High Definition Television Pixels and Resolution

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                                                                                                                                                                                        Pixels and Resolution “5 times the pixels, 4 times the resolution”
                                                                                                                                                                                        Standard definition pixels and resolution
                                                                                                                                                                                        The resolution of 625 line SD television (PAL) is 720x576 pixels, 414720 pixels total (shown below). The resolution of 525 line SD television (NTSC) is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         HD & Colour
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         HD television offers a new colour space with a redefined Y.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         For professionals there is a jump in brightness in the Colour                                                                          SD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Colour Bars
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           High Definition Television                                                                                                                                                                                  Version 1.1


The HD types                                          There are 28 different HD types, specified within four important standards. Each type is different and
                                                      specified by the frame rate, the number of lines and pixels, and the scanning format. Four of these,
                                                      covered by SMPTE 295M, 240M and 260M, are older and becoming less popular. A further five are
                                                                                                                                                                                        720x480 pixels, or 388800 pixels. Both are shown as a 4:3 image. PAL pixels are therefore not square but slightly tall, and NTSC are slightly wide.
                                                                                                                                                                                        High definition pixels and resolution
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Bars standard test signal between green and magenta.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         The new x.v.colour standard also extends this gamut even
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         further for selected HD equipment.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Viewability                                                                                                                       1mm lines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1
                                                      new and currently being considered for inclusion in SMPTE 274M.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 minute ( 60 )
The 1080 standard (SMPTE 274M)                                                                                                                                                          The resolution of 1080 high definition is 1920x1080 pixels, or 2073600 pixels in total (shown below). The resolution of 720 high definition is                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1.0                                                                                                                                                                            Perception and discrimination
  Type System Samples Lines per Samples per Active line            Scanning      Field Frame Resolution Interface bit                      Comments
                                                                                                                                                                                        1280x720 pixels, or 921600 pixels. Both 1080HD and 720HD are a true 16:9 image with square pixels.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      HD                                           Everyone knows the closer you are to something the more
              per line  frame    active line per frame              format       rate   rate   (MHz)     rate (GHz)
    1     60p      2200       1125         1920       1080       Progressive       -     60     148.5          2.97
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0.9                                                                                                                                                                            detail you see. The human eye can discriminate detail within
                                                                                                                        These three types are intended for the future TV
    2   59.94p     2200       1125         1920       1080       Progressive       -   59.94    148.35      2.967       use or as an alterative to film. They all offer                                    Standard definition (PAL 720x576)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1080HD high definition (1920x1080)                                                                                                                520         Green
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    x.v.colour gamut
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           mV                                                about 1 minute arc. This is the equivalent to being able to
                                                                                                                        superb movement capture and resolution, but at                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Jump in                                                                                                                                                                                       3.5m
    3     50p      2640       1125         1920       1080       Progressive       -     50     148.5          2.97     the cost of twice the bandwidth of all other types.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   0.8                                                                                                                        600     Y                 brightness                see 1mm lines at about 3½ metres away.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      540                  NTSC gamut
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Therefore the larger the television screen, or the nearer you




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Comparing PAL with 1080 HD. In comparison
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   in HD signal
    4     60i      2200       1125         1920       1080         Interlace      60     30     74.25       1.485       The natural choice for 525 line areas, in drop                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   400                       here




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    both images are made the same height.
    5    59.94i    2200       1125         1920       1080         Interlace     59.94 29.97    74.176     1.48352      frame and non-drop frame forms.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       0.7
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             PAL gamut                                                                 SD                                    sit to it, the more detail you see. The ideal size of screen, or                                                  70
    6     50i      2640       1125         1920       1080         Interlace      50     25     74.25       1.485       The natural choice for 625 line areas.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    560                                                                  200           HD                                    viewing distance, is when the screen’s line structure is just
    7     30p      2200       1125         1920       1080       Progressive       -     30     74.25       1.485
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0.6                                                                                                                                                                            imperceptible. If you sit any nearer, or the screen is any
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Yellow                                                           0                                                                                                                                                                  60
                                                                                                                        Progressive versions of types 4 and 5.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               larger, the image begins to break up as you see the




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        inches
    8   29.97p     2200       1125         1920       1080       Progressive       -   29.97    74.176     1.48352                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            500                                                                580                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Line structure
    9     25p      2640       1125         1920       1080       Progressive       -     25     74.25       1.485       Progressive version of type 6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         600     R-Y                                         individual pixels. Too far away, or too small a screen, and                                                                becomes visible
   10     24p      2750       1125         1920       1080       Progressive       -     24     74.25       1.485       This type is intended for film transfer.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Cyan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             you cannot see all the image’s available detail.                                                                  50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           SMPTE-274
   11   23.98p     2750       1125         1920       1080       Progressive       -   23.98    74.176     1.48352      Drop frame version of type 10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0.4                                                                             600         high definition
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         400                                                 Which is best, 720 or 1080?




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Screen size diagonal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            White                                             gamut                                                                          Comparing 720/50p, 1080/25p, 1080/50i and 1080/50p,
   A     30psf     2750       1125         1920       1080       Segmented       60*     30     74.25       1.485                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        200
                                                                                                                        These types are later added types specified                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            40
   B    29.97psf   2750       1125         1920       1080       Segmented     59.94* 29.97     74.176     1.48352      in Annex A offering progressive segmented
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0.3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        780                                                                                  technically all four systems have advantages and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Red                                   0
   C     25psf     2750       1125         1920       1080       Segmented       50*     25     74.25       1.485       frame scanning format versions of previous
                                                                                                                        types. (See section on PsF.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          480                                                                                                                                                                disadvantages. The advantage of 720/50p is smoother
   D     24psf     2750       1125         1920       1080       Segmented       48*     24     74.25       1.485
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0.2                                                                                                                                                                            movement with no interlace artifacts. 1080/25p offers                                                             30
    E   23.98psf   2750       1125         1920       1080       Segmented     47.96* 23.97     74.176     1.48352
                                                                                                                        * ‘Segment rate’ not ‘field rate’.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Blue                                                                                                          600     B-Y                                         higher resolution per frame but only half the frames per
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Magenta
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0.1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         400                                                 second as 720/50p. 1080/50i offers smooth movement
The 1080/1250 standard (SMPTE 295M)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          and high resolution, but exhibits interlace artifacts.                                                            20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Y
  Type System Samples Lines per Samples per Active line
              per line  frame    active line per frame
                                                                   Scanning
                                                                    format
                                                                                 Field Frame Resolution Interface bit
                                                                                 rate   rate   (MHz)     rate (GHz)                        Comments                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0             0.1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          380
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0.2     0.3          0.4     0.5        0.6         0.7       0.8     0.9     1.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         200
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1080/50p offers the high resolution and the smooth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Available detail cannot be seen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          X
    1     50i      2376       1250         1920          1080    Progressive       -     25      74.25      1.485       Early European HD standard used before the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    See Sony Training Services “Colour & Light” poster.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0                                               movement, with no interlace artifacts, but requires twice                                                          10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  576 lines PAL
    2     25p      2376       1250         1920          1080    Progressive       -     25      74.25      1.485       introduction of the 1080 (SMPTE 274M) standard.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     the bandwidth.                                                                                                                                                                                        720 lines HD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1080 lines HD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Motionflow is a Sony screen technology
The 1035 standard (Analogue interface : SMPTE 240M) (Digital interface : SMPTE 260M)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            incorporated into some Sony televisions                                                    feet 0                       1    2   3 4    5     6       7   8  9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
  Type System Samples Lines per Samples per Active line

    1     60p
              per line
                   2200
                        frame    active line
                              1121
                                             per frame
                                           1125          1035
                                                                   Scanning
                                                                    format
                                                                 Progressive
                                                                                 Field Frame Resolution Interface bit
                                                                                 rate
                                                                                   -
                                                                                        rate
                                                                                         60
                                                                                               (MHz)
                                                                                                 74.5
                                                                                                         rate (GHz)
                                                                                                            1.485
                                                                                                                                           Comments                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      HD & Film (24P)                                                                                                                                                                    that interpolates frames to build new frames and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            provide smooth movement at 100 frames per second.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     metres 0                                 1               2             3          4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Distance from screen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               5         6        7

                                                                                                                        Early HD standard used before the introduction
    2    59.94p    2200       1121         1125          1035    Progressive       -   59.94    74.176     1.48352      of the 1080 standard.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Film operates at 24 complete frames per second. Cinemas show film at 48 frames per
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         second by displaying each
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             4% speed increase                     3:2 Pull-down
The 720 standard (SMPTE 269M)
  Type System Samples Lines per Samples per Active line            Scanning      Field Frame Resolution Interface bit                      Comments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         frame twice, providing a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         smoother image.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Video
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 25 frames/sec
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Film
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                24 frames/sec
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Video
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     30 frames/sec                                                                                           Getting HD to the home                                                                                                                                   See Sony Training Services “Compression Technology” poster.


              per line  frame    active line per frame              format       rate   rate   (MHz)     rate (GHz)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         1080/24p and 720/24p are        Field 1                                                   Field 1                                                                                  High definition video needs to be compressed before it can be broadcast. Bandwidth is precious and the amount of compression
    1     60p      1650        750         1280          720     Progressive       -     60      74.5          1.49     The natural choice for 525 line areas, in drop
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         provided specifically for film.                                                                                                                                                    needs to be relatively high, compared to signals used in studios and post-production. Great care has to be taken by broadcasters
                                                                                                                        frame and non-drop frame forms.
    2    59.94p    1650        750         1280          720     Progressive       -   59.94    74.176     1.48352
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         The 1080/24p type offers                                                                  Field 2                                                                                  not to reduce the quality of the signal too much. Studies are being made into which type of high definition signal looks best when
    3     50p      1980        750         1280          720     Progressive       -     50      74.25      1.485       The natural choice for 625 line areas.                                                                                                                                                                  Comparing standard definition and high definition                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        good resolution at film frame
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Field 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            compressed to the level required for transmission. Broadcasters are using MPEG4 (AVC) for compressing HD material for
    4     30p      3300        750         1280          720     Progressive       -     30      74.25      1.485                                                                                                                                                                                                              There are about 5 times as many 1080 HD pixels as PAL television and 5 13 as many                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         rates and is commonly                                                                     Field 1                                                                                  transmission at about 8-15Mbps.
    5    29.97p    3300        750         1280          720     Progressive       -   29.97    74.176     1.48352      Various types intended to provide 720 compliant
                                                                                                                        types of the 1080 types 7 to 11. These forms are
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               pixels as 525 line television.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            referred simply to as 24P.      Field 1                                                                                                                                            Native screens, over-scanning and interpolation
    6     25p      3960        750         1280          720     Progressive       -     25      74.25      1.485       unlikely to attract widespread use because the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               There are just over twice as many 720HD pixels as PAL television and about 2 as                                                                                                                                                                                            1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Field 2        Some high definition screens do not offer full 1920x1080 resolution, and interpolate the input to “map” the signal’s pixels to the
    7     24p      4125        750         1280          720     Progressive       -     24      74.25      1.485
                                                                                                                        blanking times are larger than the active line                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         24P to TV conversion                                                                                                                                                               screen’s pixels. This is fine for smaller screens where this level of resolution is not noticeable (see “Viewability” section). Thus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               many pixels as NTSC television.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Field 2
    8    23.98p    4125        750         1280          720     Progressive       -   23.98    74.176     1.48352                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Geographic areas that use                                                                                                                                                          the HD Ready symbol requires only 720 line resolution. (See “HD Ready” section.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Field 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               The 4:3 portion of a 1080HD image is 1440x1080 or 1555200 pixels. The same portion                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        50Hz rates requires 4.167%                                                                                                                                                         Some larger screens offer native HD. These screens, like the Sony Full HD 1080 screens, have full 1920x1080
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               of a 720HD image is 960x720 or 691200 pixels. If both images are displayed at the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         speed increase splitting each                                              Field 1                                                                                                 resolution, and offer the best possible image resolution, conveying every pixel from the camera in the television
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               same height, each 1080 pixel is 14 the size of a NTSC television pixel, and a little over 14                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              film frame into 2 fields. Areas                                                                                                                                     Field 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            studio to the screen at home.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               the size of a PAL television pixel. Each 720 pixel is just over 12 the size of a 525 line                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 that use 60Hz require 3:2                                                                                                                                                          Older television screens using CRT technology normally over-scanned the television screen slightly to ensure
HD Ready                                                                                 HDMI                                                 HIGH-DEFIN ITION MULTIM ED IA INTERFACE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               television pixel, and 23 the size of a 625 line television pixel.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         pull-down, splitting some
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         frames into 3 fields.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Field 2                                                                                  Field 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            that the picture filled the screen and to reduce edge effects. Digital flat screens do not need to do this and all flat HD screen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            should not over-scan. Thus a native HD screen, with no over-scanning, provides the best resolution image.
During the early days of HD it became                                                     High Definition Multimedia Interface is the new connection
obvious that consumers needed to be                                                       system intended for HD television, but also usable
sure that the HD equipment that they would be buying                                      for SD and digital still imaging.
would work at home, without needing to understand the
complexities of HD television.
                                                                                          Designed as a domestic
                                                                                          connection, the far reaching
                                                                                                                                                                                        Analogue 1080 HD & HD-SDI                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Analogue video line
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Fields & Frames                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1080 progressive frame
The HD Ready symbol was devised as a way of making                                        HDMI specifications mean it will                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Progressive scan                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             This frame is used by 1080/50p and 1080/25p. 1080/50p
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Front Porch T                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                With a progressive scan each frame is raster scanned                                                 1080/50p (progessive scan at 50 fps)                                                                        2.97Gbps                                    offers 50 full resolution frames per second but at twice the
it easier to understand if equipment met certain minimum                                  probably be used as a professional connector as well.                                           Type            System                                             (FP)    (nS)                                                                            Tri-level syncs                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Frame 1                         Frame 2                       Frame 3                         Frame 4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  All levels in Volts                                                                                                                                                  in one complete scan for the whole frame. Each frame                                                                                                                                                                                                         bandwidth of other scan types. 1080/25p offers 25 full
specifications for domestic use.                                                          Regarded by many as the new SCART connector, HDMI is                                             1                60p                                                        44T                                      6.73                                HD tri-level syncs offer better timing than SD                                                                                                                                                                                                    Start of analogue line
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    bi-level syncs by using the ‘zero’ crossing point                                                                                                                                                                                                 (’zero’ crossing point)                                                                                                          shows one complete image. Progressive scans offer                                                                                                                                                                                                            resolution frames per second, saving bandwidth by reducing
Manufacturers have agreed to place the HD Ready                                           hot-swappable, small, easy to connect and robust.                                                2              59.94p                                                       44T                                      6.74                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0.7                                                                                                                                                                              subjectively higher quality video but will tend to flicker                                                                                                                                                                                                   the number of frames per second, and thus movement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    as reference. Sync is also included on all
symbol only on equipment that meets these minimum                                                             The original HDMI specification defined
                                                                                                                                                                                           3                50p                                                      484T                                       6.73
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    components, not Y only.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            unless the frame rate is relatively high (>40fps).                                                                                                                                                                                                           capture.
specifications.                                                                                                    the connector, pin-out and signals.
                                                                                                                                                                                         4, 7, A     60i, 30p, 30psf                                                  44T                                 13.47
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Scan lines
Equipment with the HD Ready sticker attached may                                                                                                                                         5, 8, B 59.94i, 29.97P, 29.97psf                                              44T                                13.38                                       SD bi-level syncs                                                                               HD tri-level syncs
                                                                                                                    Later versions include increased                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0.3
exceed these minimum requirements, but customers can                                                                                                                                     6, 9, C     50i, 25p, 25psf                                                 484T                                 13.47                                         Start of line
                                                                                                                   bandwidth, added new video signal                                                                                                                                                                                                    vulnerable to distortion                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Y
be assured that all equipment with the symbol will                                                                                                                                       10, D           24p, 24psf                                                  594T                                 13.47
                                                                                                                  types, and further provision for new                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1080/25p (progressive scan at 25 fps)                                                                      1.485Gbps
connect together and work together.                                                                             audio signal types. The latest version
                                                                                                                                                                                          11, E     29.98p, 23.98psf                                                 594T                                 13.38
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Start of line                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Fly-back
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              fast stable                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   (blanking)                                                 Frame 1                                                      Frame 2
Specification for the HD Ready symbol                                                    1.3, 1.3a and 1.3b increase bandwidth to 10.2Gbits/sec,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              edge                          0.3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Frame
                                                                                         new audio/video types used in particular by Blu-ray and                                           HDSDI (SMPTE-292M)
        Minimum of 720 horizontal line resolution.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Interlace scan
                                                                                         HD-DVD, and a new mini-connector.                                                                 HDSDI is a serial connection using 75 ohm BNC connectors and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                With an interlaced scan each frame is divided into two
        True 16x9 aspect ratio.
                                                                                         HDMI signals are similar to those used in DVI connectors,                                         coaxial cable to connect professional HD equipment together.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                raster scans, called fields, one for the odd lines and
        Analogue Y Pr Pb connection.
                                                                                         already used as a digital connection between computers                                            HDSDI is used to connect uncompressed HD video, with up to 12                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               the other for the even lines. Field 2 occurs after the
        DVI or HDMI connection with HDCP protection.                                     and monitors.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 field 1 and before field 1 of the next frame, Interlace
                                                                                                                                                                                           uncompressed audio channels, and timecode, in a single cable.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1080 interlaced and segmented frames
        720p and 1080i input capability.                                                 HDCP                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          scans can be as low as 25fps without flickering. If
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Blanking                                                            Start of active video                                                                              Timing Reference Code                                                                                                              0.35                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1080/50i (interlaced scan and 25fps)                                                                       1.485Gbps                                    This frame is used by 1080/50i and 1080/25psf. Although each
                                                                                         Both HDMI and DVI connectors allow for HDCP, a copy                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           there is a lot of movement between field 1 and field 2
“Full HD Ready” and “HD Ready 1080” logos                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 F V H P3 P2 P1 P0 0 0                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Frame 1                                                      Frame 2                                                        frame is full resolution it is made up from 2 fields or segments.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1111111111
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1111111111




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         0.3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           0000000000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0000000000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     0000000000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     0000000000




                                                                                         protection scheme that allows displays to show material,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      in an each frame appears to contain 2 images, slightly
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    TRC for C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   TRC for Y




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         F = Field (0 = Field 1, 1 = Field2)
Now that the HD Ready logo is in popular use,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             R-Y & B-Y                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Each field and segment contains half the lines of the whole
                                                                                         while preventing recording. Broadcasters can therefore                                                Pb Y Pr Y                                                                                                                       Pb Y Pr Y P
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         V = Vertical (1 = vertical blanking)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          displaced from one another.
new logos are being proposed to let the public                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           H = Horizontal (0 = SAV, 1 = EAV)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Scan lines                                                                                                                                                                                                           frame. 1080/50i offers 50 fields, 25 frames per second.
                                                                                         protect certain programmes from illegal recording. HDMI                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         P - P0 = Error protection bits
know if new higher quality equipment exceeds                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         0.3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1080/25psf offers 50 segments and 25 frames per second.
                                                                                         connectors will probably include HDCP, DVI connectors                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Line                                     Cyclic redundancy
the minimum specification of the original logo.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 number                                   code
                                                                                         will probably not include HDCP.                                                                            End of active video                                                                   Blanking                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0.35
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             1111111111
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1111111111
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           0000000000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0000000000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       0000000000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0000000000



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Line No.C0


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Line No.C1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Line No.Y0


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Line No.Y1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 TRC for C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             TRC for Y




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Field 1                        Field 2                       Field 1                        Field 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             CRC C0


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                CRC C1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       CRC Y0


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         CRC Y1




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            44T 44T                                                                                                                                                                                                         Fly-back                                (odd lines)                   (even lines)                   (odd lines)                   (even lines)
                                                                                                                                                          R
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Pb Y Pr Y                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pb Y Pr Y P                                                                                    FP                             148T                                       1920T

Aspect Ratios                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Digital video line                                                            Start of digital line
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Field 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Progressive Segmented Frames (PsF)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Field 2                     (blanking)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1080/25psf (segmented scan at 25 fps)                                                                      1.485Gbps
What is aspect ratio?                                                                                                                                                                      Dual Link HDSDI (SMPTE-272M)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Timing Reference Signal                         Timing Reference Signal                                                                                PsF is a technique used in professional HD equipment                                                                             Frame 1                                                      Frame 2
Aspect ratio is a measure of the shape of an image, described as two numbers separated                                                                                                     Dual Link HDSDI is used for 4:4:4 R,G,B or 4:4:4:4 R,G,B,K video for high                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (TRS) corresponding to                          (TRS)corresponding to                                                                                  where a progressive signal is made to look like an
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                End of Active Video (EAV).                      Start of Active Video (SAV).
by a colon. The first number is the horizontal dimension (side to side) and the second                                                                                                     quality colour work, film transfers and precision keying, as well as 1080/60p,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              interlace signal by dividing it into two “pieces”. The
number is the vertical dimension (top to bottom). Aspect ratio is not a measure of the                                                       3                                             1080/59.94p and 1080/50p HD video and high speed HD.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        first “piece” contains all the odd lines and second all
size of an image. It is possible to have a large or small image with the same aspect ratio.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Data corresponding to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            blanking interval
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Data corresponding to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          active line
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       the even lines. However, the two “pieces” are called                                                                                                                                                                                                         720 progressive frame
                                                                                                                                                                                           Dual Link HDSDI is only found on high end professional HD equipment and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     segments rather than fields because they both                                                                                                                                                                                                                This frame is used by 720/50p. Although there are 50 frames
Different aspect ratios                                                                                                                                        4                           requires two BNC connections for all inputs and output, normally labelled                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            16T
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Blanking
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                16T
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             1920T
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                16T                    originate from the same progressive scan rather than                                                         Segment 1                     Segment 2                        Segment 1                        Segment 2                                       per second, maintaining good motion capture similar to
There are two aspect ratios in use in modern television, 4:3 and 16:9. Older televisions                                                                                                   “A” and “B”. Each connection holds half the signal data.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    being scanned one after another as in true interlaced                                                        (odd lines)                  (even lines)                      (odd lines)                     (even lines)                                     1080/50p, bandwidth is saved by reducing the resolution for
use a 4:3 aspect ratio and newer televisions use 16:9. 4:3 is almost square, whereas                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   signals.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     each frame from 1080 lines to 720 lines.
16:9 is a wider image looking more like a movie screen.                                                                                               R




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Displaying PsF                                                                                       720/50p (progressive scan at 50 fps)                                                                       1.485Gbps
                                                                                                                                                                                        Progressive scan frame interval                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PsF can be displayed on any interlaced monitor.                                                                 Frame 1                         Frame 2                       Frame 3                         Frame 4
Standard definition (SD) aspect ratios                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Start of frame
The aspect ratio of SD is 4:3. Although 16:9 SD televisions are available, all SD                                                                                                                                                                                                       4 lines                                                                                                                                                                                                                          5 lines                                                                       36 lines                                             1080 lines                                                                 Each segment is simply treated as a field.
transmissions are based on a 4:3 image. Some programming may be letterboxed                                                                                                                                                                                                        vertical blanking                                                                                                                                                                                                                 vertical syncs                                                               vertical blanking                                        active lines                                                                To display PsF as true progressive the signal must
or anamorphically squeezed to simulate a 16:9 image.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   be sent through frame store to hold segment 1 and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       2 and send the complete frame to the monitor
High definition (HD) aspect ratios                                                                                                       9                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             screen in one scan. The frame store may be
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         40ms                                                        40ms

In contrast to SD, all HD is true 16:9. All HD televisions are true 16:9 and the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       external or internal, depending on the monitor’s
pixels are square. This produces a perfect full frame image.                                                                                                  16                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       capabilities.
                                                                                                                                                                                                     1121                           1122                                             1123                                                1124                                            1125                                                1                                2                                                     3             4                   5               6               7                             41            42                      1121           1122
Aspect ratio conversion “ARCing”
When converting from HD to SD (down-converting), or visa versa (up-converting),
the aspect ratio must be altered. This is called aspect ratio conversion, or ‘ARCing’.
There are three ways of ARCing, edge crop, letterbox and squeeze. It is easier to                                                                                                       TRC F        0       0                     0                       0                        0                           0                       0                        0                       0                     0                    0                   0                0                              0                       0         0   0         0         0         0     0         0     0         0   0      0        0        0    0        0     0     0       0         0    0                                            Blu-ray & HD-DVD                                                                                                                        For information on professional high definition recording formats
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               see Sony Training Services “HD Recording Formats” poster.                    Describing high definition
                                                                                                                                                                                        bits V       0       1                     1                       1                        1                           1                       1                        1                       1                     1                    1                   1                1                              1                       1         1   1         1         1         1     1         1     1         1   1      1        1        0    0        0     0     0       0         1    1
understand these terms when down-converting. However the same terms are often used in up-converting although the                                                                             H       0       1                     0                       1                        0                           1                       0                        1                       0                     1                    0                   1                0                              1                       0         1   0         1         0         1     0         1     0         1   0      1        0        1    0        1     0     1       0         1    0                                            Both Blu-ray and HD-DVD are new forms of optical disk, using a blue-violet                                                                                                                                           With many HD types, it is important that any description is as unambiguous
action is opposite. For instance an up-converting “squeeze”is actually a stretch, a ”letterbox” is actually a crop, and an                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Digital vertical blanking                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            laser instead of a red laser. The blue-violet laser has a shorter wavelength and                                                                                                                                     as possible. Any description should include the number of active lines
“edge crop” is actually a sideways letterbox (pillarbox).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              can focus to a smaller dot, allowing more data to be crammed onto the disk. Both                                                                                                                                     followed by the number of fields with an “i” if the HD type is interlaced, and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       types of disk are the same size as CD and DVD.                                                                                                                                                                       the number of frames and “p” if it is progressive. The official description
Down conversion                                                                        Up conversion                                                                                    Interlaced scan frame/field interval                                                                                                                                                                                                           Start of frame                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Another VHS / Betamax battle?                                                                                                                                                                                        places the “i”or “p” at the end, although some users prefer to put the “i”or
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Field 2                                                                                       Field 1                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   “p” between the number of line and the frames or fields.
                                            Transmission in 16:9                                   Edge crop                 Letterbox                             Squeeze
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       At the moment it is still unclear which format will win. However this is not the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               2 lines                                                                                                                                                                  5 lines                                                                        15 lines                                             1080 lines                                                                 contest of the scale of VHS and BetaMax. The problem with BetaMax and VHS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    CD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1080/50i & 1080i50 = 1080 lines at 50 fields per second
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          vertical blanking                                                                                                                                                         vertical syncs                                                                vertical blanking                                        active lines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       was that a VHS tape could not be put in a Betamax recorder, and visa versa.                                                                                                                                          It is common to leave out the number of fields or frames, however in some
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       The two formats were entirely incompatible. This is not the case with BluRay                                                                                                                                         instances this can be misleading. Consider “1080p”...
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       and HD-DVD, and it seems very likely that hybrid players or recorders will
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       appear that will use both formats.                                                                                                                                                                                                                           1080p . . . is it 1080/50p or 1080/25p?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       HD-DVD                                                                                                                                                                                                               Some companies and authorities have decided that HD types should be
                                                                                                                                                                                                     1121                           1122                                             1123                                                1124                                            1125                                                1                                    2                                                 3             4                   5               6               7                             20            21                           560            561                                      HD-DVD is an enhancement from DVD. Disk construction is similar, but uses a                                                                                                                                          described by the number of frames per second for both interlaced and
                                                          HD transmission                                                                    HD transmission                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                progressive types. This is a logical way of thinking that removes an
                                                                                                                                               (up convert)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            blue-violet laser to record more data on the disk. Single layer HD-DVD disks                                                                 DVD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       achieve 15GB capacity and dual layer, 30GB.                                                                                                  SACD                                                                    anomaly that even exists in the official standards.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    HD-DVD                                                                  Thus ...
                                                                                                                                                                                        TRC F        1       1                     1                       1                        1                           1                      1                         1                       1                     0                    0                   0                0                             0                       0          0   0         0         0         0     0         0    0          0   0      0        0        0    0        0     0     0       0         0    0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Blu-ray                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1080/25i is the same as 1080/50i.
                                                                                                                                                                                        bits V       0       0                     0                       0                        0                           1                      1                         1                       1                     1                    1                   1                1                             1                       1          1   1         1         1         1     1         1    1          1   1      1        1        0    0        0     0     0       0         0    0
 HD aquisition                                            SD transmission
                                                                                        SD aquisition
                                                                                                                                                                                             H       0       1                     0                       1                        0                           1                      0                         1                       0                     1                    0                   1                0                             1                       0          1   0         1         0         1     0         1    0          1   0      1        0        1    0        1     0     1       0         1    0                                            Blu-ray is different from all other optical disks because the data is placed very
                              16:9 image                   (down convert)                                                                    SD transmission
                                                                                                                 4:3 image                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Digital vertical blanking                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     close to the bottom of the disk. This increases the NA allowing the laser to ‘see’                                                                                                                                   Every effort has been made to ensure that the information contained on this poster is useful, accurate and correct.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            However Sony Training Services cannot be held responsible for minor errors as a result of to printing, advances in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       smaller data dots on the disk. By using a blue-violet disk with a high NA the disk                                                                                                                                   technology, changes in standards, and improvements in working practices. If you find any errors or anomalies in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Field 1                                                                                                          Field 2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  capacity reaches 25GB per layer.                                                        Blu-ray
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            this poster please inform Sony Training Services at any of the contacts below. Correct to August 2007.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 lines              1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2                                                                                                                                                       5 lines                                                       15 12 lines                                            1080 lines                                                                Single layer Blu-ray is relatively simple to make and meet the capacity                                                                                                                                             For more information on Sony training courses, seminars and sessions,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      vertical blanking                                                                                                                                                             vertical syncs                                                vertical blanking                                         active lines                                                               requirements of most recorded material. Manufacturers have perfected the          Notes                                                                                                                             contact Sony Training Services at :-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       technology for two and four layer Blu-ray disks with 50 and 100GB capacity. 4 layer DVDs were originally planned but have proved
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         to be costly to make and unnecessary for the current                              Sony Training Services,
                          Edge crop          Letterbox             Squeeze                                                    Transmission in 4:3                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   See Sony Training Services “Optical Disk Technology” poster.                                                         DVD market.                                                                       Sony Europe,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         36Mbps is a minimum data rate for Blu-ray. This format                            Jays Close,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Optical disk comparison                                                                                                          can achieve higher data rates due to its high NA. A double
                                                                                        13:9, 14:9 and 16:9 letterboxing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 speed version at 72Mbps is expected in the future.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Basingstoke,
                                                                                                                                                                                                      558                              559                                                560                                               561                                          562                                                 563                             564                                                    565           566                 567             568             569                       583            584                         1123           1124
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Capacity                         Numeric        Track                                                                                                 Hampshire,
                                                                                         Letterboxing can be performed in a three different levels                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Type           Layers               Laser               (per layer) Data coding Data rate Aperture       Pitch
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           RG22 4SB,
                                                                                         from 13:9 through 14:9 to full 16:9 letterboxing.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  CD               1            Red 780nm                  650MB          PCM          1.4Mbps    0.45     1.6um             NA (Numeric Aperture) is a measure of the resolving
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       power of a lens, i.e.. the lens’s ability to see fine detail.                       United Kingdom.
                                                                                         13:9 and 14:9 letterboxing provide two extra choices                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               SACD            1, 2          Red 650nm                  4.7GB           750         2.82Mbps    0.6      0.6
                                                                                         between Edge Crop and full 16:9 letterbox, and can be                                          TRC F        0       0                     0                       0                        0                           0                      0                         0                       0                     0                    0                   1                1                             1                       1          1   1         1         1         1     1         1    1          1   1      1        1        1    1        1     1     1       1         1    1                                                 DVD             1, 2          Red 650nm                  4.7GB          MPEG2        4.5Mbps     0.6      0.6                                                               n = refractive index               Tel: +44 (0) 1256 483224
                                                                                                                                                                                        bits V       0       0                     0                       0                        0                           1                      1                         1                       1                     1                    1                   1                1                             1                       1          1   1         1         1         1     1         1    1          1   1      1        1        0    0        0     0     0       0         0    0                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  of lens                       Fax: +44 (0) 1256 328767
                                                                                         used in situations where mild letterboxing is prefered and                                          H       0       1                     0                       1                        0                           1                      0                         1                       0                     1                    0                   1                0                             1                       0          1   0         1         0         1     0         1    0          1   0      1        0        1    0        1     0     1       0         1    0                                                 HD-DVD          1, 2       Blue-violet 400nm              15GB      H264, MPEG2 36Mbps          0.65      0.65             NA = n sin 2                                    = 1 angle of maximum
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       2
                     Letterbox 13:9         Letterbox 14:9      Letterbox 16:9           where content on the edge of the picture is less important.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Digital vertical blanking                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Blu-ray        1, 2, 4 Blue-violet 400nm                  25GB           750         36Mbps     0.85      0.85                                                               2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          cone of light.                   training.services@eu.sony.com
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