02 by huanglianjiang1

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									          CH110
Chapter 2: Energy & Matter
  Potential & Kinetic Energy
      Energy from Food
         Temperature
        Specific Heat
       States of Matter
  Heating & Cooling Curves

                               1
                        Energy
Energy = The capacity to cause change

              Heat
              Light



                                    2
          Units of Measurement
          Metric             Common
           SI               Conversions
Length   meter (m)       1 m = 1.09 yd
Volume   liter (L)       1 L = 1.06 qt

Mass     gram (g)        1 kg = 2.2 lb

Energy   calorie (cal)   1Kcal = 1000 cal = 1Cal
         Joule (J)       1 cal = 4.18 J




                                             4
                              Energy
Units of Energy =
 calorie       cal
 kilocalorie   kcal   1000 cal = 1 kcal

  Calorie      Cal    Cal = kcal

  joule        J      4.18 J = 1 cal

   British
              BTU
 Thermal Unit

                                          5
                       Energy
calorie:
  E to raise 1 g H20 by 1 oC
                 Specific Heat
  H 2O               1 cal
           1oC
                    1g 1oC




                                 6
          Energy from Food
                  4 kcal
                 1 g carb
Carbohydrate
                   9 kcal
    Fat            1 g fat


   Protein          4 kcal
                 1 g protein

                               7
               Units of Measurement
               Metric             Common
                SI               Conversions
Length        meter (m)       1 m = 1.09 yd
Volume        liter (L)       1 L = 1.06 qt

Mass          gram (g)        1 kg = 2.2 lb

Energy        calorie (cal)   1Kcal = 1000 cal = 1Cal
              Joule (J)       1 cal = 4.18 J

Temperature   Celsius (oC)    C = (F-32)/1.8
              Kelvin (K)      K = C + 273
                                                  9
Temperature


   o                o
 180          100




                        10
          Temperature conversion
  • Common scales used
          • Fahrenheit, Celsius and Kelvin.
              oF   = 1.8 oC + 32
              oC   = (oF - 32)
                        1.8
SI unit       K    = oC + 273
                                              11
      Trivial Pursuit Question
• At what temperature does
  oF = oC?




 - 40 oF = - 40 oC

                 - 40 o


                                 12
                       Energy
calorie:
  E to raise 1 g H20 by 1oC
                 Specific Heat
  H 2O               1 cal
           1oC
                    1g 1oC




                                 14
                        Specific Heat
 E to raise Temp of 1g substance by 1 oC
         cal
       1g 1oC




  H2O Al Sand Fe       Cu    Ag    Au
  1.00 0.22 0.19 0.11 0.093 0.057 0.031
0oC = start        Add 1 cal
                                       15
                                     Specific Heat
      E to raise Temp of 1g substance by 1oC
30o                                               Au
              cal                                0.031
20o                                        Ag
              g oC
                                      Cu 0.057
10o                            Fe
                                     0.093
                       Sand   0.11
                 Al
1o                     0.19
                0.22
       H 2O
       1.00
  0oC = start                 Add 1 cal
                                                     16
                                Specific Heat
30o             Low SpHt; Heats quickly      Au
                                      Ag    0.031
20o
                                 Cu 0.057
10o                       Fe
                                0.093
              Al Sand    0.11
1o           0.22 0.19
      H 2O   High SpHt; Resists change
      1.00

                                                17
                            Specific Heat
                             Dehydrated person
                               Body temp rises
                                        quickly

         Hydrated person
        Resists change in
           body temp

                        Heats quickly
                   Sand   Gets hot
H2O Resists change 0.19
1.00 Stays cold
                                              18
            Elemental states at 25oC
H                        Solid                                          He

Li Be
                         Liquid                 B    C    N   O   F     Ne
                          Gas
Na Mg                                           Al   Si   P   S   Cl    Ar

K   Ca Sc   Ti    V   Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr

Rb Sr   Y   Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te                I     Xe

Cs Ba Ls Hf Ta        W Re Os     Ir   Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn

Fr Ra Ac
                 Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu

                 Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr
                                                                       21
                            Changes of State
Fast, far apart,
   Random                Vapor
Vaporize            Boiling Pt       Condense
                                    Moderate, close,
                   Liquid              Random
                                     arrangement
                   Melting Pt =
   Melt            Freezing Pt        Freeze
Slow, close,
    Fixed                   Solid
arrangement
                                                  22
                      Changes of State
                  Vapor

                              Deposit
             Liquid            Frost
 Sublime
Freeze Dry

                      Solid
                                        23

								
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