# 02 by huanglianjiang1

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```									          CH110
Chapter 2: Energy & Matter
Potential & Kinetic Energy
Energy from Food
Temperature
Specific Heat
States of Matter
Heating & Cooling Curves

1
Energy
Energy = The capacity to cause change

Heat
Light

2
Units of Measurement
Metric             Common
SI               Conversions
Length   meter (m)       1 m = 1.09 yd
Volume   liter (L)       1 L = 1.06 qt

Mass     gram (g)        1 kg = 2.2 lb

Energy   calorie (cal)   1Kcal = 1000 cal = 1Cal
Joule (J)       1 cal = 4.18 J

4
Energy
Units of Energy =
calorie       cal
kilocalorie   kcal   1000 cal = 1 kcal

Calorie      Cal    Cal = kcal

joule        J      4.18 J = 1 cal

British
BTU
Thermal Unit

5
Energy
calorie:
E to raise 1 g H20 by 1 oC
Specific Heat
H 2O               1 cal
1oC
1g 1oC

6
Energy from Food
4 kcal
1 g carb
Carbohydrate
9 kcal
Fat            1 g fat

Protein          4 kcal
1 g protein

7
Units of Measurement
Metric             Common
SI               Conversions
Length        meter (m)       1 m = 1.09 yd
Volume        liter (L)       1 L = 1.06 qt

Mass          gram (g)        1 kg = 2.2 lb

Energy        calorie (cal)   1Kcal = 1000 cal = 1Cal
Joule (J)       1 cal = 4.18 J

Temperature   Celsius (oC)    C = (F-32)/1.8
Kelvin (K)      K = C + 273
9
Temperature

o                o
180          100

10
Temperature conversion
• Common scales used
• Fahrenheit, Celsius and Kelvin.
oF   = 1.8 oC + 32
oC   = (oF - 32)
1.8
SI unit       K    = oC + 273
11
Trivial Pursuit Question
• At what temperature does
oF = oC?

- 40 oF = - 40 oC

- 40 o

12
Energy
calorie:
E to raise 1 g H20 by 1oC
Specific Heat
H 2O               1 cal
1oC
1g 1oC

14
Specific Heat
E to raise Temp of 1g substance by 1 oC
cal
1g 1oC

H2O Al Sand Fe       Cu    Ag    Au
1.00 0.22 0.19 0.11 0.093 0.057 0.031
0oC = start        Add 1 cal
15
Specific Heat
E to raise Temp of 1g substance by 1oC
30o                                               Au
cal                                0.031
20o                                        Ag
g oC
Cu 0.057
10o                            Fe
0.093
Sand   0.11
Al
1o                     0.19
0.22
H 2O
1.00
0oC = start                 Add 1 cal
16
Specific Heat
30o             Low SpHt; Heats quickly      Au
Ag    0.031
20o
Cu 0.057
10o                       Fe
0.093
Al Sand    0.11
1o           0.22 0.19
H 2O   High SpHt; Resists change
1.00

17
Specific Heat
Dehydrated person
Body temp rises
quickly

Hydrated person
Resists change in
body temp

Heats quickly
Sand   Gets hot
H2O Resists change 0.19
1.00 Stays cold
18
Elemental states at 25oC
H                        Solid                                          He

Li Be
Liquid                 B    C    N   O   F     Ne
Gas
Na Mg                                           Al   Si   P   S   Cl    Ar

K   Ca Sc   Ti    V   Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr

Rb Sr   Y   Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te                I     Xe

Cs Ba Ls Hf Ta        W Re Os     Ir   Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn

Fr Ra Ac
Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu

Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr
21
Changes of State
Fast, far apart,
Random                Vapor
Vaporize            Boiling Pt       Condense
Moderate, close,
Liquid              Random
arrangement
Melting Pt =
Melt            Freezing Pt        Freeze
Slow, close,
Fixed                   Solid
arrangement
22
Changes of State
Vapor

Deposit
Liquid            Frost
Sublime
Freeze Dry

Solid
23

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