VIEWS: 10 PAGES: 54 POSTED ON: 12/18/2012
Personality What It Is That Makes Us Unique Personality Long history of interest. Hippocrates (c. 460–370 BC)—basic personality types. Galen (130–22 AD)—four basic types determined by humors in the blood stream. Modern theories fall into four broad categories of research interest based on the assumption of the origin of personality. Personality Theories: Overview Trait theories: Personality is a collection of fundamental characteristics. Psychodynamic theories: Personality is the result of unconscious psychic forces that emerge from biological or physical needs (Freud). Humanistic theories: Personality reflects the development of self-worth and self-actualization. Cognitive-social theories: Personality is shaped by personal beliefs, expectancies, and interpretations of social situations. No one theory offers a full explanation of personality. How Do We Determine Personality? Ideographic approaches Address what distinguishes each individual so ask individuals ‘who’ they are. Central characteristics—the most important to the individual. Most predictive of future behaviour. Secondary characteristics—those traits that are less important. Nomothetic approaches Focus on characteristics that are common across all people. Ask which of the many possible traits characterize you. How Do We Determine Personality? We identify aspects of personality through techniques developed for this purpose. Clinical interviews, asking individuals about themselves and observing behaviour. Self-report questionnaires. Direct observations of behaviour. These are used both as research tools and to treat personality disorders. How Do We Determine Personality? Two main types of measures Objective or Structured Measures Projective or Unstructured Measures How Do We Determine Personality? Objective/Structured Measures People are asked to make judgments about the degree of some characteristic they may possess, or how they might behave in a certain situation. Questions reliably discriminate between groups. Standardized Validated Responses subject to social desirabiilty. Can lead to faking, lying. Well known reliable objective inventories: MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory), CPI (California Personality Inventory), NEO Personality Inventory. How Do We Determine Personality? MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) Most widely-used and well-researched clinical tool of all personality inventories. Several revisions, most recent 2001. Developed as a diagnostic tool for identifying serious emotional personality disturbances. Not for general use. How Do We Determine Personality? MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory): 567 items focus on attitudes and feelings, motor disturbances, and bodily complaints. Questions ask individual to answer T or F to questions about themselves, e.g., I like to be happy. I tire very easily. I worry about sex matters. I like to swear around other people. Provides a profile of scores on 10 personality scales, as well as six other scales designed to determine he test- taker was truthful, did not answer randomly, and answered cooperatively. How Do We Determine Personality? MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory): Profile permits assessment of current level of functioning, characteristic way of dealing with the world. In the hands of a skilled therapist, has good predictive validity. Always concern about self-report measures, especially when dealing with a disordered population. How Do We Determine Personality? Projective/Unstructured Instruments Based on ambiguous stimulus items. Allow for unique responses because questions are open-ended. Difficult to interpret responses. Hard to measure reliability and validity. Well known projective instruments: Rorschach Inkblot Test, TAT (Thematic Apperception Test) How Do We Determine Personality? Projective/Unstructured Instruments Rorschach Inkblot Test Clinical tool, used to assess psychopathology. Uses a series of 10 inkblots. Individual reports what they see in the design. Administration is standardized so that specific questions are asked after the 10 inkblots are shown. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Uses ambiguous pictures. Individual is asked to tell a story around the picture. Therapist looks for themes and various personality elements within the responses. Theories of Personality What makes a good personality theory? Needs to answer three key questions: What is the structure and content of personality? Where does our behaviour come from and how do these merge into the individual’s personality. How does personality develop? Trait/Type Theories Personality is a relatively enduring and consistent set of characteristics or traits. Different types of trait theories: Somatic theories Theories focused on a taxonomy of traits. Trait/Type Theories: Somatic Theories Phrenology, introduced by Gall in early 1800s External shape of the skull indicated both personality and mental and more faculties. Now discredited but was forerunner to modern type theories. Phrenology Trait/Type Theories: Somatic Theories Somatotype Theory introduced by Sheldon in 1920s. Each individual has varying degrees of three main body types. Types derived from the layers of the embryo that are responsible for various types of tissue: endoderm (stomach and circulation system), mesoderm (muscles) and ectoderm (brain and nervous system). Called the types endomorph, mesomorph, ectomorph. Sheldon’s Somatotypes Mesomorph (muscles) Endomorph (round) Ectomorph (linear) Sheldon’s Somatotypes Endomorph: Person with rounded, soft, plump body who is friendly, personable, sociable, relaxed with a fondness for food and comfort. Mesomorph: Person with a muscular, sturdy, thick-necked frame and athletic body. Thought to be active, noisy, risk-taking, and sometimes insensitive to interpersonal relationships. Ectomorph: Person with tall, thin, fragile frame with a large head. Thought to be intellectual, introverted, self-conscious and often nervous. Distinctions are still considered valid, but not within personality theory. Now used by athletic trainers and body-builders. Different routines for different body types. Trait/Type Theories: Taxonomy of Traits Theories Little reference to body characteristics in modern trait theories. We now make several underlying assumptions: Personality is made up of relatively stable internal characteristics (traits, factors, dimensions). Personality characteristics appear in varying degrees in each individual. Personality characteristics guide behaviour. Trait/Type Theories: Taxonomy of Traits Theories Many different attempts to create a taxonomy of personality characteristics: Allport reviewed the unabridged Oxford English dictionary and found 18,000 terms used to describe personality. Cattell reduced the list to 171 different terms he thought were distinctive. Used factor analysis to group these into 16 personality traits. Considered that each trait could be measured on a scale from one to ten, or from cool to warm. (Comparison of occupation groups) Trait/Type Theories: Taxonomy of Traits Theories Eyzenck Original theory had two dimensions: Introversion-Extroversion and Stable-Unstable. Thought that almost all personality characteristics could be explained by some degree of each dimension. Later added two more dimensions: Antisocial to Social, and Aggressive to Passive so that it was really a four-factor theory. Diagram to illustrate. Trait/Type Theories: Taxonomy of Traits Theories Big Five Factor Theory 5 stable and enduring factors that make up personality. Led to the development of the NEO Personality Inventory measuring: Neuroticism: Degree of susceptibility to psychological stress (anxiety, hostility, depression, self-consciousness, impulsiveness, vulnerability). Extroversion: Degree of sociability and energy (warmth, gregariousness, assertiveness, activity, excitement-seeking, positive emotions). Openness to Experience: Degree of curiosity (fantasy, aesthetics, feelings, actions, ideas) Trait/Type Theories: Taxonomy of Traits Theories Big Five Factor Theory (cont’d) 5 stable and enduring factors that make up personality. Led to the development of the NEO Personality Inventory measuring: Agreeableness: degree of positive or negative orientation toward others. Conscientiousness: Degree of self-discipline (punctual, neat, achievement oriented, activity level). These theories address how personality is structured by say little about how personality develops. The assumption is that the fundamental characteristics are innate. Personality Theories: Cognitive-Social Theories Use learning theory to explain the development of personality. Situation is considered an important component. Personality characteristics and situations interact to produce behaviour. Goes beyond traditional learning theories to introduce learned cognitions, and such concepts as vicarious learning, internal/external locus of control, person situation interaction. Cognitive-Social Personality Theories Locus of Control (Julian Rotter) We behave in accordance with our expectations of reinforcement. Behaviour was the product of our expectancies and the value we placed on the reinforcer. This led to the concept of locus of control, based on our expectation of reinforcement. Behaviour could be predicted on the basis of expectancy and reinforcement value. If a person has an internal locus of control, that person attributes success to his or her own efforts and abilities. A person who expects to succeed will be more motivated and more likely to learn. Cognitive-Social Personality Theories Locus of Control (Julian Rotter) A person with an external locus of control, who attributes his or her success to luck or fate, will be less likely to make the effort needed to learn. People with external locus of control are also more likely to experience anxiety since they believe that they are not in control of their lives. Locus of Control Test Similar to Rotter’s: Will give you a better understanding of the concept. Not a definitive test, for interest only. http://www.dushkin.com/connectext/psy/ch11/surv ey11.mhtml Cognitive-Social Personality Theories Observational Learning (Bandura) Review Bandura’s observational learning (Bobo doll studies). Huge impact on personality theory. Child learns behaviour from observation, and that behaviour reflects personality. Requirements for Observational Learning Attention Must be paying attention. Learn less well if you are sleepy, drugged, sick, nervous, or anxious. Distraction by other stimuli will interfere. Attention is better when model is competent, attractive, prestigious, salient. Retention: Must be able to retain what you pay attention to. Imagery and language assist this. Cognitive-Social PersonalityTheories Observational Learning (Bandura) Requirements for Observational Learning Reproduction: Have to be able to translate what you've seen into actual behaviour. Motivation: Must want to imitate the model, to have some reason for doing this. Motives can come from past reinforcement, promised reinforcements (incentives), imagined or real. Negative motivations, such as past punishment, promised punishment (threats), and vicarious punishment can give reason not to imitate someone. Cognitive-Social PersonalityTheories Observational Learning (Bandura) Requirements for Observational Learning Reproduction: Have to be able to translate what you've seen into actual behaviour. Motivation: Must want to imitate the model, to have some reason for doing this. Motives can come from past reinforcement, promised reinforcements (incentives), imagined or real. Negative motivations, such as past punishment, promised punishment (threats), and vicarious punishment can give reason not to imitate someone. Cognitive-Social PersonalityTheories Observational Learning (Bandura) Bandura believed the theories must have predictive power. His theory has that in a broad sense but does not predict what will be positive or negative for a given individual. Fulfills the goal of offering an explanation of where behaviour comes from (experience) and how it develops but does not help us understand the fundamental structure of personality. Personality Theories Psychodynamic Approach Based on the work of Sigmund Freud. Has made a major contribution to our thinking with his ideas of the unconscious, repression, ego, etc. Must view his theories in the context of his time and experience. Breuer and Anna O. Personality Theories Psychodynamic Approach People are expressers of energy. That energy has two main sources: an instinct for life and an instinct for death. Because life is expressed through procreation Freud thought that sexual energy was the result of the instinct for life. The instinct for death was expressed as aggression, toward others and one’s self. Attempts to gratify these instinctual forces could sometimes lead us to inappropriate behaviour, leading to inner conflict, guilt and anxiety. We may hide these negative feelings from ourselves. Personality Theories Psychodynamic Approach A Topography of Mental Life Three zones of consciousness: Conscious—what we are aware of. Preconscious—what we can become aware of with effort. Unconscious—not readily accessible wishes, desires and motives. Where we hide the inner conflicts. Personality Theories Psychodynamic Approach Freud argued for three structural components: Id: Contains psychic content related to the primitive instincts of the body, notably sex and aggression. Functions entirely according to the pleasure-pain principle, its impulses either seeking immediate fulfillment or settling for a compromise fulfillment. Superego: Ethical component of the personality and provides the moral standards by which the ego operates. Ego: Coexists with the id and superego. It mediates between the id and the superego, looking for a way to satisfy both the urgings of the id and the proscriptions of the superego. Personality Theories Psychodynamic Approach Personality Theories Psychodynamic Approach For Star Trek Fans Personality Theories Psychodynamic Approach Kirk, who enjoys a good fight, constantly risking his ship, displays a passion for gratification in terms of both aggression and sex—he likes pretty woman. He has characteristics of the id. McCoy constantly reminds Kirk of the consequences of his actions. He represents the ethics and morality of the superego. Spock characterizes the ego with his logic and dispassionate approach to life. Together Kirk, McCoy, and Spock represent the three part conflict within all humans, thus three distinct characters, taken together to form an understanding of the human condition. Thanks to http://ryoung001.homestead.com/Freud.html for the concept and pictures. Personality Theories Psychodynamic Approach Inner conflicts produce anxiety and we need to relieve that anxiety. Defense mechanisms are the way that we do this. Defense mechanisms are all ways of providing some kind of logical, socially acceptable explanations for the feelings that arise from the underlying conflicts in our unconscious. Stages of Psychosocial Development Five stages that represent different sources of pleasure and need. If those needs not fully satisfied Freud believed we become fixated on that need. That fixation affects our personalities. Oral Stage: Birth to two years Anal Stage: Age two to three years Phallic Stage: Age three to five years Latency Stage: Age five years to puberty Genital Stage: From puberty on Freud’s Oral Stage Birth to Two Years Need for oral stimulation. Achieved through sucking, and later chewing. If the oral stimulation was inadequate the individual would continue to seek it throughout life. Freud’s Anal Stage Two to Three Years Gratification now comes from emptying the bowel. Early toilet training could thwart that pleasure. Was thought to lead to anal retentive personality. Freud’s Phallic Stage Three to Six Years Interest in genitals develops (note Freud used the masculine term). Child derives pleasure from playing with genitals. Now seems more directly sexual. Oedipus and electra complexes. Freud’s Latency Stage Six Years to Puberty Less interest in own and others’ bodies. Little cross sex interaction. Freud thought sexual energies were submerged or repressed during this stage. Freud’s Genital Stage Puberty to Adulthood Sexual nature now develops fully with adult needs and desires. Recurrence of masturbation and interest in sexual matters. Freud thought there was a progression to interest in the opposite sex if latency stage was fully resolved. If not, result was homosexuality. Psychodynamic Theories After-the-fact explanations: Very difficult to find empirical support for many of Freud’s views. Modern psychodynamic theories more likely to see conflict arising from social & cultural factors. However, this is the only approach that offers a fully-fleshed-out view of personality: structure, development and processes. Humanistic Theories These views focus on healthy, human strivings and the uniqueness of each person’s experience. Rogers All need unconditional positive regard to have a strong self-concept. Suggested that parenting was very important in how children were corrected. Adult experience and therapy can counteract ill effects of early poor self-concept. Humanistic Theories Maslow Hierarchy of needs. Events may force regression to a lower level need. Need fixation and neurosis: May become fixated at a need level because of experience. Humanistic Theories Flaws: Not fully fleshed out theories, no structure of personality, mostly processes. No strong empirical link between child rearing practices and self-concept. Self-actualization is not clearly defined and it is hard to see the qualities in those described as self-actualizers. Influence of Culture on Personality Are our theories biased by emphasis on western culture? Some cultures feel emphasis on individuality can create unrest. These cultures value form and structure, following rules and do not value self- expression. May shape personality differently. Role of Genetics in Personality Twin and adoption studies suggest an inherited component: Infants have certain temperaments or dispositions from birth. Brain damage and drugs can affect personality. Empirical evidence that: Extroverts have higher activity levels and are more sensitive to reinforcement than introverts.. Some individuals are very sensitive to punishment, exhibit anxiety and fearfulness.
Pages to are hidden for
"Personality Theories"Please download to view full document