Genocide in Bosnia

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					           Genocide in Bosnia
    Under communist
     rule, Yugoslavia
     was made up of six
     ethnically diverse
    - Serbia
    - Montenegro
    - Slovenia
    - Bosnia
    - Croatia
    - Macedonia
       Genocide in Bosnia
 Serbia remained the most powerful
 of these republics after communism
 fell, because it was the home of the
 former capital and location of most
 military forces.
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   The Serbian           Slobadon Milosevic
    President Slobadan
    Milosevic began to
    announce his
    intent to establish
    Serbian dominance
    and create an
    ethnically pure
    “Greater Serbia”
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 Inresponse, Slovenia seceded
 (broke away) from Serbia and
 sparked a relatively minor 10 day
       Genocide in Bosnia
 Croatia also seceded, but faced a
  tougher exit because it had a
  sizeable Serbian minority that
  Milosevic did not want to let go.
 A seven month war left 70,000 dead
  and 700,000 displaced from their
       Genocide in Bosnia
 By late 1991, it was clear that Bosnia
 faced the toughest decision because
 its population was the most
 ethnically diverse:
  - 43 % were Muslim
  - 35 % were Serbs
  - 18 % were Croat
       Genocide in Bosnia
 Bosnia  faced two choices:
  Option #1: Stay part of the former
  Yugoslavia, but its Serbs would
  receive the best jobs and opportun-
  ities, but its Muslims and Croats
  would be left out
       Genocide in Bosnia
Option 2: Bosnia could break away,
 but its Muslims would have no local
 group to protect them (Serbs could
 count on Serbia for protect; Croats
 could count on Croatia)
        Genocide in Bosnia
 The  7 man Bosnian presidency (2
  Muslims, 2 Serbs, 2 Croats, and 1
  Yugoslav) looked to the U.S. and
  Europe for advice.
 They advised them to hold free
  elections to determine if Bosnia
  wished to break apart.
       Genocide in Bosnia
 99.4%   of Bosnians voted for
 independence, but:
 - the two Serbs in the presidency
   convinced Serbs not to vote
 - the Serbs then declared a Serbian
   state in Bosnia’s borders (urged by
        Genocide in Bosnia
 The Serbian dominated Yugoslav
 National Army then teamed up with
 local Bosnian Serb forces creating an
 armed force of 80,000 well armed
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 Complicating  matters was that the
  U.N. had declared an arms embargo
  (nations were forbidden to sell them)
  against the former Yugoslavia
  because of violence already carried
  out by the Serbs.
 The Muslims and Croats, therefore,
  had no access to weapons and were
  greatly overmatched.
       Genocide in Bosnia
 Bosnian Serbs had already been
  compiling lists of names of leading
  Muslim and Croat intellectuals,
  musicians, and professionals.
 Within days, they began rounding up
  non-Serbs, violently beating them
  and often executing them.
        Genocide in Bosnia
 Bosnian  Serbs also began to destroy
  most Muslim and Croat cultural and
  religious sites in order to wipe out
  any trace of them.
 The practice of targeting civilian non-
  Serbs and removing them from their
  land became known by the
  euphemism “ethnic cleansing.”
        Genocide in Bosnia
 “Ethnic   Cleansing” took different
 - a Serb broadcast may order
   factories to reduce their workforce
   to less than 1% Muslim and Croat
 - a curfew imposed on “non-Serbs”
   because of military actions
          Genocide in Bosnia
-   Muslims/Croats forbidden in certain
    public places, banned from driving
    cars, or using phones (except at the
    post office)
       Genocide in Bosnia
 Sometimes   non-Serbs were given 48
  hours notice before they had to leave
  their homes.
 More often, there was no warning
  and the non-Serbs would only know
  of the coming danger because they
  would hear the machine gun fire or
  smell kerosene that was sprayed in
  the air.
        Genocide in Bosnia
 The soldiers goal was to remove any
 ties Muslims or Croats had with the
 land: homes were destroyed; men
 were forced to castrate their own
          Genocide in Bosnia
   The Bush             George H.W. Bush
    became aware of
    the situation, but
    took no firm
    military action-
    only imposing
    economic sanctions
    and deploying U.N.
       Genocide in Bosnia
 As  time went on, Western journalists
  uncovered more frightening
  information and images about the
  situation in Bosnia.
 The Serbs had set up concentration
  camps, with images often invoking
  memories death camps like
  Auschwitz and Belsen.
   Non-Serbs were
    crowded into trains
    and shipped to
    these camps
    (which were not
    death camps, but
    many died).
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 Conditionsin the camps were
 crowded, filthy, and the prisoners
 became emaciated because of a lack
 of food:
      Genocide in Bosnia
A slaughterhouse was even turned
 into a makeshift camp, and there
 were reports that the machines once
 used to slaughter cattle were being
 used to slaugher humans.
Genocide in Bosnia
Genocide in Bosnia
           Genocide in Bosnia
   During the            Bill Clinton
    campaign, Bush’s
    opponent, Bill
    Clinton began to
    state that military
    action was needed
    in the Bosnia.
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 But despite his statements during
 the campaign, Clinton and his
 advisors decided not to send decisive
 military force when entering office.
       Genocide in Bosnia
 Support  for military intervention also
 waned after a Black Hawk Helicopter
 was shot down in Somalia during
 relief operations in that country,
 killing 13 U.S. soldiers (an event
 portrayed in the movie Black Hawk
        Genocide in Bosnia
 The original solution was to establish
 “safe-havens” for non-Serbs in
 Bosnia- but the U.S. nor any other
 nation were not willing to send
 enough forces to make them
        Genocide in Bosnia
 The  Serbs continued to fire on non-
  Serbs in the safe-zones.
 The Serbs even fired on U.N.
  Peacekeepers, and when some
  limited N.A.T.O. bombings began
  used the peacekeepers as “human
  shields” by chaining them to military
         Genocide in Bosnia
 U.N. Peacekeepers were forced to
 stand idly by while Serb forces
 massacred 8,000 men and boys
 between the ages of 12-60 at the
 city of Srebrenica.
       Genocide in Bosnia
 Shortly after this on August 30,
 1995, decisive military action was
 taken, with the U.S. with its N.A.T.O
 allies launching bombing strikes
 against Serbian forces.
      Genocide in Bosnia
A peace agreement was finally
negotiated between Serbs and non-
Serbs in November of that year in
Dayton, Ohio:
- the country was divided into two
  parts known as the Bosnian Serb
  Republic and the Muslim-Croat
        Genocide in Bosnia
 60,000  N.A.T.O peacekeeping troops
  were to remain to see that the
  agreement was followed.
 As a result of the conflict in Bosnia, it
  is estimated that 200,000 non-Serbs
  were killed and that another 1.8
  million became refugees.

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