts, with a male square drive to                  which one of the axle shafts fits:
    be inserted into the female square                  Baùnh raêng nhoû daãn ñoäng (caàu)


                                              104
drive plate                                                                 driving license

        drive plate n. light plate bolted                use with a socket spanner,
    to the crankshaft to which the                       including the drive handle: Caàn
    torque converter is attached in a                    sieát
    vehicle        with          automatic                  drive train n. combination of all
    transmission: Ñóa gaén bieán moâ                     power-transmitting      components
        drive pulley n. pulley round                     from the clutch via the gearbox
    which a belt passes for transmitting                 and propeller shaft, if any, to the
    power: Puli daãn ñoäng                               final drive and axle shafts: Toå hôïp
driver n. (a) person driving a vehicle:                  töø hoäp soá ñeán laùp
    Taøi xeá                                             (NOTE: also called power train)
    (b) driver-type drive handle for                         driveway n. short drive, often
    use with sockets: Caàn sieát                         leading to a garage: Chaïy vaøo
    driver air bag n. original type of                   nhaø ñeå xe
    air bag, designed to protect the                 driving 1 a. providing motive power,
    driver from being hurled into the                    making a gear, shaft, etc. rotate:
    steering wheel and instrument                        Daãn ñoäng, truyeàn ñoäng
    panel: Tuùi khí baûo veä taøi xeá.                   2 n. control of a moving vehicle:
Driver and Vehicle Licensing                             Söï laùi xe.
    Agency (DVLA) n. section of the                         driving axle or wheels = axle or
    Department         of        Transport               wheels responsible for propelling
    responsible for keeping records of                   the vehicle (which are in fact the
    all registered vehicles, and issuing                 same as the driven axle or
    registrations and licenses for                       wheels): Truïc hay baùnh xe chuû
    vehicles as well as driving licenses                 ñoäng
    for drivers: Phoøng caáp baèng laùi                      driving gear = DRIVE GEAR:
driver error n. mistake or mistakes                      Baùnh raêng daãn ñoäng.
    made by the driver, especially as                       driving conditions n. situation
    the cause of an accident: Loãi do                    created by the amount of traffic,
    taøi xeá.                                            the weather and state of the roads:
drive shaft n. (a)             any shaft                 Ñieàu kieän laùi xe.
    transmitting power, especially the                         driving habits n. personal
    jointed     shaft    between        the              behaviour at the wheel, including
    differential and the road wheel in                   typical speeds under certain
    a de Dion or fully independent                       circumstances, frequency, timing
    rear suspension layout (b) US =                      and smoothness of gear charges,
    PROPELLER          SHAFT:          Truïc             use of the brakes and so on: Thoùi
    chính, truïc chuû ñoäng                              quen laùi xe.
         drive sprocket n. sprocket                          driving license n. document
    round which a chain passes for                       which allows the holder to drive a
    transmitting power: Baùnh xích chuû                  certain type or types of vehicle,
    ñoäng                                                and is the only document required
       drive tool n. any accessory for                   to be carried by the driver in


                                               105
driving lamp                                                           dry galvanizing

   Britain: Baèng laùi xe.                           BASE RIM: Raõnh loõm nieàng xe.
      driving lamp = SPOT LAMP:                              drophead      1     n.    =
   Ñeøn laùi.                                        CONVERTIBLE: Xe mui xeáp.
      driving mirror n. rear-view                    2 a. having a folding hood which
   mirror either in the interior of the              can be raised or lowered over the
   car or mounted on the outside of                  passenger compartment: Mui xeáp.
   the front doors: Kính chieáu haäu                      drophead coupeù (dhc) =
      driving position n. position in                elegant style of body mainly seen
   which the driver sits at the steering             on classic cars, with two wide
   wheel, influenced by distance from                doors and a large hood with no
   the controls, angle of the seat                   windows in the side and only a
   back, etc.: Vò trí ngoài cuûa taøi xeá            small window at the rear: Xe hôi
      driving style       n. manner in               hai cöûa mui xeáp.
   which one handles a car: Caùch laùi                     droptop n. (informal) =
   xe, kieåu laùi xe.                                CONVERTIBLE: Mui xeáp.
        a sporty driving style =                  drum n. circular container, especially
   includes taking corners fast,                     a brake drum: Caùi troáng (phanh)
   braking and accelerating hard,                       drum brake = brake in which
   using high revs in every gear and                 curved brake shoes press against
   changing down before corners:                     the inner circumference of a metal
   Caùch laùi kieåu theå thao.                       drum to produce the braking
drop n. sudden reduction (of pressure,               action: Phanh troáng
   voltage, etc.): Söï haï xuoáng ñoät            dry 1 v. to lose or make lose its
   ngoät.                                            wetness: Saáy, laøm khoâ.
      drop arm n. usually vertical                   2 a. not wet (of bearing, etc.)
   arm fitted to the outer end of the                lacking lubricant: Khoâ, thieáu daàu
   rocker shaft of a steering box,                   boâi trôn.
   whose bottom end is connected to                     dry liner or sleeve = cylinder
   the drag link which it pulls back or              liner or sleeve which is not contact
   pushes forward when the steering                  with the coolant: OÁng loùt khoâ
   wheel is turned: Ñoøn quay (laùi)                 (xylanh)
   (NOTE: US English is pitman                           dry clutch     n. = SINGLE-
   arm)                                              PLATE CLUTCH: Ly hôïp khoâ, ly
      drop-centre axle n. beam axle                  hôïp moät ñóa.
   in which the main central portion                      dry galvanizing n. hot-dip
   of the beam is lower than the                     galvanizing method in which the
   wheel centres, which was the usual                metal components are first
   layout for front axles until                      immersed in a solution of flux and
   independent front suspension                      then dried, so that they become
   became almost universal: Truïc                    precoated with a thin film of flux,
   (caàn) loõm                                       which melts in the zinc bath, to
     drop-centre rim = WELL-                         which certain metals, such as tin


                                            106
drying oven                                                      Dubonnet suspension

   and aluminium, may be added to                   separated by a central reserve:
   give fluidity, and in the case of tin,           Hai laøn xe.
   brightness: Phöông phaùp maï khoâ.                  dual-circuit braking system n.
   (NOTE:        opposite     is    wet             hydraulic braking system that
   galvanizing)                                     provides          two       separate,
       drying oven        n. enclosure              independent hydraulic circuits,
   where car bodies are subjected to                each acting on two wheels: Heä
   heat in order to dry and/ or bake on             thoáng phanh hai maïch rieâng bieät.
   the paintwork: Loø saáy.                             dual controls n. second set of
      dry joint n. faulty electrical                controls for use by a driving
   joint which does not in contact with             instructor when teaching someone
   the coolant: Moái noái khoâ.                     to drive: Söï ñieàu khieån keùp
   (NOTE: opposite is wet liner)                       dual exhaust system n. = TWIN
dry sump lubrication n. main                        EXHAUST SYSTEM: Heä thoáng
   lubrication of an engine supplied                khí xaû keùp.
   from a separate oil tank, the sump                  dual ignition system n. = TWIN
   containing no oil while the engine               IGNITION: Heä thoáng ñaùnh löûa
   is operating; a common feature of                keùp (boâbin ñoâi)
   motorcycle and racing car engines:                   dual-line braking system n.
   Söï boâi trôn ñoäng cô baèng bình                braking system in which towing
   nhôùt rieâng                                     vehicle and trailer are connected
dry weight n. weight of a vehicle                   by two or more brake lines: Heä
   without any fuel, oil, or coolant:               thoáng phanh vôùi ñöôøng oáng keùp
   Troïng löôïng khoâ, troïng löôïng                (xe ñaàu keùo)
   tónh.                                               dual-piston engine n. = TWIN-
dual 1       a. comprising two parts,               PISTON ENGINE: Ñoäng cô pít
   which are often identical: Keùp,                 toâng ñoâi
   ñoâi.                                               dual-piston master cylinder =
   2      v.    to convert (a single                TANDEM MASTER CYLINDER:
   carriageway road) into dual                      Xylanh caùi vôùi pittoâng keùp
   carriageway: Chuyeån moät laøn xe                (phanh)
   thaønh hai laøn xe.                                   dual-range gearbox            n.
         dual-acting n. = DOUBLE-                   gearbox in a four-wheel drive
   ACTING: Phaûn öùng keùp.                         vehicle with two sets of ratios,
      dual-bed catalytic converter n.               usually a higher set for road use
   catalytic       converter       which            and a lower set for off-road use:
   combines two converters (with                    Hoäp soá hai toác ñoä.
   different catalysts) in a single                      dual-tone horn n. = TWO-
   housing: Boä xuùc taùc 2 ngaên.                  TONE HORN: Coøi hai gioïng.
      dual carriageway n. road with               Dubonnet suspension n. independent
   two separate lanes for traffic                   front suspension and steering
   traveling in different directions,               arrangement used in the 1930s and


                                            107
duct                                                                    dwell-angle map
    ’40s, in which the axle beam is                   absorbers, also for constants
    rigidly attached to the vehicle                   velocity joints: Chuïp buïi (phanh,
    frame, and suspension arms, from                  giaûm xoùc …)
    which the wheels are mounted on                       dust cap n. = VALVE CAP:
    stub axles Dubonnet: Heä thoáng                   Naép, noùn chuïp che buïi, ngaên buïi
    treo Dubonnet.                                    baùm vaøo boä phaän ñöôïc che.
duct n. passage in square-section or                      dust cover n. any cover for
    tubular form for ventilation,                     excluding dust and dirt: Voû chaén
    heating or cables: OÁng daãn (khí,                buïi.
    daây)                                                dust sheet n. sheet for covering
ductile a. (of a metal) which can be                  a car when in a garage and not in
    bent, hammered, or drawn out into                 use: Taám boïc xe.
    wire or sheet without fracturing:                      dust shield n. = SPLASH
    Meàm deã uoán, deã keùo.                          SHIELD: Chaén buïi.
       ductility n. ability of a material                  DVLC = DRIVER AND
    to undergo stretching or bending                  VEHICLE LICENSING CENTRE
    without fracturing: Tính meàm,                 dwell n. (a) in a contact breaker
    tính deã keùo, tính deã uoán.                     ignition system, the angle in
dull a. (of a finish) not shiny: Ñuïc,                degrees of distributor shaft rotation
    môø.                                              during which the contact breaker
dummy n. stuffed figure made to                       points remain closed; the smaller
    look like a human being, used, for                the contact gap, the larger the
    instance, when testing cars to                    dwell (angle), which determines
    destruction: Ngöôøi noäm, hình                    the charging time of the ignition
    nhaân (duøng khi thöû nghieäm xe)                 coil: Goùc ngaäm.
         dump valve n. valve for                      (NOTE: also called dwell angle)
    relieving pressure, such as that                   (b)    in a breakerless ignition
    between the turbocharger and the                  system, the time during which the
    carburetor in some systems: Van                   electronic control unit allows
    xaû, van thaùo                                    current to flow through the primary
duo-servo brake n. servo brake with                   winding of the coil, which in
    one double-end wheel cylinder                     ignition systems with a Hall
    and two linked self-energizing                    generator is determined by the
    brake shoes: Boä trôï löïc phanh                  width of the vanes: Thôøi gian
    keùp.                                             ngaäm
duplex chain n. chain with two rows of                    dwell-angle control n. system
    rollers, used especially for timing               ensuring that dwell is sufficient for
    chains: Xích ñoâi.                                all engine conditions: Söï ñieàu
durability n. ability to last a long time:            khieån goùc ngaäm.
    Söï beàn, tính beàn, ñoä beàn                       dwell-angle map = characteristic
dust boot n. concertina-like rubber                   map for electronic dwell-angle
    cover for pushrods, e.g. on brake                 control, ependent on engine speed
    master cylinders and shock                        and battery voltage: Baûn ñoà goùc


                                             108
dwell meter                                                              dynastart(er)

   ngaäm.                                           due to the stroboscopic effect, and
      dwell meter n. instrument for                 indicating ignition advance or
   measuring the dwell angle: Thieát                retard by its position in front of or
   bò ño goùc ngaäm.                                behind the fixed timing mark:
      dwell period n. period during                 Phöông phaùp caân löûa ñoäng.
   which the primary circuit is closed              (NOTE: also called stroboscopic
   and primary current flows through                ignition timing; opposite is static
   the ignition coil, given in                      ignition timing)
   crankshaft or distributor shaft                     dynamic imbalance n. lack of
   degrees and therefore also called                balance in a rotating part such as a
   dwell angle: Thôøi gian ngaäm.                   wheel, which can cause vibration
DWS (system) n. deflation warning                   and judder: Söï maát caân baèng
   system developed by Dunlop for                   ñoäng.
   on-line detection of tyre pressure                    dynamic seal n. oil seal
   loss, which since tyre pressure loss             between a moving and a stationary
   reduces tyre circumference and                   part: Ñeäm di ñoäng.
   increase wheel rpm, uses the                     (NOTE: opposite is static seal)
   wheel speed sensors of an existing            dynamo n. electrical generator driven
   ABS system to continuously                       by the engine and producing direct
   monitor wheel speed and tyre                     current, to charge the battery and
   condition, any defects triggering a              thus feed the electrical circuits:
   warning signal DWS: Heä thoáng                   Maùy phaùt ñieän moät chieàu
   caûnh baùo xì voû cuûa haûng Dunlop              (NOTE: US English is (DC)
dynamic balancing n. method of                      generator)
   balancing wheels and other                    dynamometer        n.    machine     for
   rotating components such as                      measuring the power output of an
   crankshafts, using a machine                     engine, either directly or at the
   which spins the component and                    driven wheels: Baêng thöû coâng
   detects any running out of true                  suaát ñoäng cô thoâng qua baùnh xe
   which indicates imbalance: Söï caân           dynastart(er) n. combined dynamo
   baèng ñoäng                                      and starter used on some cars in
   (NOTE:       opposite      is  static            the 1920s and ’30s, and more
   balancing)                                       recently        on        two-stroke
       dynamic ignition timing n.                   motorcycles: Maùy phaùt keát hôïp
   modern timing procedure using a                  maùy khôûi ñoäng.
   timing light which is controlled by
   the ignition pulse for the first
   cylinder and whose flashing beam
   is directed onto the timing marks,
   the rotating mark appearing fixed




                                           109
E                                                                       eccentric drive


                                          Ee

E = ECONOMY (GEAR): tieát kieäm                    electrical circuit, provided by an
   (soá)                                           earth connection: phaàn daây noái
EAC valve n. electronic air control                mass cuûa maïch ñieän.
   valve: Van ñieän ñieàu khieån toác                 earth strap = piece of braided
   ñoä caàm chöøng baèng ñieän töû                 wire for earthing the battery, with
Ear n. projection in the shape an ear,             a clip for attachment to the
   usually as a lug, but also as a                 appropriate battery terminal at one
   spoiler behind the rear windows                 and a terminal for connecting to
   to improve stability in side winds:             the chassis or body at the other:
   taám chaén gioù (kính sau)                      Daây noái mass cho aêc quy
Early fuel evaporation (EEF) system             easing fluid n. = penetrating oil: Daàu
   n. system that heats the inlet                  thaám (tan gæ)
   manifold to provide a warm                   east–west layout         n. transverse
   air/fuel      mixture,      reducing            positioning of the engine across the
   condensation and improving fuel                 car, found in many front-wheel
   evaporation, thus improving cold                drive designs: Söï boá trí (ñoäng cô)
   engine operation and reducing                   naèm ngang.
   exhaust emissions: Heä thoáng laøm              (NOTE: also called transverse
   boác hôi nhieân lieäu.                          engine; opposite is north-south
earth 1 n. return part of an electrical            layout)
   system, which in a motor vehicle is          ESA valve n. valve in an emission
   provided by the metal body and                  control system governing the air
   chassis: AÂm, mass.                             flow from the air pump in
   2 v. to connect a circuit or a                  connection with the EAC valve:
   component to a chassis or body                  van daãn khí ñeán van EAC
   part, either directly or by means of         eat (away) v. to corrode and remove
   a wire: Noái mass                               the metal from: AÊn moøn.
   (NOTE: US English for this is                ebonite       n. hard black rubber
   ground)                                         compound         especially       one
       earth connection = wire or                  containing no filler: Ebonit.
   other metal strip for connecting a           eccentric 1 a. amounted off-centre:
   component to the vehicle chassis                Leäch taâm, sai taâm.
   or body: Vaät (daây) noái mass                  2 n. part transmitting an eccentric
         earth electrode = side                    drive, such as a disc with a
   electrode of a sparking plug: Ñieän             provision for a drive from its outer
   cöïc bìa (bougie).                              part, or an eccentric shaft: Söï leäch
   (NOTE: opposite is centre                       taâm.
   electrode)                                         eccentric drive = drive from a
      earth return = return part of an             point not on the axis of the driving


                                          110
eccentric rotor pump                                                    edge protection

   shaft, e.g. from the outer part of a              economical on long runs = most
   disc, so that a reciprocating or up               cars give better mileage per gallon
   and down motion is transmitted;                   when driven long distances: Haàu
   used in pumps or for a camshaft                   heát xe hôi chaïy tieát kieäm khi
   drive: Söï truyeàn ñoäng leäch taâm.              chaïy ñöôøng tröôøng.
       eccentric rotor pump = rotor -                     economizer        n. device for
   type pump: Bôm quay leäch taâm.                   making a vehicle use less fuel,
         eccentric shaft = shaft                     either by regulating the flow of
   transmitting an eccentric motion:                 fuel, or by admitting extra air to
   Truïc truyeàn leäch taâm.                         the air/fuel mixture (especially
ECE test cycle n. 13 minute, three-                  when cruising): Boä phaän tieát
   part test of automotive emission                  kieäm xaêng.
   for compliance         with emission                  economy n. (especially low)
   standards, adopted by most                        consumption of fuel, usually
   European countries, simulating                    measured in miles per gallon: Tính
   urban driving conditions, i.e.                    kinh teá nhieân lieäu (tính baèng
   involving relatively long idling                  miles/gallon)
   periods and speed below 35 mph,                      turned for economy = turned to
   emission characteristics at cruising              use less fuel: chænh ñeå bôùt hao
   speed not being considered: chu                   xaêng
   trình kieåm tra khí thaûi chaâu AÂu                   good/ bad fuel economy = low/
echelon parking n. parking with the                  high fuel consumption: Tính kinh
   nose of the car lose to the kern and              teá nhieân lieäu cao (hay thaáp).
   at an angle to it: Söï ñaäu xe theo                       economy          device    =
   hình baäc thang.                                  ECONOMIZER
ECI (short of) electrically controlled                   economy jet = addition jet in a
   injection: Heä thoáng phun nhieân                 carburetor admitting extra air to
   lieäu ñieàu khieån baèng ñieän.                   the air/fuel mixture (especially
          ECM        =    ELECTRONIC                 when cruising): Gíc lô phuï
   CONTROL MODULE: Boä ñieàu                      ECS (short for) electrically controlled
   khieån ñieän töû.                                 suspension: Heä thoáng treo ñieàu
ecological damage n. damage to the                   khieån baèng ñieän.
   environment, usually in the from of            ECT (short for)          engine coolant
   pollution, such as that caused by                 temperature: Nhieät ñoä nöôùc laøm
   vehicle emissions: Söï phaù huûy                  maùt ñoäng cô.
   moâi tröôøng sinh thaùi (khí thaûi)            ECU = ELECTRONIC CONTROL
      ecological harmful a. damage                   UNIT: Boä ñieàu khieån ñieän töû,
   in to the environment: Coù haïi ñeán              ECU, hoäp ñen
   moâi tröôøng sinh thaùi.                       edge binding n. tape for binding the
economical n. using only a small                     edges of carpets: Caïnh vieàn
amount of fuel: tieát kieäm nhieân lieäu.            (thaûm)
        most cars are more                              edge protection n. protection

                                            111
Edwardian car                                                       electrical screwdriver

    of edges against corrosion, e.g. by                admitting exhaust gas to the inlet
    weather strips: Choáng aên moøn cho                manifold: Van hoài löu khí thaûi.
    caùc gôø, moái noái…                            eight n. eighth-cylinder engine, or a
Edwardian car            n. (gb) car built             car fitted with one, the cylinder
    between 1905 and 1918: Loaïi xe                    may be in-line (a straight eight ) or
    töø 1905 – 1918.                                   in a v-layout (a v-8): Ñoäng cô 8
EEC = electronic engine control:                       xylanh.
    Ñieàu khieån ñoäng cô baèng ñieän töû.          EIN = engine identification number:
EFE system n. = early fuel                             soá sôri ñoäng cô.
    evaporation system: Heä thoáng                  eject v. to put or throw out: Neùm ra,
    boác hôi nhieân lieäu sôùm.                        phun ra, ñöa ra
effective a. (a) actual rather than                 eject button = button on a cassette
    theoretical or potential: Coù hieäu                player for taking out the cassette:
    quaû.                                              Nuùt laáy baêng ra.
effective deflection = deflection of a              elasticity n. ability to recover original
    suspension system under a                          size and shape when deforming,
    particular load: Ñoä voõng cuûa heä                especially stretching, forces are
    thoáng treo khi coù taûi                           released: Tính ñaøn hoài, tính co
  (b) producing an effect: Coù hieäu                   giaõn.
    quaû.                                           elastomer n. elastic macromolecular
effective stroke = working or power                    material that at room temperature
    stroke in a two- stroke engine: Thì                returns rapidly approximately its
    sinh coâng.                                        initial dimensions and shape after
efficiency        n. performance of a                  substantial deformation by awake
    mechanical device or system,                       stress and release of the stress:
    especially with regard to the                      Chaát ñaøn hoài.
    amount of energy used: Hieäu suaát.             elbow n. bend in a pipe: Khuyûu, choã
braking efficiency = braking effort as                 gaáp khuùc.
    a percentage of the weight of the               electric a. operated by or derived
    vehicle: Hieäu suaát phanh.                        from electricity: Baèng ñieän, coù
EFI or EFi =               electronic fuel             ñieän.
    injection: Heä thoáng phun xaêng                electric air control valve = EAC
    ñieän töû.                                         valve
EGR          =      EXHAUST           GAS           electric air switching valve = EAS
    RECIRCULATION: Söï luaân hoài                      valve
    khí thaûi.                                      electrical a. relating to electricity:
EGR valve = part of an EGR system                      Thuoäc veà ñieän.
    mounted on or near the inlet                    electrical conductivity = ability of a
    manifold and controlled by inlet                   material to conduct electricity:
    manifold vacuum, which is usually                  Tính daãn ñieän.
    closed at idle and low speeds, but                 (NOTE: opposite is resistivity )
    opens       during        acceleration,         electrical screwdriver = usually

                                              112
electrical system                                                    electrogalvanizing

   small screwdriver for use when                Mui (naép capoâ) ñieàu khieån baèng
   working on the electrical system,                ñieän.
   with a thin blade and an insulated            electric windows n. windows which
   handle,     also    sometimes      an            are raised and lowered by electric
   insulated shank: Vít thöû ñieän.                 motors, and operated by switches
electrical system = combination of                  on the centre console or on the
   all wiring circuits and electrical               door: Heä thoáng kính cöûa ñieàu
   units and equipment on a vehicle,                khieån baèng ñieän.
   with the exception of those in the                (NOTE: us english is power
   ignition system: Heä thoáng ñieän.                windows)
electric car n. car whose motive                 electromechanical corrosion           n.
   power is provided by an electric                 corrosion involving at least one
   motor, with the advantages of                    electrode reaction: Söï aên moøn cô
   silence and lack of pollution, and               ñieän
   the disadvantages of the weight of            electro coating n. = electrophoretic
   the batteries and the need for                   painting: Sôn ñieän.
   recharging after a relatively short           electrode n. conductor which leads
   distance: Xe ñieän.                              current into a gas, liquid or
electric charge n. defined quantity of              vacuum, such as those in a
   electricity, which may be positive,              sparking plug between which the
   as with protons, or negative, as                 spark passes to ignite the mixture:
   with electrons: Ñieän tích                       Ñieän cöïc.
electric current n. flow of electricity          electrode adjusting tool = tool used
   passing through a conductor: Doøng               to bend side electrodes on sparking
   ñieän.                                           plugs for gap adjustment, usually
electric fuel pump n. electrically                  combined      with    gauges      for
   power petrol or diesel pump,                     checking the gap: Duïng cuï ñieàu
   drawing fuel from the bank and                   chænh khe hôû bougie.
   delivering it to the carburetor or            electrode gap = sparking plug gap:
   fuel injection system: Bôm nhieân                Khe hôû bougie.
   lieäu baèng ñieän.                                electrode position n. generic
electric grid n. = electrical system:               term for electrolytic processes
   Heä thoáng ñieän.                                which a metal is deposited at the
electric mirror = external, usually                 cathode from a solution of its
   door mirror which can be adjust                  ions, such as electroplating, or in
   from inside the car: Göông chieáu                which paint is deposited in an
   haäu chænh ñieän.                                immersion process by mean of
electric motor n. machine which                     electric current: Sö phuû lôùp baèng
   changes electrical energy into                   ñieän (sôn)
   usually rotational motion: Motô               electrogalvanizing n. coating of
   ñieän.                                           metal, especially iron or steel, with
electric top n. us = power hood:                    zinc by electroplating: Maï ñieän.

                                           113
electrolysis                                           electronic engine control (EEC)

electrolysis n. method by which                       an air-conditioning system: Ly hôïp
   chemical reactions are carried out                 ñieän töø (ñieàu hoøa)
   by passage of electric current                 electromotive force (EMF) n. source
   through a solution of an electrolyte               of electrical energy required to
   or through a molten salt, e.g. in a                produce an electric current,
   starter battery: Phöông phaùp ñieän                produced by devices such as
   phaân.                                             batteries or generators and
electrolyte n. substance which can                    measured in volts: Söùc ñieän ñoäng.
   dissolve to yield a solution, or a             electron n. negatively charged
   solution itself able to conduct                    constituent of an atom: Ñieän töû
   electric current, especially in an                 (electron).
   electric cell or battery: Chaát ñieän          electron flow = current produced by
   phaân.                                             the motion of free electrons
electrolyte level =          amount of                towards a positive terminal, whose
   electrolyte in a car battery, which                direction is the opposite to that of
   must cover the top of the plates:                  the current: Doøng haït ñieän töû.
   Möùc chaát ñieän phaân (aéc quy)               electronic a. featuring semiconductors
electrolyte tester = device for                       (usually      transistors)   as    an
   checking electrolyte density in a                  operating medium: Ñieän töû.
   battery, and hence its state of                electronically controlled a. controlled
   charge: Phuø keá.                                  by electronic means: Ñöôïc ñieàu
electrolytic a. relating to electrolysis              khieån baèng ñieän töû
   or an electrolyte: Ñieän phaân.                electronic cluster n. display showing
electrolytic cell = cell consisting of                various       functions,    including
   electrodes immersed in an                          speedometer, tachometer, gauges,
   electrolyte solution for carrying out              etc. using LEDs or LCD
   electrolysis: Hoäc, ngaên bình (ñòeân              technology displaying symbols and
   phaân)                                             bar instead of numbers: Tableau
electrolytic-corrosion = electro-                     ñieän töû (hieän soá)
   chemical corrosion causing the                      (NOTE: opposite is analogue
   electrolytic removal of metal: Söï                  cluster)
   aên moøn ñieän hoùa.                          electronic control unit (ECU) n.
electrolytic        deposition         =             microprocessor and memory with
   electroplating: Kyõ thuaät maï ñieän.             electronic maps, forming the central
electrolytic       galvanizing         =             part of an engine management
   electrogalganizing: Maï ñieän                     system or of subsystems such as a
electrolytic protection = cathodic                   fuel injection or ignition system:
   protection: Söï baûo veä catoát.                  Cuïm ñieàu khieån ñieän töû, hoäp
electromagnetic clutch n. any clutch                 ECU, hoäp ñen
   in with magnetic force is used to                 (NOTE: also called electronic
   hold the drive in engagement, such                (control ) module (ECM))
   as that in the compressor drive of             electronic engine control (EEC) n.

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electronic fuel injection                              electrostatic painting or spraying

   engine management system which                     available as a separate module to
   control the ignition system and                    enhance transistorized ignition
   various other systems, including                   systems: Ñieàu khieån ñaùnh löûa
   the exhaust gas recirculation and                  sôùm baèng ñieän töû
   air –injection        systems: Ñieàu            electronic traction control (ETC) n.
   khieån ñoäng cô baèng ñieän töû.                   system for reducing wheel spin,
electronic fuel injection (EFI or EFi)                incorporating wheel sensors: Ñieàu
   n. system that injects fuel into the               khieån löïc keùo baèng ñieän töû.
   engine and includes an electronic               electronic transmission control n.
   control unit to time and meter the                 system or module for controlling
   flow: Heä thoáng phun nhieân lieäu                 automatic transmission: Hoäp soá töï
   baèng ñieän töû.                                   ñoäng ñieàu khieån baèng ñieän töû.
electronic ignition system n. term                 electropainting n. = electrophoretic
   used to designate breakerless                      painting: Sôn ñieän.
   transistorized               ignitions,         electrophoretic painting n. process
   transistorized      ignitions      with            used to apply the first coat of paint
   electronic spark timing, and                       (primer) to car body: Sôn ñieän
   sometimes        mapped        ignition            (cho lôùp sôn ñaàu tieân).
   systems: Heä thoáng ñaùnh löûa ñieän            electrophoretic primer = paint used
   töû.                                               to     prime car body by the
electronic navigator            n.= trip              electrophoretic process: Lôùp sôn
   computer: Maùy tính haønh trình                    ñaàu treân khung xe.
   (baùo tieâu hao nhieân lieäu, löôïng            electro picker n. electrical door lock
   xaêng coøn, soá km ñaõ ñi…)                        picker (available to key services
electronic ride control n. suspension                 and the police only): Ñoà naïy khoùa
   control      system        comprising              cöûa ñieän (khi maát khoùa)
   microprocessor              controlled,         electroplate v. to plate (metal ) by
   electronically adjustable air shock                electrodeposition: Maï ñieän.
   absorbers for automatic selection               electroplating n. electrodeposition of
   of     the      optimum       damping              metals or alloys from suitable
   characteristics depending on and                   electrolyte solutions, the articles to
   road surface and load conditions:                  be plated being connected to the
   Heä thoáng giaûm chaán töï ñoäng.                  cathode in an electrolyte solution,
electronic spark advance (ESA) n.                     and direct current introduced
   the part of an ECU that controls                   through the anode of the metal to
   ignition timing and dwell angle:                   be deposited: Kyõ thuaät maï ñieän.
   Ñaùnh löûa sôùm baèng ñieän töû.                electrostatic painting or spraying n.
electronic spark control (ESC) or                     painting method using the particle
electronic spark timing (EST) n.                      attracting properly of electrostatic
   ignition timing by means of an                     charges, in which a direct current
   ignition map, either integrated into               of approx. 100,000 volts is applies
   mapped ignition           systems or               to a grid of wires through which

                                             115
electrostatic powder coating                                                emission levels

    the paint is sprayed to charge                 emergency brake             = secondary
    each particle, and the metals                     braking system which comes to
    objects to be sprayed are                         operation when the main braking
    connected to the opposite terminal                system fails: Phanh phuï.
    of the high-voltage circuit, so as to          emergency inflator = aerosol can
    attract the paint particles: Sôn tónh             which inflates a punctured tyre
    ñieän                                             and injects sealing compound to
electrostatic powder coating (EPC)                    provide at least a temporary
    = painting process in which the                   repair: Bình xòt vaù voû taïm thôøi.
    outer parts of the body shell are              emergency transmitter = transmitter
    coated with a powder dispersion by                no large than a car radio, fitted
    means of cathodic immersion, and                  inside the vehicle which enables
    in which the cavities are coated                  drivers to radio for help from the
    with cathodic electropaint: Lôùp                  security of their own cars: Maùy
    sôn tónh ñieän                                    phaùt tín hieäu baùo troäm.
electrovalve n. = solenoid valve: Van              emergency windscreen = sheet of
    ñieän.                                            clear plastic fitted in place of
element n. assembly of all positive                   broken      windscreen: Taám daùn
    and negative plates of a single                   kính vôõ
    battery     cell     including     its         emery cloth n. cloth coated in emery
    separators, arranged so as to start               crystals for use as an abrasive on
    and finish with a negative plate (so              metals: Vaûi nhaùm.
    that there are always negative then            EMF = electromotive force
    positive plates ), because the                 emission n. passing toxic substances
    positive plates tend to distort under             into the atmosphere: Phaùt xaï oâ
    discharge: Aéc quy ñôn.                           nhieãm töø khí xaû
ellipsoidal headlight n. headlight                 emissions = gases and other pollutants
    with a reflector which is wider than              coming from the vehicle with an
    it is high, and not circular, has                 internal combustion engine: Söï
    replaced the parabolic reflector:                 thaûi ra chaát oâ nhieãm töø xe.
    Ñeøn ñaàu daïng ellipsoid.                     emission control n. (a) reduction of all
embrittlement n. reduced toughness                    types of emission from motor
    in plastic or metal caused by age,                vehicles: Kieåm soaùt khí thaûi.
    heat or rough use: Söï gioøn cuaû                 (b) emission control (system ) =
    nhöïa hoaëc kim loaïi trong vaän                  any system, device or modification
    haønh.                                            added onto or designed into a
emergency n. sudden, unexpected                       motor vehicle for the purpose of
    occurrence, such as a breakdown                   reducing air-polluting emissions,
    or the failure of some part, which                such as catalytic converter: Heä
    may be dangerous and demands                      thoáng kieåm soat khí xaû.
    immediate action: Tình traïng                  emission levels n. amount of toxic
    nguy hieåm (do hö hoûng)                          substances       passed     into    the

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emission standards                                                                 engage

   atmosphere by motor vehicles:                     small pincers with sharp jaws for
   Löôïng khí ñoäc vaøo khoâng khí.                  cutting and stripping wires, etc.:
emission standards n. specified                      Kìm caét vaø tuoát daây.
   maximum          emission       levels         end float n. = end play
   permitted from different classes of            endoscope n. instrument used to see
   motor      vehicle     in   different             into the interior of hollow cavities
   countries: Tieâu chuaån khí thaûi.                such as box sections: Ñeøn noäi soi.
        the stringent US emission                 end play n. bearing clearance in an
   standards = the low emission                      axial direction: Khe hôû doïc baïc
   levels permitted in the United                    loùt.
   States, especially in California:              check the big end bearing for end
   Tieâu chuaån khí thaûi nghieâm khaéc              play = check if there is any
   cuûa Myõ.                                         sideways movement in the big
EMS = emission management system:                    end: Kieåm tra khe hôû doïc baïc loùt
   Heä thoáng kieåm soaùt khí thaûi.                 ñaàu to thanh truyeàn.
emulsion n. mixture of two liquids                endurance test n. test of a material or
   which do not fully mix, such as oil               system over a long period: Thöû ñoä
   and water, or specifically petrol                 beàn
   and air in a carburetor: Nhuõ töông            energize v. to activate (a solenoid,
   (nöôùc vaøo nhôùt, khoâng khí vaø                 relay, etc.) by providing sufficient
   xaêng)                                            energy: Baét ñaàu laøm vieäc nhôø caáp
emulsion tube = part of a fixed jet                  naêng löôïng
   carburetor, in which air is                    energy     n. capacity for doing work,
   introduced into the mixture through               measured in joules or in the case
   holes to help atomize it and correct              of electrical energy, in kilo-watt
   excessive richness at higher                      hours: Naêng löôïng.
   engine speeds: OÁng nhuõ hoùa (cheá            energy absorbing a. able to absorb
   hoaø khí) (nôi khoâng khí ñi qua loã              force of impact: Haáp thu naêng
   troän)                                            löôïng.
enamel n. high-gloss paint that is                energy absorbing steering column =
   slower drying and therefore easier                safety design of steering column
   to apply than cellulose, and will                 which telescopes on impact: Truï
   cause cellulose applied over it to                tay laùi haáp thu naêng löôïng khi
   lift: Sôn boùng treân goã.                        ñuïng xe (xeáp laïi)
end cap n. cap covering the end of a              energy conversion n. changing of one
   piece of trim or of a fuse: Ñaàu                  form of energy into another or into
   chuïp (caàu chì loaïi cuõ)                        work, such as that in the
end cover (plate ) n. cover containing               combustion process, the heat of
   a bearing at either end of a                      which is used toturn the engine and
   dynamo or alternator: Taám chaén oå               thus create motion: Söï chuyeån hoùa
   bi trong maùy phaùt.                              naêng löôïng.
end cutters or end cutting pliers n.              engage v. (a) to come into contact and

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engagement                                                          engine depression

   be locked together (with another                the vehicle is in gear with the
   part): Laøm aên khôùp.                          throttle closed, i.e. on the overrun,
       the clutch engages smoothly =               which is increased by changing to a
   the driving and driven plates of the            lower gear: Hieän töôïng ñoäng cô
   clutch come together and take up                chaïy chaäm laïi khi coøn soá maø
   the drive without judder: Ly hôïp               böôùm ga ñoùng (phanh ñoäng cô)
   aên khôùp moät caùch eâm aùi.                engine capacity n. swept volume of
  (b) to bring ( a part) into contact              an engine: Dung tích ñoäng cô.
   with another so that it is locked to         engine compartment n. area into
   it: Gaøi khôùp.                                 which the engine is fitted: Khoang
      to engage a lower gear = to                  ñoäng cô.
   select a lower ratio by moving the           engine coolant n. liquid used in the
   gear lever: Gaøi soá thaáp hôn.                 engine’s cooling system: Nöôùc
engagement n. bringing into locking                laøm maùt ñoäng cô.
   contact (e.g. of the clutch ), or            engine cover n. panel of metal or
   selection of a gear: Söï aên khôùp.             plastic covering the engine of a
engine        n.      energy-converting            rear-engine car: Naép chuïp ñoäng
   propelling unit of a motor vehicle,             cô (ñaët sau)
   usually internal combustion engine              (NOTE: the terms bonnet in British
   of the reciprocating-piston type,               usage and hood in American usage
   either with spark ignition (petrol              are only used for the cover a front-
   engines) or compression ignition                mounted engine )
   (diesel engines): Ñoäng cô.                  engine     damage        n.    breakage,
engine analyzer n. electronic engine-              deformation or scoring of the
   test-device, formerly free-standing             internal parts of an engine: Söï hö
   in a cabinet, and now often hand-               hoûng caùc chi tieát beân trong ñoäng
   held and connected to the vehicle               cô.
   ‘s diagnostic socket (as in the case         overrevving may cause engine
   of the diagnostic read-out box ),               damage = running the engine too
   which provides data on all aspect               fast may result in, for example,
   of the engine’s state of tune: Maùy             seizure, a burnt piston or a dropped
   phaân tích (chaån ñoaùn) ñoäng cô.              valve: Chaïy vöôït toác coù theå gaây
engine bay n. = engine compartment:                hö ñoäng cô.
   Ngaên, khoang ñoäng cô.                      engine depression n. low pressure on
engine block n. cylinder block with                the engine side of the throttle
   integral crankcase: Khoái ñoäng cô,             cause by piston suction in the inlet
   khoái xylanh.                                   manifold: Söùc huùt ñoäng cô (aùp
engine block heater = cylinder block               thaáp)
   heater: Boä phaän nung khoái xylanh               the clutch engages smoothly n.
   (khôûi ñoäng laïnh)                             electrical connecter for plugging in
engine brake or braking effect n.                  the engine analyzer, forming an
   retarding effect of an engine when              interface between the engine

                                          118
engine hoist                                                                    engine size

   store in the memory of the engine              engine map n. = characteristic map:
   controller: Giaéc noái chaån ñoaùn                Baûn ñoà ñaëc tuyeán ñoäng cô (löûa vaø
   ñoäng cô.                                         xaêng) naïp trong EPROM
engine hoist n. small crane for lifting           engine misfire n. misfire: Söï maát löûa.
   an engine out of a motor vehicle,              engine modifications n. alterations to
   formerly incorporating a block and                the specification of the engine to
   tackle,      but     now       usually            increase power output, improve
   hydraulically operated: Caàn truïc                economy, reduce emissions, etc.:
   nhoû naâng ñoäng cô.                              Söï caûi tieán ñoäng cô.
engine (identification) number (EIN)              engine mounting n. flexible support
   n. number stamped on the engine                   for the engine in which an elastic
   and usually also on the vehicle                   medium, usually rubber, is
   identification plate, which should                interposed between lugs on the
   be quoted when ordering parts: Soá                engine and the frame of the
   maùy.                                             vehicle: Söï gaù laép ñoäng cô.
engine knock n. engine operating                  engine noise n. amount of noise of
   condition, accompanied by audible                 lower viscosity than gear oil, used
   noise, that occurs when fuel in the               to lubricate an engine: tieáng oàn
   cylinders is ignition too early                   ñoäng cô.
   and/or spontaneously, resulting in             engine oil level warning light = light
   colliding flame fronts and shock                  on the instrument panel which
   waves which cause high thermal                    comes on when the oil in the sump
   and mechanical stress, and can                    falls below a certain level: Ñeøn
   severely damage the engine: Söï                   baùo möïc daàu ñoäng cô.
   rooùc maùy (kích noå)                          engine overhaul n. dismantling of the
engine layout n. (a) type of engine,                 engine and restoration of the
   with reference to the arrangement                 manufacturer’s original tolerance
   of its cylinders and their number                 by replacement of worn parts,
   (as in a flat four, v-twin or straight            reboring the cylinders, regrinding
   eight): Caùch phaân loaïi ñoäng cô.               the crankshaft, etc.: Söï ñaïi tu
   (b) positioning of the engine in the              maùy.
   vehicle (as in front, mid-or rear              engine parameters n. used in the
   engine, a transverse or in-line                   context of emission controls for
   engine): Vò trí ñaët ñoäng cô.                    those       engine       characteristics
engine management system (EMS)                       sensitive to engine performance,
   n. electronic engine control system               such as power/ bhp, general engine
   which covers at least the                         performance and fuel economy:
   functioning of the fuel injection                 Caùc thoâng soá ñoäng cô.
   and ignition, but may also include             engine performance tester n. =
   emission controls and self-                       engine analyzer
   diagnostics: Heä thoáng ñieàu khieån           engine size n. = engine capacity:
   ñoäng cô.                                         Dung tích ñoäng cô.

                                            119
engine speed                                                                      equalizer

engine speed           n. number of                  environment            and        taking
   revolutions per minute (rpm) at                   appropriate action to avoid them:
   which the engine is turning: Toác                 Quan taâm ñeán moâi tröôøng.
   ñoä ñoäng cô.                                  environmentally friendly = harmless
engine speed limiter = device acting                 to the environment, or causing as
   as a governor which cuts the power                little harm as possible: Voâ haïi ñeán
   when a certain number of rpm is                   moâi tröôøng.
   reached: Boä giôùi haïn toác ñoä ñoäng         EPA n. US environment protection
   cô.                                               agency, which is responsible for
engine speed sensor = in most cases,                 recommending             environmental
   a magnetic pick-up that scans the                 legislation and in the automotive
   flywheel teeth and produces one                   sphere produces test cycles and
   output signal per scanned tooth, or               estimates fuel economy: Cuïc baûo
   a hall generator in the distributor,              veä moâi tröôøng.
   whose signals are passed to the                EPC = ELECTROSTATIC POWDER
   electronic control unit: Caûm bieán               COATING
   toác ñoä ñoäng cô.                             EP gear oil n. extreme pressure gear
engine subframe n. separate frame in                 oil preventing metal-to-metal
   which the engine is mounted:                      contact, used mainly in gearboxes
   Khung gaù ñoäng cô.                               and final drives units: Daàu boâi
engine temperature sensor n. sensor                  trôn baùnh raêng.
   used to a monitor the temperature              epicyclical gearbox n. constant-mesh
   of the engine: Caûm bieán nhieät ñoä              gearbox with several planetary
   ñoäng cô.                                         gear sets made up of an internally
   (NOTE: not identical with the                     toothed outer ring gear, several
   coolant temperature sensor)                       small intermediate pinions or
engine timing n. ignition and valve                  planet gears and a large externally
   timing: Söï ñieàu chænh ñoäng cô                  toothed central gear known as a
   (caân löûa vaø cam).                              sun wheel: Hoäp soá baùnh raêng
enrichment n. making the air/fuel                    haønh tinh.
   mixture richer, i.e. increase the                 (NOTE: us english is planetary
   fuel content: Söï laøm giaøu hoaø khí.            transmission)
enrichment device or unit = circuit in            epoxy resin n. thermosetting resin
   a carburetor providing a richer                   based on ethylene oxide or similar
   mixture, operated by engine                       material or derivatives, used in
   vacuum: Cô caáu laøm ñaäm.                        adhesives, fillers, and primers and
envelope          n. cover enclosing                 other finishes: nhöïa epoxi.
   something entirely, such as the                EPS      (short     for)     electronically
   glass of a lamp bulb: Voû boïc.                   controlled power steering: Trôï
environment-conscious         or                     löïc laùi ñieàu khieån baèng ñieän töû.
   environmentally aware a . aware                equalizer n. (a) = graphic equalizer:
    of dangers and threats to the                    Nuùt chænh taàn soá aâm thanh

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equal power distribution                                                        evacuate

    (cassette)                                      khaùch vöøa chôû haøng
   (b) compensator: Cô caáu buø.                     (NOTE: US english is station
equal power distribution or split n.                 wagon)
   system in four wheel drive                    ESV = experimental safety vehicle:
   vehicles which ensures that an                   Xe thöû nghieäm an toaøn.
   equal amount of power is passed to            ETA (short for) Estimated Time Of
   the front and rear wheels: Söï                   Arrival: Thôøi gian ñeán döï kieán
   phaân phoái coâng suaát caân baèng               (maùy tính haønh trình)
   giöõa baùnh tröôùc vaø baùnh sau              etching n. (a) roughening or
equipment n. devices and systems                    disintegration of the paint surface,
   fitted to a vehicle which are either             which can occur on small patches
   essential or optional, and either                or over a wide area, through attack
   fitted by the manufacturer (original             from bird droppings, screen washer
   equipment ): Thieát bò.                          fluid, industrial fall out, etc.: Bong
equipment package = particular                      sôn do taùc ñoäng moâi tröôøng
   combination         of     equipment             (b) removal of soil or the natural
   provided by the manufacturer:                    oxide film from an aluminium
   Troïn goùi thieát bò.                            surface, giving a roughened
erode v. to remove a surface layer (by              surface which improves adhesion
   chemical action or by rubbing ):                 of the subsequent paint layer, or
   AÊn moøn, baøo moøn                              removal the actual metal: Caïo beà
erosion n. removing a surface layer                 maët kim loaïi ñeå sôn dính toát
   (by chemical action or wear ): Söï            ethanol n. ethyl alcohol which is
   baøo moøn.                                       added to petrol, typically in a
ESA = ELECTRONIC SPARK                              mixture of 10% ethanol and 90%
   ADVANCE                                          unleaded petrol: Ethanol (theâm
ESC = ELECTRONIC SPARK                              vaøo xaêng).
   CONTROL                                       ethyl acrylate n. polymer used in
ESR (short for) electric sunroof: Cöûa              toughening rubber: Hôïp chaát cao
   mui xe ñieàu khieån baèng ñieän (cöûa            phaân töû ñeå taêng ñoä cöùng cho cao
   trôøi)                                           su.
EST = electronic spark timing: Ñieàu             ethylene –glycol n. thick hygroscopic
   khieån thôøi ñieåm ñaùnh löûa baèng              liquid which is used as the main
   ñieän töû.                                       constituent of antifreeze: Thaønh
estate car n. private car which is                  phaàn cuûa chaát choáng ñoâng (trong
   essentially a saloon whose roof is               nöôùc laøm maùt ñoäng cô).
   extended to the rear of the car,              euromix formular n. basis for a
   which is more or less vertical and               standard test cycle covering both
   incorporates a tailgate, giving the              town driving and driving on the
   increase by lowering the can be                  open road: Chu trình kieåm tra xe
   further increased by lowering the             evacuate v. to remove by pushing
   back of the rear seat: Xe vöøa chôû              out: Thaùo, caùch ly.

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evaporate                                            exhaust emission control system

evaporate v. to turn into a vapour:             excitation winding          n. = field
   Laøm bay hôi, laøm boác hôi.                    winding: Cuoän daây kích töø.
evaporation n. conversion of a liquid           ex-demonstrator n. car formerly used
   into a vapour: Söï boác hôi.                    by a dealer as a demonstrator: Xe
evaporation control system or                      ñaõ qua tröng baøy.
    evaporation emission control                executive car n. large, powerful
    (system) (EVAP) = system for                   luxury car considered suitable for a
    reducing evaporation emissions by              business executive: Xe cao caáp.
    means of a sealed fuel tank,a               exhaust 1 n. (a) = EXHAUST GAS:
    vapour-liquid separator, a three-              Khí thaûi, khí xaû
    way valve, an active carbon filter,            (b) = EXHAUST SYSTEM: Heä
    and a network of interconnecting               thoáng thaûi.
    hoses: Heä thoáng kieåm soaùt söï              2 v. to push out or discharge
    boác hôi nhieân lieäu (choáng oâ               (combustion gases ): Thaûi ra.
    nhieãm)                                     exhaust back pressure n. any
evaporative emissions or losses n.                 pressure holding back the flow of
   vapour or fumes not emitted by the              the gases in as exhaust system:
   exhaust system, but escaping from               Aùp suaát ngöôïc cuûa khí thaûi
   the      fuel tank, carburetor and           exhaust cam (shaft)          n. separate
   crankcase, and accounting for                   camshaft controlling the opening
   about      40%      of   hydrocarbon            and closing of the exhaust valves
   emissions released by a petrol                  used in twin overhead camshaft
   engine without emission controls:               engines: Truïc cam thaûi.
   Söï boác hôi cuûa nhieân lieäu töø               (NOTE:       opposite      is     inlet
   thuøng.                                          camshaft)
evaporator n. in automotive air-                exhaust chamber n. part of the two-
   conditioning systems, a heat                    stroke exhaust system designed to
   exchanger designed to absorb heat               maintain a specified back pressure:
   by evaporation of a refrigerant:                Buoàng thaûi (ñoäng cô 2 kyø).
   Giaøn laïnh, boä boác hôi.                   exhaust emission control n. reduction
    (NOTE: opposite is condenser)                  of harmful pollutants in the gases
EVAP system n. = evaporative                       emitted from the exhaust system:
   emission control system                         Söï kieåm soaùt khí thaûi (oâ nhieãm)
EVC = EXHAUST VALVE CLOSES                      exhaust emission control system =
EVO = EXHAUST VALVE OPENS                          general term for any system that
EW (short of ) electric windows: Cöûa              reduces the harmful exhaust
   soå ñieän, kính ñieän                           emissions of a motor vehicle,
exchange engine n. overhauled                      including one or all of the
   replacement engine provided in                  following      systems,        catalytic
   change for a worn (but unchanged)               converter (with or without oxygen
   engine, plus a charge: Ñoäng cô                 sensor air/ fuel control), exhaust
   ñöôïc ñoåi khi ñaïi tu                          gas recirculation, secondary air

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exhaust emissions                                                        exhaust system

   injection or induction, and positive              thaûi.
   crankcase ventilation: Heä thoáng              exhaust note n. sound coming from
   kieåm soaùt khí thaûi.                            the end of the exhaust pipe: Tieáng
exhaust emissions n. gases emitted                   noå ôû cuoái poâ.
   into the atmosphere through the                exhaust pipe n. any pipe forming part
   exhaust system, or indeed any                     of the exhaust system: OÁng poâ.
   opening down-stream of the                     exhaust pollutants n. = exhausts
   exhaust ports of an engine: Söï                   emissions: Söï oâ nhieãm cuûa khí
   phaùt xaï oâ nhieãm do khí thaûi.                 thaûi.
exhaust gas n. gas which is the                   exhaust port n. (a) (in four –stroke
   product of the combustion process                 engines) short passage in the
   and which is passed out of the                    cylinder head from the exhaust
   cylinder through the exhaust valve                valve opening to the exhaust
   or port into the exhaust system:                  manifold (or exhaust pipe on a
   Khí chaùy, khí thaûi                              typical motorcycle): Cöûa thaûi.
exhaust gas analyzer = device which                  (b) (in two-stroke engines) opening
   can establish the hydrocarbon,                    in the cylinder wall used for
   carbon monoxide or carbon                         discharge of the spent gases into
   dioxide content of the exhaust                    the exhaust system: Cöûa thaûi treân
   gases, used fro tuning the engine                 thaønh xy lanh (ñoäng cô 2 kyø)
   or testing to see whether emissions            exhaust scrubber n. diesel exhaust
   control standards are met: Thieát bò              gas purification system which cools
   phaân tích khí thaûi.                             the exhaust and separates nitrogen
exhaust gas purification (system) =                  oxide and oil vapours from the gas
   emission control system for diesel                stream: Thieát bò loïc khí thaûi
   engines, which may consist of an                  (Diesel)
   exhaust scrubber, a diesel exhaust             exhaust side n. side of the engine
   filter, and/ or a catalytic converter:            where the exhaust valves and
   Heä thoáng laøm saïch khí thaûi.                  exhaust manifold are situated:
exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) =                    Phía beân thaûi
   process in which a small portion of            exhaust stroke n. in spark ignition and
   the exhaust gas is mixed with air in              diesel engines, the upward stroke
   the induction tract, which has the                of the piston when the energy of
   effect of reducing the nitrogen                   combustion is spent and the piston
   oxides then emitted: Heä thoáng                   moves upward again, the exhaust
   tuaàn hoaøn khí thaûi (giaûm NOx)                 valve opens and burned gases are
exhaust manifold n. first part of the                forced out past the open exhaust
   exhaust system, usually made of                   valve: Thì thaûi.
   cast iron, and fixed directly to the           exhaust system n. system in a four-
   cylinder head over the gases and                  wheeled motor vehicle that
   passes them to the down pipe(s)                   collects the exhaust gases and
   connected to its outlet(s): OÁng goùp             discharges them into the air,

                                            123
exhaust timing                                                             extension bar

   consisting of the exhaust manifold,               constant pressure on the ring, in
   exhaust pipe, silencer, tailpipe,                 order to ensure a tight seal towards
   and rear silencer or resonator: Heä               the cylinder wall: Voøng eùp trong
   thoáng thaûi.                                     seùc maêng daàu
exhaust timing n. exhaust control                 expansion n. increase in volume of a
   system developed especially for                   liquid or a gas: Söï giaõn nôû.
   two-stroke motorcycle engines in               expansion stroke = power stroke:
   order to enhance low and mid-                     Thì giaõn nôû.
   range power: Heä thoáng ñieàu                  expansion tank = overflow container
   khieån thôøi ñieåm thaûi (2 kyø)                  for gases or liquids subject to
   exhaust       treatment       n.   any            expansion, such as fuels or more
   measures taken to reduce the                      particularly coolant which expanse
   pollutant concentrations in the                   when heated, and when cools
   exhaust of an internal combustion                 returns to the radiator: Bình giaõn
   engine        release      into    the            nôû, bình nöôùc phuï
   atmosphere: Söï xöû lyù khí thaûi.             expansion valve = flow-control valve
exhaust turbocharging               n. =             located between the condenser and
   turbocharging: Taêng aùp baèng khí                evaporator in an air-conditioner
   thaûi.                                            and which controls the amount of
exhaust valve n. valve usually of the                refrigerant sprayed into the
   poppet type and smaller than the                  evaporator: Van tieát löu (heä
   inlet valve, in four-stroke ic                    thoâng1 ñieàu hoaø khoâng khí)
   engines, operated directly or                  Experimental Safety Vehicle (ESV)
   indirectly by a camshaft to open                  n. special vehicle built for research
   during the exhaust stroke to allow                into and testing of safety features:
   the combustion gases to escape:                   Xe thí nghieäm ñoä an toaøn.
   Xuùpaùp thaûi.                                 expioded view n. drawing of a
exhaust valve closes (EVC) = mark                    mechanism or structure which
   on a valve-timing diagram: Daáu                   shows the parts separately but
   supap thaûi ñoùng                                 approximately in the position they
exhaust valve opens (EVO) = mark                     occupy when assembled: Sô ñoà
   on a valve–timing diagram: Daáu                   caáu taïo (chi tieát veõ rôøi)
   supap thaûi môû                                expressway n. us multilane road like
expander n. device in a drum brake                   a motorway, with full or partial
   system (either hydraulic or                       control of access: Xa loä
   mechanical) which forces the                   extension bar or piece n. part used
   shoes apart into contact with the                 with socket spanners inserted
   drum: Caàn ñaåy troáng phanh.                     between a socket and drive handle,
expander ring or spacer n. part used                 which allow access to nuts or bolt
   in an oil-control ring consisting of              heads in deeply recessed or
   more than one part (e.g. one upper                otherwise confined areas: Khôùp
   and one lower rail) to exert a                    noái (caàn sieát)

                                            124
exterior mirror                                                             eyelet pliers



exterior mirror n. = EXTERNAL                        sleeves from housings and blind
   MIRROR: Kính chieáu haäu ngoaøi                   holes: Caùc caõo.
external combustion engine             n.         extras n. optional additional items
   engine (such as a steam engine) in                either fitted by the manufacturer at
   which fuel is burnt outside the                   the buyer’s request, or fitted later
   cylinder or cylinders, power being                by the owner, comprising either
   generated by the expansion of                     accessories such as seat covers or
   another liquid or gas heated by                   additional lights or built-in items
   combustion: Ñoäng cô ñoát ngoaøi.                 such as a heated rear window or
external diameter n. the external                    sunroof: Ñoà gaén theâm treân xe
   diameter of a cylinder or tube:                eye n. circular opening or hole, such
   ñöôøng kính ngoaøi.                               as that at then the end of a leaf
external micrometer n. micrometer                    spring or that formed at the end of
   for measuring external diameters:                 a cable: Caùc khoen (nhíp hoaëc
   Duïng cuï ño vi löôïng ñöôøng kính                daây ñieän)
   ngoaøi (caùc pan me)                           eyebolt n. bolt with an eye in place of
external mirror n. mirror attached to                a head, through which a cable can
   the outside of the vehicle, typically             be passed, e.g. for lifting purposes:
   on the driver’s or the passenger’s                Buloâng coù loã ñeå moùc caùp
   door: Kính chieáu haäu beân ngoaøi             eyelet connector n. connector for
   xe.                                               electrical connections which is
external thread n. thread consisting                 attached to a wire and has its ring-
   of projecting ridges on the outside               shaped end pushed on to a round
   of a part such as a bolt or screw                 post or threaded terminal: Khoen
   (which fits into the corresponding                daây noái (ñeå baét thaân xe)
   internal thread of a nut or similar ):         eyelet pliers n. pliers for punching
   Ren ngoaøi.                                       small holes, with a round stud in
   (NOTE: also called male thread )                  one jaw and a hole in the other:
external vane pump n. pump with                      Kìm baám loã
   either an elliptic rotating piston or
   an eccentrically mounted circular
   rotor: Bôm coù caùnh beân ngoaøi.
extractor      n. special tool       for
   extracting bearings, bushes and




                                            125
F                                                                                 fan belt

                                             Ff
F    (a) (short for) Fahrenheit: Ñoä F                   ñoåi kieåu daùng.
     (b) = FIELD (TERMINAL) :                      facia n. = FASCIA : Baûng ñoàng hoà
     Cöïc cuoän daây kích töø (maùy                      trong xe.
     phaùt)                                        factory adjusted a. set by the works
Fabric n. material made from textile                     when the vehicle is built (and not
     or man-made fibres, used e.g. in                    to be altered): ñaõ ñieàu chænh ôû
     the structure of tyre casings, for                  nôi laép raùp.
     covering seats, etc. : Vaûi boá, vaûi         fade n. = BRAKE FADE: Söï tröôït
     gai.                                                phanh.
        fabric body = simple form of                         fader       n. device which
     lightweight bodywork in which a                     adjusts the sound balance of
     waterproof, clothbacked material                    front and rear speakers in a four-
     is stretched over a wooden                          speaker layout: Thieát bò ñieàu
     frame-work, popular around                          chænh söï caân baèng aâm thanh.
     1930 and still used at a later date                     fading       n. (a) loss of
     by DKW and even postwar by                          brightness or colour in a part
     Lloyd: Keát caáu thaân xe nheï.                     finish: Söï môø daàn, nhaït ñi.
         fabric hood or top = soft-top             (b) = BRAKE FADE
     made from a textile (such as                  failsafe system        n. system which
     canvas) as opposed to vinyl: Mui                    remains safe even when part of
     vaûi.                                               it fails, such as a dual-circuit
fabricate v. to make, usually by a                       brake system: Heä thoáng döï
     relatively complex process or                       phoøng.
     from several parts: Cheá taïo, saûn           fair v. to add a fairing to a body:
     xuaát.                                              Laøm nhaün, laøm phaúng.
face    n. front, visible or working                        fairing (panel) n. additional
     surface of a part (such as a                        streamlined body panel placed
     valve) or a tool (such as a                         over a projecting part, or an
     hammer): Phaàn phía tröôùc, beà                     integral panel also designed to
     maët, beà ngoaøi.                                   give minimum drag: Söï laøm
         facelift     n. minor styling                   nhaün vaø thon thaân xe.
     modifications made to a car                   family car         n. car suitable for
     model        which     may        be                transporting a family, usually a
     approaching the end of its useful                   four-door saloon or hatchback:
     life, intended to improve the                       Loaïi xe oâtoâ gia ñình.
     appearance and thus boost sales               fan     n. device with a number of
     with minimum cost, including                        blades mounted in a central hub,
     such features as restyled                           which can move air as it turns:
     headlights,     larger   taillights,                Caùi quaït.
     added trim and spoilers: Söï taïo             fan belt n. originally and logically,
     daùng xe ñeå baùn

                                             126
fan blade                                                                     fatigue test

      the V-belt used to drive the                     in operation: Söï caàm chöøng
      engine fan from a pulley on the                  nhanh.
      front of the crankshaft, which                         fast idle cam = cam in a
      also drives the dynamo or                        carburettor, which opens the
      alternator and in some cases the                 throttle slightly when the choke
      water pump: Daây ñai keùo quaït.                 is brought into operation, either
fan blade        n. part of the fan                    automatically or mechanically:
      projecting at an angle from the                  Cô caáu cam ñieàu khieån caàm
      central hub, which draws the air                 chöøng nhanh (cheá hoøa khí)
      through the radiator: Caùnh quaït.                  fast idle screw = screw on a
          fan clutch       n. clutch by                carburettor for adjusting the fast
      means of which the fan can be                    idle speed: Vít chænh toác ñoä
      engaged        and     disengaged                caàm chöøng nhanh.
      according to engine temperature,                     fast idle solenoid = solenoid
      usually operated automatically                   operating in conjunction with an
      by a thermostat: Ly hôïp quaït.                  automatic choke to open the
         fan cooling n. type of air                    throttle slightly when the choke
      cooling where a blower is                        is in operation: Van ñieän ñieàu
      responsible for transporting the                 khieån toác ñoä caàm chöøng nhanh.
      amount of air required for the                      fast lane n. outside lane on a
      cooling of the engine past the                   motorway used by fast-moving
      cooling fins, which in turn                      traffic for over-taking: Laøn xe
      dissipate the heat stored in them                cao toác.
      to the current of air flowing past         fatigue      n. weaking of a material
      them: Quaït laøm maùt ñoäng cô.                  subjected to high stresses, which
          fan pulley n. pulley on the                  may crack or even break as a
      hub of the radiator fan on which                 result: Söï moûi.
      its driving belt runs: Puly quaït                     fatigue limit = maximum
      laøm maùt.                                       stress that a material can endure
fascia     n. (a) = INSTRUMENT                         for an infinite number of stress
PANEL: Tableau, baûng ñoàng hoà.                       cycles without breaking: Giôùi
      (b) US panel forming part of the                 haïn moûi.
      external trim, such as that below                       fatigue     resistance     or
      the bumper: Baêng, daûi.                         strength = maximum stress that
           fast charger      n. battery                a material can endure for a given
      charger, which can charge a                      time without breaking: Ñoä beàn
      battery at a rate of 40 amps or                  moûi.
      even more, used by garages and                        fatigue test = test on a
      battery suppliers: Saïc nhanh.                   material to determine the range
           fast idle     n. higher than                of stress it will stand without
      normal tickover speed of an                      failing, by subjecting it to rapidly
      engine when cold with the choke                  varying stresses to establish its


                                           127
fault                                                       feedback carburettor (FIB)

      fatigue limit: Söï kieåm tra ñoä                 EPA for use in any state except
      beàn moûi.                                       California: Ñoäng cô ñuû tieâu
fault      n. defect which is either                   chuaån khí thaûi cho toaøn lieân
      inherent in the vehicle as built                 bang.
      (manufacturing fault) or which                         Federal Test Procedure
      occurs during: Söï coá, loãi, hö                 (FTP) n. US method of testing
      hoûng.                                           automotive emissions simulating
          fault diagnosis = tracing of                 typical driving conditions : Quy
      faults, greatly aided on many                    trình kieåm tra khí thaûi Myõ.
      modern vehicles by the use of an           Feùdeùration Internationale de I’
      in-built diagnostic system and an                Automobile (FIA)                     n.
      engine analyzer: Söï chaån ñoaùn                 international umbrella motoring
      hö hoûng.                                        organization to which national
          fault memory = part of the                   motoring      organizations        are
      electronic control unit and of the               affiliated: Hieäp hoäi oâ toâ quoác teá
      diagnostic system that stores              Feùdeùration Internationale du Sport
      faulty conditions to facilitate                  Automobile (FISA)             n. the
      vehicle diagnosis: Boä nhôù loãi.                international governing body of
         fault reader = device to be                   motor sport: Hieäp hoäi oâ toâ theå
      used in conjunction with the                     thao quoác teá
      vehicle’s diagnostic system,               feed 1 v. to supply (fuel, oil, current,
      providing a read-out of the                      etc. ): Cung caáp, naïp.
      values measured, etc.: Thieát bò                 2 n. supply of fuel, oil, current,
      ñoïc maõ loãi, hö hoûng.                       etc.: Söï cung caáp, naïp.
FE analysis n. = FINITE-ELEMENT                             feed line or pipe = pipe
      ANALYSIS: Giaûi tích phaàn töû                   supplying a liquid or gas :
      höõu haïn                                        Ñöôøng oáng cung caáp.
featheredge        n. border of a repair                  feed pump = pump supplying,
      area to which filler has been                    for example, fuel in regulated
      applied, which has been sanded                   quantities: Bôm nhieân lieäu, bôm
      to merge imperceptibly into the                  cung caáp.
      undamaged area: vuøng sôn daëm                      feedback n. information in
feathering n. very gently pressing                     the from of a signal from a
      on the throttle or brake pedal :                 sensor, which is then used in a
      Ñaïp nheï (vaøo baøn ñaïp ga,                    closed loop system to regulate
      phanh)                                           the     mixture    strength,        for
feather key        n. key with parallel                example: Söï phaûn hoài, hoài tieáp
      faces whose ends may be round                    (trong ñieàu khieån kín)
      or square: Chìa khoùa mieäng.                        feedback carburettor (FIB)
Federal engine          n. US engine                   = carburettor regulated by a
      meeting        Federal   emission                closed loop system providing the
      standards and certified by the                   air/ fuel mixture quality needed


                                           128
feed back control                                                                  field coil

     to operate a catalytic converter:                   viscous coupling differential,
     Boä cheá hoaø khí ñöôïc ñieàu chænh                 37% to the front wheels and 63%
     hoãn hôïp theo chu trình kín                        to the rear wheels : Söï truyeàn
     baèng tín hieäu phaûn hoài.                         ñoäng xe hai caàu kieåu Ferguson.
        feedback control = CLOSED-                 ferrous a. containing iron: Coù chöùa
     LOOP CONTROL : Söï ñieàu                            saét.
     khieån theo chu trình kín.                    festoon bulb n. light bulb in the form
         feeler gauge n. tool with                       of a small glass tube with caps at
     metal feeler blades or wire                         each end providing the contacts :
     feelers of various thicknesses for                  Boùng ñeøn 2 ñaàu caém
     measuring small distances and                 FF headlight n. free-form headlight
     gaps between components, e.g.                       using a free-shape reflector :
     valve clearances or gaps                            Ñeøn ñaàu hình daùng thanh nhaõ.
     between          sparking       plug          F-head engine n. engine design with
     electrodes or contact breaker                       overhead inlet and side exhaust
     points : Côõ laù (ño khe hôû)                       valves : Ñoäng cô coù ñöôøng naïp
         feeler blade = thin blade of                    phía treân vaø ñöôøng thaûi naèm
     spring steel of an exact thickness                  beân hoâng ñoäng cô, ñoäng cô kieåu
     for measuring small gaps or                         F.
     clearances        between      parts,         fibreglass n. material made from
     usually made in sets of various                     fine glass strands matted or
     thicknesses pinned together at                      woven and bonded with a
     one end to form a feeler gauge :                    synthetic resin : Sôïi thuûy tinh.
     Mieáng côõ laù.                                (NOTE: also called glass reinforced
        feeler strip = metal strip of a                  plastic or GRP)
     specific thickness from which                          fibreglass body = body whose
     single feeler blades can be cut,                    shell is moulded in one piece
     appropriate        when     frequent                from fibreglass : Thaân xe ñöôïc
     measuring is required, to avoid                     laøm baèng sôïi thuûy tinh.
     using worn blades : Laù côõ rôøi                       fibre optics n. transmission
female a. fitting inside another part,                   of information in the form of
     usually where two parts form a                      light carried along sheathed
     connection of some kind: Ñaàu                       glass fibres, used in some engine
     caùi (giaéc ñieän).                                 management         systems       and
          female thread = internal                       malfunction warning indicators :
     thread : Ren trong.                                 Sôïi quang
fender n. (a) US = WING : Veø xe.                  field coil n.= FIELD WINDING :
     (b) = BUMPER : Taám chaén.                          Cuoän daây kích töø.
Ferguson          four-wheel        drive                    field terminal (F)       n. the
     (transmission) n. transmission                      input terminal on a dynamo :
     system in which power is                            Cöïc ra cuûa cuoän kích töø (maùy
     distributed through a special                       phaùt)


                                             129
field testing                                                                         filling

           field testing or trial       n.         file    n. flat or rounded tool with a
       testing of a vehicle or component                 rough surface of hardened steel
       in more or less normal use: Söï                   for removing metal with the aim
       thöû nghieäm xe                                   of smoothing or shaping it : Caùi
          field winding n. part which                    giuõa.
       produces a constant-strength                          file card brush = brush with
       magnetic field in an electric                     angled wire bristles for cleaning
       motor or generator, the field core                file threads : Baøn chaûi saét duøng
       being on the stator or the rotor                  laøm saïch giuõa
       depending on the type of motor                         file handle = handle, now
       or generator: Cuoän kích töø                      usually of plastic, which may be
fierceness n. tendency of a clutch to                    attached to the end of a file: Caùn
       engage suddenly so that it is                     giuõa
       difficult to start smoothly from            filler n. (a) paste usually with a
       rest: Giaät khi nhaû ly hôïp                      polyester base which, when
fifth (gear) n. highest ratio in a five-                 mixed with a hardener, forms a
      speed gearbox : Soá 5.                             surface which can be sanded
          fifth wheel n. (a) additional                  smooth and is suitable for repairs
       wheel attached to the rear of a                   to dented or rusted bodywork :
       vehicle being road-tested which                   Ma tít.
       drives a highly accurate speed-                   (NOTE: also called filler paste)
       measuring instrument : Baùnh xe                   (b)= PRIMER FILLER : Chaát
       kieåm tra , baùnh xe thöù naêm.                   traùm loùt.
      (b) in an articulated vehicle, the                 (c) inert material added to paper,
       generally circular pad at the rear                resins, and other substances to
       of the tractor unit on which the                  modify their properties and
       front end of the trailer is                       improve quality; e.g. carbon
       mounted and which is able to                      black used in tyre production :
       turn when a corner is being                       Chaát phuï gia, chaát ñoän
       negotiated : Maâm moùc haäu.                      (d)        orifice into which a
fifty-fifty power split                 n.               liquid such as oil or petrol can be
       arrangement in a four-wheel                       poured : Caùi pheãu, loã chaâm
       drive transmission where equal                    (xaêng, daàu)
       amounts of power are delivered                         filler cap = closure which
       to the front and rear wheels : Söï                covers a filler orifice : Naép bình
       chia ñeàu coâng suaát (truyeàn                    xaêng.
       ñoäng boán baùnh )                                     filler neck = funnel-shaped
filament n. thin, usually tungsten                       part with the filler orifice at its
       wire in a light bulb which                        top end : Coå pheãu.
       becomes incandescent when                             filling n. repairing of holes
       current is passed through it : Daây               or dents in bodywork with filler
       toùc boùng ñeøn                                   paste or body lead: Traùm kín


                                             130
filling station                                                               finish hammer

          filling station n. place where                   vehicles and in the front axle of
       petrol, diesel, oil and other                       front-wheel      drive     vehicles,
       supplies for motorists are sold:                    comprising       essentially     the
       Traïm xaêng daàu, caây xaêng                        differential and crown wheel and
       (NOTE: US English is gas                            pinion, which reduce the speed
       station)                                            of rotation and also change its
fill plug n. small screw-in plug in the                    direction: Truyeàn ñoäng cuoái
       steering box or similar, which is                   cuøng.
       removed for topping up with oil :                      final drive ratio = ratio
       Nuùt chaâm daàu                                     between the rotational speed of
fill up v. to refill the fuel tank : Söï                   the propeller shaft or drive shaft
       ñoå ñaày.                                           and that of the driven road
film n. thin layer or coating : Lôùp                       wheel, the gear reduction being
       maøng moûng (sôn)                                   determined by dividing the
filter n. device for removing dirt or                      number of teeth on the crown
       suspended particles in a liquid or                  wheel or ring gear by the
       in the air : Boä loïc.                              number of teeth on the drive
          filter cartridge or element =                    pinion : Tæ soá truyeàn ñoäng cuoái
       replaceable porous part of some                     cuøng.
       oil and most air filters, made of             fine a. (a)       made of very small
       paper, felt or fine wire mesh :                     particles: Laøm töø haït nhoû mòn
       Ruoät boä loïc, loõi loïc.                          (b) (of a thread) having many
          filter screen = piece of wire                    grooves and ridges close
       mesh in a pipe used to collect                      together: Mòn, nhuyeãn.
       dirt and foreign matter: Taám                 finger      n. narrow projecting part,
       chaén boä loïc.                                     often acting as a lever and
          filter wrench = OIL FILTER                       pivoting at one end or in the
       WRENCH: Khoaù vaën loïc daàu.                       middle and pressing on another
filtration        n. removal of dirt or                    part: Vaáu ngaøm.
       suspended particles from a liquid                       finger-tight     a. tightened
       or the air with the aid of a filter :               only with the fingers, without
       Söï loïc, caùch loïc                                using a spanner: Vaën tay
fin n. projecting thin flat part, such               finish 1 n. general appearance or
       as the cooling fins on an air-                      condition of a surface, either
       cooled cylinder, or the large                       painted or unpainted: Beà maët
       vertical member at the rear of                      tröôùc khi sôn
       some        streamlined      record-                   finish coat = TOP COAT: Lôùp
       breaking cars, intended to aid                      sôn cuoái cuøng.
       directional stability : Caùnh taûn                       finish hammer = hammer
       nhieät, caùnh trao ñoåi nhieät                      used for detail work in shaping a
final drive n. assembly of gears in                        panel after it has been brought
       the back axle of rear-wheel drive                   roughly into the right shape: Buùa


                                               131
finish restorer                                                                          fit

      laøm ñoàng                                        hoûa.
           finish restorer = slightly                      firewall n. = BULKHEAD:
      abrasive polish which cuts back                   Vaùch ngaên.
      and restores the colour and lustre          firing      n. process of igniting the
      of dull and oxidized finishes:                    mixture in the combustion
      Ñaùnh boùng.                                      chamber: Söï ñaùnh löûa, söï ñoát
finishing enamel or paint = paint for                   chaùy.
      the top coat of a painting system:                     firing end = part of the
      Lôùp sôn cuoái cuøng.                             sparking plug extending into the
finite-element analysis or FE                           combustion chamber: Ñaàu ñieän
      analysis n. reduction of a                        cöïc bougie.
      complex structure to its basic                        firing order = sequence of
      component parts so that these                     igniting the air/ fuel mixture in
      can be studied in a computer,                     the cylinders of a multi-cylinder
      especially in a CAD (computer-                    engine: Thöù töï ñaùnh löûa.
      aided design) process: Söï phaân                       firing stroke = POWER
      tích theo phöông phaùp phaàn töû                  STROKE: Thì sinh coâng.
      höõu haïn.                                  First-aid kit        n. box containing
finning n. arrangement of fins on a                     bandages, antiseptic ointment
      surface to aid cooling by                         and      other     basic    medical
      improving the heat transfer rate,                 requirements        for     treating
      typical found on air-cooled                       injuries: Hoäp sô caáp cöùu.
      engines: Boá trí caùnh taûn nhieät.                  first (gear) n. lowest gear
fire v. (a) to start to run: Khôûi ñoäng.               available in the gearbox, which
      (b)      to ignite (the mixture):                 in fact gives the highest ratio of
      Chaùy, boác chaùy.                                engine speed to road speed, and
          fire applicance n. = FIRE                     consequently the highest torque
      ENGINE: Xe cöùu hoûa.                             at the driven wheels, and so is
         fireball combustion chamber                    used for starting and climbing
      n. combustion chamber design                      very steep hills: Soá 1, soá chaäm
      developed by the Swiss engineer                   nhaát vaø maïnh nhaát.
      May and introduced on Jaguar’s              fit 1 n. way in which two parts come
      V-12 engine in 1981: Buoàng                       together, with varying degrees of
      chaùy daïng caàu.                                 tightness: Söï laép raùp, söï gaén
           fire engine       n. vehicle                 vöøa, söï thích hôïp.
      equipped for fire-fighting with                      clearance or sliding fit = parts
      ladders, pumps, hoses, etc.: Xe                   assembled so that there is
      cöùu hoûa.                                        clearance between them or so
         fire extinguisher n. cylinder                  that one can slide in the other:
      which can spray powder , foam                     Ñoä hôû phuø hôïp.
      or a liquid onto a fire to put it                 2 v. to fix or put into place: Laép
      out: Maùy chöõa löûa, bình cöùu                   vaøo, aên khôùp.


                                            132
fittings                                                                      flame front

        fittings n. small ancillary                     phanh coá ñònh.
     parts for a particular system such                     fixed-choke carburettor n.
     as fuel lines: Caùc chi tieát nhoû.                carburettor in which the size of
five-cylinder engine n. engine with                     the venturi or choke tube is
     five     cylinders,         a   rate               fixed, synonymous in practice
     configuration because of the                       with fixed-jet carburettor: Boä
     problems of balance: Ñoäng cô 5                    cheá hoøa khí coù hoïng khueách
     xylanh.                                            taùn khoâng thay ñoåi.
        five-door       a. body design                      fixed contact n. stationary
     typical of estate cars and most                    point in a contact breaker : Vít
     hatchbacks, with four side doors                   ñe.
     and a tailgate: Xe 5 cöûa.                               fixed head         n.    non-
        five-link rear suspension n.                    removable cylinder head, cast in
     independent rear suspension                        one piece with the cylinder
     layout also used on live rear                      block; found in early internal
     axles, in which each wheel is                      combustion engines: Naép quy
     guided by two trailing links, two                  laùt coá ñònh (dính lieàn vôùi loác
     transverse links and a common                      maùy)
     track rod: Heä thoáng treo sau 5                        fixed-jet carburettor        n.
     thanh noái.                                        most        common      type      of
           five-speed gearbox or                        carburettor, in which the jets and
     transmission n. gearbox with                       the choke are of a fixed size: Boä
     five forward speeds, the highest                   cheá hoøa khí vôùi loã tia khoâng
     of which usually functions more                    ñoåi.
     as an overdrive for high-speed                     (NOTE: opposite is variable-jet
     cruising: Hoäp soá 5 toác ñoä.                     carburettor)
        five-valve head n. cylinder               flag down v. to stop (a vehicle) with
     head with five valves per                          a hand signal in an emergency:
     cylinder, usually three inlet                      Vaãy tay döøng xe
     valves and two exhaust valves:               flagship model n. prestige model,
     Naép quy laùt vôùi 5 xuù paùp.                     the       top    model      of     a
     fixed-caliper disc brake n. disc                   manufacturer’s range: Kieåu xe
     brake with a caliper which                         haøng ñaàu, kieåu xe haïng nhaát.
     cannot move, the caliper                     flake (off) v. (of paint) to come or
     consisting of two halves which                     peel off in thin pieces (flakes):
     are bolted together and contain                    Bong troùc ra.
     at least one cylinder and piston                       flaking    n. tendency of a
     each: Boä keïp phanh ñóa coá                       paint film to lift away from the
     ñònh.                                              underlying surface: Söï boâng
        fixed-cam brake n. drum                         troùc.
     brake in which the cam is rigidly             flame front         n.    edge of the
     mounted in the backplate: Cam                      combustion flame spreading


                                            133
flame glow plug                                                               flash point

      from the sparking plug, which                     Thieát bò taïo vaáu.
      should move in a controlled                  flank n. (a) side of a screw thread,
      pattern across the cylinder,                      rising from the bottom of the
      rather than simply exploding                      groove to the top of the ridge:
      immediately: Maøng löûa                           Phía beân hoâng ren vít
          flame glow plug n. glow                       (b) one of the two flat parts of
      plug that preheats the intake air                  the face of a cam: Maët beân
      by burning a small quantity of                    hoâng cam
      precisely metered fuel: Bougie              flap n. flat piece of material attached
      xoâng maùy ñoát daàu ñeå haâm noùng               along one side, often by a hinge
      khí naïp.                                         and thus forming a small door for
           flame trap        n. device                  shutting off an aperture: Caùi
      consisting of a valve or similar,                 naép.
      preventing the escape of ignited                      flaring tool n. tool used to
      blowback gases, usually located                   spread or form flares on pipe or
      in the hose or pipe leading from                  tubing ends, for example, when
      the crankcase to the inlet tract:                 servicing brake, fuel and cooling
      Van choáng khí chaùy                              systems on vehicles: Duïng cuï
flange n. flat outside edge or rim of                   loe oáng.
      a part, by which it is often                flash v. (a) to use one’s direction
      attached to another part: Meùp                    indicator: Laøm nhaáp nhaùy.
      nieàng, vaønh baùnh xe.                              (b) to switch one’s headlights
           flange bolt = bolt with a                    on and off quickly: Chôùp pha
      flanged head: Buloâng ñaàu coù gôø.         flashback n. = BLOWBACK : Noå
            flange joint = coupling                     doäi.
      between two shafts formed of                         flasher n. flashing direction
      two disc-shaped flanges on the                    indicator: Cuïc chôùp.
      ends of the shafts which are                            flasher unit = electronic
      bolted to one another: Khôùp noái                 switch apparatus controlling the
      voøng khuyeát.                                    operation of the direction
          flange-type puller = puller                   indicators, including their rate of
      with legs that fit behind a flange                flash; self-cancelling when the
      on a hub or similar: Caõo nhieàu                  steering wheel is returned to the
      chaân                                             straight-ahead position: Cuïc
 flanged a. with flanges: Coù gôø, coù                  chôùp ñieän töû.
      bích, coù meùp.                                        flashover     n. HT current
           flanged head = bolt head                     which short-circuits over the
      under which is a flange: Ñaàu                     exterior portion of the sparking
      buloâng coù maët bích.                            plug insulator: Söï ñaùnh thuûng
         flanger n. tool for making a                   lôùp caùch ñieän (bougie)
      flange: Maùy gaáp meùp.                                 flash point      n.    lowest
         panel flanger see JOGGLER:                     temperature at which vapours


                                            134
flash time                                                          flex arm suspension

      from a volatile fuel will ignite                  noåi baèng treân nieàng xe.
      momentarily on the application              flat seat n. seat of a sparking plug
      of a small flame under specified                  which is sealed by means of a
      conditions: Nhieät ñoä chaùy thaáp                gasket: Bougie ñeá baèng (coù loâng
      nhaát                                             ñeàn)
         flash time n. time required                       flat spot n. (a) point during
      for most of the solvent to escape                 acceleration at which the engine
      from a freshly applied paint coat:                hesitates and stops accelerating
      Thôøi gian khoâ sôn                                for an instant : Ñieåm giaät khi
flat 1 a. (a) (of battery) completely                   taêng toác (ñoäng cô)
      discharged, so that it cannot turn                (b) flattened area on a tyre
      the engine and the lights are at                  (especially a racing tyre), usually
      best very dim: Heát ñieän.                        caused by a locking brake: Veát
            (b) (of tyre) completely                    moøn phaúng (voû xe)
      deflated, especially as the result                   flat tappet n. tappet with a
      of a puncture or a leaky valve:                   flat contact surface towards the
      Loáp xì hôi, loáp beïp                            cam lobe: Con ñoäi thuyû löïc coù
         flat file n. tapered file cut on               maët tieáp xuùc vôùi cam phaúng
      all faces and with rectangular                        flat-tip screwdriver n. =
      cross section, for shaping metal:                 flatbladed screwdriver: Tuoác nô
      Caùi giuõa baèng (daïng tieátdieän                vít deïp
      chöõ nhaät)                                            flat-top (ped) piston        n.
          flat hump       n. raised and                 piston with a crown which is flat
      flattened portion on the bead                     and not domed: Piston ñaàu
      seat of some wheel rims which                     baèng.
      retains the beads of an                              flat washer n. plain washer
      insufficiently inflated tyre on the               (as opposed to a locking or
      bead seat, thereby preventing                     spring washer): Long ñeàn deïp,
      the tyre beads from jumping into                  voøng ñeäm deïp
      the rim well: Gôø noåi baèng treân          flaw n. = DEFECT: Veát nöùt , veát
      nieàng xe.                                        raïn.
         flat-nose(d) pliers n. most              fleet n. all the vehicles owned by a
      common type of pliers in which                    company or other organization:
      the ends of the jaws are cut off                  Ñoaøn xe, ñoäi xe (cuûa 1 cô quan)
      short: Kìm moû baèng.                                fleet car = car belonging to a
flat pente n. raised portion on the                     company fleet, typically one
      bead seat of some wheel rims                      driven by a sales representative
      which retains the tyre beads of                   which has done a high mileage:
      an insufficiently inflated tyre on                Xe cô quan
      the      bead      seat,    thereby         flex arm suspension n. rear axle
      preventing the beads from                         design with torsionally flexible
      jumping into the rim well: Gôø                    axle beam in line with the rear


                                            135
flexibility                                                                           floating

      wheels and trailing links: Heä                        for use with sockets, its length
      thoáng treo sau lieân keát meàm.                      giving good leverage and its
 flexibility     n. (a) elasticity of a                     ability to bend giving access to
      material: Tính deûo cuûa vaät chaát                   difficult locations: Caàn sieát
      (b) ability of an engine to go                        meàm
      down to low speeds in a high                    flexural a. referring to bending: Uoán
      gear and pull away smoothly                           khuùc, cong
      without changing down, which is                          flexural shock = sharp shock
      governed        mainly      by      its                when bending, which can break
      torquecharacteristics: Khaû naêng                     plastics: Cuù va chaïm maïnh.
      chaïy toác ñoä thaáp ôû tay soá cao.            flexure n. bending : Choã uoán cong
flexible a. (a) able to bend without                  flip-top filler cap n. quick-release
      breaking: Meàm, deûo, deã uoán                        filler cap, as fitted to some sports
           flexible brake pipe = pipe                       and racing cars: Naép bình xaêng
      connecting the wheel cylinder to                      loaïi baät leân.
      the rest of the system, which has               flitch plate n. reinforcing plate for
      to flex to allow for the up and                       chassis members or wheel
      down movement of the wheel:                           arches: Taám gia coá thaân xe
      OÁng daãn daàu phanh meàm                       float n. hollow metal or plastic body
      (b) (of an engine) able to go                         that floats on a liquid and
      down to low speeds in a high                          operates a valve or a rheostat, as
      gear and pull away smoothly:                          in a carburettor, where it is used
      Khaû naêng chaïy toác ñoä thaáp ôû                    to maintain the correct fuel level,
      tay soá cao.                                          or in a fuel for the fuel gauge:
          flexible coupling n. simple                       Caùi phao.
      shaft coupling used where only                            float chamber or US float
      small angles of misalignment                          bowl = circular reservoir for
      between the two shafts occur, as                      petrol forming part of a
      in a steering column, the drive                       carburettor, in which a float
      being transmitted either by                           maintains the desired level by
      tension-stressed fabric discs or                      rising as the level of the fuel
      pressurized rubber blocks: Khôùp                      rises and closing the needle
      noái meàm.                                            valve in the float chamber cover
           flexible drive        n. drive                   to shut off the supply: Bình giöõ
      consisting of a cable in an outer                     möïc, buoàng phao.
      sheath, used for mainly light                             float needle = needle in the
      applications          such           as               needle valve which rises with
      speedometers, rev counters and                        the float and shuts off the fuel
      windscreen wipers: Söï truyeàn                        supply when it reaches its seat:
      ñoäng baèng daây caùp meàm.                           Kim phao.
          flexible (drive) handle          n.                   floating      a. free to move
      drive-handle with pivoting head                       (within prescribed limits): Di


                                                136
floating-caliper disc brake                                  fluid clutch or fluid coupling

     chuyeån töï do (trong giôùi haïn)             flow    n. passing of liquid or current
         floating-caliper disc brake =                   through something, also the
     disc brake with a single piston, in                 amount conveyed: Doøng, luoàng,
     which the caliper itself can move                   löu löôïng.
     to bring both pads into contact                         flow control = regulation of
     with the disc: Boä keïp phanh ñóa                   the amount of fluid passing
     di ñoäng.                                           through a pump, especially
        floating frame = frame which                     important      under       changing
     holds the cylinder assembly and                     operating conditions: Söï ñieàu
     is supported by the mounting                        khieån löu löôïng.
     frame, usually made of heavy-                           flow detachment = deviation
     gauge sheet steel: Khung ñoäng                      of the gas flow into the cylinder
     treo                                                from its ideal path, thus losing its
              floating       piston      =               stability, caused by swirl and/ or
     SECONDARY PISTON: Piston                            improper combustion chamber
     soá 2 (trong xylanh phanh                           design etc.:      Söï laøm treäch
     chính).                                             höôùng doøng chaûy.
flood v. to allow too much fuel to                   flow rate = amount of liquid
     enter (the carburettor, the                         conveyed by a pump per unit of
     engine): Traøn xaêng                                time: Toác ñoä doøng chaûy, löu
flooded engine = engine in which too                     löôïng bôm
     much fuel has been drawn into                              flowmeter        n.    meter
     the cylinders during attempted                      indicating the amount of liquid
     starting so that ignition is no                     passing through, used for
     longer possible: Ñoäng cô bò                        instance to supply information to
     ngoäp xaêng.                                        a fuel consumption indicator:
floor n. flat base panel of a vehicle:                   Löu löôïng keá, löu toác keá.
     Saøn xe.                                      fluid n. substance which flows, e.g. a
           floor (gear) change =                         liquid or a gas: Chaát loûng.
     gearchange with the gear lever                          fluid capacities = amounts of
     mounted on the floor: Caàn sang                     oil, water and fuel required to fill
     soá ñaët treân saøn xe                              the sump, gearbox, axle,
         floor mat = additional loose                    radiator, fuel tank, etc: Dung
     rubber or carpeting mat on the                      tích bình chöùa (xaêng, daàu hoäp
     car floor: Thaûm loùt saøn.                         soá)
     US        floor shift = FLOOR                          fluid clutch or fluid coupling
     (GEAR) CHANGE                                       = hydraulically acting coupling
          floorpan        n.     generally               by which power can be
     synonymous with floor, but can                      transmitted, used as an automatic
     mean the whole platform on                          clutch with a driving and a
     which the body is built up: Saøn                    driven rotor revolving in oil
     xe.                                                 which acts as the transmission


                                             137
fluid flywheel                                                      Foettinger coupling

      medium: Ly hôïp thuûy löïc, khôùp                outwards by centrifugal force as
      noái thuûy löïc.                                 speed increases: Quaû vaêng,
         fluid flywheel = kind of fluid                troïng löôïng ly taâm
      coupling in which the flywheel is                    flywheel       n. heavy metal
      the driving rotor: Baùnh ñaø daãn                wheel that is attached to the
      ñoäng baèng thuûy löïc.                          crankshaft and rotates with it,
         fluid level warning indicator                 helping to smooth out the power
      = warning light on the instrument                surges from the engine power
      panel which comes on when the                    strokes and serving as a
      level of hydraulic fluid in the                  mounting for the clutch: Baùnh
      braking system is too low: Ñeøn                  ña.
      chæ baùo möïc daàu thaéng                           flywheel generator = small
flush 1 a. level with the surrounding                   alternator of the rotating magnet
      surface:Ngang        baèng,   baèng              type attached to one end of the
      phaúng.                                          crankshaft and spinning with it,
            flush-mounted speaker =                    acting as an additional flywheel;
      speaker mounted in a cutout in                   now only used in mopeds or
      the interior trim so that it does                scooters: Voâ laêng töø gaén treân
      not project out: Loa ñöôïc laép                  xe maùy.
      chìm.                                               flywheel magneto = magneto
      (NOTE: opposite is surface-                      mounted in the flywheel of a
      mounted speaker)                                 small engine, often a two-stroke:
       2 v. to clean out (the engine,                  Voâ laêng töø.
      gearbox, radiator, etc. )        by                    flywheel ring gear =
      running a special liquid through                 STARTER RING GEAR: Voøng
      it: Laøm saïch baèng caùch phun                  raêng baùnh ñaø.
      chaát loûng                                         flywheel turner = special tool
           flushing oil = thin oil for                 used for hand cranking of the
      cleaning out the sump, oil ways,                 engine while working on
      etc: Daàu laøm saïch.                            clutches, gearbox, etc. or doing
flux n. chemical used in soldering                     jobs that require the crankshaft
      and       welding     to    prevent              to be in a specific position;
      oxidizing: Chaát cho vaøo khi                    consists of a handle and lever to
      haøn ñeå choáng oxi hoaù                         hook into the starter ring teeth:
flylead n. short lead with a terminal                  Duïng cuï quay baùnh ñaø.
      at the end fitted to a component            FM = FREQUENCY MODULATION:
      as supplied: Ñaàu noái.                          Soùng FM ( radio)
          fly nut n. = WING NUT:                  foaming n. formation of bubbles in
      Ñai oác coù caùnh (oác böôùm)                    the oil of a gearbox, back axle or
         flyweight n. weight such as                   shock absorber, etc: Söï taïo boït,
      that in a centrifugal advance                    söï noåi boït (cuûa daàu)
      mechanism which is thrown                   Foettinger coupling n. torque-


                                            138
fog lamp                                                                           Ford

      converting       fluid    coupling               foot.
      Foettinger:      Khôùp noái kieåu                    foot pump       n. tyre pump
      Foetting.                                        operated by the foot: Caùi bôm
fog lamp n. (a) (mounted at the                        xe ñaïp chaân
      front) lamp giving a wide low                        footwell     n. recess in the
      beam which penetrates fog, rain,                 floor below the feet of the rear
      etc. and illuminates the sides of                seat occupants, but may also be
      the road: Ñeøn söông muø phía                    used for the space used by the
      tröôùc.                                          feet of people in the front of
      (b) (mounted at the rear) red                    seats: Choå ñeå chaân.
      light of the same intensity as a            force n. any push or pull exerted on
      brake light: Ñeøn söông muø sau                  an object, measured in newtons
      phía sau.                                        (N) in the SI (international
folding rear seats n. rear seats in a                  system of units), although usage
      hatchback or estate car which                    of the superseded units based on
      fold forwards into the footwells                 feet, pounds and ounces is still
      to give a more or less flat                      frequent: Löïc, söùc.
      loading area: Gheá xeáp phía sau.           forced circulation n. cooling system
    folding top       n. soft top of a                 in which a pump is used to
      convertible which can be folded                  circulate the coolant: Söï tuaàn
      away: Mui xeáp.                                  hoaøn cöôõng böùc, chuyeån ñoäng
follow-up spark n. secondary spark                     cöôõng böùc (laøm maùt)
      occurring when a spark is                            forced downshift n. US =
      extinguished and reignited in the                KICK-DOWN
      course of the spark duration,                        forced-feed lubrication n.
      especially if the mixture is                     lubrication system as used in all
      turbulent: Tia löûa phuï (tieáp                  modern four-stroke engines, in
      theo löûa chính)                                 which an engine-drive pump
foot brake n. main braking system                      forces the oil through external
      operated by the foot pedal:                      pipes, to the main areas of stress
      Phanh chaân.                                     in the engine: Söï boâi trôn
         foot pedal = pedal on the floor               cöôõng böùc.
      in front of the driver, especially          forced-induction system n. system in
      the brake pedal: Baøn ñaïp                       which either a conventional
          footprint n. = CONTACT                       supercharger or a turbocharger,
      PATCH: Veát tieáp xuùc                           or even a combination of both, is
         foot-pound (force) n. unit of                 used to increase intake pressure
      work or energy in the old fps                    and force the mixture into the
      system equal to the force needle                 cylinders: Heä thoáng naïp cöôõng
      to move one pound through one                    böùc (taêng aùp)
      foot: Ñôn vò tính coâng cuûa moät           force fit n. = PRESS FIT
      löïc ñeå di chuyeån 1 pound suoát 1         Ford      n.   second      largest  car


                                            139
Ford-type lug                                               four-link rear suspension

     manufacturer in the world (after                desired shape is produced by
     GM): Haõng xe Ford.                             hammering: Caùc ñe goã (laøm
        Ford-type lug or terminal =                  ñoàng xe)
     special      type   of    battery          formula       n. detailed specification,
     connection consisting of a flat                 e.g. for a particular class of
     lug with nut and bolt between the               motor racing: Coâng thöùc, theå
     battery cables and terminal                     thöùc
     posts: Ñaàu cöïc aéc quy kieåu                         Formula      1 = formula
     Ford.                                           according to which racing cars
     fore and aft adjustment         n.              are built for the major Grand
     ability to move, for example, a                 Prix races counting for the World
     seat forwards and backwards:                    Championship: Xe ñua theå thöùc
     Khaû naêng ñieâu chænh chaïy tôùi                1.
     hoaëc lui (gheá) ñieàu chænh tôùi          Fottinger       coupling             see
     tröôùc vaø sau.                                 FOETTINGER
forge v. to shape (metal) when hot              foul     v. (a) to clog or cover (a
     by hammering or similar                         sparking plug) with deposits:
     mechanical action: Reøn kim loaïi               Ñoùng muoäi than (bougie)
        forging n. piece of forged                   (b) to get in the way of obstruct
     metal: Kim loaïi reøn                           (another part): Bò taéc ngheõn,
forked a. with one end in the shape                  caûn
     of a Y: Caùi nóa, caùi chóa, hình          four-cycle        a.   US    = FOUR-
     chaïc.                                          STROKE: Boán kyø.
       forked con rod = special split                      four-cylinder engine       n.
     con rod to take two pistons for                 typical engine type used in most
     uniflow-scavenging two-stroke                   small to medium-size cars and
     engines with two pistons per                    commercial vehicles, and in
     cylinder: Thanh truyeàn hình                    some large and powerful
     chöõ Y.                                         motorcycles: Ñoäng cô boán
        forked rocker (arm) = rocker                 xylanh.
     arm operating two valves with its                    four-door     a. having two
     forked end: Coø moå suùpaùp hình                doors on each side, the typical
     chaïc, hình chöõ Y                              layout for family saloons and
         fork-lift truck     n. small                exective cars: Loaïi xe hôi boán
     vehicle used for loading in                     cöûa.
     factories, warehouses, docks,                       four-link rear suspension n.
     etc., with two arms at the front                independent rear suspension
     projecting forwards which fit into              layout, also used on live rear
     pallets and can be raised                       axle, in which each wheel is
     lowered: Xe naâng haøng.                        guided by two control arms, one
former n. shaped wooden block for                    mounted longitudinally, the other
     use in panel beating, on which a                mounted transversely or almost


                                          140
four-spark ignition coil                                                   frame gauge

     transversely, thus providing                    FWD) n. layout in which all
     lateral location for the axle: Heä              four wheels are driven , giving
     thoáng treo sau vôùi 4 thanh noái.              better traction on slippery
         four-spark ignition coil n.                 surfaces such as mud or grass,
     ignition coil with two primary                  making it ideal for off-road
     windings and one secondary                      vehicles and also giving better
     winding: Boâbin vôùi hai cuoän sô               adhesion and handling for road
     vaø moät cuoän thöù vôùi diod cao               use: Xe boán baùnh chuû ñoäng, xe
     aùp ñeå ñaùnh löûa 4 xy lanh                    hai caàu chuû ñoäng.
            four-speed gearbox or                          four-wheel drive with
     transmission n. gearbox with                    constant or fixed power
     four forward speeds: Hoäp soá 4                 distribution = layout in which
     toác ñoä.                                       the amount of power delivered to
        four-stroke orUS four-cycle                  the front and rear wheels
     a. operating in accordance with                 respectively cannot be varied: 4
     the four-stroke cycle: Boán thì.                baùnh chuû ñoäng vôùi söï phaân
        four-stroke cycle = operating                phoái coâng suaát khoâng ñoåi
     principle of most spark ignition                     four-wheel steering          n.
     and diesel engines, the four                    steering system which steers the
     strokes which complete the cycle                rear as well as the front wheels:
     being: induction, compression,                  Heä thoáng laùi 4 baùnh.
     power, and exhaust stroke: Chu              FPS or fps (short for) foot-pound-
     kyø ñoäng cô 4 thì.                             second
     (NOTE: compare two-stroke                          FPS system = former imperial
     cycle)                                          system of units, superseded by
        fourth (gear) n. highest gear                the SI system FPS: Heä thoáng
     in a four-speed gearbox, and                    ñôn vò ño löôøng FPS.
     second highest in a five-speed              frame n. structure which is open in
     gearbox: Soá 4.                                 the centre, especially a general
         four-valve       a. (engine or              term referring to the underbody
     cylinder head) with two inlet and               backbone of the car, both for
     two exhaust valves per cylinder                 unitary or separate chassis
     and any number of cylinders:                    designs: Khung xe.
     Boán xuù paùp.                                      frame damage = type of
           four-wheel drift           n.             damage to the body that involves
     cornering technique used in                     damage       to    the    structural
     motor racing in which the car                   members of the car, usually
     takes the corner in an                          resulting from accident impact:
     intentionally induced sideways                  Söï hö hoûng khung xe (do ñuïng)
     slide: Tröôït boán baùnh khi quay                   frame gauge = measuring
     voøng                                           instrument for determining car
        four-wheel drive (4WD or                     body misalignment: Thieát bò ño


                                           141
frameless                                                              frequency valve

     söï leäch khung xe                              tröôùc
          frameless     a. having no            frenching n. shaping the surrounds
     frame: Khoâng coù khung.                        of headlights, tail lights, number
           frameless construction =                  plate frames, etc. into a smooth
     unitary construction: Caáu truùc                contour when customizing, so
     khoâng khung, khoâng giaøn, caáu                that the actual lights, etc. recede
     truùc ñôn nhaát.                                a little towards the interior of the
         frameless window = window                   panel aperture and the chrome
     in an opening door which is not                 bezel or other surround looks as
     entirely surrounded by a frame:                 though it is part of the body
     Cöûa kính khoâng khung.                         panel: Ñöôøng vieàn, ñöôøng bao.
         frame member n. any box-               Freon-12 (R-12) n. refrigerant used
     section member which forms part                  in air conditioners: Chaát laøm
     of the structural components of                 laïnh R-12
     the vehicle chassis: Thanh noái            frequency n. in relation to a radio
     khung xe.                                       station, number of cycles per
          frame structure        n. all              second expressed in hertz at
     structural parts of the car which               which it broadcasts: Taàn soá.
     contribute to the rigidity of the          frequency modulation (FM) = system
     body, both for unitary designs                  of broad-casting using VHF:
     and for cars with a separate                    Soùng FM (radio)
     chassis: Keát caáu khung xe.               frequency range = BANDWIDTH:
franchised dealer              n.     =              Ñoä roäng baêng taàn, daõi ñaøi
     AUTHORIZED DEALER: Ñaïi                         (radio)
     lyù uûy quyeàn mua baùn.                   frequency scan button = button
freeway        n. American type of                   which, when pressed, causes the
     multiple-lane motorway without                  tuner to scan the frequencies of
     toll charges, with over-passes or               the preset waveband for stations
     underpasses at all intersections                with sufficient signal strength:
     and with fully controlled access                Nuùt raø, queùt taàn soá.
     for intersecting roads, and a                       frequency valve n. valve
     speed limit of typically 60 mph:                fitted in the fuel distributor of
     Ñöôøng cao toác, xa loä.                        some vehicles with a continuous
        freewheel (ing) hub n. type                  injection system and catalytic
     of hub fitted to the front axle of              converter, which continually
     some four wheel drive vehicles,                 adjusts the air/fuel ratio to
     in which the drive to the front                 varying       engine      operating
     wheels can be disconnected                      conditions, being controlled by a
     when the front axle is not being                voltage signal supplied by the
     driven: Loaïi truïc baùnh xe trong              oxygen sensor and by an ECM:
     truyeàn ñoäng 4 baùnh cho pheùp                 Van ñieàu chænh tyû leä hoaø khí
     khoâng truyeàn ñoäng ñeán caàu                  (phun K)


                                          142
fretting corrosion                                        front-axle and rear-axle split

fretting corrosion         n. corrosion                discs are inserted at the point
      occurring where two surfaces are                 where the two arms are joined,
      in contact and friction results,                 now no longer used in car
      e.g. at mechanical joints in                     suspensions: Boä giaûm xoùc kieåu
      vibrating structures: Söï aên moøn               ma saùt.
      do tieáp xuùc.                                      friction welding n. welding
friction n. force which opposes the                    process in which two surfaces
      relative motion of two bodies:                   are heated by means of friction;
      Söï ma saùt                                      when melting has occurred at the
          frictional a. caused by the                  interface, pressure is maintained
      friction between moving parts:                   to consolidate the weld during
      Do ma saùt.                                      cooling of the material: Kyõ
         friction bearing n. = PLAIN                   thuaät haøn ma saùt.
      BEARING                                     frogeye n. (informal) nickname for
             friction clutch           n.              the Series 1 Austin-Healey
      conventional clutch transmitting                 Sprite produced from 1858-1962,
      drive by mechanical friction, as                 which had the headlamps
      opposed to a fluid coupling: Ly                  projecting above the bonnet line:
      hôïp ma saùt.                                    Xe coù ñeøn ñaàu kieåu maét eách.
            friction damper        n. =           front n. (a) front seats of a car: Phía
      FRICTION                  SHOCK                  tröôùc.
      ABSORBER: Boä giaûm xoùc kieåu                   (b) = FRONT END
      ma saùt.                                            frontal crash or impact n. =
           friction horsepower (FHP)                   FRONT-END IMPACT: Söï va
      n. power consumed by frictional                  chaïm phaàn ñaàu xe.
      losses: Coâng suaát tieâu hao do                    front apron n. panel behind
      ma saùt                                          and below the front bumper,
           friction lining    n. wear-                 joining the bottom ends of the
      resistant friction material used                 front wings:      Taám chaén phía
      for clutch and brake linings: Lôùp               tröôùc.
      boá                                                 front axle n. axle to which
          friction losses    n. loss of                the front wheels are attached:
      power due to friction between                    Caàu tröôùc.
      the moving parts of the engine:                      front-axle/ rear-axle split =
      Toån hao coâng suaát do ma saùt                  dual-circuit braking system in
          friction pad n. = BRAKE                      which one circuit brakes the
      PAD: Boá phanh                                   front axle only, the other circuit
         friction plate n. driven plate                brakes the rear axle only: Phanh
      of a clutch to which the friction                ñöôïc phaân chia 2 maïch cho caàu
      lining is attached: Ñóa ma saùt.                 tröôùc vaø caàu sau.
          friction shock absorber n.                      front-axle and rear-axle split
      shock absorber in which friction                 = dual-circuit braking system in


                                            143
front bumper                                          front-wheel drive (FWD)

    which each circuit brakes both                  front panel n. panel joining
    the front axle and the rear axle:           the front wings and forming a
    Söï phaân chia maïch daàu cho caû           mounting for the headlamps,
    hai caàu (phanh)                            grille and air ducts into the
        front bumper       n. bumper            engine compartment, which is
    protecting the front of the                 often identical with the front
    vehicle, combined in modern                 apron where no separate apron is
    cars with a front spoiler or air            fitted below the front panel:
    dam: Thanh caûn phía tröôùc.                Phaàn khung tröôùc ñaàu xe
          front differential         n.            front pillar n. = A-PILLAR:
    differential in the front axle of a         Coät truï ngieâng phía tröôùc cuûa
    four-wheel drive vehicle: Boä vi             khung cöûa tröôùc.
    sai phía tröôùc (4WD)                           front pipe n. first section of
       front disc/ rear drum brakes             the exhaust system from the
    n. typical brake system layout in           exhaust manifold to the silencer
    less expensive cars: Loaïi phanh            (or front silencer where there are
    troáng baùnh sau, phanh ñóa                 two): OÁng giaûm aâm phía tröôùc.
    baùnh tröôùc.                                  front seat n. seat in the front
        front end      n. body area             of the passenger cabin for the
    incorporating the leading edge of           front seat passenger: Gheá tröôùc
    the wings, the head-lights,                   the front seats = the front
    radiator grille and bumper, i.e.            passenger’s and driver’s seats:
    the full area that makes up the             Gheá tröôùc.
    frontal appearance of the car:                  front silencer n. first and
    Ñaàu xe                                     main silencer in an exhaust
       front-end impact = impact as             system where there are two: Boä
    the result of a head-on collision:          giaûm aâm phía tröôùc.
    Söï va chaïm phaàn ñaàu xe                     front spoiler n. air deflector
        front engine       n. engine            on the front of a car,
    located at the front of a vehicle           aerodynamically designed to cut
    above the front suspension, the             the wind resistance around the
    most common layout, which may               car, for improved handling
    be combined with either rear-               control, stability, traction, and
    wheel or front-wheel drive:                 better fuel economy: Taám ñieàu
    Ñoäng cô ñaët phía tröôùc.                  chænh ñoä ngaång phía tröôùc.
       front nose section n. front                    front suspension            n.
    section of car bodies that use one          assembly of linkages and springs
    single structure to make up the             supporting the front wheels: Heä
    front end, i.e. including the               thoáng treo phía tröôùc.
    radiator grille surround, both                 front-wheel drive (FWD) n.
    wings, front apron, etc.: Phaàn             configuration in which the drive
    phía tröôùc ñaàu xe.                        is taken from the engine to the


                                          144
fsh                                                                            fuel filter

      front wheels, which propel the                     fuel consumption n. amount
      vehicle: Xe caàu tröôùc chuû ñoäng.             of fuel used, expressed in miles
fsh      (in advertisement) = FULL                    per gallon in Britain and the
      SERVICE HISTORY                                 USA, whereas the international
FTP         =      FEDERAL            TEST            measure is litres per 100
      PROCEDURE: Quy trình kieåm                      kilometres: Löôïng nhieân lieäu
      tra xe lieân bang.                              tieâu hao
FTP test cycle = method of testing                    (NOTE: US English is fuel
      automotive         emissions        for         mileage)
      compliance with             emission               fuel consumption indicator =
      standards by simulating typical                 instrument using a flowmeter to
      driving conditions – which                      indicate mpg at any given
      differs from other test cycles                  moment on a journey: Ñoàng hoà
      such as the European ECE test,                  baùo möùc tieâu hao nhieân lieäu.
      so that the results cannot be                       fuel cut-off switch       n. =
      compared: Chu kyø kieåm tra lieân               FUEL        PUMP       (SHUT-OFF)
      bang.                                           SWITCH: Coâng taéc ngaét nhieân
fuel n. substance burned as a source                  lieäu.
      of heat of power, that used in an                   fuel distributor n. device
      engine being a liquid or a gas:                 constituting the mixture control
      Nhieân lieäu.                                   unit together with the airflow
fuel accumulator n. device in the K-                  sensor: Boä phaân phoái nhieân
      Jetronic fuel injection system                  lieäu, boä chia xaêng (kieåu K)
      which serves to absorb the initial                  fuel economy n. = FUEL
      pressure surge when a fuel pump                 CONSUMPTION: Tính kinh teá
      starts: Boä tích luõy nhieân lieäu, boä         nhieân lieäu.
      tích naêng (phun K)                                 fuel filler flap n. usually
fuel additive n. preparation added to                 locking flap which has to be
      fuel to improve its properties:                 opened to gain access to the fuel
      Chaát phuï gia theâm vaøo trong                 cap: Naép khoùa choã ñoå xaêng daàu
      nhieân lieäu.                                      fuel filler neck = upper end of
         fuel cap n. cap on the top of                the fuel filler tube leading down
      the tube leading to the fuel tank:              to the fuel tank, which accepts
      Naép bình nhieân lieäu.                         the fuel hose nozzle at the filling
          fuel charge        n. air/ fuel             station: Coå oáng ñoå nhieân lieäu
      mixture       delivered     to     the          (töø caây xaêng)
      combustion chamber: Söï naïp                       fuel filler tube = tube leading
      hoøa khí                                        down to the fuel tank: OÁng daãn
          fuel computer n. = FUEL                     nhieân lieäu xuoáng thuøng
      CONSUMPTION INDICATOR:                             fuel filter n. filter in the fuel
      Ñoàng hoà baùo möùc tieâu hao                   line intended to prevent any dirt
      nhieân lieäu.                                   from passing into the carburettor


                                                145
fuel gauge                                                                   fuel system

      or injection system: Loïc nhieân                     fuel pressure n. pressure
      lieäu.                                           under which fuel is delivered to
          fuel gauge     n. instrument                 the injectors by the fuel pump,
      which shows the amount of fuel                   governed by the pressure
      in the fuel tank: Ñoàng hoà möïc                 regulator: Aùp suaát nhieân lieäu.
      xaêng.                                              fuel pump n. electrical or
fuel-injected engine        n.     petrol               mechanical device in the fuel
      engine with a fuel injection                     system which draws fuel from
      system rather than a carburettor                 the fuel tank and delivers it to
      or carburettors: Ñoäng cô phun                   the carburettor or fuel injection
      xaêng.                                           system: Bôm nhieân lieäu.
         fuel injection (FI) n. system            fuel pump (shut-off) switch = switch
      used in all diesel engines and                   which shuts off the electric fuel
      most modern petrol engines, in                   pump and fuel to the engine in
      which fuel is sprayed under                      the even of a major collision:
      pressure into the engine, and not                Coâng taéc caét bôm nhieân lieäu
      sucked as with a carburettor: Söï                (khi tai naïn)
      phun nhieân lieäu.                                   fuel rail n. manifold tube
         fuel injection engine = petrol                feeding the injectors in a fuel
      engine with a fuel injection                     injection system: Ñöôøng oáng
      system: Ñoäng cô phun xaêng.                     daãn nhieân lieäu ñeán kim phun
          fuel injection pump = pump                       fuel return line      n. pipe
      which receives fuel from the fuel                returning surplus fuel to the tank
      tank (often through the fuel-feed                from the carburettor (s) or an
      pump in the case of diesel                       injector: Ñöôøng oáng hoài nhieân
      engines) and delivers it under                   lieäu.
      pressure to the injectors: Bôm                      fuel starvation n. failure of
      cao aùp.                                         the fuel system to supply
         fuel injector n. injector in a                sufficient fuel to allow the
      fuel injection system which                      engine to run properly, due to a
      sprays petrol into the inlet ports,              blockage or vapour lock or
      or diesel either directly into the               malfunction of the fuel pump: Söï
      combustion chamber or into a                     thieáu nhieân lieäu.
      pre-chamber: Kim phun.                               fuel supply n. delivery of
fuel line n. metal, plastic or rubber                  fuel to the carburettor or
      pipe conveying fuel from the                     injection system: Söï cung caáp
      fuel tank to the fuel pump and                   nhieân lieäu, söï tieáp vaän nhieân
      carburettor or fuel injectors:                   lieäu.
      Ñöôøng oáng daãn nhieân lieäu.                      fuel system n. system that
         fuel mileage n. US = FUEL                     delivers the fuel and air to the
      CONSUMPTION: Tính kinh teá                       engine cylinders, comprising the
      nhieân lieäu.                                    fuel tank and lines, fuel pump,


                                            146
fuel tank                                                               fully floating axle

      carburettor or fuel injection                    when the throttle is fully opened:
      system, and inlet manifold: Heä                  Söï laøm giaøu hoãn hôïp khi ñaày
      thoáng nhieân lieäu.                             taûi.
          fuel tank n. reservoir from                      full lock: Goùc queïo (baùnh
      which fuel is taken for the                      xe) lôùn nhaát.
      engine: Bình, thuøng nhieân lieäu.                  full service history (FSH) n.
fuel tank sender = level sensor in the                   documents which show all the
      fuel tank, providing information                 work carried out on a vehicle,
      to the fuel gauge: Caûm bieán                    especially the regular services
      möïc nhieân lieäu.                               required by the manufacturer: Soå
       fuel vapour n. (a) atomized                     baûo döôõng xe
      air/ fuel mixture heated in the                      full-size car n. largest type
      engine, ready for combustion:                    of car according to American car
      Hoøa khí vôùi nhieân lieäu ñaõ boác              categories: Loaïi xe côõ lôùn nhaát
      hôi                                                  full throttle n. fully open
      (b) fumes given off by a fuel:                   position of the throttle: Caùnh
      Boác hôi nhieân lieäu.                           böôùm ga môû hoaøn toaøn.
            fuel vapour recirculation                  (NOTE: US English is wide open
      system        =    EVAPORATIVE                   throttle)
      EMISSION                CONTROL                       at full throttle = with the
      SYSTEM: Heä thoáng kieåm soaùt                   throttle fully open: Vôùi böôùm ga
      oâ nhieãm do hôi xaêng.                          môû hoaøn toaøn
fulcrum n. point on which a part                           to be going full throttle or
      pivots, especially a lever: Ñieåm                full bore = to be going as fast as
      töïa choát quay, truïc baûn leà.                 one can, with the accelerator
          fulcrum pin = pin which acts                 fully depressed: Ñaïp heát ga.
      as a pivot, such as a kingpin:                        full throttle enrichment =
      Truïc quay.                                      FULL LOAD ENRICHMENT:
full bore n. = FULL THROTTLE:                          Söï laøm giaøu khi ñaày taûi.
      Böôùm ga môû hoaøn toaøn.                          full-time four-wheel drive n.
           full-flow filter     n. filter              = PERMANENT                   FOUR-
      through which all the oil in the                 WHEEL DRIVE
      engine passes: Baàu loïc daàu.              full electronic ignition (FEI)           n.
          full load n. engine operating                distributorless, mapped ignition
      conditions where the accelerator                 system with cylinder-selective
      is fully depressed, i.e. the                     knock       control,    dwell-angle
      throttle is fully open, which does               control, and digital idling speed
      not necessarily mean high                        stabilization: Söï ñaùnh löûa hoaøn
      engine speed: Ñaày taûi (ñaïp ga                 toaøn baèng ñieän töû (tröïc tieáp)
      lôùn)                                                fully floating axle n. live
         full      load     enrichment=                rear axle assembly in which the
      provision of a richer mixture                    axle shafts, the total vehicle


                                            147
fully galvanized body                                                          FWD

     weight        and        cornering
     loads being transferred directly            fuse 1 n. device containing a thin
     from the wheel bearings to the                 piece of wire which melts when
     axle housing: Baùn truïc chòu taûi             the current is excessive and thus
     hoaøn toaøn, caàu xe treo hoaøn                opens the electrical circuit in
     toaøn.                                         which it is placed, to protect
        fully galvanized body n. body               equipment in the circuit: Caàu
     shell     which,    apart     from             chì.
     aluminium and plastic parts, is                2 v. (a) to melt, and (sometimes)
     produced entirely of double-                   become united in the process:
     sided galvanized steel and                     Tan ra, chaûy ra.
     galvanizing fluid: Thaân xe ñöôïc              (b) (of electrical equipment) to
     maï keõm hoaøn toaøn.                          fail as the result of a fuse
 fumes n. evil-smelling vapours given               blowing: Khoâng hoaït ñoäng do
     off by a liquid or a gas, which                ñöùt caàu chì
     may be poisonous: Hôi coù muøi                     fuse box      n. unit with a
     (xaêng, ga)                                    removable cover that holds the
functional      a. (a) capable of                   fuses for the various electrical
     working: Coù theå hoaït ñoäng                  circuits, which are all routed
     (b) practical, designed not for                through it: Hoäp caàu chì.
     decoration but solely with a                FWD = FRONT-WHEEL DRIVE or
     particular use in mind: Thieát                 (less commonly) FOUR-WHEEL
     thöïc.                                         DRIVE: Xe caàu tröôùc chuû ñoäng
funnel n. cup-shaped object tapering                hoaëc xe hai caàu chuû ñoäng.
     at the bottom to a small hole and
     a spout, used for pouring oil, fuel
     or water into relatively small
     openings: Caùi pheãu




                                           148
g                                                                                  garage


                                           Gg

g (symbol for) acceleration of free fall                   galvanized coating = zinc
     due to gravity: Gia toác troïng                  (based) coating applied by
     tröôøng.                                         galvanizing: Lôùp keõm maï
gage n. US=GAUGE: Maùy ño, söï ño                         galvanizing n. application of
     ñaïc                                             zinc coatings on the surface of a
gaiter n. BOOT (b): Voû chuïp, voû                    metal, by hot dipping or
     chaén buïi.                                      electrodeposition: Söï maï
gal (short for) GALLON                                    galvanizing bath = bath for
GALFAN: trademark for a special                       hot-dip         galvanizing        or
     type of hot-dip galvanized steel                 electrogalvanizing: Boàn maï
     sheet with a coating consisting of          galvannealing        n. thermal process
     a zinc alloy containing 5%                       which gives improved adhesion to
     Aluminium and rare earths: Teân                  hot-dip galvanized steel sheets:
     thöông maïi cuûa moät loaïi theùp                Quaù trình nung tröôùc khi maï ñeå
     traùng keõm chöùa nhoâm                          taêng ñoä baùm
Gallon n. unit of capacity: gallon -             gamma layer n. part of the zinc-iron
     Ñôn vò ño dung tích.                            alloy layer on hot-dip galvanized
     (NOTE: 1 British gallon (UK gal)                iron and steel containing 21-28%
     = 4.546 litres; 1 US gallon (US                 iron: Lôùp maï gamma (Zn-Fe).
     gal) = 3.785 litres)                        gantry n. structure with an overhead
Galvalume trademark for a special                    beam, used for lifting out an
     type of hot-dip galvanized steel                engine: Caàn truïc nhaác ñoäng cô
     sheet with a coating consisting of              (ra khoûi xe).
     55% Aluminium, 43.4 % Zinc and              gap n. space between two parts,
     1.6% Silicon: Thöông hieäu cuûa                 especially       between      electric
     moät loaïi theùp traùng.                        points: Khe hôû, ñoä hôû.
galvanic a. concerned with an                            gap bridging = formation of
     electrical current: Lieân quan ñeán             carbon or other deposits across the
     doøng ñieän, gavanic.                           sparking plug gap which shorten
         galvanic cell = cell which                  the plug: Söï ñoùng chaáu bougie.
    converts chemical energy into                       gap style = the arrangement of
    electrical energy by irreversible                electrodes in a parking plug: Caùc
    chemical reactions: Pin ñieän.                   kieåu boá trí ñieän cöïc bougie
       galvanic corrosion = corrosion                     gapper n. us (informal)=
    due to the action of a galvanic: Söï             FEELER GAUGE: Côõ laù.
    aên moøn ñieän hoùa.                         garage 1 n. (a) building in which to
galvanize v. to plate with zinc by hot               keep a motor vehicle (b) premises
     dipping or electrodeposition (to                on which motor vehicle are
     protect from rust): Maï keõm                    repaired or serviced and/ or where
                                                      fuel is sold: Garage, nhaø ñeå oâtoâ.

                                           149
garaged                                                                       gas station

     2 v. to keep in a garage: Giöõ oâtoâ             khí thaûi)
    trong garage.                                 gas guzzler n. (informal US) car that
        garaged a. kept in a garage:                  uses a lot of petrol: Söï hao xaêng.
   Giöõ trong garage.                             gasket n. seal: Ñeäm kín, roong.
    (NOTE: in advertisements, often                       gasket punch = tool used to cut
    abbreviated to gar’d)                             holes in gaskets and other soft
         garage jack n.        powerful               materials: Caùi ñoät loã roong.
   hydraulic jack used in garages:                        gasket scraper = scraper with
   Caàu naâng thuûy löïc duøng trong                  a chisel edge for scraping
   garage.                                            surfaces clean before installing
garter spring n. long, thin coil spring               new gaskets such as water-pump,
    with ends joined to form a ring:                  cylinder head, crankcase or
    Loø xo troøn (trong baïc nhôùt)                   timing chain cover gaskets: Duïng
gas n. (a) state of matter, like air,                 cuï caïo roong.
    which has no definite shape or                gasohol n. a gasoline/ alcohol blend
    volume (b) mainly US (short for)                  containing 10% ethanol and 90%
    gasoline: Khí, khí ñoát, xaêng                    unleaded petrol: Hoãn hôïp xaêng
       step on the gas = put your foot                vaø coàn.
   down on the accelerator, i.e. go               gasoline n. US = PETROL: Xaêng.
   faster: Taêng ga.                              gas pedal n. US = ACCELERATOR:
         gas chamber n. pressure                      Baøn ñaïp ga.
   chamber of a single-tube shock                 gas prop n. gas-assisted strut (e.g. of
   absorber: Buoàng aùp suaát cuûa                    hatch, tailgate): Truï choáng trôï
   giaûm xoùc 1 oáng.                                 löïc khí (cöûa ñuoâi)
         gas damper n. gas shock                  gas pump n. US = PETROL PUMP:
   (absorber): Boä giaûm chaán khí.                   Bôm xaêng.
gas discharge headlight n. motor                  gas shock (absorber) n. gas-assisted
    vehicle headlight with a gas                      shock absorber: Boä giaûm chaán
    discharge lamp: Ñeøn ñaàu cao aùp                 khí.
    (loaïi neùn khí)                              gas spring n. pressurized, nitrogen-
           gas discharge lamp =                       filled sphere, used in Hydragas
    discharge lamp in which light is                  and hydropneumatic suspension
    generated by gas discharge: Boùng                 systems: Loø xo (ñeäm) khí (heä
    ñeøn saùng nhôø phoùng khí                        thoáng treo)
Gaseous a. referring to gas: Theå khí.            gassing n. the formation of explosive
         gaseous discharge headlight                  gas in the form of small bubbles in
    or lamp = GAS DISCHARGE                           a battery when charging continues
    HEADLIGHT or LAMP: ñeøn                           after the battery has been
    ñaàu hoaëc boùng ñeøn khí                         completely charge: Söï suûi boït
        gas flow n. flow of the air /fuel             khí baùo naïp no
    mixture or the exhaust gases in an            gas station       n. US = FILLING
    engine: Doøng khí (hoøa khí hoaëc                 STATION, PETROL STATION:


                                            150
gas-tight                                                                 gear level

    Traïm (caây) xaêng.                          diameter to change the power
gas-tight n. sealed to prevent the               ratio of the engine: Baùnh raêng.
    passage of gas: Söï laøm kín khí.                gears = arrangement of gear-
gas welding n. welding process widely            wheel working together: Boä baùnh
    used in body repair shops (now               raêng.
    being gradually replaced by MIG               (b) one of the combination of
    welding): Kyõ thuaät haøn gioù ñaù,          gear; (a) in a gearbox that a driver
    haøn hôi.                                    selects to impart motion to a car:
    (NOTE: also called oxyacetylene              Hoäp soá.
    welding)                                        gearbox n. metal casing for the
gate n. slotted plate in the shape of an         gear (a) assembly: Hoäp soá.
    H, controlling the movements of a            (NOTE: US English is gearcase
    gear lever in a sliding mesh                 or transmission)
    geaxbox (pre-1930s): Taám daãn                    gearbox input shaft = shaft
    höôùng caàn sang soá.                        which transmits power from the
gauge or US gage n. (a) tool for                 clutch to the gearbox: Ñaàu truïc
    checking whether clearances                  vaøo hoäp soá.
    between parts, or the shape and                 gearbox output shaft = shaft
    dimensions of pieces being                   which transmits the drive out of
    worked comply with specified                 the gearbox: Ñaàu truïc ra hoäp soá.
    tolerance requirements: Duïng cuï               gearcase n. US= GEARBOX:
    ño                                           Hoäp soá.
    (b) instrument for measuring a                     gearchange n. process of
    quantity; typical gauge are fuel             changing gears: Söï sang soá.
    level, coolant temperature, and oil          (NOTE: US English is shifting)
    pressure gauges on an instrument,                 gearchange cables = cables
    and oil pressure gauges on an                that in rare cases operate the
    instrument panel and oil pressure            gearbox; normally a system of
    gauges to measure the pressure of            rods and joints (linkages) are used:
    air in a tyre: ñoàng hoà ño                  Daây caùp sang soá.
    (c) the thickness or diameter of                    gearchange     linkage     or
    various materials such as wire or            mechanism = systems of rods and
    sheet metal: beà daøy hoaëc ñöôøng           joints used to operate the gearbox:
    kính                                         Cô caáu sang soá.
GAWR = GROSS AXLE WEIGHT                            gear knob n. knob at the end of
    RATING: xeáp loaïi toång troïng              a gear lever: Nuùt baám sang soá
    löôïng truïc xe                              (treân caàn soá)
G-clamp n. screw-activated clamping                  gear level or gearstick = stick
    device in the shape of a G: Caùi             used by the driver to change to
    keïp hình chöõ G.                            gear in a manual gearbox: Caàn
gear n. (a) toothed wheel connecting             soá.
    with another wheel of different              (NOTE: US English is gearshift,


                                           151
gear oil                                                                      generate

   shifter, shift lever)                            raêng.
       gear oil n. motor oil used in                   gear-type oil pump n. = GEAR
   gear boxes and final drives;                     PUMP: Bôm baùnh raêng.
   usually of higher viscosity than                     gearwheel n. =GEAR : Baùnh
   engine oil: Daàu hoäp soá.                       raêng.
      gear puller n. puller with two or         gel 1 n. substance like a jelly: Gel,
   more jaws and pressure screw for                 chaát seät.
   pulling off gears, bearing, pulleys,         2 v. to become a gel: Trôû neân seät.
   etc.: Caõo thaùo baùnh raêng, puli                   gelling drier n. drier for PVC
Gear pump or gear-type oil pump n.                  sealants: Maùy laøm khoâ nhöïa
   simplest oil pump with two gear                  traùm
   wheels: Bôm baùnh raêng.                     Gemmer steering n. = CAM-AND
gear range n. choice of gears in an                 ROLLER STEERING: Heä thoáng
   automatic gearbox; the typical                   laùi Gemmer (cam vaø bi ñuõa)
   gear ranges are: P-Park, R-                  general corrosion n. in contrast to
   Reverse, N- Neutral, D-Drive, L-                 pitting, a type of corrosion which
   Low: Daõy soá, tay soá (hoäp soá töï             affects the entire surface of a
   ñoäng)                                           metal: Söï aên moøn toaøn boä beà
gear ratio       n. the number of                   maët.
   revolutions of driving gear                  General Motor (GM) n. American
   required to turn a driven gear                   vehicle manufacturer ; the largest
   through one complete revolution:                 in the world: Coâng ty saûn xuaát
   Tæ soá truyeàn baùnh raêng.                      oâtoâ cuûa Myõ.
gear selector n. lever that selects the             (NOTE:          British subsidiary is
   gear in an automatic gearbox:                    Vauxhall and other European
   Caàn soá trong hoäp soá töï ñoäng                subsidiary is Opel)
gear selector indicator = indicator             general purpose lacquer thinner n.
   positioned in the instrument                     a type of thinner that may be used
   cluster or on the centre console                 for both lacquers and synthetic
   shift gate indicating which gear                 enamels without causing lifting or
   has been selected in an automatic                other paint faults: Chaát pha sôn
   gearbox: Ñeøn baùo soá.                          ña naêng.
          gearshift     n.      US    =         general purpose pliers n. any kind of
   GEARCHANGE: Söï sang soá.                        typical multi-purpose pliers: Kìm
      gearstick n. (informal) = GEAR                ña naêng.
   LEVER: Caàn soá.                             generate v. to produce: Phaùt ra, ñöa
      gear tooth n. indentation on the              ra.
   edge of a gearwheel: Raêng baùnh                     generator n. (a) any type of
   raêng.                                           automotive         electric    power
      gear train n. system of gears                 generator, such as an alternator or
   that transmits drive from one shaft              dynamo: Maùy phaùt.
   to another: Söï truyeàn ñoäng baùnh              (b)         US=             DYNAMO


                                          152
geometry                                                                               glow

geometry        n. design, layout or                    coated with particles of glass,
    arrangement of parts: Sô ñoà boá                    used for smoothing and polishing :
    trí.                                                Giaáy nhaùm mòn.
girder spanner           n.      adjustable                 glass reinforced plastic (GRP)
    spanner with jaws at right angles                   n. the basic material for the
    to the handle: Moû leách.                           manufacture of fibreglass body
GL (short for) Grand Luxe, meaning                      shells and panels; it is made up of
    more luxurious than a standard                      several layers of fibreglass mat or
    model, L(=Luxe): Chöõ vieát taét                    cloth and various types of resins:
    bieåu thò kieåu xe sang hôn xe tieâu                Nhöïa ñöôïc gia coá thuûy tinh.
    chuaån.                                         Glass’s Guide n. monthly publication
gland n. seal that stops fluid under                    of second-hand car prices: Nguyeät
    pressure leaking past a rotating or                 san quaûng caùo in giaù xe cuõ.
    reciprocating shaft or rod: Naép                glass seal n. a conducting seal in the
    ñeäm, mieáng ñeäm, voøng ñeäm kín                   middle of some sparking plug
    (ñaàu truïc).                                       insulators connecting the top and
         glandless a. without a seal:                   bottom parts of the central
    Khoâng coù ñeäm.                                    electrode: Ñeäm ñieän cöïc trung
        glare 1 n. strong, bright light                 taâm bougie
    (e.g. from oncoming traffic): AÙnh                       glass tampering detector n.
    saùng choùi töø xe ñoái dieän                       part of a vehicle alarm system that
    2 v. to shine too brightly; to                      detects glass being struck or
    dazzle: Laøm choùi maét                             broken: Caûm bieán baùo vôõ kính
        glass n. window pane: Kính,                     (heä thoáng baùo ñoäng).
    cöûa                                            glaze n. smooth, polished surface: Söï
         glass area = the window                        nhaün boùng.
    surface area of a vehicle body;                         glaze breaker = CYLINDER
    may also refer to the whole area                     HONE: Ñaù maøi xy lanh..
    of the body above the waist line:               glazing n. glass fitted (or to be fitted)
    Vuøng kính, dieäân tích kính.                       in a window: Söï laép kính (cöûa)
       US glass channel = WINDOW                            glazing strip = moulded rubber
    CHANNEL: Raõnh ñaët kính.                            strip for mounting windscreens
       glass fibre n. a very thin glass                  and other fixed glass: roong
    thread, used loosely or in woven                     kính.
    form as an acoustic, electrical, or             gloss n. shine on a surface; lustre:
    thermal insulating in laminated                     Nöôùc boùng , nöôùc laùng.
    plastics: Sôïi thuûy tinh.                      glove compartment or US glovebox
         glass holder        n. tool with               n. small compartment in the
    suction cup(s) to hold and carry                    dashboard for sundry objects:
    glass: Duïng cuï giöõ kính baèng                    Hoäp ñöïng ñoà, ngaên chöùa gaêng
    cheùn aùp thaáp                                     tay.
       glasspaper n. abrasive paper                 glow v. to burn without flames:


                                              153
glow coil                                                                             grab

    Xoâng, haâm noùng (khoâng coù ngoïn               plastic body fillers: Baét ñaàu cöùng
    löûa)                                             (maùt tít)
       glow coil n. filament in a glow                (NOTE: US English is kick)
    plug: Daây toùc cuûa bougie xoâng.            goose neck map light n. flexible-
         glow pencil n. pencil-like                   stemmed map lamp: Ñeøn ñoïc
    heating element of a sheathed-                    saùch xoay ñöôïc (coå ngoãng)
    type glow plug: Ñaàu bougie xoâng             gouge n. a flat, relatively large dent
    daïng buùt chì                                    that has no hard contours so it can
glow plug n. the most important                       be reshaped by shrinking using
    component in a preheating system                  heat or with a hammer and dolly:
    of a diesel engine, used to preheat               Caùi ñuïc, caùi ñuïc khum (laøm
    the intake air or the combustion                  ñoàng)
    chamber when the engine is cold:              governor n. (a) engine speed
    Bougie xoâng maùy.                                regulator: Boä ñieàu toác (ñoäng cô)
    (NOTE: also called heater plug)                   (b)     (automatic       transmission
          glow plug indicator =                       control) transmission regulator:
    monitoring element in a preheater                 Boä ñieàu chænh hoäp soá.
    system, which changes the colour              governor plate n. = CONTACT
    of its filament in line with the                  BREAKER PLATE: Maâm löûa.
    plug and indicating readiness for             governor pressure n. (automatic
    starting: Ñeøn baùo xoâng maùy.                   transmission control) pressure that
        glow plug / starter switch =                  varies in accordance with vehicle
    key switch for turning on the                     speed and acts on the command
    preheating system of a diesel                     valves, where it opposes the
    engine and starting the car: Coâng                control pressure: Aùp suaát laøm
    taéc xoâng maùy.                                  vieäc (hoäp soá).
glow n. preheating time of a diesel               governor valves (GV) n. (automatic
    engine: Thôøi gian xoâng tröôùc.                  transmission control) valve which
glow tube n. = GLOW PLUG:                             converts line pressure into
    Bougie xoâng maùy.                                vehicle-speed              dependent
glycol see ETHYLENEGLYCOL                             governor pressure: Van ly taâm.
GM = GENERAL MOTORS: Coâng                        governor weight n. (centrifugal
    ty oâtoâ cuûa Myõ.                                advance           mechanism)         =
go dull or flat v. to lose (the) shine:               ADVANCE WEIGHT:                Troïng
    Laøm môø, laøm ñuïc.                              löôïng ly taâm, quaû vaêng trong
goggles n.protective spectacles against               delco.
    dust and glare: Kính baûo hoä.                grab v. (a) (brake) to come on
gold plating n. electrolytic deposition               suddenly when the brake pedal is
    of gold: Söï maï vaøng.                           pressed: Phanh ñoät ngoät
go off v. to begin to harden, the initial             (b) (clutch) to take up the drive
    phase of the hardening process of                 suddenly when the clutch pedal is
                                                      released: Baét ñoät ngoät (giaät) khi


                                            154
grab handle                                                       gravity-feed spray gun

    nhaû ly hôïp.                                      töôïng xe treân tableau ñeå baùo
    (NOTE: also callde snatch)                         cöûa chöa ñoùng.
       grab handle n. (a) part of a car                    graphic equalizer n. unit in a
    door interior used to pull the door                car stereo system that adjusts the
    shut: Tay keùo capoâ beân trong.                   audio output signal strength
grade n. degree of sandpaper                           separately        for     individual
    coarseness: Ñoä thoâ cuûa giaáy                    frequency      ranges;    individual
    nhaùm.                                             frequencies can be emphasized to
gradient n.(i) the slope or inclination                compensate for specific acoustic
    of a road (ii) a measure of this,                  conditions: Nuùt chænh taàn soá aâm
    expressed as the ratio of height                   thanh.
    (or drop) to horizontal distance; a            graphite n. form of carbon used in
    steep hill might be 1 in 4, whilst a               marking brushes for motors and
    gradual slope might be 1 in 10:                    generators and as a lubricant:
    Doác , ñoä doác.                                   Grafit, than chì.
graduated tint n. tinted stripe at the                     graphite grease = heavy-duty
    upper edge of the windscreen:                     grease containing graphite, used
    Vaønh roong kính                                  for brake cables, etc.: Môõ grafit.
grain alcohol n. ETHANOL: Coàn.                           graphitic corrosion = selective
grain coarsening or grain growth n.                   corrosion of grey cast iron,
    roughening of the surface of a                    resulting in preferential removal
    material: trôû neân xuø xì.                       of metallic constituents, leaving
Grand Luxe (GL) n. GL model =                         graphite: Söï aên moøn gan xaùm.
    more luxurious model than a                    grass (heat) shield n. metal shield
    standard: Kieåu sang troïng hôn                    fitted underneath a catalytic
    loaïi tieâu chuaån.                                converter to reduce the risk of its
Grand Prix n. international car race                   heat starting an accidental grass
    from which points are scored                       fire: Taám chaén nhieät phía döôùi
    towards the World Championship:                    boä xuùc taùc.
    Giaûi ñua xe voâ ñòch theá giôùi.              gravel gun n. equipment used to hurl
Grand Touring or Gran Turismo see                      crushed stone at objects, such as
    GT                                                 test panels, to test them for
Grand Touring –injection see Gti                       chipping resistance: OÁng phun soûi
graph n. diagram showing the                           (ñeå kieåm nghieäm)
    relationship      between      certain         gravity feed n. a fuel supply layout
    numbers or quantities in the form                  formerly used for two-stroke car
    of a line: Ñoà thò, bieåu ñoà.                     engines: Söï cung caáp nhieân lieäu
        graphic display unit n. dash-                  nhôø troïng löïc (2 kyø).
    board panel displaying a plan of               gravity-feed spray gun n. type of
    the car with illuminated parts                     spray gun, in which paint flows
    representing doors left open,                      downward from a container
    lights switched on, etc.: bieåu                    situated on top of it, thereby


                                             155
grease                                                           grooved compression ring

     reducing      the     amount         of                 paste used for reseating
     compressed air required: Suùng                      valves: Caùt xoaùy (suùpaùp)
     phun sôn nhôø troïng löïc.                               grinding wheel = abrasive
grease 1 n. thick, viscous lubricant for                 wheel used for grinding (usually a
     machinery made from oil and                         composite of hand particles in a
     metallic soaps: Daàu nhôøn, môõ.                    resin filler): Ñaù maøi (troøn)
         grease gun = hand pump tool                        grindstone n. rotating abrasive
    used for lubricating with grease:                    disc for rubbing away metal and
    Bình bôm môõ (boùp tay)                              for sharpening tools: Ñaù maøi.
           grease nipple = small, one-               grip n. adhesion of a tyre to the road
    way valve used for injecting                         surface; important for roadholding
    grease into a bearing: Nuùm ñeå                      and safe braking: Ñoä baùm (voû xe
    bôm môõ vaøo oå bi                                   vôùi maët ñöôøng)
    2 v. to lubricate or coat with                          grip in the wet = a vehicle’s
    grease: Boâi môõ, bôm môõ.                           roadholding ability in the rain or
     greenhouse n. (informal) GLASS                      on a wet surface: Ñoä baùm trong
     AREA: Nhaø kính.                                    ñieàu kieän aåm öôùt.
green stage n. the initial hardening                     grip wrench n. =LOCKING
     phase during which the resin or                     PLIERS: Kìm baám.
     filler has hardened but has not yet             grip blasting n. (a) the most popular
     set solid; this occurs immediately                  sandblasting process; grit is used
     after the resin or filler has gone                  to clean the metal surfaces and is
     off: giai ñoaïn ñaëc cuûa ma tít                    available in various grades for
     (sôn)                                               coarse or finer blasting on thin
grid n. in a battery, the metal plate                    steel (b) cleaning the sparking
     with holes, used as a conductor                     plug electrodes by bombarding
     and a support for the active                        them with abrasive particles: laøm
     material: Taám væ baûn cöïc, löôùi.                 saïch baèng phun caùt
grid-controlled ignition (system) n.                 grit number n. classification of
     microprocessor-controlled ignition                  sandpapers by fineness of the grit
     system with electronic ignition                     particles: kyù hieäu phaân loaïi giaáy
     timing by means of an ignition                      nhaùm
     map stored in the control unit                  grommet n. rubber or plastic ring
     memory: Heä thoáng ñaùnh löûa                       round a hole in metal (to protect a
     ñöôïc ñieàu khieån baèng vi xöû lyù.                cable or pipe): Roong buoái daây
grille n. grating that admits cooling air                (ñeå baûo veä daây khi ñi qua loã)
     to the radiator: Væ boä taûn nhieät.            groove n. (a) any machined channel or
grind v. to smooth or polish by friction                 hollow (b) the space between
     or abrasion: Maøi, giuõa, raø.                      thread ridges: Ñöôøng raõnh daøi,
         grinding disc n. abrasive disc:                 raõnh ren
     Ñóa maøi.                                       grooved compression ring n. scraper
          grinding paste = abrasive                      type piston ring: Baïc, sec maêng


                                               156
grooving hammer                                                          Guibo coupling

    coù raõnh.                                            grounding n. touching the
grooving hammer n. wide-nose peen                    ground (as when a long vehicle
    hammer: Buùa ñaàu coù raõnh.                     goes over a humpback bridge):
gross axle weight rating (GAWR) n.                   Söï chaïm ñaát (khi qua caàu)
    US maximum specified load                     growler n. electromagnetic device
    capacity of an axle: Taûi troïng cöïc            used to find short circuits in coils:
    ñaïi cuûa caàu (truïc)                           Thieát bò kieåm tra söï chaäp maïch
       gross vehicle weight (GVW) n.                 trong cuoän daây.
    total weight of a vehicle in any              grown tyre n. tyre that, with use, has
    given circumstance (i.e. with or                 slightly increased in size: Baùnh
    without passengers, luggage etc.):               xe lôùn.
    Troïng löôïng toång coäng cuûa xe.            GRP n. = GLASS REINFORCED
         gross weight n. = GROSS                     PLASTIC
    VEHICLE WEIGHT:               Troïng          grub screw n. fully threaded, headless
    löôïng toång coäng (cuûa xe)                     screw: Gu roâng
ground n. US return path of an                    GT (short for) Grand Touring or Gran
    electrical systems, which in a                   Turismo,        indicating    better
    motor vehicle is provided by the                 performance than a standard car
    metal body and chassis.: Daây noái               model: Kyù hieäu kieåu xe toát hôn
    ñaát, noái mass.                                 loaïi tieâu chuaån.
     (NOTE: GB English for this is                      Gti (short for) Grand Touring-
    earth)                                           injection: a GT model with fuel
        ground clearance n. vertical                 injection: Kieåu xe GT vôùi heä
    distance between level ground                    thoáng phun nhieân lieäu.
    and the lowest fixed item on a                gudgeon pin n. pin in a piston which
    vehicle: Khoaûng saùng gaàm xe.                  links the piston to the small end of
        ground clearance control =                   the connecting rod: Choát, aéc
    small level near the handbrake of                píttoâng.
    cars       with       hydropneumatic             (NOTE: US English is piston pin,
    suspension that allows ground                    wrist pin)
    clearance to be increased for                         gudgeon pin boss = the
    crossing rough terrain or when                   material below the piston crown
    changing a wheel:           Söï ñieåu            (joined to the skirt) which carries
    khieån khoaûng saùng gaàm xe.                    the gudgeon pin: Vaáu loài taïi choát
        ground clearance sensor =                    pít toâng.
    instrument that senses the distance                  gudgeon pin circlip = circlip
    between ground and car (for self-                used to secure the piston ring
    levelling air suspension): Caûm                  laterally in the piston: Voøng phe
    bieán khoaûng saùng gaàm xe.                     choát pít toâng.
       ground contact area n. =                   Guibo coupling n. doughnut-shaped
    CONTACT PATCH: Vuøng tieáp                       type of flexible coupling Guibo:
    xuùc.                                            Khôùp noái meàm.


                                            157
guillotine                                                                       GVW

guillotine n. bench tool for cutting            gum deposit n. sticky deposit that
     sheet metal.: Maùy caét taám kim               occurs if petrol remains unused in
     loaïi.                                         the tank for a period of time; the
gull-wing door n. roof-hinged door                  use of detergent in petrol helps
     that opens upwards; first used on              prevent it: Söï baùm dính cuûa caën
     the Mercedes-Benz 300 SL in the                trong thuøng xaêng khi ñeå laâu.
     early 1950s : Cöûa môû ñöùng leân          gun v. (informal) to press the
     treân.                                         accelerator hard: Ñaïp ga khoù
gulp valve n. vacuum-controlled valve               (cöùng)
     that admits fresh air to the inlet         gutter n. channel at the edge of a road
     manifold during deceleration to                to carry rain water: Raõnh nöôùc,
     prevent backfiring in the exhaust              maùng nöôùc.
     system; its vacuum signal is               GV= GOVERNOR VALVE: Van ly
     governed by a themovalve and a                 taâm.
     solenoid valve to ensure that the          GVW= GROSS VEHICLE WEIGHT:
     gulp valve action does not                     Troïng      löôïng     toaøn     boä
     interfere     with     cold  start
     enrichment: Van chaân khoâng
     ñieàu khieån naïp khí.




                                          158
H                                                                        Hamlin switch


                                           Hh

H (a) letter on the sidewall of a tyre              VANE SWITCH: Coâng taéc hieäu
   denoting the maximum speed for                   öùng Hall.
   which it is designed (210 km/h or             Hall element or Hall generator n.
   130 mph): Kyù töï treân voû xe chæ               pulse generator that makes use of
   thò toác ñoä toái ña cuûa voû laø 210            the Hall effect and consists of a
   km/h.                                            rotor with vanes, a conductive
   (b) SI symbol for: HENRY: Ñôn                    element with a permanent magnet
   vò ño ñoä töï caûm.                              and the Hall IC: Phaàn töû Hall, boä
hacksaw n. handsaw for cutting metal,               phaùt xung kieåu Hall.
   with a narrow blade attached to a             Hall IC n. solid state device with the
   frame: Caùi cöa saét (cöa baèng tay)             actual     Hall     generator     and
hairline crack n. tiny stress crack                 integrated circuits for voltage
   which forms due to strains in the                amplification       and      potential
   material or extreme temperature                  reversal, producing the pulses for
   differences; as opposed to crazing,              the control unit: Maïch tích hôïp
   a single crack of this type will                 vôùi caûm bieán Hall.
   often occur alone: Veát raïn nöùt                    Hall module n. = HALL IC:
   nhoû (sôn).                                      Maïch tích hôïp hieäu öùng Hall.
half-round body file n. body file with                   Hall sensor n. = HALL
   domed file surface for working                   GENERATOR: Caûm bieán Hall
   reversecrowned panels.: Giuõa                 Hall vane switch n. ‘switch’ that
   thaân hình baùn nguyeät.                         makes use of the Hall effect:
half-shaft     n. shaft between the                 Caùnh chaén taïo hieäu öùng Hall.
   differential and the drive wheel:             Hall voltage: Hieäu ñieän theá Hall.
   Baùn truïc.                                   halogen n. one of the chemical
Hall effect n. in electrical conductors             elements       fluorine,     chlorine,
   where electric current flows                     bromine, iodine, or astatine: Caùc
   perpendicular to a magnetic field,               nguyeân toá hoùa hoïc daõy halogen.
   a so-called Hall voltage is                         halogen bulb = bulb containing
   produced perpendicular to the                    a trace of a halogen, such as
   direction of current flow and to the             iodine: Boùng ñeøn halogen.
   magnetic field: Hieäu öùng Hall.                    halogen headlight = high
       Hall-effect ignition system =                intensity reflector with inner
   transistorized ignition with Hall                halogen bulb, precision lens, and
   generator: Heä thoáng ñaùnh löûa                 3-prong attachment: Ñeøn ñaàu
   duøng caûm bieán Hall.                           duøng boùng halogen.
       Hall-effect sensor = HALL                 Hamlin switch n. a suspended mass
   GENERATOR: Caûm bieán Hall.                      type sensor used in new air bag
       Hall-effect switch = HALL                    systems; avoids the ecological


                                           159
hammer                                                                            hangover

   problems associated with the                        hand: Thuû coâng.
   earlier mercury type switches.:                        hand drill n. powerdriven, hole-
   Loaïi caûm bieán gia toác trong heä                 boring tool: Maùy khoan caàm tay.
   thoáng ñieàu khieån goái hôi thay theá                  handed a. made to fit on a
   loaïi caûm bieán duøng thuyû ngaân                  specific side: Laøm cho vöøa
hammer 1 n. hand tool with a metal                        hand file n. flat file for shaping
   head on a handle, used for beating                  metal, with a rectangular cross
   metal and driving in nail: Caùi buùa.               section, constant blade width and
       hammer drill n. electric hand                   one smooth edge: Giuõa tay.
   drill that hammers as well as                           handle v. (a) (of a vehicle) to
   rotates.: Maùy khoan ñaù                            react       under        any     given
      hammerform n. shaped wooden                      circumstances        but     especially
   block used in panel beating, on                     referring to cornering, roadholding
   which a desired form is produced                    and manoeuvring: Ñieàu khieån (xe)
   by hammering: Ñe goã laøm ñoàng                     (b) to deal with or to cope with:
            hammer         welding       n.            Ñoái phoù, giaûi quyeát.
   metalworking        technique      that                handling (properties) = the way
   includes gas welding, preferable                    a vehicle reacts to the actions of
   without the use of filler rod,                      the driver (usually with regard to
   followed by hammer and dolly                        steering): Caùch phaûn öùng laïi cuûa
   work on the welded joint to smooth                  xe (öùng xöû) vôùi ñoäng taùc cuûa taøi
   out any remaining imperfections:                    xeá (laùi)
   Laøm ñoàng (xe)                                        hands-free a. Khoâng caàn duøng
handbook n. book which gives                           tay
   instructions or information: Soå tay,                   hands-free car phone = voice
   taøi lieäu höôùng daãn.                             operated         telephone       using
      handbrake n. brake operated by                   microphone and loudspeaker,
   a hand lever: Phanh tay.                            leaving hands free to drive: Ñieän
        handbrake turn = 180o turn                     thoaïi treân xe (duøng micro vaø loa)
   achieved        by     applying     the               handshaker n. (informal US)
   handbrake (acting on the rear                       passenger car with a manual
   wheels) hard when the vehicle is                    gearbox: Xe hoäp soá thöôøng (cô).
   starting to turn: Quay xe 180o                   hanger n. (a) flexible ring or strap to
   baèng caùch vöøa taêng toác vöøa keùo               hold a pipe, e.g. an exhaust pipe:
   maïnh phanh tay                                     Voøng treo (oáng xaû)
        handbrake warning light =                      (b) mounting bracket, e.g. a spring
   light that illuminates when the                     hanger for a leaf spring: Giaù treo
   handbrake is pplied; on most new                 hangover n. a modification of custom
   cars it has been superseded by a                    cars with separate chassis, e.g.
   multifunction brake warning light:                  pickups, which raises the floorpan
   Ñeøn baùo phanh tay.                                and lowers the body, to give the
      handcrafted n. US built by                       impression that the body has been


                                              160
hard anodic coating                                                            hatchback

   pulled down over the chassis right                (sometimes detachable) car roof:
   down to street level: Bieán caûi xe               Mui coá ñònh, mui cöùng.
   vôùi khung ñoäc laäp                                  hard trim n. instrument panel
hard anodic coating n. hard, wear-                   mouldings, centre consoles and
   resistant, oxide layer produced in                similar plastic trim: vieàn tableau
   an anodic oxidation process: Lôùp              Hardy disc n. a discstyle flexible
   oxít cöùng vaø choáng moøn phuû                   coupling: Ñóa noái meàm.
   ngoaøi trong quaù trình oxit hoaù                     Hardy-Spicer (universal) joint
   anoát                                             n. type of universal joint commonly
        hard anodizing = special type                used with prop shafts: Khôùp noái
   of anodizing adapted to the                       caùcñaêng Hardy-Spicer.
   production of thick, hard, abrasion            harmonic balancer n. formerly, two
   resistant films.: Phöông phaùp laøm               gearwheels carrying an unbalanced
   cöùng vaø choáng moøn saûn phaåm                  weight, mounted in bearings below
   baèng caùch oxít hoùa anoát.                      the middle main crankshaft
      hardboard n. boardlike building                bearing, driven at twice engine
   material made of compressed wood                  speed and rotating in opposite
   chip fibres and sawdust: Vaùn goã                 directions to counterbalance the
   eùp.                                              secondary vibrations in a four
        hard chromium plating n.                     cylinder reciprocating engine.: Boâï
   electrolytic deposition of a hard,                caân baèng (trong ñoäng cô 4
   wear resistant, chromium layer.:                  xylanh, goàm 2 baùnh raêng gaén quaû
   Maï croâm.                                        vaêng, naèm döôùi truïc khuyûu vaø
harden v. to set or to cure: Toâi (theùp)            quay ngöôïc chieàu truïc khuyûu).
      hardener n. substance added (as             harness n. (a) belt system used with
   to a paint or varnish) to harden the              child seats and in cars, consisting of
   film: Phuï gia cho vaøo sôn ñeå lôùp              two shoulder belts and two lap belt
   sôn cöùng                                         portions fastened by a central
      hardening n. process of a paint                buckle: Boä ñai an toaøn goàm 2 ñaây
   becoming hard: Quaù trình cöùng                   ñai.
   sôn.                                                    a 4-point racing harness =
hardness n. the quality or condition                 safety hardness anchored at four
   of being hard: Ñoä cöùng.                         points, worn by some racing
hard rubber n. = EBONITE: Nhöïa                      drivers: Boä ñai an toaøn daønh cho
   cöùng caùch ñieän ebonit.                         xe ñua coù 4 choát gaén.
      hardsided caraven n. caravan                   (b) = WIRING HARNESS: Buoái
   with foldable, hard wall panels: Xe               (boù) daây ñieän.
   löu ñoäng coù vaùch coá ñònh.                  hatch n. (a) = HATCHBACK : Xe
      hard stop n. hard braking, but                 oâtoâ 4 choã, khoâng coù khoang haønh
   not necessarily with locked wheels:               lyù, coù cöûa haäu.
   Boù phanh.                                        (b) = TAILGATE.: Cöûa haäu.
      hardtop n.        (a)     rigid,            hatchback         n. basically a saloon


                                            161
hazard warning switch                                        headlamp mounting panel

   or coupe with a tailgate: Xe oâtoâ 4                 header bar or US header bow
   choã, khoâng coù khoang haønh lyù, coù            n. front bar of a hood which
   cöûa haäu.                                        attaches to the top of the
hazard warning switch or hazard                      windscreen frame; usually made of
   flasher n. switch that makes all the              sheet steel shaped to match the top
   direction        indicators      flash            front edge to the curvature of the
   simultaneously, to indicate that the              windscreen: Thanh ngang treân
   car is a hazard (e.g. is stationary               kính tröôùc
   because of breakdown): Coâng taéc                    header tank n. top radiator tank
   ñeøn baùo nguy (chôùp caû boán ñeøn               in a thermosyphon water cooling
   reõ)                                              system: Bình nöôùc phuï.
HC = HYDROCARBONS.                                head gasket n. = CYLINDER HEAD
HC engine n. high camshaft engine;                   GASKET: Roong naép quy laùt
   the camshaft is located much                      (naép maùy)
   higher than the crankshaft,                    headling angle n. = YAW ANGLE:
   (although not in the cylinder head),              Goùc leäch daãn höôùng.
   allowing for the use of shorter                headlamp n. main light on the front of
   pushrods, thus improving the                      a vehicle: Ñeøn ñaàu.
   engine’s revving ability: Ñoäng cô                    headlamp body = a sheet
   truïc cam naèm cao hôn tröïc                      metal pot welded or screwed to the
   khuyûu raát nhieàu cho pheùp duøng                front wing that provides the
   ñuõa ñaåy ngaén.                                  housing for the headlamp and its
HDPE           = HIGH DENSITY                        bulbs and wiring: Voû thaân ñeøn
   POLYETHYLENE.: Nhöïa PE coù                       ñaàu.
   tæ troïng cao.                                        headlamp bucket = the
head n. (a) the top part of a tool; the              headlamp housing of cars having
   heads designed for use with                       separate headlamp not integrated
   interchangeable       head     torque             into the body line, e.g. the Citroen
   wrenches, for example, come in a                  2 CV and most prewar cars: Baàu
   variety of shapes, e.g. with open                 chöùa ñeøn ñaët rôøi.
   jaw end or ratchet mechanism:                         headlamp cover = rigid or
   Ñaàu noái caàn sieát                              flexible protection against dirt or
   (b) term used to express the                      stone damage when lights are not
   increase of energy content in a                   being used (may be flush with
   fluid pumped, expressed in units of               body): Voû che ñeøn ñaàu.
   energy per unit of mass, usually                      headlamp mounting panel =
   simply ft (feet): Coät aùp (bôm)                  sheet metal panel for rectangular
   (c) = CYLINDER HEAD: Naép                         headlamps that is spotwelded to
   xylanh, naép maùy, naép quy laùt                  the front section of modern cars
header n. (a) part at the top of                     where the radiator grille and the
   another part (b) US = HEADPIPE:                   headlamps are mounted adjacent to
   Chuïp, ñaàu oáng coå poâ                          each other; provides the mounting


                                            162
headlamp visor                                                                head trim

   points for the headlamp: Baûng gaù               aùnh saùng ñeøn pha.
   ñeøn ñaàu daïng vuoâng.                               headlight on/off delay system
        headlamp visor = attachment                 = system with two functions; when
   between headlamp rim and lens,                   activated, it can turn the headlights
   used on some classic cars only:                  automatically ON during darkness
   Taám kính che ñeøn (xe ñôøi cuõ).                and OFF during daylight; it can
        headlamp wash/ wipe =                       also be et to keep the headlights
   system that cleans headlamps with                ON up to approximately three
   a jet of water and a small wiper                 minutes after leaving the parked
   (blade): Heä thoáng lau ñeøn (xòt vaø            vehicle; useful in dark, highrisk
   gaït)                                            area; the system is controlled by a
head land n. uppermost piston land,                 photovoltaic cell on the dashboard:
   subject to the highest thermal load:             Heä thoáng töï ñoäng baät ñeøn pha
   Ñænh píttoâng.                                        headlight retractor indicator
headlight n. main light on the front of             lamp = lamp that illuminates when
   a vehicle: Ñeøn pha, ñeøn tröôùc                 the headlight covers are opening or
   ñaàu xe.                                         closing: Ñeøn chæ thò söï ñoùng môû
        headlight beam setting =                    chuïp ñeøn ñaàu.
   alignment of the beam of light                headlining n. soft lining of the inside
   from the headlamps: Söï caân chænh               of a car roof: taám caùch nhieät treân
   ñeøn ñaàu.                                       mui
        headlight dipper (switch) =              headon collision or headon crash n.
   any type of switch, both stalk or                the result of two vehicles being
   footoperated, that changes the                   driven straight into one another:
   headlight from main to dipped                    Söï ñaâm xe chính dieän.
   beam (and vice versa): Coâng taéc             headpipe or header n. down pipe
   chuyeån ñoåi pha - coát.                         connecting the exhaust manifold to
   (NOTE: also called dipswitch)                    the front of the silencer or to the
        headlight flasher = by flicking             connector pipe: OÁng noái coå poâ
   the direction indicator lever                 headrest or head restraint n. height
   upwards against a spring pressure,               adjustable head support, fitted
   the headlights flash on and off                  nowadays to both front and rear
   quickly : Coâng taéc nhaùy ñeøn pha.             seats, to minimize the effects of
        headlight levelling = system                whiplash in a collision: Goái töïa
   that allows the driver to maintain               ñaàu.
   proper headlight beam position                headroom n. distance between the
   regardless of vehicle load: Heä                  top of a passenger’s head and the
   thoáng ñieàu chænh vò trí ñeøn pha.              inside of the car roof: Khoaûng
        headlight levelling control =               caùch töø ñaàu haønh khaùch ñeán traàn
   usually a vertical thumbwheel that               xe.
   adjusts the height of the headlight           head trim n. roof lining.: Ñöôøng
   beam: Söï ñieàu chænh ñoä cao cuûa               vieàn     trang     trí    mui     xe


                                           163
headup display (HUD)                                                           heat shield

headup display (HUD) n. driver                       element for preheating the intake
   information system which displays                 air in small diesel engines.: Vaønh
   key information by projection into                nhieät xoâng khí naïp (trong Diesel
   the driver’s visual field in the                  côõ nhoû)
   windscreen area: Maøn hình phaûn                       heater plug n. = GLOW
   chieáu treân kính tröôùc (baùo thoâng             PLUG: Bougie xoâng maùy.
   tin)                                                    heaterplug        indicator     =
heat cracking n. pattern of small,                    GLOW PLUG INDICATOR: Ñeøn
   irregular cracks (e.g. on brake                    baùo xoâng maùy.
   discs).: Söï nöùt do nhieät.                   heat path n. path along which heat
heated rear window n. rear window                    passes from the sparking plug tip to
   fitted with a heating element that                the water jacket: Ñöôøng daãn nhieät
   demists inside and deices outside.:               töø bougie ñeán aùo nöôùc
   Kính phía sau coù xoâng.                             heat range         n. measure of
      heated tool welding n. welding                  ability of a sparking plug to carry
   process in which the parts to be                   away heat; dependent on the
   welded are pressed against a                       length of the insulator nose,
   heated plate and subsequently                      electrode shape and material: Chæ
   pressed together to produce a                      soá nhieät cuûa bougie.
   fusion weld.: Kyõ thuaät haøn noùng                    heat-range reserve = the heat
   chaûy.                                            range reserve defines the distance
          heated      windscreen       n.            to the start of preignition under
   windscreen fitted with a heating                  further increasing thermal loading
   element to facilitate deicing: kính               of the sparking plug. This reserve
   tröôùc coù xoâng.                                 is expressed in degrees crankshaft,
heater n. system for heating the                     the amount by which the factory
   interior of a vehicle: Heä thoáng                 set ignition timing can be further
   söôûi.                                            advanced         without    preignition
        heater air pipe n. channel                   occuring: Goùc ñaùnh löûa coù theå
   section incorporated into the side                taêng maø khoâng laøm chaùy sôùm
   member or other structural sections               (ñoái vôùi loaïi bougie töông öùng).
   that is designed to provide a flow                    heat riser n. flapper in the
   of warm into the interior of the                  exhaust manifold that is closed
   vehicle, above all into the                       when the engine is cold, causing
   footwells (e.g. as used on the VW                 hot exhaust gases to heat the inlet
   Beetle): OÁng khoâng khí noùng ñeå                manifold, thus providing better
   söôûi.                                            cold       engine      operation;     a
       heater core n. : Loõi giaøn söôõi.            thermostatic spring opens the
       heater fan or blower n. electric              flapper when the engine warms
   fan to boost heating and                          up: OÁng xoâng ñöôøng oáng naïp (laáy
   ventilation: Quaït giaøn söôûi.                   nhieät töø ñöôøng thaûi).
       heater flange n. heating                         heat shield n. sheet metal part,


                                            164
heat shrinking                                                                       HEI

   usually        reflective,      often            taûi lôùn.
   asbestoslined;               protects                  heavyduty diagonal cutting
   heatsensitive components from                    pliers = diagonal cutting pliers
   heat radiation of the exhaust                    with a special joint and handle
   system: Taám chaén nhieät (poâ)                  design for extra cutting power:
        heat shrinking n. shrinking                 Kìm caét coäng löïc.
   dents in panels using a gas welder                     heavy-duty end cutting pliers
   to heat local areas of the dents: Söï            = end cutting pliers with a special
   loõm thaân xe khi haøn hôi                       joint and handle design for extra
        heat sink n. heat removing                  cutting power: Kìm caét coäng löïc.
   component, such as the fins on an                    heavy film build n. excessive
   aircooled cylinder: Phaàn töû laáy               thickness of paint coat: Taïo neân
   nhieät.                                          moät lôùp sôn quaù daøy.
        heat soak n. heat from the                      heavy foot n. : Thaúng chaân,
   engine warming the carburettor                   ñaïp heát.
   and other parts of the fuel system                   to drive with a heavy foot =
   which can cause vapour lock and                  driving at full throttle, especially at
   may make restarting difficult:                   high speeds: Chaïy heát ga.
   Nhieät laøm boác hôi xaêng                           heavy goods vehicle (HGV) n.
        heat transfer n. transfer of                vehicle capable of carrying heavy
   thermal energy from one material                 loads and requiring a special
   to another by means of thermal                   licence to drive: Xe taûi naëng
   conduction,        convection      or                  heavy phosphating              n.
   radiation; heat transfer is only                 application of extremely heavy
   possible from a high to a low                    phosphate coatings: Phuû lôùp
   temperature level: Söï truyeàn                   phoâtphaùt daøy (sôn).
   nhieät.                                                heavy yellow boot              n.
heavy a. (a) (cable, sheet metal)                   (informal) = WHEEL CLAMP
   heavy-duty: Naëng, lôùn (daây, taám           heel n. (a)       rubbing block on the
   kim loaïi)                                       contact breaker lever: Goái cam
    (b) (paint) thickly coated: Quaù                (ñaùnh löûa vít)
    daøy (sôn)                                      (b) = BEAD HEEL: Caùi ñeá
   (c) (steering, clutch) having a stiff                heel dolly n. dolly in the form
   operation,        e.g.      requiring            of a heel (of a foot): Caùi ñe daïng
   considerable effort to turn the                  goái.
   steering wheel: Naëng, khoù khaên             HEGO sensor (short for) heated
   (laùi)                                           exhaust gas oxygen sensor: Caûm
   (d) (traffic) of great quantity:                 bieán oxi coù daây nung (khí thaûi).
   Ñoâng, chaät ních.                            HEI = HIGH ENERGY IGNITION
    (NOTE: opposite is light).                      (SYSTEM): Heä thoáng ñaùnh löûa
      heavy-duty (HD) a. designed                   naêng löôïng cao
   for heavy loads: Duøng cho xe coù                   HEI-EST= HIGH ENERGY


                                           165
height adjustable steering column                            hidden or hide away wiper

   IGNITION          SYSTEM         WITH              circular, rounded internal shape to
   ELECTRONIC SPARK TIMING:                           ensure a smooth propagation of the
   Heä thoáng ñaùnh löûa naêng löôïng                 flame front during the combustion
   cao vôùi ñieàu chænh thôøi ñieåm                   process: Buoàng chaùy coù hình baùn
   ñaùnh löûa baèng ñieän töû.                        caàu .
height adjustable steering column n.              Henry (H) n. unit of inductance, equal
    steering column whose length or                   to the inductance of a circuit in
    rake may be adjusted to suit the                  which the variation of current at
    individual driver: Truï voâ laêng coù             the rate of one ampere per second
    theå ñieàu chænh ñöôïc ñoä cao.                   induces an electromotive force of
         height corrector or height                   one volt: Ñôn vò ño ñoä töï caûm.
    regulator n. automatic levelling                  (NOTE: named after US physicist,
    control       in     hydropneumatic               J.Henry, 1797-1878).
    suspension systems: Boä hieäu                 herringbone gear n. = DOUBLE
    chænh chieàu cao heä thoáng treo                  HELICAL GEAR: Baùnh raêng coù
    thuûy khí.                                        raêng hình chöõ V.
helical a. in the shape of a helix:               hexagonal a. having six sides: Saùu
    Xoaén oác                                         caïnh
         helical gears = gears with                        hexagon(al)         bolster   or
   helical teeth: Baùnh raêng cong.                   hexagon(al) collar = tool that
         helical spring lock washer =                 allows a screwdriver to be turned
   locking device for threaded                        with a wrench for extra torque to
   fasteners: Loâng ñeàn cong                         loosen tight crews: Ñaàu luïc giaùc
         helical teeth = curved gear                  noái tuoác nô vít vôùi caàn sieát.
   teeth on the edge of a gear-wheel,                      hexagon bit or hex bit = bit
   cut at an angle to its axis: Raêng                 with six sides: Moû chìa khoùa saùu
   cong                                               caïnh
helium leak test n. pressure test                          hexagon bolt or hex bolt =
    using helium: Söï kieåm tra roø ræ                bolt with a sixsided head: Bu loâng
    baèng khí heli.                                   luïc giaùc
helix n. a spiral, like the thread on a                    hexagon key or hex key = key
    screw or a coil spring in a                       for hexagon recess screws, 90o
    suspension system: Ñöôøng xoaén                   offset at one end: Chìa khoùa ñaàu
    oác.                                              luïc giaùc (môû oác chìm).
helmet connector or helmet lug n.                 h.f.s (short for) heated front seat,
    special type of lug for connecting a              (often seen in advertisements):
    battery with tapered terminal                     Gheá tröôùc coù söôûi
    posts: Ñai oác baét coïc aéc quy.             HGV = HEAVY GOODS VEHICLE
helper leaf or helper spring n.                   hidden or hide away wiper n. wipe
    auxiliary leaf spring: Nhíp phuï.                 system with a parking position
hemispherical combustion chamber                      below normal visibility range: Vò
    n. combustion chamber with a


                                            166
HIF carburettor                                                highmounted brake light

   trí döøng cuûa caàn gaït nöôùc.                   ignition timing: Heä thoáng ñaùnh
HIF carburettor         n. type of SU                löûa naêng löôïng cao.
   carburettor with a horizontal                          high energy ignition system
   integral float chamber: Boä cheá                  with electronic spark timing
   hoøa khí buoàng phao naèm ngang.                  (HEIEST) = The HEIEST system
high beam n. US = MAIN BEAM:                         consists of an electronic distributor,
   Ñeøn pha                                          with the ignition coil mounted on
       high-build galvanizing          n.            the distributor cap on 6 and 8
   galvanizing process in which                      cylinder models or externally on 4
   extremely heavy zinc coatings are                 cylinder models; the ignition
   applied: Maï vôùi lôùp keõm daøy                  timing is performed electronically
high-camshaft engine           n. = HC               by the electronic control module.
   ENGINE: Ñoäng cô coù truïc cam                    (used on several 1983-88 GM
   naèm cao.                                         models): Heä thoáng ñaùnh löûa naêng
high carbon steel n. a very hard steel,              löôïng cao vôùi boä ñieàu chænh thôøi
   as opposed to plain carbon steel:                 ñieåm ñaùnh löûa baèng ñieän töû.
   Theùp carbon cao (cöùng)                       high gear n. fourth or fifth gear,
high-density polyethylene (HDPE) n.                  selectd for cruising: Soá cao.
   a very tough, chemically resistant                (NOTE: opposite is low gear).
   thermoplastic, with a ‘soapy’                         high-geared a. (a) when a
   touch; e.g. used for blow-moulded                 small gear wheel is driven by a
   parts such as fuel tanks or other                 large one: Khi raêng nhoû ñöôïc daãn
   mouldings, such as bumpers.:                      ñoäng baèng baùnh raêng lôùn.
   Nhöïa toång hôïp PE coù tyû troïng                  (b) when a car’s transmission
   cao.                                              system has higher than usual
high energy battery n. innovative                    gearing, to improve fuel economy:
   battery type developed for electric               Khi xe coù hoäp soá nhieàu soá (> 4)
   cars: AÉc quy naêng löôïng cao duøng                  high gloss n. very shiny, bright
   cho xe ñieän                                      appearance: Ñoä boùng cao.
      high energy coil n. coil which              high leverage diagonal/ end cutting
   generates higher ignition voltage                 pliers n. diagonal/end cutting
   and/or offers increased spark                     pliers with special joint and handle
   efficiency; ballasted: Boâbin naêng               design for extra cutting power:
   löôïng cao                                        Kìm caét coäng löïc
       high energy ignition system                high/ low range gearbox n. = DUAL
   (HEI) n. ignition systems which                   RANGE GEARBOX: Hoäp soá hai
   provides more ignition power                      caáp
   (higher     voltage       at    higher         highmounted brake light n. third
   amperage) than normal systems; a                  brake light mounted in the middle
   typical HEI includes an electronic                of the rear window or on some cars
   control unit and magnetic pickup in               integrated in the trailing edge of
   combination       with     mechanical             the rear deck spoiler: Ñeøn phanh


                                            167
high-performance                                                                 hillholder

   thöù ba ñaët giöõa kính sau hoaëc                   (NOTE: opposite is low side).
   gaén treân naép coáp sau.                       high speed direct injection (HSDI) n.
high-performance a. producing better                   systems for rapid injection of fuel
   than average results: Hieäu suaát                   into a diesel engine: Heä thoáng
   cao, tính naêng toát                                phun tröïc tieáp toác ñoä cao
        high-performance manifold =                high spot n. raised area on a panel
   a special exhaust manifold, which                   surface: Vò trí nhoâ leân treân thaân
   is not made of cast iron as usual,                  xe
   but of specially designed, curved               high tension (HT) a. capable of
   and welded steel tubes, to produce                  operating at a relatively high
   a smooth flow path for the exhaust                  voltage: Coù theå hoaït ñoäng ôû ñieän
   gases, avoiding any sharp bends;                    aùp cao
   less heavy, less sturdy and more                         hightension circuit or HT
   expensive than an ordinary                          circuit = SECONDARY CIRCUIT:
   manifold; usually replaces the                      Maïch ñieän cao aùp (thöù caáp)
   down pipe: OÁng goùp thaûi coù hieäu                     hightension distributor or HT
   suaát cao                                           distributor = sometimes used to
high-pressure a. operating under a lot                 designate the distributtor in
   of pressure, e.g. braking systems or                electronically controlled ignition
   diesel fuel injection: Aùp suaát cao                systems, which has no controlling
        high-pressure foaming =                        functions or advance mechanism:
   process in which plastics are                       Boä chia ñieän cao aùp
   foamed under high pressure (> 50                         hightension lead or HT lead =
   bar): Söï taïo boït do aùp suaát cao                SPARKING PLUG LEAD: Daây
   (NOTE: opposite is low-pressure                     phin (daây cao aùp)
   foaming)                                                 hightension winding(s) =
        high-pressure relief valve =                   SECONDARY WINDING.: Cuoän
   located somewhere on the high                       daây thöù caáp.
   side of the air conditioning system,            highvoltage reserve n. the difference
   often next to the receiver-drier,                   between the available ignition
   this valve protects the system                      voltage and the ignition voltage
   against excessive pressure: Van                     required at a given moment.: Möùc
   giaûm aùp                                           döï tröõ ñieän aùp thöù caáp.
high revs n. towards the top end of                highway n. US           any public road
   the scale of engine revolutions: Soá                outside the cities with a foundation
   voøng quay cao cho pheùp                            and a hard surface: Ñöôøng cao toác
high side n. (of air conditioning                  Highway Code n. official British code
   systems) located between the                        of conduct for all road users.: Luaät
   compressor and expansion valve or                   giao thoâng cho taøi xeá chaïy treân
   orifice     tube;     includes      the             ñöôøng cao toác.
   condenser: Phaàn aùp suaát cao                  hillholder         n.    mechanically or
   (ñieàu hoaø).                                       electromechanically           engaged


                                             168
hinge bow                                                                    hold-in winding

   device for preventing accidental                         hinge post n. = HINGE
   rearward movement of a vehicle                      PILLAR.
   prior to driving off; found mainly                       hinge tapping plate                n.
   in automatic transmissions: Cô caáu                 threaded plate housed in a sheet
   choáng luøi xe trong hoäp soá töï ñoäng             metal cage spotwelded to the
   khi leân doác.                                      hinge pillar or, in some cases, to
hinge bow         n. = MAIN BOW.:                      the door frame; the door is bolted
   Thanh truïc chính.                                  to this plate and may be adjusted
       hinged-caliper disc brake n. old                within certain limits, as the plate
   disc brake design formerly used on                  can be moved about in its sheet
   motor bikes; superseded by                          metal cage: Taám gaén baûn leà cöûa
   slidingcaliper disc brakes.: Boä keïp           hip belt n. LAP BELT
   phanh ñóa coù baûn leà.                         hitch v. to connect or couple up a
        hinge facing n. part of the door               caravan or trailer to a towing
   frame that includes the bracing and                 vehicle: Buoäc vaøo, moùc vaøo ñeå
   threaded plate for mounting the                     keùo.
   hinge to the door: Choát gaén baûn leà                 hitch ball n. US = TOW BALL:
   cöûa                                                Moùc keùo xe.
   (NOTE: not to be confused with                  holdback n. a markup, e.g 2 percent,
   the hinge panel that is part of the                 that    the     dealer      pays      the
   hinge pillar of the body shell)                     manufacture on each new car that
        hinge panel n. sheet metal                     is added to his stock; this amount is
   panel spotwelded to the A post or                   rebated to the dealer after the car
   rear of the front wing that                         is sold: Tieàn ñaïi lyù phaûi öùng theâm
   accommodates the hinges for the                     cho nhaø saûn xuaát treân moãi ñaàu
   front door: Khung giöõ cöûa tröôùc                  xe, seõ ñöôïc traû laïi sau khi xe
         hinge pillar         n. vertical              ñöôïc baùn.
   structural element that carries the             hold-in coil or holdingcoil n. separate
   front door hinges; the upper end of                 relay coil, such as the hold-in
   the hinge pillar is usually the side                winding in a starter solenoid,
   of the windscreen frame: Truï ñôõ                   which is energized by contacts that
   khung cöûa cöûa tröôùc.                             close when the relay pulls in, to
    (NOTE: also called A-pillar)                       hold the relay in its energized
         hinge pillar reinforcement =                  position after the original operating
   vertical section behind the visible                 circuit has been broken: Cuoän giöõ
   A-pillar: Söï gia coá truï ñôõ.                     trong rôøle ñeà.
       hinge plate n. reinforcing plate                     hold-in winding or holding
   between the hinge and the door                      winding        n. part of a relay
   panel which distributes the forces                  designed to hold it in the on-
   acting on the hinge bolts over a                    position:           Cuoän            giöõ.
   larger area of the panel: Ñóa baûn
   leà cöûa.


                                             169
hole cutting snips                                                                horn

hole cutting snips n. snips with                 honeycomb n. a pattern of hexagonal
   pointed cutting blades for cutting               shapes, like bees cells: Toå ong.
   holes in sheet metal material. Keùo           honing       n. precision machining
   caét loã.                                        process used to resurface bores
       hole punch n. pliers used to                 and shafts: Quaù trình doa, xoaùy.
   from holes along the edge of a                        honing stone = tool used for
   repair panel; the panel can then be              the final smoothing operation, e.g.
   plug-welded to the substructure at               when repairing a cylinder wall: Ñaù
   these holes: Caây ñoät loã.                      maøi, ñaù xoaùy
       holesaw n. cylindrical shaped             hood      n. (a)     folding roof of a
   saw for use with power tools, for                convertible car (b)           US =
   cutting holes in sheet metal                     BONNET: Mui xeáp cuûa xe mui
   material, e.g. in car bodies for                 traàn.
   installation of aerials: Cöa loã                      hood bar or bow = one of at
Holographic combiner n. semi-                       least four struts that support a
   reflecting layer embedded in                     hood; usually made of tubular or
   laminated windscreen glass; used                 sheet steel: Thanh choáng mui xeáp.
   for headup displays: lôùp phaûn                       hood stick = old term for hood
   chieáu treân kính tröôùc ñeå hieän               bar: Thanh choáng mui xeáp.
   thoâng tin (tableau aûo)                      hook up v. to connect: Moùc vaøo, noái
homofocal headlamp          n. type of              vaøo.
   headlamp with two reflectors, the             horizontal a. lying flat, not upright:
   inner one being of shorter focal                 Naèm ngang, ñöôøng ngang.
   length than the main one: Ñeøn                       horizontal adjuster n. screw
   ñaàu vôùi hai göông phaûn chieáu.                for adjusting the sideways aim of
homokinetic joint n. = CONSTANT                     the headlight beam: Vít ñieàu
   VELOCITY JOINT: Khôùp ñoàng                      chænh ñoä saùng theo chieàu ngang.
   toác.                                               horizontal draught carburettor
homologation n. official recognition                n.         =       SIDEDRAUGHT
   of a special version of a standard               CARBURETTOR: Boä cheá hoøa khí
   car as a production model, to make               coù hoïng khueách taùn naèm ngang.
   it eligible for racing: Söï coâng                horizontally opposed engine n.
   nhaän maãu xe duøng ñeå ñua.                     engine with horizontally opposed
hone 1 n. special tool for use with an              cylinders, set on either side of the
   electric drill or air tools to smooth            crankshaft: Ñoäng cô coù xy lanh
   and polish engine, clutch or brake               ñaët ngang ñoái xöùng.
   cylinders, with a number of honing            horn n. instrument on a vehicle that
   stones that adjust to different                  emits a loud warning noise, usually
   cylinder bore diameters by spring                by means of a diaphragm vibrated
   tension: Ñaù maøi, ñaù xoaùy                     by an electromagnet: Coøi xe
     2. v. to smooth and polish with a
     hone: Maøi, xoaùy (baèng ñaù maøi).


                                           170
horn boss                                                                   hot spraying

       horn boss or horn button =                    springs absorb the drive torque:
   relatively large, round pad in the                Heä thoáng caàu-treo Hotchkiss.
   centre of the steering wheel which             hot dip v. to coat metal parts by
   sounds the horn when depressed:                   immersion in molten metal, such as
   Nuùt nhaán coøi xe                                tin or zinc: Maï kim loaïi baèng caùch
        horn button = (i) relatively                 nhuùng vaøo keõm hoaëc thieác ñang
   small button on the end of the                    noùng chaûy
   direction indicator lever which                        hot-dip       aluminizing       =
   sounds the horn when depressed                    deposition of aluminium coatings
   (ii) horn boss: Nuùt nhaán coøi.                  by hot dipping: Phuû nhoâm baèng
horsepower (h.p. or HP) n. unit of                   phöông phaùp nhuùng noùng.
   power: Söùc ngöïa - Ñôn vò coâng                       hot-dip galvanize = to apply a
   suaát                                             zinc coating by hot dipping: Phuû
horsepower screw n. screw in the                     keõm baèng phöông phaùp nhuùng
   cover of adjustable wastegates to                 noùng.
   adjust spring height, which adjusts                    hot gas welding n. welding
   boost pressure; screwing down                     process involving the joining of
   adds HP but may destroy the                       thermoplastic        materials      by
   engine: Vít ñieàu chænh cöûa xaû                  softening with a jet of hot air, then
   trong heä thoáng taêng aùp.                       joining them at the softened points:
hose n. flexible pipe: OÁng meàm.                    Haøn nhöïa baèng hôi noùng
       hose clip or hose clamp         n.         hot hatch       n. high-performance
   adjustable steel band (or wire) for               hatchback: xe naêm cöûa loaïi toát.
   securing rubber hoses to metal                        hot rod n. car that has been
   pipes: Caùi keïp oáng.                            radically modified for increased
      hose clip installer = special tool             power: Xe ñaõ ñöôïc caûi bieán ñeå
   for the installation of ear-type                  taêng coâng suaát.
   clips, used e.g. on some types of              hot sparking plug n. sparking plug
   CV joint boots, filters, cooling                  with a long insulator nose, which
   systems, and vacuum lines: Duïng                  absorbs more heat and dissipates it
   cuï laép keïp oáng.                               slowly: Bougie noùng.
       hose clip pliers = special tool               (NOTE: opposite is cold sparking
   used to remove and install hose                   plug)
   clips: Kìm thaùo laép keïp oáng.                  hot spot n. point of contact below
hose pinchoff pliers n.special tool to               the carburettor, between the inlet
   pinch off hoses when servicing the                manifold and exhaust manifold:
   cooling system; pivoting jaws                     Ñieåm noùng (giöõa oáng huùt vaø oáng
   squeeze hoses shut so there is no                 thaûi).
   need to drain the system: Kìm môû              hot spraying n. spray process in
   oáng nöôùc (khoâng caàn xaû nöôùc).               which paint is preheated in a paint
Hotchkiss drive n. type of live rear                 container so that its viscosity is
   axle suspension in which leaf                     reduced and it can be atomized


                                            171
hot start (ing)                                                              hub puller

   without being diluted with a                     into the engine by measuring the
   solvent: Phun sôn noùng                          current needed to keep the hot
hot start (ing) n. starting a hot engine            wireat the same temperature: Boä
   may be difficult if it has been                  caûm bieán ño gioù loaïi daây nhieät.
   stopped for a few minutes; the                        hot-wire element = element
   accumulation of petrol vapour in                 in a hotwire airflow meter: Daây
   the air filter and inlet manifold,               nhieät.
   caused by the rise in engine                  housing n. general term for the
   temperature when left standing                   casing which encloses or supports
   when hot, can be dissipated by                   bearings, gears, etc.: Voû boïc.
   slowly pressing the accelerator               h.p or HP = HORSEPOWER: Maõ
   right down and turning the engine                löïc, söùc ngöïa (Coâng suaát).
   over until it fires: Khôûi ñoäng khi          HSDI (short for) high speed direct
   ñoäng cô noùng.                                  injection (diesel engine): Phun
       hot start enrichment = fuel                  tröïc tieáp toác ñoä cao.
   mixture enrichment when starting a            HT = HIGHTENSION: Cao theá.
   hot engine: Söï laøm ñaäm hoãn hôïp                   HT circuit =SECONDARY
   khi khôûi ñoäng noùng.                           CIRCUIT: Maïch thöù caáp.
       hot-start pulse relay = fuel                      HT lead = SPARKING PLUG
   injection      component        which            LEAD: Daây phin.
   operates the cold-start valve                         HT outlet = COIL TOWER:
   intermittently to improve starting               Ñaàu caém daây phin ôû boâbin.
   when the engine is hot; installed in          hub n. central part of any wheel, by
   the cold-start valve circuit in some             the wheel is attached to or
   CIS-equipped engines: Rôle ñieàu                 rotatable on a shaft or axle: Truïc
   khieån xung khi khôûi ñoäng noùng                baùnh xe.
   (phun K)
                                                         hub cap = (a) cover over the
       hot wax          n.    wax-based
                                                    wheel hub and bearings (b) =
   material used for hot-wax flooding:              small metal cap on a front wheel
   Saùp noùng.                                      bearing: Naép chuïp truïc baùnh xe.
       hot-wax flooding = special                        hub carrier = (a) part of the
   cavity-sealing process developed                 suspension system which carries a
   by Volkswagen, which uses a                      rear wheel hub on a front-wheel
   solvent-free wax injected into the               drive vehicle with independent
   cavities of bodies preheated to
                                                    rear suspension (b) = STEERING
   60oC: Phöông phaùp bòt loã treân
                                                    SWIVEL: Khôùp khuyeân truïc
   thaân xe baèng saùp noùng
                                                    baùnh xe.
       hot – wire airflow meter n.
                                                       hub plate = central element of a
   constant     temperature      hotwire
                                                    clutch driven plate which carries
   sensing device, used in electronic
                                                    the splined hub: Ñóa ly hôïp
   fuel injection systems, which
                                                       hub puller = special tool, of both
   measures the rate of a mass airflow
                                                    jaw and hammer design, used


                                           172
hubcentric fit                                                              hydraulic fluid

   to remove wheel hubs on vehicles                   of propulsion, such asan electric
   by a pulling action: Duïng cuï thaùo               motor and an internal combustion
   (caõo) moayô baùnh xe.                             engine, or an electric motor with
        hubcentric fit        n. spigot               battery and fuel cells for energy
   mounted wheel: Choát baùnh xe.                     storage: Ñoäng cô lai.
         humidity chamber n. test                           hybrid technology n.film
   chamber for simulating tropical                    circuits combined with integrated
   and subtropical conditions.: Phoøng                circuits, used especially for trigger
   taùi taïo ñieàu kieän aåm öôùt ñeå thöû            boxes or electronic control units:
   nghieäm.                                           Coäng ngheä vi maïch lai.
hump n. raised portion on the rim                  Hydragas suspension n. = HYDRO-
   bead seat of passenger car wheels,                 PNEUMATIC SUSPENSION: Heä
   retaining the beads of an                          thoáng treo thuyû-khí.
   insufficiently inflated tubeless tyre           hydraulic a. operated by fluid: Baèng
   on the bead seats, thereby                         thuûy löïc.
   preventing the tyre beads from                         hydraulic accumulator n. =
   jumping into the rim well: Caùi                    ACCUMULATOR: Boä tích naêng.
   böôùu nieàng.                                             hydraulic      actuators      n.
hundredweight (cwt) n. (obsolete)                     hydraulically operated struts which
   unit of weight measurement, used                   control the movement of the
   in some classic-car manuals                        wheels in an active ride suspension
   (NOTE: 1 (GB) cwt = 5080 grams;                    system: Boä phaän thuûy löïc kieåm
   1 (US) cwt = 4535 grams): Ñôn vò                   soaùt ñoä dòch chuyeån cuûa baùnh xe
   ño troïng löôïng cuõ.                                 hydraulic brakes or hydraulic
hunting n. uneven running of an                       braking system n. brakes operated
   engine, due to air/fuel mixture                    by hydraulic pressure: Heä thoáng
   being too rich: ñoäng cô khoâng oån                phanh daàu
   ñònh do giaøu xaêng                                     hydraulic brake booster =
       hunting tooth n. extra, odd                    hydraulic pressure supplied by the
   tooth on a gear wheel, designed to                 power steering pump, or a separate
   ensure the same teeth so not                       hydraulic pump, which is used to
   always mesh together, thus                         assists in applying the brakes; used
   reducing wear: Raêng leû treân baùnh               on cars and on some lorries: Boä
   raêng ñeå giaûm moøn                               trôï löïc phanh baèng thuûy löïc.
HVAC         (short for)          heating,            hydraulic control block n. =
   ventilation and air conditioning                   CONTROL VALVE ASSEMBLY:
   (system): Heä thoáng söôûi, thoâng                 Cuïm van ñieàu khieån thuûy löïc.
   hôi vaø ñieàu hoøa nhieät ñoä.                          hydraulic fluid n. special oil
hybrid car       n. car with a hybrid                 used in hydraulic systems, such as
   propulsion system: Xe lai.                         power       steering,   self-levelling
        hybrid propulsion          n. two             suspension, to operate the system
   distinct but interdependent forms                  of master and slave cylinders: Daàu


                                             173
hydraulic hood                                                            hydrometer

   duøng cho heä thoáng thuûy löïc.             hydrocarbon plastics n. plastics based
        hydraulic hood n. convertible              on      resins    made     by     the
   top which is raised and lowered by              polymerization        of   monomers
   a hydraulic system; depending on                composed of carbon and hydrogen
   engineering, a hydraulic hood can               only: Nhöïa laøm töø hydrocacbon.
   operate fast, silently, and with                    hydrocarbons (HC) n. generic
   tremendous power: Mui ñieàu                     term for chemical compounds
   khieån baèng thuûy löïc (xe mui                 composed only of carbon and
   traàn).                                         hydrogen; one of the three major
       hydraulic modulator n. device               pollutants in the exhaust of SI
   which regulates hydraulic fluid                 engines: Hôïp chaát hyrocacbon coù
   pressure in an ABS: Boä chaáp                   trong khí thaûi xe.
   haønh thuûy löïc (ABS)                       hydrodynamic clutch n. = FLUID
        hydraulic pressure pump n.                 COUPLING: Khôùp noái thuûy löïc.
   engine driven pump which supplies                        hydrodynamic         torque
   oil under pressure to operate, e.g.             converter n.             = TORQUE
   power brakes or power-assisted                  CONVERTER: Boä bieán moâ thuûy
   steering: Bôm thuûy löïc (trôï löïc             löïc.
   laùi phanh)                                  hydrogen embrittlement n. process
       hydraulic tappet or hydraulic               which results in a decrease of the
   valve lifter n. small component in              toughness or ductility of a metal
   the valve train, usually between                due to absorption of hydrogen: Söï
   camshaft and valve, or rocker arm               laøm gioøn baèng khí hydro.
   and valve, which maintains zero              Hydrolastic suspension n.proprietary
   valve clearance by automatically                suspension system incorporating a
   expanding when a clearance                      conical rubber spring compressed
   develops; uses the hydraulic                    by hydraulic pressure; this system
   principle that liquids cannot be                also      provides      a   hydraulic
   compressed and consists basically               interconnection between front and
   of a small check valve, piston and              rear wheels on one side of the
   cylinder: Con ñoäi thuûy löïc (ñoäng            vehicle: Heä thoáng treo keát hôïp
   cô)                                             thuyû löïc vaø cao su
        hydraulic wedge n. hydraulic            hydrometer n. instrument used (i) to
   jack with ends designed to reach                determine the percentage of
   behind dented double panels and                 charge in each cell of a car battery
   to press them back into shape by                by checking the electrolyte special
   the hydraulic action of the wedge-              gravity: Thieát bò kieåm tra ñoä
   shaped ends: Caùi kích thuûy löïc               phoùng ñieän cuûa aéc quy thoâng qua
   laøm ñoàng                                      tyû troïng dung dòch ñieän phaân.
hydraulic suspension n. = HYDRO-                   (ii) to test the coolant for the
   PNEUMATIC SUSPENSION: Heä                       strength of antifreeze: Kieåm tra
   thoáng treo thuûy khí.                          haøm löôïng chaát choáng ñoâng


                                          174
Hydropneumatic suspension                                                       hypoid oil

   trong nöôùc laøm maùt.                               hydrostatic test n. pressure test
Hydropneumatic        suspension       n.            using water: Söï kieåm tra aùp suaát
   suspension system using air or gas                baèng nöôùc
   (nitrogen) under pressure as the                      hydrostatic transmission n.
   primary     suspension       material,            drive by means of hydraulic
   separated from the actuating                      motors, particularly where the
   hydraulic fluid by a diaphragm                    drive is to each wheel of an off-
   within a spherical suspension unit:               road vehicle: Xe chaïy baèng moâ tô
   Heä thoáng treo thuyû-khí.                        thuûy löïc (treân moät soá xe ñòa hình)
hydropulser n. hydraulically operated             hygroscopic n. tending to absorb
   system that can excite vibrations of              moisture: Khuynh höôùng huùt aåm.
   various frequencies in a car; serves           hypoid axle n. driving axle with a
   to find and eliminate noise                       hypoid gear: Caàu xe vôùi baùnh vít
   sources: Boä taïo xung thuûy löïc                    hypoid gear n. type of gear cut
   laøm rung xe ñeå phaùt hieän tieáng               in a spiral form where the axes of
   keâu.                                             the driving and driven shafts are at
hydrostatic drive n. = HYDRO-                        right angles, but not in the same
   STATIC TRANSMISSION                               plane: Baùnh raêng vít
       hydrostatic steering n. entirely                 hypoid oil n. special lubricant
    hydraulic power steering system                  for hypoid gears: Daàu duøng cho
    without mechanical steering links:               hoäp soá baùnh raêng vít
    Heä thoáng trôï löïc laùi hoaøn toaøn
    baèng thuûy löïc khoâng coù cô caáu
    cô khí




                                            175
i                                                                                idler pulley


                                               Ii

i (short for) injection - indicating that                caàm chöøng, ralenti
     the engine is fuel-injected                     Start the engine and allow it to idle
     injection ( GTi, EFi, 1.6i ): Chæ                   for 5 minutes: Khôûi ñoäng ñoäng
     ñoäng cô söû duïng heä thoáng phun                  cô vaø chaïy caàm chöøng 5 phuùt
     nhieân lieäu (xaêng)                                   idle air jet n. hole in a fixed-
I&C         systems         (short      for)             jet carburettor through which air is
     instrumentation        and      control             drawn into the idle system: Gíclô
     systems: Nhöõng heä thoáng ño ñaïc                  gioù caàm chöøng.
     vaø ñieàu khieån.                                        idle jet n. carburettor jet
I-beam n. steel beam which in cross                      within the idle system which
     section has the shape of an I: Ñoøn                 supplies a constant amount of fuel
     ngang hình chöõ I.                                  for the formation of the idle
        I-beam axle = RIGID AXLE:                        mixture: Gíclô caàm chöøng.
     Caàu (truïc) phuï thuoäc coù daïng              idle mixture adjustment screw n.
     hình chöõ I.                                        tapered adjusting screw (on some
ICE = IN-CAR ENTERTAINMENT:                              carburettors) which controls the
     Thieát bò giaûi trí trong xe.                       volume of air/ fuel mixture
IC engine         n.      =    INTERNAL                  supplied by the idle system of a
     COMBUSTION ENGINE: Ñoäng                            fixedjet carburettor: Vít chænh
     cô ñoát trong.                                      hoãn hôïp caàm chöøng.
ice scraper n. small plastic implement               idler n. (a) gearwheel between a
     for scraping frost and ice away                     driving and a driven gear in a gear
     from windscreens and windows:                       train which may serve to reverse
     Caùi naïo baêng.                                    the original direction of rotation of
ID = INSIDE DIAMETER: Ñöôøng                             the driven wheel: Baùnh raêng
     kính trong.                                         trung gian (ñeäm) ñeå thay ñoåi
identical part n. = SHARED                               chieàu quay.
     COMPONENT: Nhöõng chi tieát                         (b) free-turning pulley or wheel
     duøng chung.                                        which serves to maintain tension
identification colour n. (fuse)                          in a belt drive: Puli taêng ñai töï
     particular colour for a specific                    ñoäng.
     amperage: Maõ maøu daây ñieän                          idler arm n. (steering system)
     theo cöôøng ñoä doøng.                              similar to the drop arm, but
IDI      =     INTEGRATED DIRECT                         located at the other end of the
     IGNITION (SYSTEM): Heä thoáng                       relay rod, and having a guiding
     ñaùnh löûa tröïc tieáp tích hôïp.                   function only: Ñoøn daãn höôùng
idle v. (engine) to run slowly with                      (laùi)
     closed throttle and usually with                       idler pulley n. spring-loaded
     transmission disengaged: Chaïy                      pulley designed to maintain the


                                               176
idle speed                                                                  ignition cable

     tension of the timing belt: Puli                  Chuyeån ñoäng cuûa xe khi caøi soá
     taêng ñai töï ñoäng.                             D
         idle speed or idling speed n.                vaø ñoäng cô ôû cheá ñoä caàm chöøng.
     slowest speed at which an engine                 (NOTE: also called creep)
     will run smoothly (about 900                 IFS = INDEPENDENT FRONT
     rpm): Toác ñoä caàm chöøng.                      SUSPENSION: Heä thoáng treo
 idle speed adjustment = alteration of                ñoäc laäp tröôùc.
     the engine tickover: Söï ñieàu               ignite v. to set fire to; to catch fire:
     chænh toác ñoä caàm chöøng.                      Ñaùnh löûa, ñoát chaùy.
 idle speed stabilizer = device which                     igniter n. (air bag) bridge
     ensures steady engine rpm at idle                igniter with detonator: Ngoøi noå
     speed: Thieát biï oån ñònh toác ñoä              (goái hôi)
     caàm chöøng.                                          ignition n. process which
         idle stop valve n. solenoid-                 initiates the combustion of the
     operated valve which cuts off fuel               compressed air/fuel mixture in the
     in the idle system of a carburettor              combustion chamber. In a spark-
     and so stops the engine running-on               ignition engine, the mixture is
     when the ignition is switched off:               ignited by an electric spark; in a
     Van caét nhieân lieäu maïch caàm                 diesel engine, the self-igniting
     chöøng.                                          mixture must be preheated by
         idle system n. at idle speed,                glow plugs when a cold start is
     the throttle valve is closed to such             performed: Söï ñaùnh löûa.
     an extent that the airflow                           ignition advance n. extent to
     underneath the plunger no longer                 which the ignition spark is made
     forms a sufficient vacuum; the                   to occur ealier: Ñaùnh löûa sôùm.
     fuel is then supplied via an                     (NOTE: opposite is ignition
     auxiliary system, the idle system,               retard)
     which consists of the idle jet, the                   ignition amplifier n. device
     idle air jet and the mixture control             used to increase the electrical
     screw: Heä thoáng caàm chöøng.                   signal in an electronic ignition
        idling (engine) n. turning over               system: Boä khueách ñaïi tín hieäu
     at low speed with minimum                        ñaùnh löûa (IC ñaùnh löûa)
     throttle: Caàm chöøng.                                 ignition angle n. angle,
idling circuit = the passages, jets, etc.             measured in degrees crankshaft,
     in a fixed-jet carburettor which                 by which the ignition is advanced:
     provide idling mixture to the                    Goùc ñaùnh löûa.
     carburettor barrel: Maïch caàm                      ignition cable or ignition lead
     chöøng (cheá hoøa khí)                           n. general term to designate the
idling drag = forward motion of a                     high-voltage cables of the ignition
     vehicle        with       automatic              system, from the ignition coil to
     transmission, with engine at idle                the distributor and from the
     and selector lever in position D:                distributor to the sparking plugs:


                                            177
ignition capacitor                                                        ignition pattern

    Daây phin, daây cao aùp                                ignition gauge n. blade or
       ignition capacitor n. electrical                wire-type feeler gauge used to
    part which interrupts the primary                  check gaps on ignition systems,
    current with low loss and                          such as air gaps between
    suppresses most of the arcing                      permanent magnet and trigger
    between the contact breaker                        wheel on electric ignitions: Laù côõ
    points in conventional coil                        ño khe hôû caûm bieán ñieän töø.
    ignitions: Tuï ñieän trong heä thoáng                  ignition key n. key used to
    ñaùnh löûa vít.                                    switch on the ignition: Coâng taéc
       ignition circuits see PRIMARY                   maùy (coâng taéc ñaùnh löûa)
    CIRCUIT,               SECONDARY                       ignition lag n. in a diesel
    CIRCUIT: Caùc maïch ñieän trong                    engine, the time lag between fuel
    heä thoáng ñaùnh löûa (sô caáp, thöù               injection and combustion: Thôøi
    caáp)                                              gian treã chaùy
         ignition coil n. = COIL:                         ignition lead n. = IGNITION
    Boâbin.                                            CABLE: Daây phin.
 ignition coil resistor = BALLAST                  ignition map n. electronic map stored
    RESISTOR: Ñieän trôû phuï trong                    in the electronic control unit of
    heä thoáng ñaùnh löûa.                             ignitions with electronic spark
          ignition control unit         n.             timing and containing the most
    general control unit of electronic                 favourable ignition angle/ignition
    ignition systems, usually with                     point for every operating point of
    current and dwell angle control,                   the engine: Caùc giaù trò goùc ñaùnh
    driver and output stage, in some                   löûa sôùm toái öu ñöôïc naïp vaøo
    cases with electronic spark timing                 EPROM.
    functions: Hoäp ñieàu khieån ñaùnh             ignition module n. = IGNITION
    löûa (IC ñaùnh löûa)                               CONTROL UNIT: Cuïm ñieàu
         ignition delay n. time lag                    khieån ñaùnh löûa.
    between ignition triggering and                          ignition oscilloscope        n.
    the production of a spark: Thôøi                   oscilloscope used especially for
    gian töø luùc ngaét maïch ñaùnh löûa               ignition      tuneups;       usually
    cho ñeán khi tia löûa xuaát hieän ôû               integrated in an engine tester:
    bougie                                             Maùy ño dao ñoäng trong heä thoáng
        ignition disabler n. standard                  ñaùnh löûa.
    feature of car alarm systems:                         ignition pattern n. display of
    Thieát bò ngaét ñaùnh löûa trong heä               the waveforms in the primary or
    thoáng choáng troäm.                               secondary circuit of an engine
        ignition file n. tool for filing               system in the firing order of the
    ignition points and other small                    engine; optionally parade or
    objects: Duõa vít löûa                             display pattern and stacked or
    (NOTE: also called contact                         raster pattern: Daïng xung ñaùnh
    file,magneto file, points file):                   löûa


                                             178
ignition point                                                               immobilize

       ignition point n. (a) moment                      ignition transistor n. transistor
    of spark firing: Thôøi ñieåm ñaùnh               that switches the primary current
    löûa.                                            of a transistorized ignition system:
    (b) =       CONTACT BREAKER                      Transistor coâng suaát trong heä
    POINT: Vít löûa.                                 thoáng ñaùnh löûa.
       ignition point file = IGNITION                   ignition voltage n. the voltage
    FILE: Duõa vít löûa.                             at which the spark jumps across
        ignition retard n. ignition                  the electrodes; 30,000 V are quite
    after top dead centre: Söï ñaùnh                 common today: Ñieän aùp ñaùnh
    löûa treã.                                       löûa.
       ignition switch n. actuated with          I-head n. US = OVERHEAD VALVE
    the ignition key, the ignition                   ENGINE: Ñoäng cô vôùi xuùpaùp
    switch closes the primary circuit                treân naép maùy
    of the ignition system: Coâng taéc           IHP = INDICATED HORSEPOWER:
    ñaùnh löûa.                                      Coâng suaát chæ thò
ignition system n. subsystem of the              illuminated a. lip up: Chieáu saùng.
    spark ignition engine, its basic             illuminated entry system = additional
    elements being the battery, the                  courtesy lighting system which
    ignition switch, the ignition coil,              illuminates the door entry area
    the distributor, the sparking plugs,             when the door is ajar; consists
    and the connecting cables: Heä                   usually of lights in the lower door
    thoáng ñaùnh löûa.                               panels and footwells: Heä thoáng
ignition temperature n. = FLASH                      chieáu saùng loái vaøo (cöûa)
    POINT: Ñieåm khôûi chaùy, nhieät                      illumination control      n. =
    ñoä khôûi chaùy.                                 DIMMER CONTROL:                Ñieàu
ignition timing n. maintenance work                  khieån ñoä saùng.
    performed at idle by means of a              imbalance n. lack of balance due to
    timing light, to align the timing                uneven weight distribution: Söï
    marks of the engine: Caân löûa.                  maát caân baèng.
ignition toolkit n. set of small tools           IMEP = INDICATED MEAN
    usually comprising 8 small                       EFFECTIVE PRESSURE: AÙp
    openended spanners (size: 3/16 -                 suaát chæ thò trung bình
    7/16 in), a feeler gauge, a small            IMI = INSTITUTE OF THE MOTOR
    screwdriver and a points file: Boä               INDUSTRY: British organization
    duïng cuï söû duïng cho heä thoáng               for managers in the motor
    ñaùnh löûa.                                      industry: Hoïc Vieän Coâng Nghieäp
          ignition transformer        n.             OÂtoâ.
    transforms the primary voltage               immerse v. to dip into or submerge in
    resulting from the capacitor                     a liquid: Nhaän chìm.
    discharge to the required high               immobile a. unable to move: Khoâng
    voltage: Söï chuyeån ñoåi ñieän aùp              chaïy ñöôïc.
    trong ñaùnh löûa ñieän dung.                 immobilize v. to make immobile:


                                           179
impact                                                                         impeller

   Laøm khoâng chaïy ñöôïc.                         plastics, as indicated by the
       immobilizer n. device that                   energy         extracted        from
   makes something immobile (such                   'standardized'       pendulum-type
   as a wheel clamp): Thieát bò laøm                hammers, mounted in standard
   xe khoâng chaïy ñöôïc                            machines, in breaking standard
impact n. sudden, hard, physical                    specimens with one pendulum
   contact: Chaán ñoäng.                            swing: Thöû nghieäm khaû naêng vôõ
impact absorber = an impact-                        khi va chaïm cuûa nhöïa
   damping element located between               impact-resistant = stiffened (to a
   bumper and bumper mounting to                    certain degree) to resist the force
   keep      impact     energy     from             of a collision: Ñöôïc gia coá ñeå
   propagating into the car body:                   taêng söùc choáng va chaïm
   Thieát bò haáp thu chaán ñoäng.               impact screwdriver n. tool which
impact cushion = some child seats                   features a mechanism that
   secure the child by an impact                    converts the impact from a
   cushion in addition to the seat belt             hammer into a powerful torque for
   or straps: Ñeäm giaûm söï va chaïm               loosening (or tightening) threaded
   cho gheá treû em.                                fasteners: Vít ñoùng töï ñoäng.
impact damage = damage to the tyre               impact socket n. heavy duty socket
   wall caused by contact with the                  for use with air or electric power
   kerb or deep pothole, etc.: Söï hö               impact tools: Tuyùp sieát baèng hôi
   haïi do va chaïm.                                hay ñieän
impact pipe = simplified version of an           impact swivel ball universal joint =
   impact absorber: OÁng giaûm söï va               the swivel ball type universal joint
   chaïm.                                           is the most common type for use
impact sensor = CRASH SENSOR:                       with impact sockets: Khôùp noái töï
   Caûm bieán va chaïm.                             löïa
impact strength = ability of a                   impact wrench = pneumatic or
   material to resist shock loading                 electric tool for use with impact
   strain: Ñoä beàn va chaïm.                       sockets: Caàn sieát hôi hoaëc ñieän
impact stress = force per unit area              impeller n. (a) rotating member of a
   imposed on a material by an                      centrifugal pump which is
   abruptly applied force: ÖÙng suaát               equipped with vanes to convert
   treân vaät theå khi taùc duïng ñoät              mechanical energy into fluid
   ngoät                                            energy: Caùnh bôm (bôm ly taâm)
      impact adhesive n. contact glue               (b) (fluid coupling or torque
   that provides adhesion when two                  converter)      driving      member
   coated surfaces are pressed                      connected to the crankshaft via
   together: Keo daùn.                              drive plate and converter cover
impact      resistance      test      n.            which generates the fluid flow
   determination of the resistance to               inside the converter: Caùnh bôm
   breakage by flexural shock of                    bieán moâ.


                                           180
impeller eye                                                          indicator diagram

        impeller eye n. (pump) inlet             incomplete thread n. thread with
     area of an impeller: Raõnh vaøo                 incomplete thread profile: Ren
     cuûa caùnh bôm.                                 thieáu.
        impeller pump n. centrifugal             in-dash gauge n. gauge mounted in
     and side-channel pump: Bôm                      the instrument panel: Ñoàng hoà
     caùnh quaït.                                    treân tableau
imperial gallon n. UK gallon: Galoâng
     Anh khoaûng 4 lít 546.                      indentation n. concentrated panel
impermeable or impervious a. not                     damage or specific dent that may
     capable of being permeated,                     be caused when the car hits a
     especially by fluids: Khoâng thaám              relatively small obstacle, i. e. the
     chaát loûng                                     towbar another car: Choã thuïn vaøo
impervious to gases = not allowing                   (thaân xe)
     the passage of gas: Khoâng ñeå khí          independent suspension n. separate
     ñi qua                                          suspension system for any of the
inboard a. located near the vehicle                  wheels: Heä thoáng treo ñoäc laäp.
     centre rather than at the outside:          independent front suspension (IFS)
                                                     = system in which each front
     Vuøng giöõa xe.
                                                     wheel is sprung independently:
inboard brakes or discs = brakes
     mounted on the inner end of drive               Heä thoáng treo tröôùc ñoäc laäp.
     shafts rather than at the wheel             independent rear suspension (IRS) =
     hub: Phanh beân trong (truïc)                   system in which each rear wheel
inboard starter = Bendix starter:                    is sprung independently: Heä
     Maùy ñeà kieåu baùnh raêng Bendix.              thoáng treo sau ñoäc laäp.
incar entertainment (ICE) n. car                 indicated horsepower (IHP)             n.
     audio system, typically consisting              theoretical power of an engine
     of a radio/cassette player and                  calculated from the MEP in the
     perhaps a CD player: Caùc thieát bò             cylinders rather than at the shaft:
     giaûi trí trong xe.                             Coâng suaát chæ thò (ñoäng cô)
incipient crack n. crack which has               indicated mean effective pressure
                                                     (IMEP) n. average pressure
     just started to form: Veát nöùt sôn
                                                     within an engine cylinder during a
     môùi baét ñaàu
                                                     working cycle, calculated from an
incline 1 n. slope: Maët nghieâng, doác.
                                                     indicator diagram: AÙp suaát chæ thò
     2. v. to slope: Laøm nghieâng
                                                     trung bình (ñoäng cô)
inclined engine = in-line engine in
                                                 indicator n. (a) instrument for
     which the cylinders are inclined to
                                                     recording        engine     cylinder
     the vertical: Ñoäng cô ñaët
                                                     pressure: Ñoàng hoà ño söùc neùn.
     nghieâng.
                                                 indicator diagram = cylinder pressure
              inclinometer       n.    =
                                                     chart, plotted against the working
     CLINOMETER: Thieát bò ño ñoä
                                                     cycle of a piston or engine: Bieåu
     nghieâng.
                                                     ñoà aùp suaát (xylanh)


                                           181
indicator (light)                                                   inductive system

    (b) = DIRECTION INDICATOR:                     manifold and inlet ports into the
    Ñeøn baùo reõ.                                 combustion chamber: Söï naïp.
indicator (light) n. lamp on an                         induction manifold n. =
    instrument panel that lights up to             INLET MANIFOLD: Coå goùp huùt.
    show the operation of something,                    induction noise n. noise
    especially the illuminated arrow               caused by the intake of air by an
    that indicates the direction in                engine at full throttle: Tieáng oàn
    which a vehicle is about to turn:              treân oáng naïp khi chaïy ga lôùn
    Ñeøn baùo reõ (treân tableau)                      induction period n. period
indirect damage n. type of damage                  during the charging process of the
    not caused by immediate impact                 engine that allows for the intake
    but by the spread of the impact                of the fresh charge into the
    force into other areas of the body,            cylinder while the inlet control, i.
    e.g. bulging or dents at the rear of           e. the valve or port, remains open:
    the front wing and the leading                 Khoaûng thôøi gian (kyø) naïp
    edge of the door in the case of                    induction pipe n. the duct,
    direct accident damage to the                  typically an alloy manifold,
    front edge of the front wing: Söï              between throttle and cylinder
    hö hoûng giaùn tieáp (khi ñuïng xe).           head; the absolute pressure in the
        indirect injection n. fuel                 induction pipe, the so-called
    injection not into the main                    intake vacuum, is indicative of
    combustion chamber but into some               engine load and is used to control
    kind of prechamber; injection                  many engine related functions:
    pressure are lower than with                   OÁng naïp
    direct injection and ignition lag is                induction port n. (2-stroke
    short: Söï phun nhieân lieäu giaùn             engines) the port in the cylinder
    tieáp.                                         wall used for admission of the
indirect injection engine = diesel                 fresh charge into the cylinder:
    engine using indirect injection:               Coång naïp, coång huùt (2 kyø)
    Ñoäng cô diesel phun nhieân lieäu                 induction stroke n. that phase
    giaùn tieáp.                                   of the 4-stroke cycle during which
indium n. metallic element: Nguyeân                the inlet valve is open and the
    toá kim loaïi kí hieäu In, soá nguyeân         piston descends from TDC to
    töû 49.                                        BDC, drawing air (in a diesel
induce v. to cause or to bring about:              engine) or an air/fuel mixture (in a
    Taïo ra, caûm öùng.                            SI engine) into the cylinder: Thì
         to induce a voltage = to                  naïp.
    produce        a      voltage      by             induction system n. part of the
    electromagnetic induction: Taïo ra             fuel system in a SI engine,
    (caûm öùng) ñieän theá                         including air filter, carburettor or
induction n. intake of air and fuel                injectors, inlet manifold, inlet
    through the carburettor, inlet                 ports and valves: Heä thoáng naïp.


                                             182
induction-type pulse generator                                                 inhibitor

               induction-type      pulse              CONTINUOUSLY VARIABLE
     generator n. = MAGNETIC                          TRANSMISSION: Hoäp soá voâ caáp
     PICK - UP ASSEMBLY: Caûm                    inflammable a. capable of being
     bieán ñieän töø loaïi nam chaâm                  easily ignited and of burning
     ñöùng yeân.                                      quickly: Deã chaùy.
     inductive ignition system        n.         inflate v. to fill with air: Bôm hôi
     ignition system where the primary                     inflation control seam = a
     energy is stored in an inductor or               system of inflation control seams
     an ignition coil: Heä thoáng ñaùnh               on advanced air bags to control
     löûa ñieän caûm.                                 the inflation speed and inflation
         inductive (pulse) pick-up n. =               characteristics: Thieát bò ñieàu
     MAGNETIC                  PICK-UP                khieån toác ñoä bung goái hôi
     ASSEMBLY: Caûm bieán ñieän töø                   (NOTE: also called tear seam,
     loaïi nam chaâm ñöùng yeân                       whose negative connotations are
        inductive winding n. = PICK-                  perhaps inappropriate in a safety-
     UP COIL: Cuoän daây caûm bieán                   related context)
     ñieän töø.                                          inflation pressure n. = TYRE
inert a. lacking a chemical action;                   PRESSURE: Aùp suaát loáp (voû).
     property of the separators used             inflator (unit) n. assembly beneath
     between the plates of a battery:                 the folded air bag, consisting of a
     Trô, khoâng taùc duïng hoùa hoïc                 combustion chamber with a bridge
inert arc welding n. a family of arc                  igniter, a detonator and a priming
     welding processes in the fusion                  charge surrounded by the solid
     welding category: Haøn hoà quang                 propellant, and a metal filter:
     baèng khí trô (argon)                            Buoàng giaõn nôû trong goái hôi
inertia drive n. = BENDIX DRIVE :                infrared radiant drier n. infrared
     Truyeàn ñoäng quaùn tính (khôûi                  lamp which accelerates the drying
     ñoäng)                                           of large areas of fresh paint: Ñeøn
inertia pinion = pinion used in an                    hoàng ngoaïi haáp sôn
     inertia drive: Baùnh raêng quaùn                     infrared (IR) remote control
     tính.                                            n. the control of an operation by
        inertia fuel cutoff switch n. =               means of an infrared beam
     FUEL         PUMP       SHUT-OFF                 transmitted to a receiver (e. g.
     SWITCH: Coâng taéc caét bôm                      garage door, central locking, car
     nhieân lieäu baèng quaùn tính (an                alarm system, etc.): Ñieàu khieån
     toaøn)                                           töø xa baèng hoàng ngoaïi
inertia reel seat belt n. 3-point seat           ingress n. entry: Ngoõ vaøo.
     belt with an automatic retractor            inhibit v. to hinder or to prevent:
     reel: Ñai an toaøn duøng löïc quaùn              Ngaên chaën, kieàm cheá.
     tính ñeå ruùt                                        inhibitor n. additive which
infant safety seat n. = BABY SEAT                     retards or prevents an undesirable
infinitely variable transmission n. =                 reaction, e.g. phosphates, anti-


                                           183
inject                                                                       inlet valve

    oxidants: Chaát öùc cheá.                         by gravity from a reservoir or tank
    (NOTE: opposite is catalyst)                      located at a higher level; e. g.
inject (with) v. to introduce a fluid                 from coolant expansion tank to
    (into something) under pressure:                  radiator, or from brake fluid
    Phun                                              reservoir to master brake cylinder:
       injected engine n. = FUEL-                     OÁng naïp töø thuøng (phanh, bình
    INJECTED ENGINE: Ñoäng cô                         nöôùc phu)ï
    phun xaêng.                                            inlet manifold or US intake
          injection-moulded            a.             manifold n. the component which
    produced by an injection moulding                 guides the intake air to the
    machine or process: Ñuùc nhöïa                    cylinder head inlet ports; usually
    kieåu phun                                        an aluminium casting or a GRP
injection moulding machine =                          moulding, with one inlet opening
    machine       used     to    produce              and as many outlets as there are
    preformed plastic body panels:                    cylinders in the engine: Coå goùp
    Maùy ñuùc nhöïa kieåu phun                        huùt, oáng goùp huùt
injection period n. the length of time            inlet manifold heater = FLAME
    for which fuel is sprayed into the                GLOW PLUG
    inlet ports or combustion chamber             inlet over exhaust engine (IOE
    during fuel injection: Thôøi gian                 engine) n. engine design used on
    phun.                                             early cars: Ñoäng cô ñöôøng naïp
injection pump n. pump which                          treân ñöôøng thaûi.
    receives fuel from the fuel tank                  (NOTE: also called Fhead
    (often through the fuel-feed pump                 engine)
    in the case of diesel engines) and            inlet port or US intake port n. (of 4-
    delivers it under pressure to the                 stroke engines) part of the intake
    injectors: Bôm nhieân lieäu (cao                  system inside the cylinder head,
    aùp).                                             from the inlet manifold flange to
injector n. precision-made device for                 the valve ports of the combustion
    spraying fuel into the inlet ports or             chamber: Coång naïp.
    combustion chamber: Kim phun.                         inlet stroke n. = INDUCTION
injector nozzle = tip of the injector,                STROKE: Thì naïp.
    either of multi-hole design for                       inlet tract n. a branch of the
    direct injection or pintle design for             inlet manifold leading to an inlet
    indirect injection: Voøi phun.                    port: Nhaùnh oáng naïp cho töøng xy
inlet cam (shaft) n. the cam                          lanh
    responsible for the actuation of                     inlet valve or US intake valve
    the inlet valve in DOHC engines:                  n. in 4-stroke IC engines, usually
    Cam naïp                                          a poppet valve, located in the
       inlet line n. pipe or hose on                  cylinder head, operated directly or
    the intake side of a component,                   indirectly by a camshaft; the inlet
    through which a fluid is supplied                 valve is usually larger and (on


                                            184
inlet valve closes (IVC)                                                         inorganic

     used engines) cleaner than the                     blowtorch, the shape of which
     exhaust valve; it is only open                     indicates the torch adjustment:
     during the induction stroke:                       Loõi ngoïn löûa haøn.
     Xuùpaùp naïp.                                          inner cylinder n. working
inlet valve closes (IVC) = mark on a                    chamber of a double-tube shock
     valvetiming diagram: Daáu chæ                      absorber: Xylanh con (oáng giaûm
     supaùp naïp ñoùng                                  chaán).
inlet valve opens (IVO) = mark on a                         inner dead centre (see TOP
     valvetiming diagram: Daáu chæ                      DEAD CENTRE): Ñieåm cheát
     supaùp naïp môû                                    treân
in-line engine          n.   multi-cylinder                 inner headlight n. the inner
     engine, usually with three or more                 one of twin headlights (as for
     cylinders that are arranged                        BMWs or the Jaguar XJ series);
     parallel to one another and are                    usually for main beam only: Ñeøn
     either mounted vertically or at an                 pha phía trong (loaïi 4 ñeøn)
     angle (sloper engine) in one single                (NOTE: opposite is outer
     line; the pistons that reciprocate in              headlight)
     these cylinders in turn drive a                       inner liner n. innermost layer
     common crankshaft: Ñoäng cô                        of a tubeless tyre which provides
     thaúng haøng.                                      an airtight barrier: Lôùp laøm kín
     (NOTE: also called straight                        beân trong voû (khoâng ruoät)
     engine)                                                inner mounting face n. =
         in-line power steering          n.             INNER ATTACHMENT FACE
     power-assisted steering applied                       inner race n. inner track of a
     within the steering box or rack:                   ball bearing: Raõnh trong cuûa oå bi
     Trôï löïc laùi thaúng haøng                        (voøng bi)
        in-line pump n. pump whose                          innerspring seat n. sturdy,
     suction and discharge branches                     sofalike seat design using spring
     are arranged in line for direct                    coils as damping elements; used
     installation into the pipework;                    mainly by Mercedes-Benz: Gheá
     special          foundations       are             ngoài ñeäm loø xo.
     unnecessary, and the absence of                      inner tube n. inflatable rubber
     shaft       couplings       eliminates             tube inside a tyre: Ruoät xe.
     alignment problems: Bôm pittoâng                   (NOTE: nearly all modern tyres
     coù ñöôøng huùt vaø ñöôøng xaû thaúng              are tubeless)
     haøng                                          inorganic a. pertaining to or composed
inner attachment face n. the part of                    of chemical compounds which do
     the brake disc directly fixed to the               not contain carbon as the principal
     wheel hub: Maët ñóa phanh phía                     element, i.e. matter which does
     baét vôùi truïc                                    not come from plants or animals:
        inner cone n. small, innermost                  Chaát voâ cô
     part of the flame at the tip of a                  (NOTE: opposite is organic)


                                              185
input shaft                                                                 instrument panel

input shaft n. = CLUTCH SHAFT:                            inspect       hidden      areas      on
     Truïc vaøo (truïc ly hôïp)                           automotive parts: Göông ñeå quan
        input variable n. the object of                   saùt nhöõng phaàn khoù nhìn thaáy
     measurement and control; e.g.                        treân xe.
     pressure,      temperature,       etc.:         inspection pit = pit in the floor of a
     Thoâng soá ngoû vaøo (ñieàu khieån)                  garage providing working space
insert n. technique of permanently                        underneath a vehicle: Haàm kieåm
     joining     plastics     and     other               tra gaàm xe.
     materials, e. g. embedding steel                install v. to put something in position
     clips in a moulded plastic cover:                    ready for use: Laép ñaët.
     Kyõ thuaät loàng chaát khaùc vaøo                          installation      n.      putting
     nhöïa                                                something in position ready for
     inside caliper n. machinist's                        use: Söï laép ñaët.
     caliper used to check inside                         (NOTE: opposite is removal)
     dimensions: Calip ño trong.                              installed height n. height at
        inside diameter (ID) n. the                       which something is placed in
     internal diameter of a cylinder or                   position: Chieàu cao laép ñaët.
     tube: Ñöôøng kính trong.                        instant spare n. = EMERGENCY
inside spring caliper          n.   inside                INFLATOR
     caliper with spring for accurate                institute of road transport engineers
     setting: Calíp ño trong coù loø xo                   (IRTE) British organization set up
     giöõ.                                                to increase the competence and
insolation n. exposure to the rays of                     professionalism of vehicle owners
     the sun: Söï phôi naéng.                             and drivers: Hoïc vieän giao thoâng
inspection n. type of examination                    instrument cluster n. (a) array of
     which serves to evaluate the                         separate gauges in one housing; a
     operating       condition     of     a               major       component        of     the
     component        or    system;     the               instrument        panel      including
     inspection may identify the need                     analogue or digital instruments
     for servicing or repair: Söï kieåm                   and indicators, but no controls
     tra kyõ tìm choã hö hoûng.                           except for the trip mileage reset
inspection lamp = mains-powered                           button on some cars: Tableau xe.
     lamp with a long lead, used in                       (b) several gauges integrated into
     garages to inspect the underside                     one instrument, making one unit
     of cars and under the bonnet: Ñeøn                   combining several functions, e. g.
     soi ñeå kieåm tra coù theå di chuyeån                engine temperature, oil pressure
     ñöôïc.                                               and fuel gauge; if one gauge fails,
inspection lot = certain quantity of a                    the entire instrument cluster must
     particular item chosen at random                     be replaced: Tableau xe
     for quality testing: Loâ kieåm tra                       instrument panel n. panel
     (ngaãu nhieân)                                       below the windscreen which
inspection mirror = tool used to                          accommodates the instruments


                                               186
instruments and controls                                                    inter-cell link

    and controls: Baûng ñoàng hoà vaø                      intake port n. US = INLET
    coâng taéc ñieàu khieån.                           PORT
    (NOTE:       also      called    dash,                  intake stroke        n. US =
    dashboard, fascia)                                 INDUCTION STROKE
        instruments and controls n.                       intake valve n. US = INLET
    general term covering all gauges,                  VALVE
    indicators, switches, regulators,              integral a. forming part of a whole:
    and buttons: Heä thoáng ño ñaïc vaø                Toaøn boä, nguyeân khoái.
    ñieàu khieån                                            integral body and frame
insulate     v.    to cover with non-                  construction n. = UNITARY
    conducting material, so as to                      CONSTRUCTION: Caáu truùc tích
    prevent the transmission of heat,                  hôïp khung vôùi söôøn xe
    electricity or sound: Boïc laïi ñeå                    integral colour anodizing n.
    caùch ñieän hoaëc nhieät                           anodizing process in which the
       insulating cap n. insulated top                 colour is produced by using
    of the coil tower: Ñaàu caùch ñieän                special electrolytes: Quaù trình
    treân boâbin.                                      anoát hoaù ñeå taïo maøu
       insulating tape n. PVC tape                        integral moulded seat n. seat
    for wrapping round electrical                      with integrated 3-point seat belt:
    connections: Baêng keo quaán daây.                 Gheá xe dính vôùi ñai an
       insulation n. (a) the process                      integral-type power (assisted)
    of insulating: Söï caùch ñieän.                    steering n. = IN-LINE POWER
    (b)      the material used for                     STEERING: Trôï löïc laùi kieåu moät
    insulating: Chaát caùch ñieän.                     khoái.
        insulator n. (a) material                          integrated child (safety) seat
    without free electrons which,                      n. rear seat that can be converter
    therefore, is a poor conductor of                  into a child seat: Gheá an toaøn
    electricity: Vaät lieäu caùch ñieän.               daønh cho treû em.
    (b)     =     SPARKING          PLUG                    Integrated Direct Ignition
    INSULATOR: Söù caùch ñieän                         (IDI) system n. distributorless
    (bougie)                                           ignition system consisting of two
insulator nose or tip = the tip of a                   separate ignition coils, an ignition
    sparking plug: OÁng söù caùch ñieän.               module, a secondary conductor
insurance premium            n.    regular             housing mounted to an aluminium
    payment for an insurance policy:                   cover plate, a crankshaft sensor,
    Phí baûo hieåm                                     and electronic spark timing: Heä
intake manifold n. US = INLET                          thoáng ñaùnh löûa tröïc tieáp tích
    MANIFOLD: Coå goùp huùt.                           hôïp.
       intake pipe n. = INDUCTION                  inter-axle differential         n.     =
    PIPE                                               CENTRE DIFFERENTIAL: Caàu
       intake plenum n. = PLENUM                       trung taâm (caàu chính)
    CHAMBER                                               inter-cell link n. electric


                                             187
interchangeable head torque wrench                                     intermediate gear

    conductor that carries electric                    located centrally near the top of
    current between the adjacent cells                 the windscreen: Göông chieáu
    of a battery: Thanh noái giöõa caùc                haäu.
    ngaên aéc quy                                  interior noise level = level of noise
interchangeable         head       torque              inside the vehicle, typically in the
    wrench n. wrench that does not                     range from 45 - 90 dBA from idle
    have the usual square drive for                    to full throttle; at 70 mph between
    use with sockets, but is designed                  66 - 87 dBA: Möùc oàn beân trong
    to accept special interchangeable                  xe.
    heads: Chìa khoùa coù ñaàu tuyùp               interior trim = panels, linings,
    thay ñoåi ñöôïc                                    decorative facings, upholstery and
intercoat adhesion failure              n.             covers inside a vehicle: Ñoà trang
    situation in which one coat of                     trí trong xe.
    finish peels off or can easily be              interleaf friction n. friction between
    stripped off with masking tape                     individual leaves of a leaf spring:
    from another layer underneath:                     Söï ma saùt giöõa caùc laù nhíp.
    Bong sôn                                       interlock 1 v. (gear train members)
intercooler n. heat exchanger of the                   to fit together: Khôùp vaøo nhau,
    air-to-air or air-to-water type                    caøi vaøo nhau.
    which lowers the charge air                        2 n. device in a changespeed
    temperature to obtain higher air                   gearbox which prevents two gears
    density and better volumetric                      being engaged at the same time:
    efficiency: Boä giaûi nhieät cho khí               Cô caáu choáng keït soá khi sang soá
    naïp trong heä thoáng taêng aùp.               intermediate 1 a. between two
       intercooling n. cooling of the                  things or extremes: Trung gian,
    charge air between compressor                      giöõa.
    and engine: Söï giaûi nhieät khí                   2 n. American car category, with
    naïp.                                              space for 5 - 6 passengers and a
intercrystalline or intergranular                      length of 207 - 215 ins.: Xe Myõ
    corrosion n. small outbreaks of                    loaïi trung vôùi 5, 6 choã.
    rust occurring along crystal                          intermediate coat n. any coat
    boundaries of metals or alloys:                    of paint between the first coat
    Veáât ræ beân trong kim loaïi                      (primer) and last coat (finish):
interference n. noise from the                         Lôùp sôn giöõa.
    ignition system that affects radio                     intermediate (drive) plate or
    and TV reception: Söï nhieãu voâ                   interplate n. disc between the
    tuyeán töø heä thoáng ñaùnh löûa.                  driven plates in a twin plate
interior n. & a. (the) inside (of) a                   clutch: Ñóa truyeàn ñoäng trung
    vehicle: Noäi thaát xe.                            gian.
interior light = COURTESY LIGHT:                            intermediate gear n. any
    Ñeøn traàn.                                        gear between bottom gear and top
interior mirror = rearview mirror                      gear, but usually refers to second


                                             188
intermediate rod                                                     internal vane pump

    or third gears: Baùnh raêng trung              internal damage n. damage to the
    gian.                                              body shell that is not usually
        intermediate rod          n.     =             visible from the outside: Söï hö
    RELAY ROD: Thanh ngang.                            haïi beân trong.
       intermediate shaft n. rotating              internal diameter n. = INSIDE
    shaft joining two other shafts:                    DIAMETER: Ñöôøng kính trong.
    Truïc trung gian.                                       internal gear n. internally
intermittent a. occurring at regular or                toothed annulus gear: Baùnh raêng
    irregular intervals: Ngaét quaõng,                 trong, voøng raêng trong.
    giaùn ñoaïn.                                          internal gear pump n. gear
intermittent fault = fault which                       pump which has one rotor with
    comes and goes (and annoyingly                     internally cut teeth meshing with
    never occurs when the car is taken                 an externally cut gear idler; a
    in to the garage for repair!): Truïc               crescent-shaped partition is used
    traëc, hö hoûng khoâng lieân tuïc.                 to prevent liquid from passing
intermittent wiper control n.                          back to the suction side of the
    operates the wipers at preset                      pump; a typical oil pump,
    intervals; typically adjustable                    characterized by quiet operation
    from 2 to 40 seconds : Söï ñieàu                   and high capacity: Bôm baùnh
    khieån ngaét quaõng caàn gaït nöôùc.               raêng
    (NOTE: US English is mist                                internal micrometer         n.
    action)                                            micrometer          for      inside
internal circlip pliers n. special                     measurements such as distances
    pliers with pointed jaw tips for the               between two parallel surfaces or
    installation and removal of                        inside diameters of cylinder and
    internal circlips: Kìm môû phe beân                main bearing bores: Vi keá ño
    trong.                                             trong (panme)
internal combustion (IC) engine n.                 internal resistance n. the resistance
    type of engine in which the fuel is                inherent in a voltage source, such
    burned within the cylinders of the                 as a battery: Ñieän trôû trong (aéc
    engine (as opposed to, for                         quy).
    example, the steam engine) and                 internal thread n. thread on the
    the gaseous combustion products                    inside of a nut or similar into
    serve as the thermodynamic fluid;                  which the external thread of a bolt
    the spent gases are released into                  or screw fits: Ren trong.
    the atmosphere; the term internal                   (NOTE: also called female
    combustion engine covers all                       thread)
    types of reciprocating and rotary                      internal vane pump n. =
    engines, but is typically used with                SLIDING-VANE PUMP: Bôm
    reference to fourstroke petrol and                 kieåu caùnh tröôït.
    diesel engines: Ñoäng cô ñoát                  International                Standards
    trong.                                             Organization          (ISO)       n.


                                             189
interplate                                                                    Izod method

     Genevabased            organization               angle from which they are
    established (in its present form) in               observed, changes: OÙng aùnh
    1947 to standardize units of                       nhieàu maøu saéc.
    measurement         and    technical          iron n. (a) most common metallic
    design: Toå chöùc tieâu chuaån quoác               element, used for making steel:
    teá.                                               Saét.
interplate n. = INTERMEDIATE                           (b) US = TYRE LEVER
    (DRIVE) PLATE                                 IR remote control n. = INFRARED
interruptor n. see THERMOSTATIC                        REMOTE CONTROL
    INTERRUPTOR                                   IRS      =     INDEPENDENT REAR
intersection n. road junction: Söï                     SUSPENSION
    giao nhau cuûa ñöôøng                         isooctane n. liquid hydrocarbon used
interval operation n. intermittent                     to determine the octane rating of
    operation: Söï hoaït ñoäng ngaét                   fuels: Hydrocarbon loûng duøng ñeå
    quaõng.                                            xaùc ñònh chæ soá octane
IOE engine n. = INLET OVER                        isolator     n.     item that prevents
    EXHAUST ENGINE                                     interaction        between         two
ion n. electrically charged particle                   components: Vaät ngaên caùch
    formed by losing or gaining                   Izod method or test n. impact
    electrons; particles of this type                  resistance test in which the
    make a solution of certain                         specimen is held as a vertical
    chemicals      a     conductor    of               cantilever beam and is broken by
    electricity: Ion.                                  a single swing of a pendulum, with
           ioniccurrent      measuring                 the line of initial contact at a fixed
    method or technique                n.              distance from the specimen clamp
    measuring the conductivity in the                  and from the centreline of the
    spark gap in order to select a                     notch and on the same face as the
    sparking plug of the correct heat                  notch: Phöông phaùp Izod ñeå
    range: Kyõ thuaät (phöông phaùp)                   kieåm tra ñoä cöùng.
    ño ñieän trôû khe hôû bougie ñeå xaùc
    ñònh chæ soá nhieät.
iridescent a. displaying a spectrum of
    glittering, shimmering colours;
    often changing as the position or




                                            190
jack                                                                         jockey pulley


                                            Jj

jack n. mechanical or hydraulic                        carburettor: Vít ñieàu chænh gíclô.
     device for raising (part of) a car:          jet bearing = bearing in a Stromberg
     Caùi kích, con ñoäi.                              carburettor: Voøng ñôõ loã tia chính.
jack stand = AXLE STAND: Con ñoäi                 jet carrier or jet head = removable
     keâ, con ñoäi cheát (3 chaân)                     plug in a carburettor containing
jack up v. to raise using a jack: Kích                 the jet: OÁc ñaäy loã gíclô.
     leân (xe oâtoâ).                             jet needle = tapered needle in a
jacking point = strengthened place on                  carburettor jet: Kim loã tia.
     the under body to put the jack:              jet tube = tube that houses the main
     Ñieåm ñaët kích (döôùi gaàm xe)                   jet in an SU carburettor: OÁng
     (NOTE: small cars have one point                  chöùa gíclô chính.
     on each side but larger cars may             jet process n. process by which the
     have two)                                         thickness of hot-dip galvanized
jackknife v. (of articulated lorries)                  coating on steel strips can be
     to go out of control when braking                 regulated, allowing the application
     harshly so that the trailer slews                 of      coatings       of    different
     round at an angle to the cab: Maát                thicknesses on the two sides of
     ñieàu khieån khi phanh (xe keùo                   steel strips: Quaù trình ñieàu chænh
     container)                                        beà daøy lôùp
jackshaft n. = INTERMEDIATE                       J-flange n. most widely used rim
     SHAFT: Truïc trung gian.                          flange type for passenger car
jalopy n. (informal) a worn-out old                    wheels; the J-flange is 17.3 mm in
     car: OÂtoâ raát cuõ.                              height: Meùp nieàng hình chöõ J.
jamb switch n. push-button light                  jib-jack n. lever-type tower jack:
     switch located in a door jamb (e.                 Kích naâng baèng caàn
     g. for courtesy lights, boot light):         JJD wheel n. safety wheel which can
     Coâng taéc cöûa                                   be run when deflated: Baùnh xe an
jam nut n. = SELF-LOCKING NUT:                         toaøn (coù theå chaïy khi xeïp)
     Ñai oác töï haõm.                            job n. particular piece of work: Coâng
jerking see JOLTING                                    vieäc, vieäc.
jet n. (i) precision-made hole to                 lube job = lubrication of an engine: Söï
     control the flow of petrol, air or                boâi trôn ñoäng cô.
     air/ fuel mixture, as in a                   valve job = replacing or regrinding old
     carburettor: Gíclô, loã tia.                      valves: Söï thay theá hay maøi laïi
    (ii) the nozzle containing such a                  xuùpaùp.
     hole: Voøi phun.                             jockey pulley or wheel n. free-
jet adjuster = nut that regulates the                  turning, spring-loaded idler used
     volume or strength of the air / fuel              to tension the timing belt: Puli
     mixture in a variable-choke                       caêng ñai.


                                            191
joggle                                                                     just-in-time system

joggle 1 n. slight step along the edge                 joyride 1 n. a reckless drive in a
     of a panel to provide a level                          stolen car: Chaïy xe lieàu lónh
     mounting and welding surface so                        trong xe aên caép
     that it can be overlapped against                 judder 1 v. to shake or vibrate: Rung
     the adjacent panel for subsequent                      xoùc.
     lap or spot welding: Gôø, vaáu,                        2 n. shaking or vibration (brake
     khung                                                  judder; clutch judder; wiper blade
     2 v. to join by means of a joggle:                     judder): Söï rung xoùc.
     Noái baèng gôø.                                   juggernaut n. a very large goods
         joggler n. metalworking tool                       lorry: Xe taûi naëng.
     used for creating a joggle: Duïng                 jumper cable n. US = JUMP
     cuï taïo vaáu.                                         LEAD: Daây noái taét.
joint n. the interface at which two or                          jump leads n. pair of well-
     more mechanical or structural                          insulated electrical cables with
     components are united: Khôùp noái,                     crocodile-clip ends, used to
     moái noái, moái gheùp.                                 connect the two live terminals of a
        joint splitting tool n. = BALL                      functioning battery to the dead
     JOINT SEPARATOR: Duïng cuï                             terminals of a flat one to get a car
     thaùo khôùp noái caàu.                                 with a discharged battery started :
jolting n. effect caused by harsh                           Caëp daây noái aéc quy ngoaøi ñeå
     clutch release: car body jerks                         khôûi ñoäng
     repeatedly in a longitudinal                              jump start v. to start a car with
     direction: Söï giaät leân , söï xoùc leân              a flat battery using jump leads to
     khi nhaû ly hôïp.                                      obtain a charge from a nearby live
joule n. SI unit of measurement of                          battery: Khôûi ñoäng baèng caùch
     energy: Ñôn vò naêng löôïng, kí                        noái aéc quy ngoaøi.
     hieäu J.                                          junk 1 n. scrap: Pheá lieäu, söï caét vuïn.
     (NOTE: usually written J with                           2 v. to scrap: Caét vuïn, ñaäp vuïn
     figures: 25J)                                          ra.
jounce and rebound n. = BUMP                                   junkyard n. place where cars
     AND REBOUND                                            are sent for scrap: Baõi xe pheá lieäu
         jounce buffer or bumper n.                    just-in-time system n. system of
     compression buffer at the top of                       production where components are
     the shock absorber or strut: Caùi                      delivered as they are required
     ñeäm giaûm xoùc.                                       rather than keeping them in store:
journal n. the part of a shaft which is                     Heä thoáng saûn xuaát nhòp nhaøng
     supported by a bearing: Coå truïc.                     (Nhaät)




                                                 192
Kadenacy effect                                                        kickdown valve


                                          Kk
Kadenacy effect n. when a port a                       key file n. small file with a
   two-stroke engine opens abruptly,                length of 100/ 150 mm for
   as is the case with a rectangular                sharpening key holes and other
   exhaust port, the cylinder pressure              small components, available in
   gives rise to a positive pressure                standard shapes, e. g. as flat
   wave transmitted down the                        tapered, flat parallel, half round,
   exhaust pipe at the speed of sound               three square, square or round file:
   Kadenacy: Hieäu öùng Kadenacy.                   Duõa nhoû maøi loã khoùa
kangarooing n. (informal) moving                keyless entry system n. allows
   forward in a succession of sudden                locking and unlocking of the
   jerks as a result of improper use of             vehicle's doors and boot without
   the clutch, (a characteristic of                 using a key: Heä thoáng khoùa cöûa
   learner drivers): xe chaïy khoâng                khoâng chìa khoùa (töø xa).
   ñeàu do ngöôøi môùi hoïc laùi                keyway n. slot cut into a component
keep alive memory (KAM) n. =                        which accepts the key (b) of
   FAULT MEMORY: Boä nhôù maõ                       another component to ensure such
   loãi.                                            a tight fit that the two components
kerb n. stone edging between the                    operate as one: Raõnh ñuùt chìa
   pavement and the road: Leà                       khoùa.
   ñöôøng.                                      K-flange n. rim flange type for
(NOTE: US English is curb)                          passenger car wheels; the K-
       kerb weight n. weight of a                   flange is 19.3 mm in height and
   vehicle with fuel, oil and coolant               rarely used today : Meùp nieàng xe
   but without occupants, luggage or                kieåu K.
   payload: Khoái löôïng xe khoâng coù          kick v. US = GO OFF : Xuaát phaùt.
   ngöôøi vaø haønh lyù                                kickdown (KD) n. (automatic
kerosene or kerosine n.(a) fuel for                 gearbox) system that enables a
   jet engines: Xaêng cho ñoäng cô                  driver to accelerate rapidly, by
   phaûn löïc.                                      fully depressing the accelerator
   (b) US = PARAFFIN: Daàu hoûa.                    pedal to engage a lower gear than
key 1 n. (a) metal instrument for                   the one selected by the automatic
   turning locks and key-operated                   gearbox: Heä thoáng gia toác nhanh
   switches: Chìa khoùa.                            trong hoäp soá töï ñoäng baèng caùch
   (b)small peg or wedge that fits                  ñaïp heát ga.
   into a keyway: Chìa khoùa.                       (NOTE: US English is forced
   (c ) L-shaped tool for turning:                  downshift)
   Khoùa chöõ L ñeå quay                        kickdown valve = mechanically or
   (d) recessed screws (e.g.Allen                   electrically operated valve which
   key): Khoùa.                                     actuates a downward gearchange



                                          193
kickplate                                                                   knock limit

    if the accelerator pedal is fully               intersects the wheel plane at or
    depressed: Van xuoáng soá khi                   below ground level, ' negative ' if
    taêng toác                                      the point of intersection is above
       kickplate or kick strip n. =                 ground level: Ñoäï ñieàu chænh goùc
    SCUFF PLATE                                     kingpin.
        kick start v. to start a                    (NOTE: also called scrub radius)
    motorcycle engine by kicking a              kink 1 n. twist or sharp bend in a
    pedal downwards: Caàn khôûi                     hose: Choã thaét nuùt, choã xoaén
    ñoäng.                                          treân oáng meàm
       kickstarter n. pedal lever and               2 v. to form a kink (check for
    ratchet mechanism for kick                      kinked, clogged, or damaged
    starting an engine: Cô caáu khôûi               hoses): Thaét nuùt, xoaén laïi (oáng
    ñoäng baèng caàn (gioø ñaïp)                    meàm)
       kickup n. raised section of the          kit n. set of tools, parts, etc.: Boä
    frame and body to provide                       duïng cuï, boä phuï tuøng
    clearance for the front and/or rear                kit car n. car that is assembled
    suspension system or axles: Söï                 (often by the DIY enthusiast) from
    naâng gaàm                                      its constituent parts; usually with a
        kickup pipe = exhaust pipe                  GRP body shell: Xe töï laép
    section including the elbow or U            K-jetronic      n.      commonly used
    around the rear axle: OÁng uoán                 mechanical fuel injection system
    khuùc cuûa boä giaûm thanh (poâ)                made by Bosch in which the
kidney dolly n. = TOE DOLLY                         amount       of      fuel    injected
kilometre (km) or US kilometer n.                   continuously under pressure into
    unit of length (1 km = 0.621 mile;              the inlet ports is controlled by an
    1 mile = 1.61 km)                               airflow meter: Heä thoáng phun
kilometres per hour (km/h) = unit of                xaêng cô khí.
    velocity: Ñôn vò ño vaän toác.              km (short for) kilometre
kilopascal (kPa) n. SI measurement              km/h = kilometres per hour
    of pressure (= 1000 Pascals): Ñôn           knifing stopper n. fine grade filler
    vò ño aùp suaát.                                for minor dents and chips: Loaïi
kingpin n. vertical or inclined shaft               ma tit ñeå daëm vaù caùc vuøng loõm
    about which a steered wheel                     nhoû treân thaân xe
    pivots: Truï quay laùi.                         knock n. = ENGINE KNOCK:
kingpin axis = centreline of the ball               Tieáng goõ ñoäng cô, kích noå.
    joints in a front suspension                        knock control n. retards the
    system: Ñöôøng taâm cuûa khôùp bi               spark advance when detonation
    trong heä thoáng treo tröôùc                    occurs: Söï kieåm soaùt kích noå.
    (NOTE: also called swivel-axis              knocker n. (informal US) = PANEL
    inclination)                                    PULLER
kingpin offset = geometric parameter:            knock limit n. degree of spark
    'positive' if the kingpin axis                  advance before detonation: Goùc


                                          194
knock-off/on nut                                                                    KPI

    ñaùnh löûa sôùm taïi thôøi ñieåm coù            (ii) hinged joint between two rods
   kích noå.                                        or tubes: Khôùp noái hai truïc (oáng)
knock-off/on nut n. = SPINNER                          knuckle arm n. = STEERING
       knock-off wheel n. splined-                  ARM: Truïc daãn höôùng.
   hub wheel with one central                          knuckle pin n. = KINGPIN
   locking nut (spinner) which is                knurl 1 n. (on nuts, knobs) (series
   knocked on and off with a soft-                  of) small ridges to provide a grip
   headed hammer: baùnh xe moät                     for fingers: Khía treân oác ñeå deã
   khoaù                                            vaën.
knock resistance n. = OCTANE                             2 v. to roughen with knurls:
   NUMBER: Chæ soá choáng kích noå.                 Taïo khía.
        knock sensor           n.     =          knurled nut = thumb nut with knurled
   DETONATION SENSOR: Caûm                          sides : Ñai oác coù khía
   bieán kích noå.                                      knurling n. roughening with
knuckle n. (i) the joint of a hinge                 knurls: Söï taïo khía.
   through which the pin passes:                 KPI = KINGPIN INCLINATION:
   Baûn leà                                         Ñoä nghieâng truï quay laùi.




                                           195
L                                                                      lamp blackening


                                            Ll

L   (a) (automatic transmission) =                   2. v. to make material by bonding
    LOW: Soá thaáp (hoäp soá töï ñoäng)              together several thin sheets: Ñöôïc
Labour v. (engine) to struggle to                    eùp ra töø nhieàu taám
    keep turning due to lack of revs or                   laminated glass = sandwich-
    the use of too high a gear: Di                   type construction of two or more
    chuyeån voøng khoù vì toác ñoä thaáp             panes of glass laminated together
    hoaëc soá cao.                                   with an extremely tough, crystal-
       labouring n. (of engine) having               clear plastic film; on severe
    difficulty in turning: Söï di chuyeån            impact, laminated glass will crack,
    voøng khoù khaên.                                but not shatter like ordinary glass,
     (NOTE: US English is lugging)                   nor craze over like toughened
ladder chassis or US ladder frame n.                 glass: Kính an toaøn coù nhieàu lôùp
    chassis layout in which the side                 (khi ñuïng chæ nöùt maø khoâng vôõ).
    members are connected at                            laminated iron core = the core
    intervals by cross members, like a               of an ignition coil consisting of
    ladder; common on coachbuilt                     pieces of soft iron laminations,
    designs, obsolete in modern                      insulated from one another: Loõi
    unitary     construction     designs:            saét cuûa boâbin goàm nhieàu mieáng
    Khung xe hình caùi thang.                        gheùp laïi.
lake pipes or Lake pipes n. non                             laminated windscreen =
    functional side pipes fitted for                 windscreen made with laminated
    decorative purposes only: Caùc                   glass: Kính tröôùc ñöôïc eùp töø
    oáng beân hoâng ñeå laøm ñeïp xe.                nhieàu mieáng moûng.
lambda n. eleventh letter of the                        laminating n. covering sheets
    Greek alphabet: Heä soá dö löôïng                with a particular layer or covering
    khoâng khí λ, chöõ caùi Hylaïp.                  moulded parts with a specific
         lambda probe or lambda                      plastic film: EÙp nhöïa
    sensor n. = OXYGEN SENSOR:                            lamination n. (i) act of
    Caûm bieán oxy, caûm bieán lambda.               laminating (ii) thin layer (iii)
        lambda window n. narrow                      structure made up of thin layer:
    range (where lambda = 1), which                  Söï eùp, lôùp moûng, caáu truùc laøm
    yields the lowest emission values                töø nhieàu lôùp moûng.
    for CO, NOx, and HC: Vuøng                    lamp n. lighting unit: Caùi ñeøn.
    quanh ñieåm tyû leä hoaø khí lyù                     lamp aperture = opening in a
    töôûng λ = 1                                     sheet metal panel for mounting
laminate 1 n. a sheet of material                    the headlamp or taillight: Loã
    made of several different bonded                 khung baét ñeøn ñaàu hoaëc ñuoâi.
    layers: Taám laøm töø nhieàu lôùp                    lamp blackening = blackening
    khaùc nhau.                                      of a light bulb; gradual blackening


                                            196
lamp cluster                                                                       lateral

    of conventional, i. e. non-halogen                style is still found on some
    light bulbs, occurs as a result of                American sedans (saloons): Loaïi
    metal vapour deposition on the                    xe coå ñieån mui traàn nhöng coù
    glass envelope which reduces                      taám che gheá sau
    light emission; severe blackening            lane n. (a) narrow road, often in the
    indicates imminent bulb failure:                  country: Ñöôøng heïp
    Söï ñen ñaàu boùng ñeøn do                        (b) track on a road, defining lines
    vonfram boác hôi.                                 of traffic: Laøn xe, tuyeán.
       lamp cluster = group of lamps             lap 1 n. rotating disc covered with
    behind a cover; the rear lights of                fine abrasive for polishing: Ñaù
    most cars are grouped together in                 maøi.
    clusters: Cuïm ñeøn goàm nhieàu                  2 v. (valve seats etc.) to polish
    boùng gaàn nhau.                                  with a lap: Maøi (ñeá suù paùp) baèng
      lamp panel = panel that                         ñaù maøi.
    encloses part or all of the                          lap belt n. 2-point belt pulled
    headlamp or taillight cutout and                  across the hips, or lap belt portion
    may extend across the width of                    of a combined lap/shoulder belt;
    the car to include both cutouts; in               mostly only on the rear centre
    the latter case, it forms an                      seat, on some models on all rear
    additional panel to be joined to                  seats: Ñai an toaøn buoäc qua
    the smaller front or rear valances:               hoâng.
    Khung ñeøn                                            lap joint n. (welding) simple
         lamp socket US = BULB                        joint made by overlapping one
    HOLDER: Ñui ñeøn, loã caém boùng                  surface with another and joining
    ñeøn.                                             them together: Söï gheùp mí, haøn
        lamp unit = sealed light unit                 choàng mí.
    with reflector and lens all-in-one:          lash n. US = FREE PLAY: Khoaûng
    Cuïm ñeøn tích hôïp goàm caû göông                dòch chuyeån töï do.
    phaûn chieáu vaø laêng kính.                 last station memory n. (audio/video)
land n. smooth, open area of a                        circuit which ensures that when
    (grooved) surface, such as the                    the unit is turned on, the tuner
    bands of metal between the                        automatically tunes to the station
    grooves in a piston which carry                   that was received before the unit
    the piston rings: Raõnh xeùc maêng.               was turned off: Maïch nhôù ñaøi
landau or landaulet n. classic car                    cuoái (radio, TV)
    style characterized by the fact that         latch      n.     part of the locking
    only the rear seats were protected                mechanism of doors, bonnets,
    by a hard or convertible top,                     boots, tailgates: Choát, then gaøi.
    whereas the driver was exposed to            latch (ing) pillar n. = B-PILLAR:
    the open air in order to be more                  Truï ñôõ trung taâm khung cöûa.
    aware of road and weather                    lateral a. relating to the side: Thuoäc
    conditions; an imitation landaulet                maët beân, ôû beân.


                                           197
lateral acceleration                                                                 LDC

           lateral acceleration         n.             khung ñoái vôùi chaán ñoäng beân
     centrifugal force moving a vehicle                hoâng (Ñoä cöùng ngang).
     towards the outside of a curve                lay-by n. place at the side of a road
     when cornering: Löïc tröôït ngang                 where drivers can stop (to rest):
     khi quay voøng                                    Nôi coù theå döøng xe (nghæ taïm)
lateral air passage n. passage at the              layer of pure zinc n. top layer on
     nozzle of a spray gun for shaping                 hotdip galvanized steel which, in
     the spray pattern to a long or                    contrast to zinc-iron alloy layers,
     elongated oval: Loã khoâng khí ôû                 almost completely consists of
     ñaàu suùng phun sôn ñònh daïng tia                zinc: Lôùp keõm maï treân theùp.
     phun.                                                 layer thickness n. coating
          lateral atomization orifice =                thickness          (indicated     in
    additional passages at the nozzle of               micrometres or millimetres): Ñoä
    a spray gun for supplying                          daøy lôùp phuû (sôn)
    additional air to break up the paint           Layrub coupling n. universal joint
    unto smaller droplets: Loã phuï ôû                 using four moulded rubber inserts
    ñaàu voøi phun sôn duøng ñeå taùn                  mounted on a round steel plate:
    nhoû sôn.                                          Khôùp noái Layrub, khôùp noái coù 4
        lateral grip n. ability of a tyre              cuïc cao su loàng vaøo ñóa theùp.
     to maintain its course, or remain             layshaft n.          intermediate shaft
     under normal steering control,                    between and parallel to the input
     while       being    subjected     to             and output shafts, carrying the two
     directionally              disturbing             pairs of gearwheels which provide
     influences: Söï oån ñònh chuyeån                  the required changes in gear ratio:
     ñoäng cuûa baùnh xe khi coù taùc                  Truïc trung gian (coù gaén caëp
     ñoäng beân ngoaøi.                                baùnh raêng) trong hoäp soá.
         lateral impact n. side crash:                 (NOTE:         US        English  is
     Söï va chaïm beân hoâng.                          countershaft)
         lateral runout n. side-to-side            lazy tongs n. (i) any device with
     wobble (e. g. of wheel, brake disc,               extensible arms (often in the form
     rotor): Ñoä ñaûo beà maët (baùnh xe,              of a series of crossed, hinged bars)
     ñóa phanh …)                                      for handling objects at a distance:
     (NOTE: the maximum lateral                        Duïng cuï coù tay noái
     runout of a brake disc should not                 (ii) specifically, a type of pop
     exceed 0.004 in or 0.1 mm)                        rivet gun with such arms: Suùng
            lateral stability       n. =               taùn diveâ coù ñaàu noái.
     LATERAL GRIP: Söï oån ñònh                    LCD (short for) liquid-crystal display:
     ngang.                                            an optical, digital display used in
        lateral stiffness n. resistance of             the instrument panel: Maøn hình
     a vehicle body structure to lateral               tinh theå loûng.
     impact: Khaû naêng chòu löïc cuûa             LDC = LOWER DEAD CENTRE:


                                             198
LDPE                                                                                   lean

    Ñieåm cheát döôùi.                                   lead tolerance = resistance to
LDPE           =        LOW-DENSITY                 leaded fuel: Choáng xaêng pha chì
    POLYETHYLENE: Nhöïa PE tyû                           lead weight = balance weight
    troïng thaáp.                                   on a wheel rim: Mieáng chì caân
lead 1 n. soft, toxic, heavy metal used             baèng treân maâm baùnh xe
    in starter batteries, and in leaded          lead 2 n. (a) connection cable for an
    fuel as an anti-knock agent: Chì.                electric current: Daây noái (ñieän)
         lead-acid battery = system of               (b) (bolt, screw) distance from
   lead plates and dilute sulphuric                  the thread crest to the adjacent
   acid; used as a starter battery and               crest of the same thread: Böôùc
   as a traction battery in electric                 ren.
   vehicles: AÉc quy axít chì.                   lead and lag n. terms referring to the
         lead-antimony grid = Coát                   time between a valve opening and
   baûn cöïc baèng hôïp kim chì                      TDC or BDC (valve lead), and the
   antimon.                                          time between TDC or BDC and a
         lead deposit = lead particles               valve closing (valve lag): Thôøi
   that separate from the battery                    gian töø luùc suù pap ñoùng ñeán khi
   plates during normal operation:                   piston leân ñieåm cheát treân hoaëc
   Lôùp caën chì (aéc quy)                           cheát döôùi vaø thôøi gian suù paùp môû
         leaded petrol = petrol to                   ñeán khi piston leân ñieåm cheát
   which lead has been added as an                   treân hoaëc cheát döôùi
   anti-knock agent: Xaêng pha chì.              leading a. forward or at the front:
         lead-free petrol = unleaded                 Daãn ñaàu, ñaàu.
   petrol: Xaêng khoâng pha chì.                         leading       arm      =      front
         lead glazing = faulty sparking             suspension link which supports the
   plug condition caused by molten                  wheel in front of the pivot point:
   lead salt deposits that solidify into            Ñoøn daãn höôùng
   a yellow, brown or green glaze:                       leading shoe = shoe of a brake
   Tình traïng bougie bò hö do ñieän                drum system which pivots outwards
   cöïc bò baùm chì.                                into the approaching drum: Boá
         lead loading = the process of              phanh (troáng)
   filling dents and damaged areas of               (NOTE: US English is primary
   the bodywork with body lead: Söï                 shoe)
   traùm chì (laøm ñoàng).                       leaf spring n. flat, narrow, metal strip
         lead peroxide = poisonous                   of varying length used as a spring:
   compound used, for example, as an                 Loø xo laù, nhíp.
   electrode in batteries: PbO2 –                lean a. of a weak air/ fuel mixture
   chaát laøm baûn cöïc döông aéc quy.               that has less petrol than normal:
         lead sulphate = chemical                    Thieáu xaêng (hoãn hôïp hoøa khí
   compound;        poisonous      white             ngheøo)
   crystals found in discharged                      (NOTE: opposite is rich)
   batteries: Sunfat chì.                               Lean Authority Limit Switch


                                           199
lean-burn engine                                                                    LHD

     n. developed by GM to monitor                      available to move one's legs in a
     heated carburettor inlet air                      vehicle: Choã ñeå chaân, choã duoãi
     through an air cleaner TVS and to                 chaân.
     prevent the control unit from                 LE-Jetronic       n.    the LE-Jetronic
     providing the carburettor with too                system         incorporates     the
     lean a mixture, for better                        advantages of direct airflow
     performance when starting from                    measurement           with      the
     cold: Coâng taéc giôùi haïn hoaø khí              enhancements         afforded    by
     ngheøo (ñeå deã khôûi ñoäng)                      electronics: Heä thoáng phun xaêng
          lean-burn engine n. engine                   ñieän töû ño tröïc tieáp löu löôïng
     which uses a lean mixture of fuel                 khí naïp.
     and air to increase fuel economy              lemon n. a new or used car with
     and reduce exhaust emissions:                     many defects: Xe bò loãi.
     Ñoäng cô ñoát ngheøo.                         lens n. glass or plastic front cover of
        lean mixture n. mixture with                   a headlight through which the
     more oxygen than necessary to                     light converges or diverges: Thaáu
     burn the fuel contained in the                    kính, kính khuyeách taùn ôû ñeøn
     mixture:      Hoãn hôïp hoøa khí                  ñaàu.
     ngheøo.                                       let in v. (clutch) to engage: Gaøi
     (NOTE: opposite is rich mixture)                  khôùp.
LED (short for) light-emitting diode:                       let out v. to release: Nhaû
     a semiconductor device used for                   khôùp, xaû.
     digital displays in the instrument            level n. Möùc.
     panel: Ñioát phaùt quang.                             level out v. to work on a panel
left-hand drive (LHD) a. steering                      to remove irregularities with the
     system where the steering wheel                   use of hammer and dolly or by
     is located on the left-hand side of               filling and sanding, etc.: Laøm
     the vehicle; used for driving on                  phaúng thaân xe.
     the right, as in most parts of the                    level plug n. threaded plug in
     world,      except       for     some             the side of a gearbox or rear axle
     Commonwealth countries (e. g.                     to determine if sufficient oil has
     the UK and Australia), and Japan:                 been used during filling: Que
     Tay laùi thuaän, tay laùi beân traùi.             thaêm daàu.
     (NOTE: opposite is right-hand                 levering bar n. metalworking tool
     drive)                                            shaped like a large tyre lever with
         left-hand thread n. thread                    flat hooked ends for levering bent
     which will accept a nut turned                    panels back into position: Caùi ñe
     anticlockwise: Ren ngöôïc                         lôùn (laøm ñoàng)
leftward welding n. welding a seam                 LH (short for) left hand: Beân traùi,
     towards the left: Haøn theo höôùng                baèng tay traùi.
     traùi.                                        LHD = LEFT-HAND DRIVE: Tay
legroom n. the amount of space                         laùi thuaän.


                                             200
L-head                                                                         light unit

 L-head n. L-shaped combustion                     ALLOY PISTON: Píttoâng hôïp
     chamber: Buoàng chaùy hình chöõ L             kim nheï.
          L-head engine = side valve                   light-alloy wheel = ALLOY
     engine: Ñoäng cô coù suù paùp beân            WHEEL: Maâm baùnh xe hôïp kim
     hoâng.                                        nheï (ñuùc)ï.
licence or US license n. document                     light bulb n. = BULB: Boùng
      giving official permission to do             ñeøn.
      something: Baèng caáp, giaáy pheùp.             lighter n. electric, push-button
           license plate n. US =                   device on the dashboard which,
      NUMBER PLATE: Baûng soá.                     when depressed, produces a red-
lift n. (a) amount by which a poppet               hot       filament     for     lighting
      valve rises when opened: Khoaûng             cigarettes, etc.: Caùi moài thuoác laù
      ñoäi suù paùp                                trong xe.
      (b) aerodynamic force caused by                  light-fast a. unaffected by
      greater pressure above the car               light: Khoâng bò aûnh höôûng bôûi
      than below it and having the                 aùnh saùng
      effect of loss of traction and                    light-footed      a.     used to
      stability; (counteracted by a                describe a mode of driving which
      suitable spoiler): Xe bò boàng               uses gentle pressure on the
      beành do löïc khí ñoäng                      accelerator, thus maximizing fuel
         lifter n. US = TAPPET: Con                economy: Kieåu laùi xe ñaïp ga nheï
      ñoäi.                                        ñeå tieát kieäm nhieân lieäu.
liftgate n. US = TAILGATE: Cöûa                       light-off temperature n. the
      sau.                                         temperature at which a catalytic
lifting platform take-up point n. any              converter achieves a 50%
      of the lifting points specified by           conversion rate; typically near
      the manufacturer for supporting              250°C: Nhieät ñoä maø boä xuùc taùc
      the car on a lifting platform: Ñieåm         hoaït ñoäng 50%.
      ñoäi (gaàm xe)                                  lights-on reminder n. usually
lift pump n. = FUEL PUMP: Bôm                      a buzzer, chime or voice alert
      nhieân lieäu.                                which reminds you that you have
light 1 a. (a) easy to operate: Nheï               left the car lights on: Baùo coøn baät
      nhaøng, deã söû duïng.                       ñeøn baèng tieáng coøi hoaëc gioïng
      (NOTE: opposite is heavy)                    noùi.
      (b) weighing relatively little; not             light truck or van n. typically
      heavy: Nheï.                                 a vehicle under 3 tons, which
      2. n. (a) illumination, as from              includes pickups, passenger vans
      lamp: Soi saùng                              and most 4WD vehicles and for
      (b)      vehicle window: Cöûa soå            which one does not need a special
      (kính) xe.                                   licence: Xe taûi nheï.
         light-alloy piston n. =                      light unit n. = LAMP UNIT:
                                                   Cuïm ñeøn.


                                             201
limit                                                                                     lip

limit n. the performance limit of a               line pressure n. line pressure is fed
    car's chassis, tyres, etc. typically               to the shifting components when
    experienced         during     sharp               they are to be applied; it increases
    cornering at high speeds : Söï giôùi               in proportion to engine speed and
    haïn tính naêng cuûa thaân xe, baùnh               is the highest pressure in the
    xe khi quay voøng gaáp ôû toác ñoä                 hydraulic control system: Aùp suaát
    cao.                                               treân oáng
          limit cycle control n. =                liner n. = CYLINDER LINER: OÁng
    CLOSED-LOOP CONTROL: Chu                           loùt xy lanh.
    trình ñieàu khieån kín.                       line spanner n. = FLARE NUT
        limited-slip differential n. axle              SPANNER: Côø leâ nuï, oáng tuyùp.
    differential or central differential          lining n. (a) interior trim, e. g. of
    incorporating a locking or slip-                   doors, convertible tops: Lôùp vaûi
    limiting mechanism to counter                      mui.
    wheel spin: Caàu vi sai vôùi cô caáu               (b) friction material (e. g. on
    khoùa                                              brake shoes in drum brake, on
        limiter n. = ENGINE SPEED                      clutch disc, on brake bands in
    LIMITER: Cô caáu giôùi haïn toác                   automatic transmission): Chaát ma
    ñoä ñoäng cô.                                      saùt trong boá phanh, boá ly hôïp…
limousine or (informal) limo n.                   linishing n. smoothing sheet metal
    large luxurious car with a glass                   using power tools, e. g. with an
    partition between driver and                       angle grinder and emery belt or
    passengers: Loaïi xe lôùn daøi sang                grinding disk: Söï maøi nhaün taám
    troïng, coù kính ngaên giöõa buoàng                kim loaïi
    laùi vaø khoang sau.                          link n. (a) movable, hinged piece
limp-home mode (of operation) n.                       connecting moving parts of a
    standby circuit which allows a car                 machine: Thanh noái, maéc noái.
    with electronic system trouble to                  (b) = SUSPENSION LINK: Caùc
    be driven home slowly: Söï chaïy                   thanh noái heä thoáng treo.
    baèng heä thoáng döï phoøng khi xe                      linkage power steering n.
    gaëp söï coá (heä thoáng ñieàu khieån              linkage-type,           power-assisted
    ñoäng cô)                                          steering system in which a
linear (source) lamp n. = FESTOON                      conventional manual system is
    BULB: Boùng ñeøn trang trí.                        assisted by hydraulic or pneumatic
        linear wiper system n. system                  effort applied directly to a track
    in which the wiper arm is attached                 rod: Trôï löïc laùi kieåu thanh noái
    both at the top and bottom and,               lip n. the edge of a sheet metal panel
    instead of describing the usual arc,               folded at right angles to the basic
    is guided in a straight line from                  panel contours; often used to
    one side of the windscreen to the                  mount the panel to an adjacent
    other: Heä thoáng gaït nöôùc vôùi                  panel, e. g. for spot welding:
    thanh gaït chaïy thaúng.                           Meùp, mieäng (taám, voû khung)


                                            202
liquid-cooled                                                        load floor extension

        lip seal with garter spring n. =              truyeàn.
     RADIAL SHAFT SEAL: Phôùt                     live axle n. a power-transmitting
     chaän nhôùt truïc ngang                          axle: Truïc truyeàn ñoäng.
     liquefied natural gas (LNG) n.               L-Jetronic air flow meter n. airflow
     e. g. methane, possible future                   meter used on the L-Jetronic
     alternative fuel for SI engines:                 system: Boä ño gioù kieåu L.
     Khí thieân nhieân hoùa loûng.                         L-Jetronic (fuel injection)
        liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)                 system         n.       electronically
     n. by-product of oil refining,                   controlled fuel injection system:
     mainly butane or propane or a                    Heä thoáng phun xaêng ñieän töû
     mixture of the two gases, used as                kieåu L.
     a fuel for some SI petrol engines:           load n. (a) something to be born or
     Khí ñoàng haønh hoùa loûng.                      transported: Taûi
liquid-cooled a. (engine) cooled by                   (b)         amount of material
     the passage of water or oil: Laøm                transported: Troïng taûi.
     maùt baèng nöôùc hoaëc nhôùt                     (c) amount of power carried by an
     (NOTE: opposite is air-cooled)                   electric circuit: Taûi ñieän.
        Liquide Hydraulique Minerale                  (d) resistance overcome by an
     (LHM) n. green hydraulic fluid                   engine when it is driving a
     used by Citroen for some of their                machine: Söùc taûi (ñoäng cô)
     suspension systems: Nhôùt thuyû                        load alteration effect n.
     löïc maøu xanh duøng cho heä thoáng              reactions in the drive train or, in
     treo Citroen                                     FWD vehicles, in the steering, due
          liquid gasket       n.     room             to sudden load alteration: Phaûn
     temperature vulcanizing gasket                   öùng cuûa phaàn ñoäng löïc, cuûa heä
     sealer (from a tube): Roong loûng.               thoáng laùi khi taûi troïng thay ñoåi
         liquid paint n. paint which                  ñoät ngoät.
     contains solvents and cures at                            load-controlled        power
     room temperature or by baking:                   distribution n. drive torque
     Dung dòch sôn.                                   distribution, as established e. g. by
        liquid pump n. machine used                   a Torsen differential: Söï phaân
     to raise liquids from a low to a                 phoái coâng suaát theo taûi troïng.
     high energy level by transferring                   load floor n. (i) cargo-carrying
     energy to the medium being                       area of a van or lorry: Thuøng sau
     pumped: Maùy bôm chaát loûng.                    xe taûi
list price n. the price ex-factory, as                (ii) floor of the luggage area of an
     quoted in the price list, as opposed             estate car or hatchback: Ngaên
     to the actual sales price which will             chöùa ñoà sau xe du lòch.
     include on-the-road charges:                 load floor extension = moulded tray
     Baûng giaù goác.                                 that folds out of the rear luggage
little end n. small end of the                        area and provides an extended
connecting rod: Ñaàu nhoû thanh                       load       floor     which       hangs


                                            203
load index                                                                  lock cylinder

        out over the bumper; (can also             locating lug or pin n. projection or
   be used for picnics): Saøn chöùa ñoà                pin for holding a part in a specific
   keùo roäng ñöôïc.                                   position: Choát ñònh vò.
        load index (LI) n. coded                   locating spring n. (of disc brakes)
    number on the sidewall of a tyre                   steel wire clip that secures the
    to indicate the maximum load the                   cylinder in a floating frame or
    tyre may carry at a given speed                    caliper frame: Loø xo ñònh vò.
    under manufacturer's conditions:               lock 1 (a) n. device for closing
    Chæ soá taûi troïng cuûa baùnh xe.                 something with a key to prevent
        load rating n. = LOAD                          unauthorized entry: OÅ khoùa.
    INDEX: Chæ soá taûi troïng.                        (b) (steering) amount by which
       load resistor n. = BALLAST                      the wheels of a vehicle are able to
    RESISTOR: Ñieän trôû phuï (ñaùnh                   turn: Goùc laùi coù theå
    löûa)                                                  full lock = the maximum angle
load-sensitive proportioning valve n.                 attained by the wheels when the
    valve which regulates hydraulic                   steering wheel is turned to its full
    pressure to the rear wheels as a                  extent: Goùc laùi toái ña.
    function of chassis height-to-axle                 2 v. (a) to close with a key:
    distance: Van phaân phoái theo taûi                Khoùa baèng chìa.
    troïng.                                            (b)         to fix or become fixed
load transfer        n.    =     WEIGHT                in a certain position: Laøm coá
    TRANSFER: Söï chuyeån taûi.                        ñònh, ñònh vò.
lobe n. = CAM LOBE: Vaáu cam.                          (c) (gear train members) to
       lobe-type supercharger n. a                     interlock or couple: Söï caøi vaøo
    positive displacement compressor                   nhau (baùnh raêng)
    with twolobed rotors: Bôm taêng                        lockable differential n. =
    aùp kieåu cam quay.                                LIMITED-SLIP DIFFERENTIAL:
local cell n. galvanic cell resulting                  Vi sai coù cô caáu khoùa
    from differences in potential                         lockable wheel n. wheel that
    between adjacent areas on the                      can be secured to the hub with a
    surface of a metal immersed in an                  lock: Baùnh xe coù cô caáu khoùa
    electrolyte: Pin cuïc boä.                            lock angle n. = STEERING
localized corrosion n. corrosion                       ANGLE: Goùc laùi.
    occurring at one part of a metal                       lock buster n. = LOCK
    surface at a much higher rate than                 PULIER
    over the rest of the surface, e. g.            lock cylinder n. cylinder in the middle
    pitting       corrosion,       crevice             of a cylinder lock that is prevented
    corrosion: Söï aên moøn cuïc boä.                  from turning (locked) by a number
    (NOTE: opposite is uniform                         of pins (typically five) which
    corrosion)                                         penetrate down through the wall
locating dowel n. = DOWEL PIN:                         of the cylinder: Xylanh coù choát
    Choát ñònh vò.                                     ñònh vò


                                             204
lock facing                                                                 longitudinal

lock facing n. the surface of a door to             top of another nut (ii) self-locking
    which the lock is attached: Beà                 nut: Ñai oác töï haõm, ñai oác haõm.
    maët laép khoùa (cöûa xe).                          lock picker set n. set of
       locking bar clamp n. locking                 special door lock picker; attached
    clamp with sliding jaw providing                to the outside of a car door lock,
    extended clamping capabilities:                 the lock puller rips out the entire
    Baøn keïp, eâtoâ.                               lock cylinder: Ñoà naïy oå khoùa.
locking clamp n. locking pliers with                   lock ring pliers n. tool for
    specially shaped jaws for vice                  removing and installing heavy-
    work and intricate clamping jobs:               duty circlips, used e. g. on brakes,
    Kìm coù raêng khoùa                             transmissions, pedal shafts, and
locking differential n. differential                clutch shafts: Kìm môû phe.
    with the facility for locking                          lock-up       clutch         n.
    together the two half shafts, thus              automatically engaged clutch in a
    putting the differential out of                 lock-up torque converter which
    action and greatly improving                    prevents slipping losses: Cô caáu
    traction: Boä vi sai coù khoùa.                 noái ly hôïp trong bieán moâ (hoäp soá
         locking lug bolt/nut        n.             töï ñoäng)
    antitheft wheel lug bolt/nut:                       lock-up torque converter =
    Buloâng/ ñai oác khoùa baùnh xe ñeå             torque converter in which the
    choáng troäm.                                   pump can be mechanically locked
       locking mechanism or locking                 to the turbine, eliminating any loss
    reel n. device which locks the                  through the fluid: Boä bieán moâ coù
    reel of a seat belt when the                    khoùa tuoác bin
    forward acceleration of the                 long block n. the long block consists of
    occupant exceeds a certain value:               the short block plus oil pump and
    Cô caáu khoùa chaët ñai an toaøn                sump,         cylinder        head(s),
    khi xe taêng toác.                              camshaft(s) as well as the
locking pliers n. pliers with locking               complete valve train: Khoái ñoäng
    jaws: Kìm coù raêng khoùa.                      cô ñaày ñuû chi tieát
locking synchromesh n. common                       (NOTE: opposite is short block)
    synchromesh mechanism in which              long block engine n. engine with a
    the synchromesh pressure is                     relatively long crankshaft: Ñoäng
    proportional to the gearchange                  cô coù truïc khuyûu daøi.
    force, thus preventing overriding               (NOTE: opposite is short block
    of the synchromesh action due to                engine)
    hasty operation of the lever; the           longeron n. main side member:
    gear and gearchange sleeve are                  Thanh doïc chính (khung xe)
    prevented from engaging until               long-haul a. long distance: Khoaûng
    rotational         speeds       are             caùch daøi.
    synchronized: Boä ñoàng toác.               longitudinal a. lengthways: Theo
       lock nut n. (i) nut screwed on               chieàu doïc.


                                          205
longitudinal engine                                                               lowball

        longitudinal        engine    =              lorry n. large motor vehicle for
   traditional engine layout used on                 carrying goods: Xe taûi.
   most RWD vehicles with the                        (NOTE: US English is always
   cylinders lying lengthways from                   truck)
   the front to the back: Ñoäng cô ñaët         lost-core technique n. method of
   doïc.                                             producing thermoplastic inlet
   (NOTE: also called north - south                  manifolds: Phöông phaùp cheá taïo
   layout)                                           oáng goùp huùt baèng nhöïa.
        longitudinal        girder   or                  lost-foam casting (process) n.
   member = SIDE MEMBER:                             casting method using foamed
   Thanh doïc chính cuûa söôøn xe.                   plastic cores, giving the surface of
long-nose pliers n. pliers with half                 the casting the appearance of
    round and tapered jaws, often with               styrofoam; used for engine blocks:
    a wire cutter and used for                       Phöông phaùp ñuùc duøng loõi nhöïa
    electrical work: Kìm moû daøi.                   boït.
    (NOTE: also called snipe-nose               loud pedal n. (informal) accelerator
    pliers)                                          pedal: Baøn ñaïp ga.
        long-nose self-grip pliers =            louvre or US louver n. (a) air
   locking pliers with extra long reach              ventilation slot stamped in several
   jaws: Kìm moû töï haõm.                           rows into bonnets and bootlids (b)
       long-reach C-clamp n. self-                   = VENT: Loã thoâng hôi.
    grip locking clamp with extra long          Low (L) n. (automatic transmission)
    C-shaped jaws: Caùi keïp hình                    driving gear ratio for hilly terrain;
    chöõ C                                           the top gear is not engaged, and
long stroke engine n. reciprocating                  the engine brake takes effect: Tay
    piston      engine     whose   bore              soá thaáp, tay soá L.
    diameter is smaller than the                low-bake booth n. closed section in
    stroke; a relatively long stroke                 painting lines in a paint shop, in
    produces higher low-end torque at                which coats of paint are dried at
    the cost of increased piston speeds              low temperatures : Phoøng saáy
    and reduced revving ability: Ñoäng               chaäm.
    cô coù haønh trình daøi.                                low-bake equipment =
    (NOTE: opposite is short stroke                  equipment for drying coats of
    engine)                                          paint at low temperatures: Thieát
loom n. = WIRING HARNESS:                            bò saáy sôn ôû nhieät ñoä thaáp.
    Buoái (boù) daây ñieän.                              low-bake paint = respray paint
loop scavenging n. method of                         baked at 80°C, giving a high-
    scavenging used on two-stroke                    quality finish but requiring
    motorcycle engines: Quaù trình                   suitable        low-bake         spray
    queùt khí kín (2 kyø)                            booths/ovens: Sôn noùng.
loosen v. to make (something) less              lowball n. US in car sales, the
    tight; to slacken: Nôùi loûng.                   practice of stating a very low price


                                          206
low battery                                                         low-profile air cleaner

    for a new car to a customer who is                 raêng nhoû truyeàn ñoäng baùnh
    known or expected to be                            raêng lôùn ñeå tyû soá truyeàn lôùn.
    comparison shopping: Ñeà nghò giaù             low-loader n. lorry for heavy loads
    thaáp khi bieát khaùch haøng so giaù               with a low-level loading platform
low battery n. nearly flat battery: AÉc                and often an extension ramp or
    quy yeáu.                                          lift-operated tailboard which can
low beam n. US = DIPPED BEAM:                          be lowered to street level: Xe taûi
    Ñeøn coát                                          coù böûng sau haï saùt ñaát ñeå laáy
low-carbon steel n. steel containing                   haøng
    0.03 to 0.3 percent carbon                     low-maintenance battery n. battery
    (typically 0.2%): Theùp cacbon                     with removable vent caps that
    thaáp.                                             only requires topping-up about
low-density polyethylene (LDPE) n.                     once a year: AÉc quy ít caàn baûo
    a     relatively     soft,    flexible             döôõng.
    polyethylene, used mainly for                  low oil sensor n. = OIL LEVEL
    plastic film and sheet: Nhöïa toång                SENSOR: Caûm bieán möïc daàu.
    hôïp tyû troïng thaáp.                                 low oil warning light n. =
low-emission a. generally, releasing                   ENGINE OIL LEVEL WARNING
    relatively few pollutants into the                 LIGHT: Ñeøn baùo möïc daàu.
    environment: Möùc oâ nhieãm thaáp              low-pressure cut-out           n.    device
    cuûa khí thaûi.                                    which protects the air conditioning
lower dead centre (LDC) n. =                           system       by       switching      the
    BOTTOM          DEAD       CENTRE:                 compressor off when a pressure
    Ñieåm cheát döôùi.                                 loss occurs: Van aùp suaát thaáp
lower front panel n. = FRONT                           baûo veä maùy neùn (ñieàu hoaø).
    APRON: Taám chaén phía tröôùc.                           low-pressure foaming            n.
low fuel indicator n. warning light                    process in which plastics are
    which comes on when fuel is                        foamed under low pressure (1-5
    getting low (usually indicating,                   bar): Söï taïo boït cuûa nhöïa vôùi aùp
    when the light first comes on, that                suaát thaáp.
    there is still sufficient fuel to                  (NOTE:        opposite      is     high-
    travel at least 25-50 miles): Ñeøn                 pressure foaming)
    baùo möùc nhieân lieäu thaáp.                           low-pressure pump or low-
low gear n. first or second gear, used                 head pump n. pump used for low
    for driving off and climbing steep                 total heads; in the case of
    hills: Soá thaáp.                                  centrifugal pumps the low-
    (NOTE: opposite is high gear)                      pressure pump has a nominal total
       low geared a. characterized                     head not exceeding 80 m: Bôm aùp
    by a small gearwheel (on an input                  suaát thaáp.
    shaft) driving a large one (on the             low-profile air cleaner n. usually a
    output shaft), providing a high                    circular, flat, chrome-plated air
    gear ratio and high torque: Baùnh                  cleaner, mounted on top of the


                                             207
low-profile tyre                                                       lubrication system

    carburettor: Boä loïc gioù troøn treân             CIRCUIT: Maïch sô caáp.
    boä cheá hoaø khí.                             lube n. (informal) LUBRICATION:
low-profile tyre n. tyre with a wide                   Söï boâi trôn.
    tread but no comparative increase                      lube oil = LUBRICATION
    in height: Voû xe coù gai roäng                    OIL: Daàu boâi trôn.
    nhöng khoâng cao                                       lube job = LUBRICATION:
    low rider        n. customized car                 Söï boâi trôn.
    loweredto the extreme through                         lubricant n. oily or greasy
    body          and         suspension               substance used to reduce friction
    modifications: Xe ñöôïc haï thaáp                  between parts or objects in
    (khung)                                            relative motion: Daàu nhôøn, chaát
low side n. (of air conditioning                       boâi trôn.
    systems)        side between the                      lubricate v. to cover or treat
    expansion valve or orifice tube                    with a lubricant: Boâi trôn.
    and the compressor; includes the                       lubricating oil n. refined
    evaporator: Phaàn aùp thaáp cuûa heä               crude oil used as a lubricant: Daàu
    thoáng ñieàu hoaø                                  boâi trôn.
low spot n. indentation on a panel                            lubricating pressure =
    surface: Veát loõm treân thaân xe                  pressure of a lubricating oil: Aùp
low temperature activity n. denotes                    suaát daàu boâi trôn.
    the ability of a catalytic converter           lubrication n. covering or treating
    to purify exhaust gases in the                     moving surfaces with oil or grease
    warm-up phase following a cold                     to keep them apart to reduce
    start: Khaû naêng hoaù khöû ôû nhieät              friction and wear: Söï boâi trôn.
    ñoä thaáp.                                           lubrication film = coat of
low temperature fouling           n.     =             lubricant to reduce the friction
    CARBON FOULING: Ñoùng muoäi                        created when two surfaces move
    do nhieät ñoä thaáp                                on one another: Maøng daàu boâi
low tension n. low voltage: Hieäu                      trôn.
    ñieän theá thaáp.                                      lubrication point = place at
low voltage circuit n. = PRIMARY                       which to apply lubricant: Choã boâi
    CIRCUIT: Maïch sô caáp, maïch                      trôn, ñieåm boâi trôn.
    haï theá.                                             lubrication pump = pump used
low zinc technology n. technology                      to supply oil to lubricating points,
    used in present-day phosphating                    particularly for plain bearings:
    processes: Coâng ngheä maï keõm                    Bôm nhôùt.
    môùi.                                                   lubrication system = the
L-section ring n. special piston ring                  system in the engine that supplies
    characterized by its L-shaped                      engine parts with lubricating oil to
    cross-section: Maët caét xeùcmaêng                 prevent contact between any two
    daïng L.                                           metal surfaces: Heä thoáng boâi
LT circuit n. = PRIMARY                                trôn.


                                             208
lug                                                          Lysholm supercharger

lug   n. (a) device mounted on a                  surface, in candela per square
    rotating shaft or component that              metre; not the same as the
    engages in a recess of a                      apparent brightness: Cöôøng ñoä
    component to be driven: Maáu                  saùng.
    khôùp (truïc)                             lustre or US luster n. reflected light;
    luggage n. travelling bags or                 sheen or gloss: Nöôùc boùng, veû
    suitcases: Haønh lyù.                         röïc rôõ.
       luggage carrier = rack bolted          luxe (L) n. although the word means
    on top of the boot lid for taking             luxury, on its own it is often used
    luggage or the spare wheel (often             to denote a rather basic model:
    seen on old sports cars where                 Loaïi xe haïng sang.
    space was at a premium): Giaù             Lysholm supercharger n. lobe-type
    mang haønh lyù.                               supercharger similar to the Roots
lugging n. US = LABOURING                         compressor, but more efficient
lug nut n. US = WHEEL NUT                         and much more expensive
lumbar support n. seat support for                Lysholm: Boä taêng aùp kieåu
    the lower back: Thanh choáng                  Lysholm
    löng gheá.
luminance n. luminous intensity of a
    surface in a given direction per
    unit of projected area of the




                                        209
machine screw                                                      magnetic pick-up


                                        Mm
M + S tyre n. mud and snow tyre;                     MacPherson suspension =
  winter tyre with a deep tread M +             suspension layout incorporating
  S: Loaïi loáp xe ñi treân buøn vaø            MacPherson struts:        Heä thoáng
  baêng tuyeát                                  treo MacPherson
machine screw        n. screw with a          macromolecule n. any very large
  thread running the lengh of the               molecule, such as a synthetic
  shank and available with a variety            polymer used in the manufacture
  of different heads: Vít baét vaøo             of plastic: Phaân töû lôùn, ñaïi phaân
  kim loaïi                                     töû
         machinists’     caliper   n.               macromolecular a. with very
  measuring tool with two curved                large molecules: Vôùi caùc ñaïi phaân
  arms for inside or outside                    töû
  measurement; the reading taken              MAF = MASS AIRFLOW: Löu löôïng
  with the arms is transferred to a             khoâng khí tính baèng khoái löôïng
  steel rule or micrometer to attain          mag n. (informal) = MAGNETO:
  the exact value: Compa ño trong               Ma nheâ toâ (maùy phaùt ñieän nam
  vaø ño ngoaøi                                 chaâm vónh cöûu)
      machinists’ hammer = BALL               magnesium wheel         n. = ALLOY
  PEEN HAMMER: Buùa thôï maùy                   WHEEL: Maâm baùnh xe loaïi hôïp
  coù moät ñaàu troøn                           kim
MacPherson strut n. (suspension)              magnetic clutch n. = ECTRO-
  unitary construction of spring and            MAGNETIC CLUTCH: Boä ly
  damper elements with the hub                  hôïp loaïi ñieän töø
  carrier being attached rigidly to                 magnetic (drain) plug n. plug
  the outer tubular member: Thanh               fitted in the sump to collect metal
  giaèng MacPherson (heä thoáng                 debris: Nuùt töø tính trong cacte
  treo)                                         daàu ñeå huùt maïc kim loaïi
      MacPherson strut tower =                      magnetic field n. the portion
  sheet metal panel surrounding the             of space found in the vicinity of a
  upper mount of the MacPherson                 magnetic body or a current-
  strut at the side panels of the               carrying medium in which the
  engine compartment; it may be a               forces due to the body or current
  separate panel fitted by spot-                can be detected: Töø tröôøng
  welding or a deep-drawn section             magnetic pick-up (assembly) n. pulse
  of the side panel shaped to take              generator consisting of a stator
  the upper strut end: Uï baét thanh            with a permanent magnet and a
  giaèng                                        rotor, which induces an AC voltage
  (NOTE: also called suspension leg             in the inductive winding by the
  turret)                                       periodical change of the air gap


                                        210
magnetic pick-up (tool)                                 main mixture discharge nozzle

   between stator and rotor: Caûm                    the hood is raised and taut, and
   bieán ñieän töø loaïi nam chaâm coá               defines the hinge point for the
   ñònh.                                             folding motion: Thanh choáng
magnetic pick-up (tool) n. tool with                 chính
   flexible or rigid shaft and magnetic           main beam n. long-range setting of
   tip used to retrieve dropped nuts,                a vehicle’s headlamp; as the beam
   bolts, and other metal parts from                 is directed straight ahead, it will
   hard-to-reach places: Thanh daøi                  dazzle oncoming traffic if used
   coù gaén nam chaâm ôû ñaàu ñeå laáy               incautiously: Chuøm saùng chính
   caùc vaät rôi baèng saét, theùp                   (ñeøn pha)
         magnetic screwdriver n.                     (NOTE: US English is high beam)
   screwdriver type tool with a                          main beam indicator = blue
   magnetized hexagon socket end to                  indicator light in the instrument
   accept and operate hex shank bits                 cluster which comes on when the
   and hold them securely; often also                main beam is in use: Ñeøn baùo
   with a magazine handle for bit                    ñang baät pha (treân tableau)
   storage: Tuoác nô vít coù nam                  main bearings n. bearings bolted to
   chaâm                                             the underside of the cylinder
magnetized a. made magnetic: Bò                      block, that located support the
   töø hoùa                                          camshaft: Baïc loùt coå truïc chính
magneto or (informal) mag n. small                main combustion chamber n. with
   electric generator in which the                   diesel engines, the fuel may be
   magnetic field is produced by a                   injected     in   three     different
   permanent magnet; especially                      locations: in the prechamber, the
   used to generate the electric                     swirl chamber, or the main
   current providing a spark for the                 combustion chamber (for direct
   ignition: Ma nheâ toâ (maùy phaùt                 injection engines), depending on
   ñieän nam chaâm vónh cöûu)                        the process used: Buoàng chaùy
      magneto file n. tool for filing                chính
   ignition points and other small                main jet n. main jet in a carburettor
   objects: Giuõa vít löûa (nhoû)                    through which most of the fuel
magneto ignition            n.    compact            flows: Loã tia chính trong boä cheá
   assembly of a magneto generator,                  hoøa khí
   an ignition coil, and a distributor:           main (line) pressure n. = LINE
   Boä ñaùnh löûa baèng ma nheâ toâ                  PRESSURE
magnet sensor n. = HALL VANE                      main mixture discharge nozzle n. jet
   SWITCH: Caûm bieán Hall                           through which the petrol and air is
mag wheels or (informal) mags n. =                   fed into the carburettor barrel
   ALLOY WHEELS: Maâm baùnh                          where it becomes the air / fuel
   xe loaïi hôïp kim                                 mixture: Voøi phun chính trong boä
main bar or bow n. (soft top) the bar                cheá hoøa khí ñeå phun hoãn hôïp
   which carries the main load when                  nhieân lieäu


                                            211
main regulating system                                                          manual

main regulating system n. the                    male thread          n. = EXTERNAL
   carburettor     components        are            THREAD: Ren ngoaøi
   divided into the fuel intake control,         man (short for)                MANUAL
   the main regulating system, the                  GEARBOX: Hoäp soá thöôøng
   idle system includes the main jet,            manganese phosphate coating n.
   jet needle, needle jet and throttle              phosphate coating with added
   valve, whose purpose it is to                    manganese to increase resistance
   provide an appropriate amount of                 to wear and fatigue: Lôùp phuû
   fuel and air to the carburettor: Heä             Photphat coù theâm Mangan ñeå
   thoáng ñieàu tieát nhieân lieäu chính            choáng moøn vaø taêng ñoä beàn moûi.
   trong boä cheá hoøa khí                       manifold n. a casting connecting a
main shaft n. gearbox output shaft:                 series of inlets or outlets to a
   Truïc ra cuûa hoäp soá                           common opening: OÁng goùp
main sun visor n. in dual visor system,                  manifold absolute pressure
   the main visor is moved sideways                 (MAP) sensor n. sensor which
   and the secondary visor is flipped               transmits data referring to the inlet
   down, thus shielding the driver                  manifold vacuum to the engine
   from the sun from both the front                 controller: Caûm bieán ño aùp suaát
   and side: Taám che naéng                         tuyeät ñoái treân ñöôøng oáng naïp
maintenance n. the work undertaken                     manifold heater n. system used
   by a car owner to keep his vehicle               to improve the cold start behaviour
   in good working order; typically                 of an engine, consisting of heating
   checking the tyres, lights, oil and              ducts incorporated into the inlet
   coolant levels, windscreen wipers                manifold that are connected to the
   and seat belts : Söï baûo döôõng                 water coling system of the engine;
      mainternance-free a. requiring                alternatively, an electric heater
   no work in order to be kept                      may be used: Boä söôûi ñöôøng oáng
   operational: Khoâng caàn baûo                    naïp
   döôõng                                        manoeuvre v. to drive or steer a
       maintenance-free battery =                   vehicle around obstacles or in a
   battery with a permanently sealed                confined space: Ñieàu khieån xe
   top, thus requiring no topping-up:               voøng chöôùng ngaïi vaät
   Bình aéc quy khoâng caàn baûo                 manoeuvrability n. the ease with
   döôõng                                           which        a    vehicle     can  be
      maintenance manual n. book                    manoeuvred: Tính linh hoaït, tính
   of instructions detailing routine                deã laùi cuûa xe
   maintenance: Soå tay baûo döôõng              manual 1 a. done by hand: Ñöôïc laøm
major diameter            n. diameter               baèng tay
   measured from the crest of a                     2 n. (a) book of instructions:
   thread to the corresponding crest                Saùch, taøi lieäu höôùng daãn
   on the opposite side of the bolt or              (b) = MANUAL GEARBOX: Hoäp
   screw: Ñöôøng kính ñænh ren                      soá ñieàu khieån baèng tay (hoäp soá


                                           212
manual-crank window                                                          masking tape

  thöôøng)                                        MAP = MANIFOLD ABSOLUTE
  (c) (informal) car with a manual                   PRESSURE: Caûm bieán ño aùp
  gearbox: Xe söû duïng hoäp soá                     suaát tuyeät ñoái treân ñöôøng oáng
  thöôøng                                            naïp
      manual-crank window n. =                    map-controlled or mapped ignition
  MANUALLY                 OPERATED                  (system)      n.     microprocessor-
  WINDOW: Cöûa kính xe quay                          controlled ignition system with
  tay.                                               electronic ignition timing by
      manual gearbox or US manual                    means of an ignition map stored in
  transmission n. set of movable                     the control unit memory: Heä
  gears permitting the speed ratio                   thoáng ñaùnh löûa ñöôïc ñieàu khieån
  between input and output shafts to                 bôûi maùy tính vôùi goùc ñaùnh löûa toái
  be changed manually and at will:                   öu ñöôïc nhôù
  Hoäp soá thöôøng                                map light n. interior light to facilitate,
      manually operated window n.                    for example, map reading: Ñeøn
  window operated by turning a                       trong xe ñeå xem baûn ñoà
  level by hand: Cöûa kính xe quay                mapping n. = CHARACTERISTIC
  tay                                                MAP: Ñaëc tuyeán ñaùnh löûa sôùm
      manual panel cutter n. cutting                 naïp vaøo EPROM döôùi daïng
  tool drawn manually across a panel                 baûng.
  surface to cut to the desired shape:            marbling      n. producing a special
  Thieát bò caét khung baèng tay                     decorative effect with rotating
     manual transmission n. US =                     brushes: Ñaùnh boùng baèng baøn
  MANUAL GEARBOX: Hoäp soá                           chaûi xoay
  thöôøng                                         marker light/ lamp          n. = SIDE
        manual valve (MV) n.                         MARKER LIGHT/ LAMP: Ñeøn
  (automatic transmission control)                   kích thöôùc beân hoâng
  distributes line pressure to the                Marles steering n. form of cam-and-
  various control valves and pistons                 roller steering Marles: Heä thoáng
  which operate the multi-plate or                   laùi Marles daïng cam – con laên
  band brakes or the clutches;                    marque n. ‘name’ of a car (such as
  operated by the driver via the                     ‘MG’), which is an important
  selector lever: Van ñieàu khieån                   marketing tool, and inspires
  baèng tay (ñieàu khieån hoäp soá töï               customer loyalty: Nhaõn hieäu xe,
  ñoäng)                                             maùc xe
      manual version n. passenger                 mask v. to cover the surrounding area
  car with a manual gearbox: Theá                    when paint spraying to protect it
  heä xe duøng hoäp soá thöôøng                      from splashes: Che kín vuøng gaàn
manufacturer’s performance ratings                   choã sôn.
  n. performance data as specified                      masking tape n. adhesive tape
  by the car manufacturer: Thoâng                     used to cover surfaces that border
  soá kyõ thuaät xe (töø nhaø saûn xuaát)             an area to be painted, so as


                                            213
mass airflow (MAF) meter                                       mean indicated pressure

    to protect them: Baêng keo daùn ñeå              an automobile based on a clay
    che vuøng gaàn choã sôn                          model or CAD-data; essential for
mass airflow (MAF) meter n. device                   the manufacture of prototypes: Moâ
   for measuring the mass flow of air                hình maãu oâ toâ baèng ñaát seùt hoaëc
   into an engine: Caûm bieán ño khoái               maùy tính.
   löôïng khí naïp                                      master vac (servo unit) n. =
      mass damper n. device which                    VACUUM BRAKE BOOSTER:
   reduces or prevents vibrations or                 Boä trôï löïc phanh duøng chaân
   oscillations, usually a weight                    khoâng
   which      counteracts      (balances)         mastic seam sealant           n.     soft
   undesirable motions; used on drive                waterproof sealant for joints: Chaát
   shafts of some FWD cars: Boä                      maùt – tít laøm kín moái noái
   giaûm rung duøng khoái löôïng caân             mat (t) a. (of a finish) dull, not
   baèng.                                            shiny: Môø
        mass-produced car n.          car         mate v. to fit together: Raø
   which is manufactured in great                       mating       a. fitting together;
   numbers to a standard pattern and                 matching: AÊn khôùp vôùi nhau
   with extensive mechanization: OÂ                      mating gears = gears which
   toâ ñöôïc saûn xuaát haøng loaït                  mesh together: Baùnh raêng aên
      mass tone n. (colour matching)                 khôùp
   the tone of a paint as it appears                    mating surface = surface which
   from the colour of the paint in the               interacts perfectly with another:
   can;     this    is    required    for            Beà maët aên khôùp
   formulating the ingredients of a                     mating thread = thread which
   paint tone: Toâng maøu neàn                       engages with a corresponding
      mass transit system n. system                  thread, such as the female and
   designed to transport large                       male threads of a nut and bolt:
   numbers of people (or goods): Heä                 Ren aên khôùp
   thoáng ñöôïc thieát keá ñeå chuyeân            maximum         (brake)    power        n.
   chôû nhieàu ngöôøi hoaëc haøng hoaù.              maximum power of an engine as
master con rod n. in two-stroke dual                 measured by a dynamometer:
   piston engines, the connecting rod                Coâng suaát toái ña ño bôûi maùy ño
   that is articulated directly on the               coâng suaát.
   crankshaft: Thanh truyeàn chính                mean effective pressure (MEP) n.
   (2 kyø)                                           average pressure on a piston in a
         master cylinder n. large                    cylinder during a power stroke: Aùp
   cylinder in a hydraulic system in                 suaát hieäu duïng trung bình
   which the hydraulic fluid is                         mean indicated pressure n.
   compressed by a piston: Xy lanh                   mathematical value that indicates
   caùi (phanh)                                      the relation between the effective
         master model or master                      area of the work diagram of the
   pattern n. first precision model of               two-stroke      engine    and      the


                                            214
mechanic                                                               message centre

  movement of the piston: AÙp suaát                 of energy (= 1000,000 joules):
  chæ thò trung bình                                Ñôn vò ño naêng löôïng theo heä SI
mechanic n. person who works on                 member n. general term that refers
  engines or machines: Thôï maùy                   mainly to the side rails and
       mechanic’s stethoscope =                    crossmembers but also to any
  SONOSCOPE: OÁng nghe cuûa thôï                   structural hollow-section part on a
  maùy                                             car: Chi tieát treân khung.
mechanical      advance        n.    =                member of the gear train n.
  CENTRIFUGAL              ADVANCE                 sun gear, internal gear, and planet
  (MECHANISM): Cô caáu ñaùnh löûa                  carrier are the members of a
  sôùm ly taâm cô khí                              planetary gear train: Chi tieát cuûa
     mechanical efficiency n. ratio                boä baùnh raêng truyeàn ñoäng
  of brake horsepower to indicated              memory button         n. button which
  horsepower: Hieäu suaát cô (ñoäng                operates the position of electric
  cô)                                              seats, mirrors, etc. and which
      mechanical (face) seal         n.            stores the requirements of a
  shaft seal consisting of two highly              particular driver in its memory:
  polished mating surfaces, one                    Nuùt choïn vò trí trong heä thoáng
  surface being connected to the                   ñieàu khieån gheá baèng maùy tính
  shaft (rotating element) and the              MEP       =     MEAN       EFFECTIVE
  other to the casing (stationary                  PRESSURE: Aùp suaát hieäu duïng
  element): Mieáng ñeäm kín ñaàu                   trung bình
  truïc                                         mercury switch n. safety switch to
     mechanical galvanizing n. =                   prevent erroneous deployment of
  MECHANICAL PLATING: Maï                          the air bag: Coâng taéc thuûy ngaân
  (traùng phuû beà maët) cô khí                    (goái hôi)
     mechanical ignition timing n.              mesh v. to engage: Laøm cho aên
  centrifugal and vacuum advance:                  khôùp
  Söï ñieàu chænh goùc ñaùnh löûa sôùm              (NOTE: opposite is disengage)
  baèng cô khí                                         meshing drive n. device for
        mechanical        plating    n.             engaging the starter pinion with
  deposition of zinc on another                     the flywheel ring gear: Söï
  material by a cold-peening                        truyeàn ñoäng aên khôùp
  process, such as tumbling: Maï cô                    meshing spring n. component
  khí                                               of a pre-engaged starter which
     mechanical surface treatment                   ensures that the shift lever will
  n. producing a dull or rough                      move to its final position and that
  surface or a decorative finish by                 the starter current will be switched
  grinding, brushing, polishing or                  on incase of tooth abutment: Loø
  abrasive blasting: Xöû lyù beà maët               xo traû khôùp ñeà
  baèng cô khí                                  message centre n. usually a multi-
megajoule (MJ) n. SI measurement                    functional display of a diagnostic


                                          215
metal catalyst                                                                methanol

  system: Maøn hình chaån ñoaùn ña                 metal or alloy by using a
   chöùc naêng                                     compressed gas stream: Söï phun
metal catalyst n. catalyst whose                   kim loaïi
   active phase is supported by a                      metal support          n. (in a
   metal substrate, i.e. sheet steel:              catalytic      converter)         thin
   Chaát xuùc taùc coù neàn kim loaïi              corrugated strips of steel alloy
       metal cutter n. bench tool for              rolled up into a tight coil as a
   cutting sheet metal: Baøn caét taám             support for the catalyst: Giaù ñôõ boä
   kim loaïi                                       xuùc taùc
       metallic     a. referring to or                metalworking n. forming and
   consisting of metal: Thuoäc veà kim             shaping metal: Coâng ngheä kim
   loaïi                                           loaïi
          metallic drive screw =                meter 1 n. device for measuring the
   THREAD-CUTTING SCREW: Ta                         quantity of a substance passing
   roâ                                              through it: Thieát bò ño löu löôïng
metallic finish or metallic paint n.                2 v. (a) to measure with a meter:
   paint type incorporating small                   Ño
   metallic flakes which reflect light:                metering port n. part of the
   Lôùp sôn aùnh kim                                metering unit in the fuel
   (NOTE: opposite is solid paint)                  distributor: Loã ñònh löôïng (phun
metallize v. to coat or impregnate a                K)
   metal or non-metal surface with              metering unit n. unit which regulates
   metal, as by metal spraying or by               the quantity of fuel injected in the
   vacuum evaporation: Phuû kim loaïi              K-jetronic system: Boä phaän ñònh
metallographic examination n. test                 löôïng xaêng phun (K)
   to determine the structural                  metering valve n. valve positioned
   composition of a metal as shown at              in the hydraulic line to the front
   low and high magnification and by               brakes, on some cars with front
   X-ray diffraction methods: Söï                  disc and rear drum brakes: Van
   kieåm tra caáu truùc teá vi cuûa kim            phaân phoái (phanh)
   loaïi.                                       methacrylate n. polymer used in
metal mesh n. = WIRE MESH: Löôùi                   toughening rubber: Chaát nhöïa
   kim loaïi                                       ñoän laøm cöùng cao su.
       metal monolith n. = METAL                methanol n. used in petrol/ alcohol
   SUPPORT: Lôùp neàn kim loaïi                    blends,      in    a    variety     of
   trong vi maïch                                  concentrations       blended      with
        metal shears n. scissor-like               unleaded petrol and solvents; a
   hand tool for cutting sheet metal:              typical methanol content is 3%;
   Keùo caét kim loaïi                             use of petrol blends with methanol
   (NOTE: also called snips)                       will void the new car warranty of
       metal spraying n. coating of                most car manufacturers: Röôïu
   surfaces with droplets of molten                Metanol


                                          216
methylated spirits                                                           mid-range

    (NOTE: formerly called methyl                     metal,      etc.     (b)     US    =
    alcohol)                                          MICROMETRE: Panme, vi keá
methylated spirits n. almost pure                          micrometer (type) torque
   alcohol (which has wood alcohol                    wrench = CLICK-TYPE TORQUE
   and colouring added to make it                     WRENCH: Caàn sieát löïc coù ñoàng
   unfit for human consumption);                      hoà.
   used for cleaning: Coàn pha maøu                micrometre or micron n. unit of
   (duøng ñeå laøm saïch)                             measurement of thickness (= one
metric thread          n. one of two                  thousandth of a milimetre) :
   commonly used screw threads:                       Microâmet
   Ren heä meùt                                       (NOTE: usually written “μm” with
metro driving        n. US = URBAN                    figures: 25 μm)
   DRIVING: Laùi xe ôû trung taâm ñoâ              micro oil filter n. special oil filter
   thò                                                designed to trap particles down to
MF = MULTI-FOCAL: Nhieàu tieâu                        1 micrometre in order to allow
   ñieåm                                              extended oil change intervals in
       MF headlight = conventional                    the order of 60,000 miles without
   headlight with a multiple-focus                    affecting engine life: Boä loïc daàu
   parabolic reflector: Ñeøn ñaàu xe                  tinh.
   loaïi nhieàu tieâu ñieåm                        microprocessor spark timing system
MG (short for) Morris Garages; a                      (MSTS)            n.    = MAPPED
   popular old British sports car                     IGNITION SYSTEM: Heä thoáng
   marque Morris Garages: Moät loaïi                  ñieàu khieån thôøi ñieåm ñaùnh löûa
   xe theå thao coå noåi tieáng cuûa Anh              baèng vi xöû lyù.
microbial corrosion n. corrosion                   mid-engine car n. car whose engine
   associated with the action of                      is located behind the passenger
   micro-organisms present in the                     compartment but within the
   corrosion system: Söï aên moøn do vi               wheelbase: Xe coù ñoäng cô ñaët ôû
   sinh                                               giöõa
microcar n. small car, popular in the              mid-size car         n. American car
   1950s, that featured a body                        category      which      encompasses
   offering full-weather protection                   practically all cars which would be
   and mechanics often derived from                   considered large outside the USA;
   motorcycle        technology,      e.g.            some typical examples are: Audi
   Goggomobil, BMW Isetta, etc: Xe                    100/200, BMW 7-series, Buick
   oâ toâ raát nhoû                                   Regal, Dodge Dynasty, Ford
microgalvanic cell        n. = LOCAL                  Taurus, Mazda 626, Mercedes S-
   CELL: Pin cuïc boä                                 class (at least prior to 1991),
micrometer n. (a) instrument for                      Mercury Cougar, Oldsmobile
   taking very small measurements,                    Cutlass, Pontiac 6000, Volvo
   such as measuring the width or                     740/940: OÂtoâ côõ trung
   thickness of very thin pieces of                mid-range      n. middle of the rev


                                             217
midbed                                                                       milligram

   range, around 3000 rpm : Soá voøng               vehicle travels on one gallon of
   quay trung bình                                  fuel: Soá daëm xe ñi treân moät
midbed       n. in dual bed catalytic               gallon nhieân lieäu
   converters with air injection, the                  mil (e) ometer n. device that
   plenum between the three-way                    records the number of miles
   catalyst and the conventional                   travelled: Ñoàng hoà ño soá daëm ñaõ
   oxidation catalyst, into which                  ñi ñöôïc
   secondary air is injected: Ngaên            mill 1 v. (a) to grind, press or reduce
   giöõa boä xuùc taùc ba ngaõ.                     to powder: Xay, nghieàn
midrange torque n. pulling power                  (b) to shape or cut metal: Caùn
   of the engine in the middle of the               2.n. (a) = MILLING CUTTER:
   rev range: Moâ men quay ôû soá                   Löôõi caét raêng, dao caét raêng,löôõi
   voøng quay trung bình                            phay (chaïy troøn)
MIG (short for) metal/ inert gas: Kim               (b)     = MILLING MACHINE:
   loaïi / khí trô                                  Maùy phay (baøo)
       MIG welding = are welding                       milled glass fibre n. chopped
   method in which the electric                     strands of glass fibre which vary
   current is provided by the filler                in length from 3 mm to about 50
   metal wire which is cooled and                   mm: Sôïi thuûy tinh.
   shielded from the access of air by                   milling cutter n. rotating,
   a stream of chemically inert gas,               toothed cutter in a milling
   thus preventing oxidation of the                machine, used to cut or shape
   joint: Kyõ thuaät haøn MIG (duøng               metal: Löôõi phay
   que haøn vaø khí trô)                              milling machine n. machine tool
migrate v. (of electrophoretic paint)              with a table on which rests
   to be attracted to car bodies when              material which is cut by a rotating
   they are immersed in a bath of                  cutting tool held by a horizontal
   paint with an applied polarity                  arbor or vertical spindle: Maùy
   across the bath and the bodies:                 phay (baøo)
   Ñöôïc baùm sôn (ñieän)                              millsaw file n. flat hand file
mild steel n. type of steel with a low             with round or square edges for
   carbon content (0.1-0.25%), widely              sharpening saw blades or machine-
   used in vehicle construction:                   cutting knives: Duõa maøi dao caét
   Theùp ít carbon                             milliampere        n. thousandth of an
mile n. Daëm Anh, moät daëm = 1.609m               ampere: Ñôn vò ño cöôøng ñoä doøng
mileage n. (a) distance measured in                ñieän (NOTE: with figures usually
   miles, as by a mileometer:                      written mA)
   Khoaûng caùch ño baèng daëm Anh                     milliammeter n. ammeter with
   (b) the total number of miles a                 a milliampere scale: Thieát bò ño
   motor vehicle has travelled: Toång              doøng coù ñôn vò mA
   soá daëm cuûa xe ñaõ ñi                     milligram n.unit of measurement of
   (c ) the number of miles a motor                weight (= one thousandth of a


                                         218
millilitre                                                                  mist action

   gram) : Ñôn vò ño troïng löôïng                  of experience gathered with
   (NOTE: with figures usually                      magnesium components in nuclear
    written mg)                                     power plants; the Minilite: Maâm
millilitre or US milliliter n. unit of              hôïp kim Minilite
    measurement of liquid (= one                 mini spare wheel n. = TEMPA
    thousandth of a litre): Ñôn vò ño               SPARE WHEEL: Baùnh xe döï
    theå tích                                       phoøng
     (NOTE: with figures usually                 mini tube cutter n. compact tube
    written ml)                                     cutter for cutting brass, copper,
millimetre or US millimeter n. unit                 plastic, or thin steel tubing in
    of measurement of length (= one                 confined areas: Dao caét oáng nhoû
    thousandth of a metre): Ñôn vò ño            minivan n. minibus-sized van with no
    chieàu daøi                                     side windows, used to transport
    (NOTE: with figures usually                     goods instead of people: Xe taûi
    written mm)                                     loaïi nhoû
mineral oil n. light lubricating oil             minor      diameter      n.   diameter
    refined from crude oil: Daàu boâi               measured from the thread root to
    trôn nheï (töø daàu thoâ)                       the corresponding root on the
Mini n. very successful, small British              opposite side of the bolt or screw:
    front-wheel drive car designed in               Ñöôøng kính chaân ren
    1959 by Sir Alec Issigonics (1906-           mint condition n. (in)          perfect
    88): Nhaõn hieäu xe Mini                        condition, as brand new: Tình
minibus n. small, single-decker bus                 traïng hoaøn haûo nhö môùi tinh
    designed to carry around 12-20               mirror n. car mirrors can be either
    people: Xe buyùt nhoû                           interior or exterior: Göông chieáu
minicar n. very small saloon car,                   haäu
    carrying no more than four adults:           misalignment n. general term
    Xe oâ toâ nhoû                                  referring to all types of frame
mini catalytic converter n. usually                 damage caused by accidents:
    used as a primary catalytic                     Khung xe bò leäch do tai naïn
    converter and installed close to the         misfire 1 v. (of the air/ fuel mixture)
    engine in the headpipe: Boä xuùc                to fail to ignite properly (often
    taùc nhoû                                       resulting in a backfire) : Khoâng
miniframe          n. = SUSPENSION                  noå (ñoäng cô)
    SUBFRAME: Söôøn khung phuï                           2 n. the act of misfiring: Söï
    cuûa heä thoáng treo                            boû maùy
mini-grinder          n.      = ANGLE            miss v. = MISFIRE : Khoâng noå
    GRINDER: Maùy maøi goùc                         (ñoäng cô)
Minilite (alloy wheel)         n. a true         mist     action            n.  US     =
    magnesium wheel, developed for                  INTERMITTENT                 WIPER
    the Mini in 1962 by nuclear                     CONTROL: Boä ñieàu khieån caàn
    engineer Derek Power on the basis               gaït nöôùc ngaét quaõng


                                           219
mixed-flow impeller                                               modular air strut

mixed-flow impeller          n. pump              CHOKE: Böôùm gioù
   impeller which combines radial                     mixture control screw         n.
   and axial-flow principles, i.e.                adjusting screw which controls the
   liquid flows both along the drive              amount of air/ fuel mixture
   shaft and out through the impeller;            supplied by the idling circuit of a
   pump impellers are classed as                  fixed-jet carburettor: Vít ñieàu
   mixed-flow when the specific                   chænh hoãn hôïp, vít xaêng
   speed is 2,000 to 6,000 rpm: Caùnh                mixture control unit n. unit in
   bôm xieân (keát hôïp duøng doïc vaø            the K-jetronic fuel injection
   ngang)                                         system which combines the fuel
      mixed-flow pump = centrifugal               distributor and the airflow sensor;
   pump which develops its head                   it monitors the rate of airflow and
   partly by centrifugal force and                meters the fuel supplied to the
   partly by the lift of the vanes on             injectors: Boä ñieàu chænh hoãn hôïp
   the liquid: Bôm ly taâm                        (phun K)
      mixing chamber n. (a) that                      mixture volume          n. the
   part of a carburettor distinct from            quantity of air/ fuel mixture:
   the float chamber both in function             Löôïng hoãn hôïp
   and layout, in which the air and the         mobile home n. US caravan : Xe rô
   fuel mix as they meet: Buoàng hoøa             mooc duøng laøm nhaø ôû, nhaø löu
   troän (cheá hoøa khí)                          ñoäng
   (b) (of a catalytic converter) =                   mobile phone         n. cellular
   MIDBED: Ngaên giöõa boä xuùc taùc              telephone: Ñieän thoaïi di ñoäng
   ba ngaõ.                                       treân xe
      mixing head n. head of an                       mobile two-way radio          n.
   oxy-acetylence torch by which the              receiver/ transmitter used for CB
   mixture of oxygen and acetylene                communication: Maùy thu phaùt di
   can be adjusted: Ñaàu troän khí cuûa           ñoäng.
   moû haøn hôi                                 mode n. way of operating : Cheá ñoä
       mixing rolls        n. machine             laøm vieäc
   designed for the mixing and                  model designation        n. shortened
   mastication of the materials from              description of a particular model:
   which tyres are made: Truïc caùn               Moâ taû ngaén veà maãu xe
   hoøa troän (laøm voû xe)                     model year (MY) n. a new model
mixture n. (a) air/ fuel mixture in               year starts after the summer break
   an IC engine (b) (two-stroke                   of the car production plant, during
   engine) mixture of oil and petrol              which the assembly lines are
   in the fuel tank of a two-stroke               altered to accommodate the
   engine; e.g. 1:50, i.e. one part of            changes introduced in the cars of
   oil is added to every 50 parts of              the next model year: Naêm ra kieåu
   fuel: Hoãn hôïp, hoøa khí                      xe môùi .
      mixture control knob n. =                 modular air strut       n. = SELF-


                                          220
modulator                                                                       MOT

   LEVELLING           (SUSPENSION)               SPANNER: Moû leát
   STRUT: Thanh töï caân baèng                  monobloc casting or construction n.
   (treo)                                         type of engine construction where
modulator n. (Automatic gearbox)                  the cylinders are cast in a single
   actuator used to transform inlet               block which incorporates the
   manifold       vacuum      into    a           crankcase: Caáu truùc ñoäng cô vôùi
   mechanical motion, which in turn                xy lanh ñuùc lieàn vôùi caùc te.
   can be used to move the connected            monocoque       n. unitary design in
   modulator valve: Boä ñieàu bieán               which body and chassis are all one
      modulator pressure = pressure               unit: Thieát keá khung vaø voû
   controlled by the actuator valve               nguyeân khoái
   and thus directly related to inlet              (NOTE: also called unitary
   manifold vacuum: Aùp suaát ñieàu               construction)
   bieán                                        Mono-Jetronic         n. single point
        modulator valve = valve                   injection system developed by
   operated by the modulator to                   Bosch: Heä thoáng phun xaêng ñôn
   create modulator pressure         by           ñieåm
   means of inlet manifold vacuum:              monolith n. single block of material;
   Van ñieàu bieán                                used to describe the (ceramic)
module        n.    electronic control            base for the catalyst in one type of
   assembly: Boä ñieàu khieån ñieän töû           catalytic converter : Lôùp neàn cho
molecular weight n. the mass of a                 boä hoaù khöû
   molecule that may be calculated as                   monolithic converter =
   the sun of the atomic weights of its           catalytic converter with a catalyst-
   constituent atom: Troïng löôïng                coated,      ceramic       honeycomb
   phaân töû                                      monolith through which the
mole grips or mole wrench            n.           exhaust gases pass: Boä hoaù khöû
   locking pliers: Kìm khoaù                      daïng toå ong
molybdenum        n. metallic element           monomer       n. a relatively simple
   used in alloys, especially to harden           compound which can react with
   and strengthen steels in high                  itself to form a polymer or with
   temperature applications, like                 other monomers to form a
   exhaust valves: Molypñen (hoùa                 copolymer: Hôïp chaát ñôn phaân töû
   hoïc)                                        monotube damper or shock absorber
       molybdenum piston ring or                  n. = SINGLE-TUBE SHOCK
   (informal) moly ring = piston ring             ABSORBER: Phuoäc nhuùn moät
   with a molybdenum coating: Baïc                oáng
   pittoâng coù lôùp Molypñen phuû              moped n. two-wheeled cycle with a
   ngoaøi                                         low powered motor (under 50 cc):
MON       =      MOTOR       OCTANE               Xe gaén maùy coù coâng suaát thaáp
   NUMBER: Chæ soá oác-tan ñoäng cô             MOT (short for)            Ministry of
monkey wrench n. = ADJUSTABLE                     Transport: Boä giao thoâng vaän taûi


                                          221
MOT certificate                                                     moulding material

                                                       motor mechanic          n. car
        MOT certificate = certificate              mechanic: Thôï maùy
   awarded when a vehicle passes an                   motor octane number (MON)
   MOT test: Giaáy chöùng nhaän ñaõ                n. fuel octane rating determined
   kieåm tra xe                                    by the motor octane test, one of
          MOT        test   =     annual           many test procedures: Chæ soá oác-
   roadworthiness test for all vehicles            tan ñoäng cô
   over two years old, undertaken by                  motor oil n. engine oil or gear
   a garage approved by the                        oil: Daàu nhôùt ñoäng cô
   (currently named) Department of                    motor scooter n. lightweight
   Transport: Kieåm tra xe haøng naêm              motorcycle with small wheels, an
   cho nhöõng xe quaù 2 naêm.                      enclosed engine, open foot
motor n. (a) electric motor: Ñoäng                 platform and leg shields: Xe tay
   cô ñieän                                        ga
   (b) engine: Ñoäng cô                                motor vehicle          n.   any
  (c) motor car: Xe oâ toâ                         automotive vehicle that does not
        motorbike       n. (informal) =            run on rails; usually with rubber
   MOTORCYCLE: Xe gaén maùy                        tyres; such as cars, trucks, lorries
       motor car n. a (usually) four-              and motorcycles: Xe coä (coù baùnh)
   wheeled road vehicle powered by                     motorway       n. a multi-lane,
   an IC engine and designed for                   main road for fast-moving traffic
   passengers: Xe oâ toâ                           (speed limit 70 mph in the UK)
        motor caravan or US motor                  with a central reservation, and few
   home          n.   a    self-powered            exit and entry points: Ñöôøng lôùn
   (motorized) caravan: Nhaø löu                   daønh cho oâtoâ chaïy nhanh; ñöôøng
   ñoäng                                           cao toác, xa loä
         motorcycle n. single-track              MOT test see MOT
   vehicle usually driven by a two-              mould or US mold 1 n. hollow form
   stroke or four-stroke engine; often             used to give a certain shape to
   air-cooled, less frequently liquid-             fluid or plastic material: Khuoân
   cooled and usually between 125 cc               2 v. to shape in a mould: Laøm
   and1000 cc: Xe moâtoâ                           khuoân
       motor home n. US = MOTOR                       mouldability n. capacity for
   CARAVAN: Nhaø löu ñoäng                         being mould into a particular form:
       motor insurance n. insurance                Khaû naêng ñuùc ñöôïc
   against damage to or damage                     moulded part or moulding           n.
   caused by a vehicle: Phí baûo                   plastic part produced by injection
   hieåm oâ toâ 2 chieàu.                          moulding etc: Chi tieát laøm baèng
       motorist n. car driver: Ngöôøi              nhöïa ñuùc
   laùi xe oâtoâ                                 moulding material        n. moulding
       motorized a. with a motor:                  materials are products which can
   Gaén ñoäng cô                                   be moulded permanently by a


                                           222
mould shrinkage                                                                multi-disc

   shaping       process       employing            electric circuit in the excitation and
   mechanical forces within a given                 armature windings: Tieáp ñieåm di
   temperature range into moulded                   ñoäng (laù ñoàng trong rôle caøi
   parts or semi-finished articles; in              khôùp maùy khôûi ñoäng)
   some cases moulding materials are              mpg (short for) miles per gallon;
   used in a preformed state (e.g.                  measure of fuel consumption: Ñôn
   pelleted or granulated) without                  vò ño löôïng nhieân lieäu tieâu thuï
   their plastic mouldability being                 (soá daëm chaïy ñöôïc treân moät
   appreciably impaired by such                     gallon)
   preforming: Vaät lieäu ñuùc                         mph (short for) miles per hour;
         mould shrinkage n. (of                     measure of vehicle speed: Ñôn vò
   thermoplastics) the difference in                ño toác ñoä xe tính theo daëm.
   dimension between the cold mould               MPI = MULTI-POINT INJECTION:
   and the cooled moulded part,                     Phun ña ñieåm
   expressed in % relative to the                 MSTS       =     MICROPROCESSOR
   dimension of the cold mould: Tyû                 SPARK TIMING SYSTEM: Heä
   leä co cuûa chi tieát ñuùc                       thoáng duøng maïch vi xöû lyù ñieàu
Moulton Hydragas suspension n.                      khieån thôøi ñieåm ñaùnh löûa
   hydro       pneumatic       suspension         mud and snow tyre (M + S tyre) n.
   developed by Leyland: Heä thoáng
                                                    winter tyre with a deep tread:
   treo Moulton Hydragas                            Loaïi loáp xe ñi treân buøn vaø baêng
             Moulton          Hydrolastic
                                                    tuyeát
   suspension          =      Hydrolastic               mudflap n. flexible rubber or
   suspension developed by Leyland:                  vinyl rear extension to the wheel
   Heä      thoáng      treo     Moulton             arch to protect the bodywork from
   Hydrolastic                                       dirt and stones: Taám chaén buøn
mount v. to attach something to a                    vaø ñaát ñaù
support: Laép ñaët, gaén                             (NOTE: US English is splash
       mounting n. support to which                  guard)
   or by means of which something is                    mudguard n. curved part over
   attached: Giaù, khung                             the wheels of a motorcycle to
        mounting frame = floating-                   minimize splashing: Veø xe gaén
   frame disc brake in which the                     maùy
   floating frame is held by a casting            muffler n. US = SILENCER: OÁng
   which is bolted to the steering
                                                    giaûm thanh (poâ)
   knuckle or other suspension part:
                                                  Multec (system) n. combined fuel
   Phanh ñóa vôùi khung treo                        injection and ignition system
move off v. to start from rest; to
                                                    Multec: Heä thoáng ñieàu khieån tích
   begin to drive away: Ñi tieáp
                                                    hôïp caû xaêng vaø löûa Multec
moving contact n. component of a                       multi-cut file n. = MULTI-
   solenoid switch; in a starter motor
                                                    PURPOSE FILE: Giuõa vaïn naêng
   it is designed for switching on the
                                                        multi-disc       a. = MULTI-


                                            223
multi-entry                                                          multi-point injection

    PLATE : Nhieàu ñóa                               suspension layouts incorporating
        multi-entry      n.    (pump) =              several control arms: Heä thoáng
    MULTI-SUCTION PUMP: Bôm                          treo sau nhieàu khaâu
    nhieàu loã huùt                               multi-piece rim          n.     rim type
       multi-focal (MF) a. multiple-                 incorporating      at    least     one
    focus: Nhieàu tieâu ñieåm                        demountable bead seat and/ or rim
      multi-focal       headlight       =            flange to allow tyre mounting:
    conventional headlight with a                    Loaïi nieàng xe thaùo rôøi (nhieàu
    multiple focus parabolic reflector:              mieáng)
    Ñeøn ñaàu nhieàu tieâu ñieåm (phaûn              (NOTE: oppiste is one-piece rim)
    chieáu)                                       multi-plate or multiple-plate clutch
multi-function control stalk n. a                    or US multiple-disc clutch            n.
    rodshaped control mounted on the                 clutch with more than one driven
    steering column near the steering                plate, usually of the oil-immersed
    wheel: Coâng taéc daïng oáng döôùi               type;     frequently        used     in
    voâ laêng                                        motorcycle      drive     trains,    in
multigrade oil n. if an engine oil                   automatic transmissions of cars, in
    meets the viscosity requirements                 power distribution systems of 4wd
    of several different single-grade                vehicles, and as locking elements
    engine oil types it is referred to as            in limited-slip differentials: Boä ly
    multigrade: Daàu nhôùt ña caáp                   hôïp nhieàu ñóa ma saùt
       multigrip pliers n. pliers with                     multiple-disc       limited-slip
   an adjustable head allowing                       differential       =       limited-slip
   different jaw widths: Moû leát                    differential incorporating multiple
      multi-hole nozzle n. two-, three-              discs as locking or slip-inhibiting
   or four-holed injector nozzle in a                devices: Boä vi sai giôùi haïn tröôït
   direct injection engine: Voøi phun                nhieàu ñóa
   nhieàu loã tia                                       multiple-point injection n. =
      multi-inlet pump n. = MULTI-                   MULTI-POINT INJECTION: Heä
   SUCTION PUMP: Bôm nhieàu loã                      thoáng phun ña ñieåm
   huùt                                                  multiple-spark (ignition) coil
      multi-leaf spring n. leaf spring               n. = MULTI-SPARK (IGNITION)
   made of several narrow, flat strips               COIL: Boâbin duøng cho nhieàu xy
   (leaves): Nhíp nhieàu laù                         lanh (ñaùnh löûa tröïc tieáp)
        multi-link independent rear                     multiplex technology n. in
   suspension n. special multi-link                  cars, connecting lamps, wipers,
   rear suspension design, developed                 horn, etc. to a single power cable
   by Mercedes-Benz for the W 201                    via     electronically       controlled
   series: Heä thoáng treo sau ñoäc laäp             modules, making it easier to
   nhieàu khaâu.                                     diagnose faults and to service:
       multi-link rear suspension =                  Coâng ngheä ña daãn.
   general term for independent rear                    multi-point injection (MPI) n.


                                            224
multi-purpose file                                                                MY

   petrol fuel-injection system in              mushroom-shaped dolly         n. dolly
   which only air enters the inlet                 with a shank to allow it to be hand-
   manifold; as the air approaches the             held or clamped in a vice; a more
   inlet valve, an injection valve                 or less rounded head may be fitted
   opens in the valve port, spraying               to one or both ends of the shank:
   fuel into the airstream: Heä thoáng             Ñe hình naám.
   phun ña ñieåm                                      mushroom tappet n. tappet
       multi-purpose file       n. file            shaped like a mushroom located on
   (usually flat) with faces featuring             the underside of a pushrod
   different cuts, e.g. coarse cut on              operating the valves of a four-
   one side and smooth cut on the                  stroke engine: Con ñoäi suù paùp
   other: Giuõa vaïn naêng                         hình naám
       multi-spark (ignition) coil n.                  mushroom valve             n. =
   type of ignition coil used in static            POPPET VALVE: Suù paùp
   high-voltage distribution, designed          mutual inductance n. takes place
   as a double-spark or four-spark                 when a current in one winding
   coil: Bobin cho 2 hoaëc 4 xy lanh               induces an EMF in another
   (ñaùnh löûa tröïc tieáp)                        winding in the same magnetic
multi-stage pump n. pump with two                  circuit: Caûm öùng töông hoã.
   or more stages (impeller/ diffusers          MV = MANUAL VALVE: Van ñieàu
   or other pumping elements)                      khieån baèng tay
   operating in series: Bôm nhieàu              MY = MODEL YEAR: Naêm ra kieåu
   taàng                                           xe môùi.
multi-storey car park n. car park
   with many levels: Choã ñaäu oâto
   nhieàu taàng
multi-suction pump n. centrifugal
   pump with several impellers
   connected in parallel; i.e. the flow
   is separated into two or more
   partial flows: Bôm nhieàu loã huùt




                                          225
N                                                                                  needle


                                           Nn

N (gear selector) = NEUTRAL: Soá                    cuûa vaät lieäu khi ñeå ngoaøi trôøi.
     N trong daõy soá cuûa hoäp soá töï          nave n. wheel hub: Truïc baùnh xe
     ñoäng                                               nave plate = hub cap: Naép
nail punch n. = DRIFT PUNCH: Kìm                    troøn ñaäy truïc baùnh xe
     nhoå ñinh                                   NCM = NOx-CONTROL MODULE:
natural frequency n. frequency at                   Boä kieåm soaùt khí NOx
     which an object, circuit or system          NCS = NOISE CANCELLATION
     oscillates or vibrates when set in             SYSTEM: Heä thoáng khöû tieáng
     free vibration: Taàn soá dao ñoäng             oàn
     töï do                                      NDIR analyser n. non-dispersive
         natural gas n. alternative,                infrared analyser, used for
     environmentally friendly fuel                  analysing concentrations of carbon
     (mainly methane) which can be                  monoxide and carbon dioxide in
     stored under pressure in the boot              an exhaust gas sample: Maùy phaân
     as compressed natural gas (CNG):               tích haøm löôïng CO vaø CO2 trong
     Khí ñoát thieân nhieân                         khí thaûi baèng tia hoàng ngoaïi.
         naturally aspirated engine n.           NDT method n. non-destructive
     conventional engine that takes in              testing method, such as ultrasonic
     air at normal pressure, i. e. not              testing, X-ray testing, dye-
     turbocharged or supercharged:                  penetrant testing: Phöông phaùp
     Ñoäng cô khoâng taêng aùp                      nghieân cöùu khoâng phaù huûy nhö
     (NOTE: opposite is forced-                     duøng sieâu aâm, X-quang…
     induction engine)                           nearside (n/s) n. the side of a
         natural oxide film or skin n.              vehicle nearest the kerb (when
     transparent film which forms                   driving): Phía xe gaàn saùt vôùi leà
     naturally on an aluminium surface              ñöôøng.
     due to oxidation: Lôùp maøng oxit           necking n. when ductile test
     nhoâm                                          specimens are subjected to a
         natural rubber (NR) n. rubber              tensile test, they exhibit necking
     which occurs naturally as a                    when the tensile force exceeds the
     product of the metabolism of                   yield strength of the material;
     certain trees and plants, notably              necking results in a reduction of
     trees of the Hevea brasiliensis                area, measured in percent after
     species: Cao su töï nhieân                     break of the specimen: Phaàn thaét
            natural    weathering     n.            laïi cuûa vaät maãu khi thöû söùc caêng
     corrosion test by means of which            needle n. (a) indicator or pointer on
     the corrosion resistance of a                  an instrument or gauge: Kim chæ
     material is tested in the open air:            baùo, kim ñoàng hoà
     Kieåm tra khaû naêngï aên moøn                 (b) tapered, needle-shaped pin in


                                           226
needle bearing                                                         Nernst equation

  a carburettor jet: Kim ga                         electrode to the positive earth
       needle bearing        n. roller              electrode of the sparking plug,
  bearing with long thin rollers: OÅ bi             allowing a reduction in the high
  kim, oå bi ñuõa daøi                              voltage require: Tia löûa ñieän
       needle-nose pliers      n.    =              phoùng töø ñieän cöïc giöõa cuûa
  LONG-NOSE PLIERS: Kìm moû                         bougie vôùi ñieän theá aâm sang
  nhoïn                                             ñieän cöïc bìa vôùi ñieän theá döông.
     needle valve n. (i) valve with a                  negative suction head n. =
  needle-shaped pin that can be                     SUCTION LIFT: Chieàu cao coät
  moved to control the flow of a                    huùt aâm
  fluid: Van kim trong heä thoáng                       negative terminal n. black
  thuyû löïc.                                       battery terminal with a minus
  (ii) in a carburettor, valve which                symbol       indicating       negative
  controls the amount of petrol                     polarity: Coïc aâm
  flowing from the pump to the float                     negative transducer EGR
  chamber: Van kim trong boä cheá                   valve n. valve used on engines
  hoøa khí.                                         with a relatively low back
EGR valve       n. =     NEGATIVE                   pressure to provide the desired
  TRANSDUCER VALVE: Van                             opening point and exhaust gas
  tuaàn hoaøn khí thaûi                             recycling rate: Van tuaàn hoaøn
         negative      camber      see              khí thaûi
  CAMBER: Ñoä nghieâng vaøo trong                        negative wheel offset or
  cuûa baùnh xe (goùc nghieâng aâm)                 negative wheel dish(ing) n. =
      negative castor n. (steering                  NEGATIVE OFFSET
  geometry) when an imaginary line              nerf bar n. US type of front bumper
  extended through the steering axis                guard, typically made of chrome-
  meets the ground behind the                       plated steel tubing; extends
  extended vertical axis through the                horizontally from below front end
  wheel centre: Ñoä nghieâng cuûa                   and is curved upward; a pair of
  truïc baùnh xe höôùng veà tröôùc                  nerf bars is usually braced by a
  (goùc nghieâng aâm)                               horizontal crossbar (NOTE: in
      negative electrode n. =                       Australia called roo bar): Thanh
  NEGATIVE PLATE: Baûn cöïc                         ñôõ va (thanh caûn tröôùc) laøm
  aâm (aéc quy)                                     baèng theùp maï crome hoaëc inox
      negative plate n. during                  Nernst equation n. relationship
  battery discharge, the grey plate                 showing that the electromotive
  which acts as anode: Baûn cöïc aâm                force developed by a dry cell is
  (bình aéc-quy)                                    determined by the activities of the
  (NOTE: opposite is positive                       reacting species, the temperature
  plate)                                            of the reaction, and the standard
     negative spark n. a spark that                 free-energy change of the overall
  jumps from the negative centre                    reaction: Coâng thöùc tính söùc


                                          227
neutral                                                                nominal diameter

    ñieän ñoäng aéc quy Nernst                         nhöng maïnh (xe)
neutral 1 a. (a) not having any                   nitriding n. (of a steel surface)
    marked characteristics: Khoâng coù                hardening by heating for several
    ñaëc ñieåm roõ reät.                              hours in ammonia gas; used on
         neutral handling = having                    crankshafts: Toâi beà maët truïc
    neither oversteer nor understeer:                 khuyûu baèng caùch nung trong
    Beû laùi khoâng dö cuõng khoâng                   amoniac
    thieáu                                        nitrocellulose paint n. paint giving a
    (b) having a pH of 7, i. e. neither               deep, lustrous finish: Lôùp sôn nitô
    alkaline nor acid: Trung tính                     xenluloza
    (hoaù)                                        nitrogen oxides (NOx) n. general
    2 n. position of the gearbox in                   term for an unknown mixture of
    which no gear is engaged;                         nitrogen oxides, usually nitric
    indicated by the letter N on                      oxide and nitrogen dioxide: Khí
    automatic gear selectors: Tay soá                 nitô oxit
    N (soá mo)                                    noble metal n. precious metal (such as
new-old-stock (NOS) part n. new                       gold, silver, mercury, platinum)
    genuine spares for older models,                  which conducts electricity very
    referring mostly to spare parts that              well, resists corrosion and is inert;
    are normally no longer produced:                  some are used as catalysts in
    Phuï tuøng môùi cho caùc xe ñôøi cuõ              catalytic converters: Kim loaïi quyù
    khoâng coøn saûn xuaát.                       no-claims bonus n. reduction in
NiCaSil n. nickel-silicon plating used                insurance premiums because no
    e. g. on the cylinder walls of                    claims have been made: Tieàn
    certain       light-weight      high-             thöôûng (giaûm tieàn baûo hieåm)
    performance engines; reduces                      nhôø laùi xe an toaøn
    weight and friction and improves                  noise cancellation or reduction
    heat transfer: Lôùp maï nickel-                   n. the reduction of noise by means
    silicon treân thaønh xy lanh                      of anti-noise loudspeakers: Khöû
       nickel plating n. thin coating of              tieáng oàn
    nickel deposited on a surface by                       noise cancellation system
    electrolysis: Lôùp maï keàn                       (NCS) = ANTI-NOISE SYSTEM:
nipple n. (a) (lubrication) small, one-               Heä thoáng khöû tieáng oàn
    way valve used for injecting                      nominal capacity n. = RATED
    grease into a bearing: Nuùm tra                   CAPACITY: Dung löôïng ñònh
    môõ, nuùm voâ môõ                                 möùc
    (b) (bleeding) short, steel tube                         nominal        diameter    n.
    holding a thin rubber or plastic                  characteristic value used for
    tube used for bleeding hydraulic                  pipeline systems to identify parts
    fluid: OÁc xaû gioù                               which belong together such as
nippy a. (of a motor vehicle) small                   pipes, pipe joints, fittings, etc; a
    and relatively powerful: Nhoû                     nominal size for the inside


                                            228
nominal engine speed                                                            nose-up

    diameter: Ñöôøng kính ñònh möùc                  other; one shoe is self-energizing,
       nominal engine speed n. =                     the other is not: Phanh khoâng trôï
   RATED SPEED: Toác ñoä ñoäng cô                    löïc
   ñònh möùc                                     Nordberg key n. round key: Chìa
      nominal length n. (i) length of                khoùa troøn
   the shank of screws/bolts with flat           Nordic Anti-Corrosion Code n. (for
   bearing faces; (ii) length of shank               passenger cars) code developed
   plus height of head of countersunk                by the Scandinavian automobile
   bolts/screws; (iii) overall length of             and consumer associations which
   a stud minus the length of the stud               stipulates that, as of January 1983,
   end: Chieàu daøi, ñoä daøi ñònh möùc              all cars must be free of surface
   cuûa bu loâng.                                    corrosion for three years and free
        nominal pressure         n.    =             of perforation and weakening
   RATED PRESSURE: AÙp suaát                         damage for six years: Luaät baûo
   ñònh möùc                                         veä ngöôøi tieâu duøng ôû moät soá
       nominal (thread) diameter n.                  nöôùc Baéc AÂu quy ñònh xe du lòch
   = MAJOR DIAMETER: Ñöôøng                          khoâng ñöôïc ræ beà maët trong 3
   kính (ren) ñònh möùc                              naêm, khoâng bò thuûng trong 6
      nominal voltage n. = RATED                     naêm.
   VOLTAGE: Ñieän aùp ñònh möùc                  normal zinc technology see LOW
non-destructive testing (NDT) see                    ZINC TECHNOLOGY
   NDT METHOD: Phöông phaùp                              normally aspirated engine n.
   kieåm tra khoâng phaù huûy                        = NATURALLY ASPIRATED
          non-dispersive       infrared              ENGINE: Ñoäng cô khoâng taêng
   analyser see NDIR ANALYSER:                       aùp
   Maùy phaân tích khí thaûi duøng tia               north-south layout n. engine
   hoàng ngoaïi                                      layout with the cylinders lying
      non-ferrous metal n. metal that                lengthways from the front (north)
   is not based on iron; includes                    to the back (south): Ñoäng cô
   aluminium, copper, magnesium,                     ñaëttheo chieàu doïc
   etc.: Kim loaïi maøu                              (NOTE: also called longitudinal
non-self-priming pump             n. a               engine)
   centrifugal pump which is unable              NOS = NEW-OLD-STOCK (PART):
   to evacuate and prime the suction                 Phuï tuøng môùi cho xe ñôøi cuõ
   line without external assistance:             nose n. the front end of a vehicle: Maët
   Bôm ly taâm khoâng töï moài                       tröôùc cuûa xe hôi
    (NOTE: opposite is self-priming                     nose-to-tail n. driving mode in
   pump)                                             rush-hour     traffic; bumper-to-
non-servo brake n. drum brake                        bumper: Xe chaïy noái ñuoâi nhau
   design; each brake shoe is                             nose-up a. description of the
   anchored, therefore no one shoe                   towing vehicle if the vehicle being
   can assist in the application of the              towed is too heavy: Tình traïng


                                           229
nose dive                                                                            nylon

    cuûa xe keùo neáu xe ñöôïc keùo quaù               with catalytic converters that
    naëng                                              prevents filling from leaded petrol
        nose dive n. = BRAKE DIVE:                     pumps, which have larger pump
    Phanh bò ñaâm                                      nozzles: Loã ñoå xaêng duøng cho
        nosepiece n. insert for pop-rivet              xaêng khoâng chì (nhoû hôn)
    pliers that is used to allow various           NR = NATURAL RUBBER: Cao su
    pop-rivet diameters to be used:                    thieân nhieân
    Ñaàu naïp ñi veâ                               n/s = NEARSIDE: Phía leà
nose protector n.cover, usually of                 nudge bar n. = NERF BAR: Thanh
    black soft plastic sheeting with                   caûn tröôùc
    flannel-like backing, that fits                numberplate n. plate on the front and
    around the front end of a car: Vaät                back of a vehicle, showing its
    baûo veä muõi xe baèng chaát deûo                  registration number: Baûng ñaêng
    (NOTE: also called nose bra)                       kyù (baûng soá xe oâ toâ)
nose weight n. vertical weight on the                  (NOTE: US English is license
    centre of the towing ball exerted                  plate)
    by the vehicle being towed (on                          numberplate lamp = lamp
    level ground): Troïng löôïng ñöùng                 providing white illumination of
    ôû taâm moùc keùo khi keùo xe                      the rear numberplate: Ñeøn baûng
no-spin differential n. = LIMITED-                     soá
    SLIP       DIFFERENTIAL:           Boä         nut n. small, metal block with a
    truyeàn ñoäng vi sai giôùi haïn tröôït             threaded central hole so that it can
notchy a. (changing of gears) not                      be screwed on to a bolt, screw,
    smooth, causing a slight crashing                  etc.: Ñai oác
    of gears; often caused by the                          nut cracker or splitter = tool
    clutch failing to disengage fully:                 used to crack open stubborn nuts
    Tieáng keâu khi voâ soá do ly hôïp                 without damaging the bolt or stud
    khoâng nhaû heát                                   thread: Duïng cuï ñuïc ñai oác (khi
NOX        (symbolfor)      NITROGEN                   môû khoù)
    OXIDES: Khí NOx                                         nut driver or spinner =
        NOx-Control module NCM =                       SOCKET DRIVER: Caàn sieát nuï
    digital ignition control module for                    nut starter = tool used to hold
    retrofitting to cars with Motronic                 nuts for easy placement in tight
    engine control; modifies ignition                  locations: Duïng cuï giöõ ñai oác khi
    timing characteristics for lower                   sieát nhöõng choã heïp
    NOx emissions: Boä phaän kieåm                         nut thread = internal thread of
    soaùt khí NOx                                      a nut: Ñöôøng ren beân trong cuûa
nozzle n. jet, hole, or special fitting at             ñai oác
    the end of a pipe for controlling              nylon nut n. self-locking nut with
    what comes out: Voøi phun                          nylon insert: Ñai oác töï haõm coù
        nozzle restrictor n. restrictor                loàng ni loâng
    in the fuel filler neck of cars fitted                   nylon n. tough, versatile,


                                             230
nylon                                                              nylon hammer

   synthetic material; can be used in              nylon hammer = soft face
   sheet, fibre, or solid form: Ni loâng         hammer with a nylon face: Buùa ni
                                                 loâng (nhöïa)




                                           231
obstruction spanner                                                        offset crankshaft


                                              Oo
obstruction spanner n. bent ring                         in contact with another, ready to
    spanner for reaching around                          fit the pieces together: Laép chi
    manifold and other obstacles to                      tieát naøy vaøo chi tieát khaùc
    work on parts with difficult access,            off-line a. independent of the main
    such as starter or alternators: Caàn                 production          process       line;
    sieát duøng cho nhöõng vuøng ñoäng                   characterized by a separate
    cô khoù luoàn tay                                    operation: Hoaït ñoäng ñoäc laäp vôùi
OC = OVERHEAD CAMSHAFT:                                  daây chuyeàn saûn xuaát
    Truïc cam treân naép maùy                               off-line painting = painting of
ocean liner blast horn n. horn which                     parts, mostly plastic parts, outside
    imitates the deep bellow of an                       the actual painting line: Sôn caùc
    ocean liner horn: Coøi xe baét                       chi tieát baèng nhöïa ngoaøi daây
    chöôùc tieáng coøi hôi cuûa taøu bieån               chuyeàn sôn.
octagonal (head) bolt n. bolt with                  off-road vehicle n. 4wd vehicle with
    an eight-sided head: Bu-loâng ñaàu                   locking differential for use on
    baùt giaùc                                           rough terrain: Xe ñòa hình, xe
        octagon nut         n. nut with                  vieät daõ
    eight-sided: Ñai oác baùt giaùc                 offset 1 a. set at an angle or to one
octane number (ON) or octane                             side: Ñaët moät goùc, moät phía
    rating     n.     the measure of a                   2 n. (a) (steering geometry) =
    fuel’s anti-knock rating; the                        SCRUB RADIUS: Baùn kính laùi
    average of Research Octane                            (b)      (wheel)         the distance
    Number (RON) and Motor Octane                        between the centre line of the rim
    Number (MON): Chæ soá oâctan                         and the attachment face of the
OD = OVERDRIVE: Soá cao nhaát                            wheel disc at the wheel hub; this
    trong hoäp soá töï ñoäng, soá OD                     dimension can either be positive,
OUTER DIAMETER: Ñöôøng kính                              negative, or zero.: Khoaûng caùch
    ngoaøi.                                              giöõa ñöôøng taâm vaønh baùnh xe
odometer n. incorporated in the                          vôùi maët gaù laép ñóa baùnh xe ôû
    speedometer,        the     odometer                 truïc baùnh xe (khoaûng caùch naøy
    indicates total mileage of the                       coù theå döông, aâm hoaëc baèng
    vehicle, in miles or kilometres,                     khoâng)
    either        mechanically           or         offset angle n. angle of the offset
    electronically:       Ñoàng hoà ño                   crankpins in V-engines: Goùc leäch
    quaõng ñöôøng ñaõ ñi cuûa xe.                        khuyûu (trong ñoäng cô chöõ V).
OE (M) = ORIGINAL EQUIPMENT                         offset crankshaft           n. crankshaft
    (MANUFACTURER): Thieát bò                            layout whereby the axes of the
    chính haõng (nhaø saûn xuaát)                        crankshaft and the piston pin do
offer up v. to bring a part close to or                  not intersect: Kieåu truïc khuyûu


                                              232
offset handle                                                                          oil can

     maø treân hình chieáu taâm cuûa truïc              hammer out dents in the
     khuyûu khoâng caét aéc piston.                     bodywork: Goø khoâng duøng ñe
offset handle n. drive handle for use              OHC = OVERHEAD CAMSHAFT:
     with sockets, with one end set at                  Truïc cam treân naép maùy
     90o to the handle: Tay quay duøng             ohmmeter         n. instrument designed
     cho tuyùp coù ñaàu leäch 90o.                      for measuring electric resistance:
         offset power steering       n. =               OÂm keá
     LINKAGE POWER STEERING:                       OHV-engine           n. = OVERHEAD
     Laùi coù trôï löïc lieân keát baèng                VALVE ENGINE: Ñoäng cô coù
     thanh laùi                                         suùpap treân naép maùy
          offset screwdriver            n.         oil n. the oil used to lubricate an
     screwdriver with either straight or                engine (engine oil) is refined
     cross-head tips or a combination                   from crude oil and apart from
     of both, and the two ends set at                   reducing friction and wear, cools
     right angles to the shank: Tuoác nô                high-temperature        parts     like
     vít coù tay quay ngang                             bearings and piston rings (as well
           offset twin         n. typical               as sealing the latter against blow-
     motorcycle engine with the two                     by) and helps to keep engines
     crankpins offset by 180°: Loaïi                    clean and free from corrosion
     ñoäng cô xe gaén maùy coù ñoä leäch                caused by combustion gases: Daàu
     giöõa hai choát khuyûu baèng 180°                  (nhôùt) boâi trôn ñoäng cô, nhôùt
         offset wrench       n. L-shaped           oil additive n. any one of a variety
     tool for turning recessed screws:                  of chemicals added to engine oils
     Thanh môû bu-loâng chìm hình L                     to improve their performance:
off shape or off colour         n. colour               Caùc chaát phuï gia cuûa daàu (nhôùt)
     mismatch due to wrong paint                        ñoäng cô
     mixing or application: Sai maøu               oil and water extractor                   n.
     (sôn)                                              (compressor)           =          AIR
offside o/s       n. side of the vehicle                TRANSFORMER: Boä phaän taùch
     farthest away from the kerb (when                  daàu(nhôùt) vaø nöôùc trong maùy
     driving): Beân xe xa leà ñöôøng (coù               neùn
     theå traùi hoaëc phaûi tuyø theo tay          oil breather pipe          n. crankcase
     laùi thuaän hay nghòch)                            breather pipe used prior to engine
off-the-car balancing n. balancing                      emission control systems to
     the wheel after it has been                        remove fumes and pressure from
     removed from the car: Caân baèng                   the engine crankcase (NOTE: US
     ñoäng baùnh xe ngoaøi xe                           English is roaddraft tube): OÁng
     (NOTE: opposite is on-the-car                      thoâng hôi caùc te
     balancing)                                    oil can n. (a) container with a long,
off-the-dolly panel beating n.                          thin nozzle for lubricating
     metalworking technique used to                     machinery (b) shallow dent in a


                                             233
oil change                                                           oil filter cartridge

     panel that causes the panel to                  the filter element is removed;
     warp: Bình daàu (nhôùt) vôùi voøi               prevent oil spill: Van daãn daàu
     nhoû vaø daøi                                   (nhôùt) vaøo caùc te khi thaùo loïc
oil change n. draining and replacing                     oil duct or oil passage or oil
     the engine oil in regular intervals             way n. pipe or passage through
     (ideally every six months): Chu                 which oil flows under pressure:
     kyø thay daàu (nhôùt), thôøi haïn               OÁng daãn daàu (nhôùt) hoaëc ñöôøng
     thay daàu (nhôùt)                               oáng daàu (nhôùt) hoaëc raõnh daàu
oil circulation         n. passing of oil            (nhôùt), ñöôøng daãn daàu (nhôùt)
     round the engine: Söï löu thoâng                     oiler       n.    (a) = CAM
     daàu (nhôùt) trong ñoäng cô                     LUBRICATOR: Boä phaän boâi
oil consumption n. amount of oil an                  trôn cam (vít löûa)
     engine uses: Ñoäï tieâu hao nhôùt               (b) = OIL CAN: Bình daàu (nhôùt),
     trong ñoäng cô                                  bình chaâm daàu (nhôùt)
         oil control orifice valve n.                    oil filler cap n. cap covering
     valve located in the feed line                  the oil filler hole: Naép ñaäy loã
     between cylinder head: Van tieát                chaâm daàu (nhôùt)
     löu daàu (nhôùt).                                   oil filler hole = hole through
           oil control ring = OIL                    which oil is poured into the engine
     SCRAPER RING: Voøng gaêng                       (usually situated on top of the
     gaït daàu (nhôùt) (xeùc-maêng daàu              rocker cover): Loã chaâm nhôùt
     (nhôùt))                                           oil filter n. device for trapping
oil cooler n. small, air- or coolant-                dirt in lubricating or hydraulic oil;
     cooler,       radiator-like      device         usually either a full- flow filter or
     designed too decrease the                       a bypass filter with the filter
     temperature of the oil in the                   elementmade of pleated paper,
     engine to approx 185oF: Bình                    gauze, ceramic or fine wire mesh:
     giaûi nhieät daàu (nhôùt) (baèng nöôùc          Boä loïc daàu (nhôùt)
     hoaëc gioù)                                         oil filter bypass valve = valve
        oil cooler bypass valve = oil-               in or near the oil filter which
     temperature controlled valve                    routes the oil unfiltered directly to
     which closes the oil circuit thought            the lubricating points; it comes
     the oil is still cold; similar function         into operation when the oil filter is
     as the thermostat in the engine                 clogged so that pressure across the
     cooling system: Van haèng nhieät                filter is higher than the pressure
     trong bình (keùt) giaûi nhieät daàu             needed to overcome the oil filter
     (nhôùt)                                         bypass valve spring: Van an toaøn
oil drain plug n. SUMP DRAIN                         trong loïc daàu (nhôùt)
     PLUG: OÁc xaû daàu (nhôùt) cac-te                   oil filter cartridge = (i) the
        oil drain valve = valve in an                type of oil filter usually used on
     upright oil filter housing which                automotive engines which comes
     lets oil drain into the sump when               complete with filter and housing,


                                               234
    oil filter housing                                   oil pressure warning light

    and where both components are                 daàu (nhôùt), möùc daàu (nhôùt)
    replaced together (ii) a paper or                 oil level gauge = dial on the
    textile insert for the oil filter             instrument panel that indicates the
    housing (quite commonly used on               oil level; operates when the
    motorcycle engines where e.g. the             ignition is switched on and stops
    main filter is a disposable                   shortly after the engine starts to
    cartridge, while a filter screen is           run: Ñoàng hoà baùo möïc daàu
    located on the bottom of the oil                   oil level sensor = sensor
    pump): Löôùi loïc daàu (nhôùt).               mounted in the sump that supplies
         oil filter housing = case                information on the engine oil level
    surrounding an oil filter: Voû boä            to the corresponding on the engine
    loïc daàu (nhôùt)                             oil level to the corresponding
         oil filter wrench = special              gauge: Caûm bieán möïc daàu (nhôùt)
    automotive tool for the removal                   oil pan       n. US = SUMP:
    and installation of oil filters; they         Maùng daàu (nhôùt)
    come in a variety of shapes, e.g.                oil pick-up (pipe) n. pipe or
    as      strap     wrenches,     chain         tube from the strainer to the oil
    wrenches, or special cup-style end            pump in the sump: (OÁng daãn) daàu
    cap oil filter wrenches: Khoùa môû            (nhôùt) veà caùc te tö øloïc
    boä loïc daàu (nhôùt)                            oil pressure n. the lubrication
oil gallery n. passage running the                point of the engine will only be
    length of the cylinder block                  lubricated sufficiently if, in
    through which oil under pressure              addition to the oil quantity
    flows before passing into the                 required, the oil pressure is also
    bearings (via holes in the cylinder           sufficient; the oil pressure is
    block): Maïch daàu (nhôùt) trong              maintained be the oil pump: AÙp
    thaân maùy.                                   suaát daàu (nhôùt)
       oil gauge n. OIL PRESSURE                     oil pressure gauge: AÙp keá daàu
    GAUGE: Duïng cuï ño aùp suaát                 (nhôùt), ñoàng hoà aùp suaát daàu
    daàu (nhôùt)                                  (nhôùt)
        oil grade n. rating of an oil                 oil pressure sensor = sensor
    according to its viscosity: Loaïi             mounted above the oil filter that
    daàu (nhôùt) theo ñoä nhôùt                   supplies information on the engine
       oil groove n. recess designed              oil pressure to the corresponding
    to     either     accommodate      or         warning light: Caûm bieán aùp suaát
    transport lubricant: Raõnh daãn daàu          daàu (nhôùt)
    (nhôùt) ñeå boâi trôn                             oil pressure switch = switch
        oil immersed clutch         n. =          which indicates a drop too below
    WET CLUTCH: Ly hôïp ngaâm                     the minimum permissible oil
    trong daàu (nhôùt) (ly hôïp öôùt)             pressure by illuminating the oil
       oil level n. depth of oil in               pressure warning light: Coâng taéc
    sump, gearbox or rear axle: Möïc              aùp suaát daàu (nhôùt)


                                            235
    oil pressure warning light                                                      one-off

         oil pressure warning light =                  Thieát bò taùch daàu (nhôùt) töø oáng
     instrument      panel     light  the              thoâng hôi caùc te.
     illuminates when oil pressure falls                  oil sludge n. thick deposits in
     below a certain level: Ñeøn baùo aùp              the sump and elsewhere, of dirt
     suaát daàu (nhôùt)                                and the products of combustion,
oil pump n. pump which circulates oil                  partial combustion and oxidation
     under pressure to the moving parts                of the oil (e.g. carbon particles,
     of an engine; normally bolted to                  unburned        hydrocarbons     and
     the crankcase and located in the                  oxides): Caën daàu (nhôùt)
     sump; usually a gear pump: Bôm                       oil sump see SUMP: Cacte daàu
     daàu (nhôùt) boâi trôn                            (nhôùt) ôû döôùi
         oil pump strainer = coarse-                       oil temperature gauge           n.
     mesh metal screen on the bottom                   gauge which indicates the
     of the pick-up pipe that prevents                 temperature of the engine oil:
     foreign matter (such as lost                      Ñoàng hoà ño nhieät ñoä daàu (nhôùt)
     washers, nuts and bolts) from                          oil trap         n.     = OIL
     entering the oil pump: Væ loïc döôùi              SEPARATOR: Duïng cuï taùch daàu
     bôm daàu (nhôùt)                                  (nhôùt)
oil rail      n. the part of the oil ring                 oil way see OIL DUCT: Raõnh
     responsible for the seal between                  daàu (nhôùt), ñöôøng daãn daàu
     piston and cylinder wall and thus                 (nhôùt)
     for the actual ‘scraping off’ of the          oleopneumatic suspension           n. =
     oil: Gôø cuûa baïc nhôùt ñeå gaït                 HYDROPNEUMATIC
     nhôùt.                                            SUSPENSION: Heä thoáng treo
oil scraper ring          n. piston ring               thuyû khí
     whose primary function is to                  ON = OCTANE NUMBER: Chæ soá
     control the amount of oil that                    oâctan
     remains on the cylinder walls:                on-board computer          n. electronic
     Xeùc-maêng daàu (nhôùt)                           component used to control vehicle
oil screen         n. = OIL PUMP                       electrical circuits, etc. and to
     STRAINER: Löôùi loïc döôùi bôm                    process data for instrument panel
     daàu (nhôùt)                                      gauges: Maùy tính trung taâm
         oil seal      n. any seal that                   on-board diagnostic system n.
     prevents the leakage of oil but                   indicating devices on the car that
     especially the valve stem seal                    alert the driver when something is
     between the valve and the                         wrong in the system: Heä thoáng
     cylinder head: Phôùt daàu (nhôùt) suù             chaån ñoaùn treân xe
     paùp.                                         one-coat finish n. finish consisting
         oil separator      n. wire-mesh               of a single coat of paint: Lôùp sôn
     filter used to trap oil in the fumes              cuoái (moät lôùp)
     drawn out of the engine by the                one-off n. a car or spare part of
     crankcase ventilation system:                     which only a single unit is made:


                                             236
    one-piece rim                                                              opera light

     Xe hoaëc phuï tuøng chæ laøm moät               (NOTE: opposite is off-the-car
    laàn                                             balancing)
one-piece rim        n.     wheel rim            on-the-dolly panel beating               n.
    consisting of one part, designed                 metalworking technique used to
    for tubeless type mounting: Nieàng               tap out dents in the bodywork: Goø
    xe lieàn                                         khung duøng ñe
        one-piece rim designation =              on-the-road charges          n.     extra
    coded description of a one-piece                 charges, in addition to the list
    wheel rim: Thoâng soá vaønh baùnh                price of a new car, to cover
    xe lieàn                                         delivery, numberplates and road
    (NOTE: opposite is multi-piece                   fund licence (tax disc): Phí löu
    rim)                                             haønh
one-piece wheel       n. wheel with a            opacimeter         n. instrument for
    rim constructed in one piece                     measuring       the    content       of
    incorporating a well formation at                particulate suspended in a fluid:
    or near its centre to enable the                 Duïng cuï ño ñoä ñuïc cuûa chaát loûng
    type beads to be mounted over the            open coil or open element glow plug
    rim flanges: Baùnh xe lieàn khoái                n.      = WIRE GLOW PLUG:
    (NOTE: opposite is multi-piece                   Bougie xoâng coù daây sinh nhieät
    wheel)                                           ñeå hôû
one-way clutch n. mechanical clutch              open-ended spanner          n. spanner
    which transmits power in one                     with open jaws: Chìa khoaù mieäng
    direction of rotation only; when                    opening cam/rocker n. with
    torque is not applied, the driven                desmodromic         engines,       the
    member rotates freely; used in                   cam/rocker        responsible      for
    automatic gearboxes and the old                  opening the inlet or exhaust
    freewheel : Ly hôïp moät chieàu                  valve: Cam/coø hôû
       one-way valve n. = CHECK                  open-loop n. without feedback from
    VALVE: Van moät chieàu                           e.g.     oxygen-sensor        control
on-line a. state in which a piece of                 systems: Chu trình hôû (khoâng
    equipment or subsystem is directly               kheùp kín).
    connected with or incorporated                      open-loop catalytic converter
    into the main system: Söï noái tröïc             = present converter which does
    tieáp                                            not use an oxygen-sensor control
       on-line painting = painting of                system and thus operates without
    components within the actual                     feedback: Boä xuùc taùc chu trình
    painting line: Söï sôn treân daây                hôû (khoâng coù caûm bieán oxy)
    chuyeàn                                          (NOTE: opposite is computer-
on-the-car balancing n. balancing the                controlled catalytic converter)
    wheel whilst it is still attached to         opera light       n.     US decorated
    the car: Caân baèng baùnh xe khoâng              courtesy light mounted on the
    thaùo baùnh                                      central pillar: Ñeøn trang trí


                                           237
operating costs                                                                    O-ring

operating costs          n. the costs of          orbital sander        n. flat, cushioned
    running a car: Chi phí vaän haønh                 plate covered with abrasive paper,
operating piston          n. (automatic               rotated with an elliptical motion
    gearbox) piston which cause its                   by an electric motor and used for
    respective clutch(es), band or                    fine sanding work : Duïng cuï maøi
    multi-disc brakes to be applied by                baèng giaáy nhaùm
    converting fluid pressure into                organic n. of chemical compounds,
    mechanical force and movement:                    based on carbon chains or rings
    Pittoâng trong maïch daàu thuyû löïc              and containing hydrogen with or
    (hoäp soá töï ñoäng)                              without oxygen, nitrogen, or other
opposite lock n. turning the steering                 elements: Chaát höõu cô
    wheel in the opposite direction to                 (NOTE: opposite is inorganic)
    that of the oversteer; i.e. turning           orientation n. tendency of plastic
    the wheel to the left if the result               molecules if stretched, to align
    of going round a right-hand bend                  themselves in the direction of the
    too fast has caused the rear end of               stress: Söï ñònh höôùng cuûa caùc
    the car to skid: Söï tröôït ñuoâi xe              phaân töû nhöïa khi bò keùo.
    khi ñaùnh voøng ngöôïc tay laùi               original condition n. description of
optical check n. either a (less                       the condition of a car; the car is in
    thorough) visual inspection or an                 the state in which it left the
    examination by means of optical                   factory; it may be worn but has
    instruments: Kieåm tra chi tieát                  neither been resprayed nor
    baèng caùc thieát bò quang hoïc.                  reupholstered nor has extensive
optimize      n.      to set at the best              welding been carried out or
    possible value: Toái öu hoaù.                     modern accessories fitted to
optional equipment n. those parts                     change its standard specifications:
    and systems of a vehicle which                    Tình traïng ban ñaàu (cuûa xe).
    are not supplied as standard                  original equipment (OE)          n. part
    equipment by the manufacturer,                    used in the manufacture of the
    i.e they are not included in the                  vehicle, rather than those added
    price for a given model: Trang                    afterwards: Trang thieát bò goác
    thieát bò choïn theâm                             (duøng ôû nôi saûn xuaát xe)
(NOTE:       opposite      is   standard          O-ring n. annular seal, of round or
    equipment)                                        rectangular cross section and
OPUS = OSCILLATING PICK-UP                            almost any diameter; made of
    IGNITION SYSTEM: Heä thoáng                       rubber, neoprene, etc. , or of soft
    ñaùnh löûa caûm bieán ñieän töø.                  metal, such as copper: Voøng ñeäm
orange peel effect n. (paint fault)                   hình O (moät loaïi voøng ñeäm cao
    uneven formation on a film                        su hình chöõ O ñöôïc gaén ôû raõnh
    surface, similar to that of an                    chung quanh ñaàu truïc vaø trong
    orange skin: Lôùp sôn loãi gioáng beà             voû boïc truïc ñeå laøm kín, khoâng
    maët voû quaû cam                                 cho daàu (nhôùt) chaûy ra)


                                            238
oscilloscope                                                                      outlet valve

o/s = OFFSIDE                                                 outer envelope         n. (of gas
oscillating pick-up ignition system                       discharge lamps) bulb which
     (OPUS) n. ignition system where                      protects and supports the arc tube;
     the contact breaker and cam are                      either filled with gas or evacuated
     replaced by a timing rotor, a pick-                  to avoid oxidation of the arc tube:
     up module, and an amplifier                          Voû boùng cao aùp.
     module: Heä thoáng ñaùnh löûa caûm                      outer headlight: Ñeøn pha phía
     bieán ñieän töø.                                     ngoaøi
oscilloscope            n.       electronic                  outer terminal n. electrode on
     measurement device used to                           the inside of the distributor cap,
     display waveforms or traces of                       one outer terminal being assigned
     signals: Dao ñoäng kyù, maùy hieän                   to each sparking plug; the
     soùng                                                distributor rotor distributes the
otg = OUTDOOR or                OUTSIDE                   firing voltage from the central
     TEMPERATURE GAUGE: Duïng                             electrode to the outer terminals:
     cuï ño nhieät ñoä ngoaøi trôøi                       Ñieän cöïc bìa
Otto cycle n. another name for the                        (NOTE: opposite is centre
     four-stroke cycle, name after the                    electrode)
     German engine Dr. Nikolaus Otto                          outer tower n. socket on the
     (1832-1891) who first patented the                   distributor cap corresponding to
     design in 1876: Chu kyø Otto                         the outer terminal, one per
     (Chu kyø 4 thì: huùt, eùp, noå, xaû cuûa             cylinder, to connect the sparking
     ñoäng cô, do nhaø saùng cheá Dr.                     plug leads: Loã treân naép delco ñeå
     Nikolaus Otto, aùp duïng cho ñoäng                   caém daây phin
     cô ñoát trong)                                           outer wrap        n. (catalytic
outboard a. away from the centre                          converter) surrounds the converter
     of the vehicle: Xa taâm xe                           shell, serves as a retainer and
outdoor or outside temperature                            provides mechanical protection
     gauge (otg)        n. gauge which                    for the insulation: Voû boä xuùc taùc.
     indicates      the    ambient        air         outlet n. (a) (of 4-stroke engine) =
     temperature outside the vehicle:                     EXHAUST PORT: Cöûa thaûi, oáng
     Duïng cuï ño nhieät ñoä ngoaøi trôøi                 thaûi
          outer dead centre               see              (b) last pipe of an exhaust system;
     BOTTOM           DEAD      CENTRE:                   tailpipe: OÁng boâ
     Ñieåm cheát döôùi                                       outlet pipe n. pump discharge
         outer diameter (OD)               n.             pipe: OÁng ra cuû bôm.
     external diameter of a cylinder or                       outlet side = that side of the
     tube: Ñöôøng kính ngoaøi                             pump or pumping system on which
         outer electrode        n. (a) =                  the liquid pumped leaves the
     OUTER TERMINAL: Cöïc ngoaøi                          pump or system: Beân xaû
     (b) = EARTH ELECTRODE:                               (NOTE: opposite is suction side)
     Ñieän cöïc bìa                                            outlet valve       n.      (a) =


                                                239
outline                                                                 overhead camshaft

    EXHAUST VALVE: Suù paùp thaûi                      revolutions, producing road speed
   (b) = DISCHARGE VALVE:                              as a ratio of engine speed
           Van thoaùt                                  (sometimes expressed as mph per
outline v. to mould plastic material                   1000 rpm): Tæ soá truyeàn ñoäng (tæ
    around something: Phuû nhöïa                       soá giöõa toác ñoä ñoäng cô vaø toác ñoä
out of round a. not circular: Khoâng                   baùnh xe) toaøn phaàn (toác ñoä ñoäng
    troøn                                              cô / toác ñoä baùnh xe)
       out of true a. inaccurately                  overdrive n. (a) transmission speed
    made or incorrectly adjusted, e.g.                 which can be selected manually
    of a wheel with side –to-side                      and gives a ratio of less than 1:1,
    deviation or wobble: Laép sai,                     i.e. the transmission output shaft
    chænh sai                                          turns faster than the transmission
       out of tune a. poorly tuned:                    input shaft: Truïc ra hoäp soá quay
    Hieäu chænh sai                                    nhanh hôn truïc vaøo.
output speed           n. speed of the                 (b) separate transmission installed
    transmission output shaft which is                 in the (rear) drive train giving an
    transmitted to the driven wheels                   overdrive reduction to direct or
    via the final drive; as the final                  direct and intermediate gears;
    drive provides a constant gear                     usually        selected       electro-
    ratio, output speed is proportional                mechanically by means of a
    to vehicle road speed: Toác ñoä                    button or switch located either in
    truïc ra cuûa hoäp soá                             the instrument panel or at the gear
outrigger n. a short angle or box                      lever: Soá OD
    section member that runs across                 overflow hose/pipe n. pipe to drain
    part of the car: Thanh ñôõ, giaù ñôõ               off excess fluid, e.g. between the
outside caliper          n.     machinists’            radiator and the coolant reserve
    caliper used to check outside                      tank, or in the float chamber if the
    dimensions: Compa ño ngoaøi                        specified fuel level is substantially
         outside spring caliper =                      exceeded due to a leaking needle
    outside caliper with spring for                    valve: OÁng thoaùt, oáng xaû, oáng
    accurate setting: Compa ño ngoaøi                  traøn
    coù loø xo giöõ                                 overhang n. distance between the
        outside diameter           n. the              outermost front or rear point of a
    external diameter of a cylinder or                 vehicle and the wheel centres of
    tube: Ñöôøng kính ngoaøi                           the respective axle: Khoaûng caùch
oval piston         n.      special piston             töø taâm baùnh xe ñeán caûn tröôùc
    developed by Honda, able to                        hoaëc caûn sau.
    accommodate eight valves and                    overhaul v. to repair and restore to
    two sparking plugs: Pít toâng hình                 (near) original condition: Ñaïi tu
    baàu duïc                                       overhead camshaft (OC, OHC) n.
overall gear ratio n. ratio of engine                  type of camshaft situated over the
    revolutions      to      road    wheel             valves (rather than in the side of


                                              240
    overhead valve (OHV) engine                                              overspray

    the engine): Truïc cam treân naép               faster than the towing vehicle: Xe
   maùy                                             bò keùo chaïy theo trôùn nhanh hôn
overhead valve (OHV) engine n.                      xe keùo
   four-stroke engine with the intake            overrun control valve n. valve in a
   and exhaust poppet valves located                crossover pipe between the
   in the cylinder head and not at the              compressor suction and discharge
   side of the cylinder as in a side-               sides of some turbocharger
   valve engine; the valve stems are                systems: Van kieåm soaùt vöôït toác
   either at an angle or parallel and               cuûa boä taêng aùp.
   the valve discs face the piston,              overrun cut-off/ shut-off        n. =
   valve actuation pushrod and swing                DECELERATION FUEL CUT-
   arm: Ñoäng cô coù suùpap treân naép              OFF: Söï caét nhieân lieäu khi giaûm
   maùy                                             toác
     (NOTE: US English is I-head)                      overrunning clutch n. (a) part
overheat v. to make or become too                   of a starter motor designed to
   hot: Laøm quaù nhieät, quaù noùng                avoid armature damage caused by
overinflated tyre n. tyre which has                 severe overrevving: Ly hôïp tröôït
   too much air in it, causing                      trong maùy khôûi ñoäng
   premature wear in the tread                      (b) = ONE-WAY CLUTCH (in
   centre: Loáp xe bôm quaù ñaày                    automatic transmission) device
   khoâng khí (caêng)                               that disengages the engine on
   (NOTE: opposite is underinflated                 overrun: Boä ly hôïp moät chieàu
   tyre)                                            trong hoäp soá töï ñoäng.
overlap n. = VALVE OVERLAP:                            overrunning clutch starter n.
   Goùc truøng ñieäp cuûa suù paùp.                 = PRE-ENGAGED STARTER:
overlay n. upper layer of a plain                   Maùy khôûi ñoäng vôùi ly hôïp moät
   bearing insert: Lôùp voû ngoaøi cuûa             chieàu
   oå bi.                                        oversize piston       n. piston with a
overload spring n. (chassis) spring                 diameter slightly larger than that
   which acts only under heavy load;                of the standard piston, used in
   prevents bottoming: Loø xo chòu                  order to allow for honing of the
   taûi                                             cylinder walls: Pít-toâng cho xy
overrev v. to run engine above the                  lanh leân coát.
   maximum recommended rpm:                            oversize valve guides n. valve
   Chaïy quaù voøng quay toái ña cho                guide with a slightly larger outside
   pheùp (ñoäng cô)                                 diameter than the standard valve
overrun (a) n.& v. a vehicle travelling             guide, used to repair worn valve
   with no throttle and the engine                  guides after their bores have been
   acting as a brake is said to be ‘on              reamed: OÁng keàm suù paùp coù kích
   the overrun’ or ‘overrunning’: Söï               thöôùc lôùn ñeå thay oáng keàm suù
   chaïy theo trôùn                                 paùp bò moøn.
   (b) v. (of a towed vehicle) to travel         overspray       n. Undesirable spray


                                           241
    over square engine                                                oxygen corrosion

    residues on adjacent panels and                  oxy hoùa, quaù trình oâxi hoùa
    car parts beyond the resprayed                     oxide n. chemical compound of
    area (countered by careful                      oxygen with another element:
    masking): Lôùp sôn lan sang choã                OÂxit
    khaùc                                              oxides of nitrogen =
over square engine n. Engine where                  NITROGEN OXIDES: Oxit nitô
    the bore size is lager than the                 (hoùa hoïc)
    stroke: Ñoäng cô coù ñöôøng kính                     oxidize      v. to (cause to)
    piston lôùn hôn haønh trình.                    combine with oxygen: Laøm oâxi
oversteer 1 v. (of a vehicle) to turn               hoùa
    more sharply than the driver                        oxidizer or oxidizing agent =
    intends (possibly causing the rear              compound which gives up oxygen
    of the vehicle to slide wide):                  easily, removes hydrogen from
    Quay voøng thöøa                                another compound, or attracts
    2 n. action of oversteering: Söï                electrons: Taùc nhaân oâxi hoùa
quay voøng thöøa                                        oxidizing catalyst = catalyst
    (NOTE: opposite is understeer)                  which decreases CO and HC
overtake v. To pass another vehicle                 levels using excess air: Chaát xuùc
    going in the same direction: Vöôït              taùc ñeå oâxi hoùa CO vaø HC trong
overthin v. To add too much thinner                 khí thaûi
    to paint: Cho quaù nhieàu xaêng                        oxidizing     converter       =
    thôm khi pha loaõng sôn.                        converter with a conventional
owner n. Somebody who actually                      oxidation catalyst that needs a
    owns something, i. e. has the title             secondary air supply to convert
    of property: Chuû nhaân                         hydrocarbons         and        carbon
        owner’s handbook = booklet                  monoxide and water; does not
    provided with a new car which                   control NOx emissions: Boä hoaù
    briefly describes the position and              khöû coù bôm khí
    operation      of    the     various         oxyacetylene welding          n. = gas
    instrument and switches, as well                welding: Haøn hôi (oâxi –
    as technical specifications and                 axeâtylen)
    some maintenance information:                oxygen (O)       n. Gaseous element
    Saùch höôùng daãn ngöôøi söû duïng.             essential for life and the
oxalic acid      n. Acid used as an                 combustion of fuel: Khí oâxi, kyù
    electrolyte for anodising: Axít                 hieäu laø O
    oxalic                                                oxygenates         n. oxygen-
oxidation      n. Chemical reaction                 enriched fuels or anti-knock
    which increases the oxygen                      additives: Phuï gia vaøo nhieân lieäu
    content of a compound or in which               ñeå choáng kích noå.
    a compound or radical loses                         oxygen corrosion n. electro-
    electrons, i.e. In which the                    chemical corrosion caused by
    positive valence is increased: Söï              neutral or alkaline electrolytes in


                                           242
oxygen sensor                                                                   ozone

    which, during the cathodic                      coolant temperature signal to the
    reaction, oxygen is reduced to                  ECM: Coâng taéc nhieät ñoä nöôùc
    hydroxide: Söï aên moøn do oâxi             oxyhydrogen gas n. Highly explosive
 oxygen sensor        n. sensor which               mixture of oxygen and hydrogen,
    measures the amount of oxygen                   generated during charging of lead-
    remaining in the exhaust gases:                 acid batteries: Hoãn hôïp khí oâxi
    Caûm bieán oâxi                                 vaø hydro sinh ra khi naïp aéc quy.
    (NOTE: usually called a lambda              ozone n. Strong oxidizing agent (often
    sensor)                                         produced by sparking from
oxygen sensor system thermo-switch                  electrical apparatus, such as arc
    n. (fuel injection) usually located             welding equipment); particularly
    in a coolant hose, provides a                   harmful to tyres.: Khí oâzoân




                                          243
P                                                                                paintwork


                                              Pp
P (a) (gear selector) = PARK: Tay soá                      paint chip book n. = COLOUR
    P (ñaäu) (hoäp soá töï ñoäng)                      CHART: Bieåu ñoà maøu (sôn)
     (b) letter on the sidewall of a tyre                   paint colour matching          n.
    denoting the maximum speed for                     determining the correct paint
    which it is designed (150km/h or                   shade with the aid of colour charts
    95mph): Kyù töï treân voû xe chæ toác              and special mixing devices and, in
    ñoä toái ña 150km/h.                               difficult cases, via spectral
p/a (short for) POWER-ASSISTED:                        analysis: Söï choïn maøu sôn cho
    Trôï löïc                                          phuø hôïp khi sôn daëm.
packed glandn.(pump) Cylindrical                           painting line n. route taken (and
    recess that accommodates a                         processes undergone) by the
    number of rings of packing around                  bodywork         of      a     newly
    the shaft or shaft sleeve: Raõnh ñaët              manufactured vehicle on its way
    baïc treân truïc (bôm)                             through the paint shop: Daây
   (NOTE: also called stuffing box)                    chuyeàn sôn
pad (short for) BRAKE PAD: Maù                      painting robot      n. robot used for
    phanh.                                             paint application: Ngöôøi maùy ñöôïc
pad retainer (pin) n. pin which                        duøng cho vieäc sôn.
    locates the brake pad in a disc                         paint refinishing       n. the
    brake: Choát giöõ maù phanh                        various     steps      involved    in
    (phanh).                                           repainting a secondhand car: Caùc
pagoda (-style) roof n. unusual roof                   böôùc khi sôn laïi xe cuõõ.
    design,      introduced       on    the         paint shop n. (a) production stage in
    Mercedes-Benz          SL      Hardtop,            an automobile manufacturing plant
    which was slightly lower in the                    during which the bodywork is
    centre than at the sides: Mui xe                   treated with paint: Phaân xöôûng
    kieåu thaùp.                                       sôn
paint 1 n. any pigmented liquid,                        (b) separate paint repair shop,
    liquefiable, or mastic composition                  usually near a body repair shop
    designed for application to a                       (i.e. for damaged vehicles):
    substrate on a thin layer which is                  Phoøng sôn
    converted to a solid film after                        paint stripper n. liquid paint
    application: Sôn                                   remover: Thieát bò, dung moâi caïo
    2 v. In an automotive context,                     boû sôn
    painting usually means spray                           paint system n. the sum of all
    painting: Phun sôn                                 coats of paint on a work: Caùc lôùp
       paint booth n. closed section in                sôn
    a painting line in which coats of                      paintwork n. overall result of
    paint are applied: Phoøng sôn.                     painting; the paint coating or



                                              244
PAIR system                                                    panoramic windscreen

    finish: Sôn                                     different purpose, e.g. cross-peen
PAIR system n. = PULSE AIR                          and shrinking hammer: Buùa goø
    SYSTEM: Heä thoáng duøng rung                   thaân xe
    ñoäng khí thaûi ñeå naïp khoâng khí                 panelling n. (a) a combination
    vaøo ñöôøng thaûi                               of separate sheet metal panels to
palladium n. white, ductile, malleable,             form a complete assembly, e.g. the
    noble metal of the platinum                     outer panels of the body or even
    family; atomic number 46, atomic                the panels surrounding the engine:
    weight 106.4: resembles platinum                Toå hôïp khung voû xe.
    and together with other platinum                (b) plastic moulding; e.g. interior
    metals is used as a catalyst in                 trim of doors: Khung nhöïa (gaén
    automotive exhaust converters:                  tableau)
    Palañi (hoùa hoïc)                                 panel picking n. straightening
pane n. sheet of a window glass:                    very fine indentations or marks of
    Taám kính.                                      very small diameter on a panel
panel n. (a) part made from sheet                   surface with a pick hammer: Goø
    metal; e.g. door panel: Baûng, taám             tinh
    (theùp)                                      panel puller      n. tool with slide
   (b) plastic moulding; e.g. interior              hammer and hook or self-threading
    trim of doors: Khung nhöïa                      screw tip to pull dented doors,
        panel beater n. (a) person                  wings and other sheet metal panels
    who beats out the dented                        back into place: Duïng cuïï keùo
    bodywork of a damaged vehicle                   khung voû.
    (b) = PANEL HAMMER: Thôï                        (NOTE: US English is knocker)
    ñoàng.                                       Panhard rod n. transversely mounted
       panel beating n. beating out the             bar between a beam axle and the
    dents in damaged bodywork: Goø                  vehicle body as a lateral location
    thuøng xe.                                      of the axle:          Thanh xoaén
        panel bonding n. new repair                 Panhard.
    process using a special adhesive to                 Panhard rod mounting box =
    glue body panels in place instead               box section used to mount the
    of spot-welding them: Phöông                    Panhard rod of the rear axle: Giaù
    phaùp môùi söûa thuøng xe baèng                 laép thanh xoaén Panhard.
    duøng chaát keo ñaët bieät ñeå daùn.         panoramic windscreen             n. a
panel cutter n. air-operated tool                   windscreen style popular in the
     used to cut out old panels: Maùy               1950s and’60s that featured
     caét khung cuõ (laøm ñoàng)                    recessed screen pillars, giving a
       panel flanger n. = JOGGLER:                  wide, unobstructed view of the
    Maùy gaáp taám.                                 road; entry for the front passengers
          panel hammer n. special                   was awkward, since the screen
    hammer for metalworking that has                pillar corners projected into the
    two differently-shaped heads for                door opening: Kính xe nhìn ñöôïc


                                           245
pantechnicon                                                                 park brake

    bao quaùt.                                      Söï moøn ñeàu ñóa phanh
pantechnicon n. large van or lorry,                     parallel key n. = FEATHER
   especially     one     for    moving             KEY: Chìa khoùa mieäng
   furniture: Xe vaän taûi lôùn ñeå                          parallelogram       steering
   chuyeân chôû ñoà goã.                            (system) n. steering system with a
parabolic reflector n. old headlight                drop arm and idler arm: Heä thoáng
   reflector in the shape of a                      laùi hình bình haønh .
   parabola, now replaced by                            parallelogram suspension n. =
   ellipsoidal reflectors: Göông phaûn              DOUBLE                  WISHBONE
   xaï ñeøn pha coù daïng paraboân                  SUSPENSION: Heä thoáng treo
      parabolic spring n. leaf spring               hình bình haønh.
   tapered in the shape of a parabola:                      parallel     trailing    link
   Laù nhíp daïng ñöôøng paraboân                   suspension n. front suspension
paraffin     n.        in    automotive             layout      used     primarily     by
   applications, used as a solvent for              Volkswagen on rear-engined cars:
   removing grease: Daàu löûa                       Heä thoáng treo tröôùc vôùi caùc ñoøn
   (NOTE: US English is kerosene)                   keùo song song.
parallel 1 a. the same distance apart            parallel twin n. type of engine usually
   at every point: Song song                        found on traditional British two-
    2 n.     two or more electrical                 cylinder motorcycles: loaïi ñoäng cô
    components each receiving the                   hai xy lanh cuûa Anh duøng cho xe
    same voltage: Thieát bò ñieän maéc              gaén maùy.
    song song .                                  parallel valves n. inlet and exhaust
    3 v. to connect in parallel: Noái               valves with parallel valves stems:
    song song                                       Caùc suù paùp ñaët song song (huùt vaø
       parallel action locking pliers               thaûi)
   n. locking pliers with parallel               parent panel n. the panel left in
   action jaws, e.g. for pinching off               place on the car to which a new
   hoses when servicing cooling                     panel is welded after all the rusted
   systems: Kìm khoùa mieäng song                   metal has been cut out: Phaàn coøn
   song.                                            laïi cuûa khung muïc khi laøm ñoàng.
        parallel circuit n. electric             park (P) 1 n. one of the positions of
   circuit in which the individual                  the gear selector for an automatic
   components         are     connected             gearbox; when engaged (after the
   between two points, with one of                  vehicle has come to a complete
   the two ends of each component                   standstill) the driving wheels are
   connected       to     each    point;            locked: Tay soá ñaäu.
   arrangement used in the vehicle                  2 v. to leave a vehicle in a
   electrical system: Maïch ñieän song              particular place: Ñoã xe.
   song                                                 parking brake n. mechanically
      parallelism n. (of brake discs)               operated brake that is independent
   same thickness all the way round:                of the foot-operated service brakes


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parking brake console                                         particulate emission limit

    on the vehicle; set when the                    can be switched to illuminate the
    vehicle is parked, usually by hand              LH or RH side: Ñeøn ñoã xe.
    (handbrake) but sometimes by foot                  parking lock (PL) n. block gear
    on some American cars: Phanh                    and pawl that lock the transmission
    (phanh) tay.                                    mechanically: Cô caáu khoùa ôû tay
        parking brake console =                     soá ñaäu.
   reinforcing member incorporated                     parking lot n. US (ground level,
   in the centre tunnel area of the                 outdoor) car park: Baõi ñaäu xe.
   floorpan to provide the mounting                    parking meter n. coin-operated
   support for the handbrake: Giaù ñôõ              timing device that indicates how
   caàn keùo phanh tay.                             long a vehicle may legally remain
        parking brake lever = (inside               parked: Thieát bò baùo thôøi gian coù
   drum brake) lever which spreads                  theå ñoã xe.
   the brake shoes outward; the long                   parking space n. parking place
   end is connected to the parking                  reserved for a particular vehicle:
   brake shoe and to a push bar which               Nôi ñoã parking ticket n. written
   acts on the other shoe : Caàn ñaåy               fine for a parking offence: Phieáu
   guoác phanh.                                     phaït ñoã xe khoâng ñuùng choã.
        parking brake lever strut =                     park/ neutral safety switch n.
   push bar between the shoes in a                  =       STARTER          INHIBITOR
   drum brake: Thanh ñaåy guoác                     SWITCH: Coâng taéc an toaøn.
   phanh.                                        part n. component: Thaønh phaàn,
         parking brake pedal = foot-                phaàn, phuï tuøng.
   operated pedal for the parking                partial flow filter n. = BYPASS
   brake: Baøn ñaïp phanh tay.                      FILTER: Boä loïc maïch reõ.
        parking disc          n. marker                 partial respray n. respraying
    displayed on the inside of a parked             part of the bodywork: Söï sôn laïi
    car showing time of arrival (of                 moät phaàn thaân xe.
    latest permitted time of departure):             (NOTE: opposite is full or
    Baûng thoâng baùo thôøi gian ñoã xe.             complete respray)
parking heater n. air heating system             particulate catalyst          n.   pellet
    which operates independently of                 catalyst: chaát xuùc taùc daïng haït.
    the engine: Heä thoáng söôûi noùng                   particulate emission             n.
    hoaït ñoäng ñoäc laäp vôùi ñoäng cô.            emission of solid particles of
        parking interlock           n. =            carbon and unburnt hydrocarbons
    PARKING LOCK: Cô caáu khoùa ôû                  from the exhaust system: Haït
    tay soá ñaäu                                    muoäi than trong khí thaûi.
       parking light/ lamp n. energy-                    particulate emission limit =
    saving vehicle illumination mode                 weight of particulate emissions in
    for longterm roadside parking;                   the exhaust of diesel engines,
    includes only one front sidelight                specified in grams per mile: Söï
    and one taillight; the parking light             giôùi haïn löôïng haït muoäi


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particulate ignition temperature                                                patch panel

   than trong khí thaûi.                             passenger car n. (usually) four-
              particulate          ignition             wheeled motor car powered by an
    temperature            n.    in diesel              IC engine and designed for
    filtration tests, the exhaust gas                   passengers: Xe du lòch, xe con
    temperature at which there is an                         passenger car wheel =
    equilibrium between particulate                     generally one-piece wheels made
    burn-off and deposit build-up:                      of sheet steel (rim and disc are
    Nhieät ñoä cuûa khí thaûi giöõa ñieåm               welded together) or light-alloy
    töï laøm saïch vaø ñieåm keát muoäi.                (cast or forged alloy wheels), and
particulate       matter      (PM)       or             designed for tubeless tyres: Baùnh
    particulates n. suspended solids                    xe lieàn khoái.
    of       carbon       and       unburnt          passenger          compartment        or
    hydrocarbons from the exhaust                       passenger cell n. part of the car
    system: Than ñoùng laïi treân poâ                   in which the driver and passengers
part-load operation n. operation of                     sit: Khoang haønh khaùch.
    systems and components under                           passenger-side air bag n. an
    conditions below full load: Söï                     air bag restraint system designed
    hoaït ñoäng vôùi moät phaàn taûi.                   to protect the front passenger;
part out v. US to break up for spares:                  introduced on some cars in the
    Raõ xe laáy phuï tuøng                              early 1990s, it usually occupies the
part panel n. = PATCH PANEL:                            space normally provided for a
    Mieáng ñaép (laøm ñoàng)                            glove compartment: Tuùi khí daønh
parts catalogue n. catalogue listing                    cho haønh khaùch.
    available spare parts: Danh muïc                 passivate v. to reduce the reactivity of
    phuï tuøng.                                         a chemically active metal surface
part(s) number (p/n, PN) n.                             by electrochemical polarization or
    reference number attributed to                      by immersion in a passivating
    particular part: Maõ soá phuï tuøng                 solution: Laøm thuï ñoäng hoùa, laøm
part-throttle operation n. driving                      chaäm phaûn öùng (aên moøn).
    without using full throttle: chaïy               passive safety n. features designed
    vôùi caùnh böôùm ga môû moät phaàn.                 to alleviate the consequences of a
part-time four-wheel drive                n.            crash, such as air bags, collapsible
    manually selectable four-wheel                      steering column, head restraints,
    drive: Choïn daãn ñoäng boán baùnh                  toughened windscreen, etc.: Söï
    baèng tay.                                          an toaøn thuï ñoäng.
pas         =       POWER-ASSISTED                       (NOTE: opposite is active safety)
    STEERING: Heä thoáng laùi coù trôï               patching       n. repair method for
    löïc                                                welding up local corrosion damage
pascal (Pa) n. SI measurement of                        by using smaller panels made up
    pressure (= ten newton per square                   from sheet metal: Söï ñaép vaù (haøn
    centimeter): Ñôn vò ño aùp suaát                    thaân xe)
pass v. to overtake: Vöôït                                  patch panel n. small sheet


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pattern panel                                                            peen hammer

    metal panel that is usually made                metered into the intake system for
    up specially to repair minor rust               burning: Van thoâng khí hoäp caùc
    holes: Mieáng vaù, taám raùp noái.              te.
pattern panel n. body panel made by              PE         =        POLYETHYLENE,
   somebody other than the original                 POLYELLIP-SOIDAL
   manufacturer, usually for repair              peak power n. point of maximum
   purposes; this also includes panels              torque: Mo ment cöïc ñaïi.
   remanufactured after the spare                       peak revs          n.    point of
   parts supplies from the factory                  maximum engine speed: Soá voøng
   have been discontinued: Taám                     quay toái ña.
   thuøng xe töï goø.                                   peaky a. (of an engine) only
pawl n. (a) an arm pivoted so that its              able to deliver useful power at
   free end can fit into a notch, slot,             high revs, necessitating frequent
   or groove at certain times in order              gearchanges: Xe chaïy ôû toác ñoä
   to hold a part stationary (b) catch              quaù cao caàn thieát phaûi chuyeån soá
   at the bottom of a lever which                pedal n. foot-operated lever: Baøn
   connects with a toothed rack to                  ñaïp.
   hold the lever in position (e.g. with                pedal clearance = the distance
   a handbrake lever or in ratchets):                between the pedal and the floor,
   Moùc gaøi, con coùc,choát chaën.                  when the pedal is fully depressed;
payload      n. the revenue-earning                  reference points may vary:
   cargo of a commercial vehicle or                  Khoaûng hôû baøn ñaïp.
   the weight of the cargo: Troïng                     pedal free play = the distance a
   taûi.                                             pedal moves until a slight
pb = POWER BRAKES: Trôï löïc                         resistance is felt / pedal pulsation
   phanh (phanh).                                    = vibration of the brake pedal
PC       =       PITCH         CIRCLE,               when depressed, caused by a
   POLYCARBONATE                                     defective disc or drum (or when
pcb = PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD:                         ABS is activated): Söï rung ñoäng
   Baûng maïch in.                                   cuûa baøn ñaïp (phanh ABS).
PCD = PITCH CIRCLE DIAMETER                              pedals = the accelerator pedal,
PCI          =          PROGRAMME                   brake pedal and clutch pedal: Caùc
   COMPARISON                       AND             baøn ñaïp.
   IDENTIFICATION: Chöông trình                          pedal travel = the total stroke
   so saùnh vaø nhaän daïng.                        of a pedal: Haønh trình töï do cuûa
PCV = POSITIVE CRANKCASE                            baøn ñaïp.
   VENTILATION: Thoâng khí hoäp
   caùc te.                                      peen n. ball-shaped, or narrow wedge-
PCV valve = usually located on the                  shaped end of a hammer head
   cylinder head cover, this valve                  opposite the flattened striking
   allows a certain amount of                       face: Ñaàu muõi buùa.
   crankcase blow-by gases to be                 peen hammer = body hammer with


                                           249
peening                                                              permanent magnet

   a peen of triangular section with a           performance n. (a) the general way a
   fairly sharply shaped end: Buùa ñaàu             car (or any other machine or
   tam giaùc.                                       material handles: tính naêng xe
          peening      n. flattening or              (b)      specifically,     a     car’s
   shaping with a peen hammer: Söï                   acceleration and top speed: Ñaëc
   goø baèng buùa.                                   tính gia toác vaø soá voøng quay cöïc
PE headlight n. headlight with a gas                 ñaïi.
    discharge       lamp       and     a               performance characteristics of
    polyellipsoidal reflector: ñeøn ñaàu            materials n. specific values for
    vôùi boùng cao aùp vaø choaù hình               materials, obtained by standard
    polyellipsoid                                   test methods and available for the
pein n. = PEEN: Ñaàu muõi buùa                      selection of appropriate materials:
pellet-type catalytic c