Principles of crime prevention_ reduction and control - VC Criminology by fjzhangweiyun


									Various Approaches to crime
  prevention and control
       Study Unit 1.1
Definition of Crime Prevention and Control

• Prevention: Criminology: measures taken by the
  government and private to combat crime
• Prevention also means different things for different
  people such as police may believe that preventing
  crime will be through road blocks, search-and-
  seizure operations. To a social worker it may mean
  setting up projects to re-integrate youth.

• Control: Measures taken by the CJS to combat
                 Crime Prevention

•   Crime prevention is not a new phenomenon.
•   For some communities and for some time crime
    prevention has been seen as the task of the CJS –
    becoming more of a community issue
•   From the 1960’s crime prevention has moved
    away from the CJS and more towards informal
    community based approach
•   Why can’t the police sort it out?
•   Tuck believes that the shift could be occurring
    because of a lack of trust in the police
             History of Crime prevention

 Roman and French – military
 1066 – England – male citizens – they had to police
  each other
     Watch and Ward – men watching the city at night
     The public had to arrest the offender
 1700 – Thief takers – English Magistrates
   Selected from reformed offenders

   Sole responsibility was to prevent / deal with crime

   Were paid for their services – recovery of property

 Sir Robert Peel – 1829 – Metro Police
 USA – 1971 – established National Crime Prevention
     Gov – took charge of this in 1986 – with intent to involve
 England – local crime panels – 1966
   Home office crime prevention centre and research and
    planning – 1983
 European countries
   France since 1983

   Sweden since 1970’s
 SA – NCPP/S – 22 May 1996
 Advocates as integrated, multidimensional crime
  prevention model with interdepartmental operations
 Made up of 4 pillars
            Four Pillars of the NCPS

 Integrated Criminal Justice Pillar
 Crime prevention by means of environmental design
 Promotion of community values and education
 Prevention of transnational crimes
   Pillar 1                Pillar 2              Pillar 3                Pillar 4
Integrated Criminal     Crime Prevention by   Promotion of            Prevention of
Justice Pillar          means of              community values        transnational crimes
                        environmental         and education
                        control and design
focus on the needs      Limit opportunities   Inform the              Cooperation with
of victims              to commit crime       community about         neighbouring states
                                              the CJS function
Improve creditability   Security for homes    Promote community       Cooperation with
of the CJS              and shopping          values and norms        other departments
                        centers               that reject crime       and the public
                                              and violence
Make the courts         Encouraging overall   Teach nonviolent        Increased policing
more accessible         environmental         solutions to conflict   and increase
                        security              in the community        intelligence control
Promote                 Urban development,    Make the community
interdepartmental       transport and         aware of the steps
liaison                 residential areas     to reduce the risk of
Develop an
system to promote
the successful
investigation &
prosecution of High
priority crimes
    Concept of crime prevention
       models / approaches
 Refers to a deliberate methods, plans
  and actions aimed at preventing /
  controlling crime
 Each model has identifiable programs
 Prevention models based on specific
  theories however it is possible to
  implement programs that there is no
  theoretical base.
Formal and Informal approaches to

• Formal is based with the CJS – such as USA and informal is more community
• South Africa adopted the NCP Plan on the 22 May 1996
• The plan states there needs to be an integrated, multi-dimensional crime
  prevention model for interdepartmental operation
• Local community experts must also be involved
•   The comprehensive model must include the four pillars
            1.  Preventing crime by effective environ planning & design
            2.  Enhancing community values and educating the
            3.  Transnational crime prevention
            4.  Effective and integrated CJS
• Trafficking would be     1. Border control
•                 2. Educate people concerning trafficked victims
•                 3. Again border control
•                 4. Educate the police and the CJS on the rights of
              Social Crime Prevention Model

 Hawkins and Weis state that this model consists of a comprehensive developmental
•   Model asserts that learning conditions should increase attachment to others and
    commitment to conforming behaviours
•   Positive socialization is best when youths are involved in conforming activities
•   Based on the social development model
•   Improve communities
•   Integrates the social control theory (Hirschi) and Social Learning Theory
•   Comprehensive developmental approach – prevent youth crime
•   Social
•   Crime
   Its short comings are as follows:
•   Designed to help vulnerable group
•   Teaching the youths to adopt the norms and values of their community
      Factors crucial to successful crime
    USA – development progs
    England 1st restricted opportunities then
    5 Main factors needed
1.   State & community involvement
2.   Multidimensional approach
3.   Based on causation theories & factors
4.   Uniqueness of crime patterns
5.   Proper planning & evaluation
                          Hawkins & Weis
                           developmental                         Based on social development model
                            approach to                       Improving the development of communities
                       preventing youth crime                                       &
                                                                  Integrates the social control theory
                                                                      (controlled by social means)
                                                                        Social Learning Theory
                                                                    (criminal behaviour is learned)

             Success mainly                                                       NB Units
            On ling term progs                                        Family, school, peers, community
    Norris / Kaniasty = found support
              for supporting
             neighbourhoods                  Social Crime
                                                                        Positive results are achieved by
                                                                               involving youths in
                                                                            conforming activities =
                                                                              Develop social skills

 Shortcomings in these structures will
         contribute to crime                                              Increase attachment to
   Designed to help vulnerable grps                                        others, commitment,
     Designed to eradicate poor                                          Belief in traditional norms
socioeconomic conditions / inequalities

                                                            Socioeconomic structures / systems (family)
                      Make the youth adopt to norms             Important structures of socilisation
                                                           Limited Opportunities
                                                         Restricting opportunities for
                                                           crime and focuses on
                                                              potential victims,
                                                          community and environ

                                                                  Design homes,
  Effective urban & environ        Publicity campaigns
                                                                     buildings                  Target      Removal of
 Planning and upgrading of         Make more security
                                                                Access / exit points        reinforcement     targets
 Squatter camps / prob areas            conscious
                                                                 Increase visibility

  Remove                Supervisors /
                                                     CCTV                      Internal crime
opportunities            guard doors
                                 Change social conditions
                                 that are believed to sustain
Assumption: If potential         crime in residential areas
offenders are made aware of
risks = reduce crime

              Community Based      •Flat, Farm watches
              Prevention Model     •Citizen patrols
                                   •Safe houses
                                   •Telephone networks

Successful in preventing
robbery, burglary, car theft
           Biophysical Prevention Model

 Inner process or conditions that characterise
    human beings
   Early identification and treatment of crimes and
   NB is children with problems
   Combination of treatment
   Such as medical treatment for children with visual
    problems combined with psychological treatment
    to deal with the feelings of inferiority
 Psychological Crime Prevention Model

 Inner Psychological needs / disorders that
  contribute to crime
 Regarded as an outcome of inner (psychic)
  disorders originate in childhood
 Attention paid to interpersonal (interpsychic)
  probs and poor communication
 Treatments:
  Psyche tests
  Psychotherapy
  Reality Therapy
  Behaviour modification
  Crisis intervention
  Social casework
     Integrated Crime Prevention Models

 Focus on a Particular Crime (child Abuse)
 Child Abuse
     – Alcohol Abuse - Rehab
     - Inadequate parenting - Training
     - Social skills - Training
     - Frustration – Psychological treatment
     - Problem behav of child – Psychological
     - Unemployment – help to find jobs
                                    Rehab program focus of

 Help parents find
  suitable jobs and
teach techniques to                                              Training in family and
cope with frustration                                                 social skills

                                    Ways to prevent child

      Psychological treatment                                Psychological treatment
      of social skills to prevent                            for emotional problems
        problem behaviour in
              the child
Integrated Crime Prevention: Crime prevention &
           control by means of the CJS

 CJS is related to legislation, functions of the police,
    courts, correctional services
   Departments are closely related – effective coop is
   Laws regulate human behaviour & laws must be
   Police must combat crime – terms of the
   Courts impose punishment
   Correctional services – rehabilitate offenders
   Rights of the victims are important
    Successful crime prevention programs
                                       Poyner (England)
                                       Successful Progs

 Home Burglaries                                          Car Theft                Robbery

                       Marking Property                Security Guards        More staff on duty
Guards @ apartment         Lighting                   Closing off streets      Security guards
      blocks         Increased securities             Electronic access     Architectural alterations
                        @ pharmacies                 Steering wheel locks      Staff observation
        Sherman, Gottfredson, MacKenzie,
             Eck, Reuter, Bushway
          Therapeutic community treatment
             Programs for drug users in                      Regular home visits
                       prison                                 by professionals

       Rehabilitation                                                          Family Therapy

Arresting professional                                                             School Projects
men for family abuse                                                               On social norms

             Monitoring & detaining
              High risk recidivists                                     Trade apprenticeships
                                                                         For former offenders
                                        Increased Policing

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