Learning - Bremen High School District 228 by fjzhangweiyun

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									            Learning

THE INS AND OUTS OF LEARNING BEHAVIOR
               Psychology Weekly Topics

 Monday
   Behaviorism Intro

 Tuesday
   Classical Conditioning Basics

 Wednesday
   Classical Conditioning
       Class demonstration
 Thursdays
   Classical Conditioning in detail
Just for Kicks
                          Think About it
“The interpretation of dreams is the royal road to a knowledge of the
unconscious activities of the mind while the royal road to
understanding human behavior lies within the unconscious mind
itself.”
                                                      -- Sigmund Freud




 "Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified
  world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random
  and train him to become any type of specialist I might select--doctor,
  lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and, yes, even beggarman and thief,
  regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and
  race of his ancestors.
                                            --John Watson
    Learning: Classical and
     Operant Conditioning

           Chapter 6




 Honors PSYCHOLOGY
Tinley Park High School
       Mr. Reiser
    Before Behaviorism

                            Introspection- (1879)



    Not very Scientific

?


                             Psychoanalysis- (1895)


    Not Scientific at all


?
                  A New Way of Thinking



  "Psychology as the                               Psychology finally
  Behaviorist Views It"                            discovers a way to
                                                   measure behavior
                                                   scientifically




                               John B. Watson
                                    1913

7 main assumptions of Behaviorism that set it apart from other psychologies
               Behaviorism Assumptions

 Psychology should be seen as a science.
   Theories need to be supported by empirical data obtained
    through careful and controlled observation and measurement
    of behavior


 Behaviorism is primarily concerned with
  observable behavior
     as opposed to internal events like thinking and
      emotion. Observable (i.e. external) behavior can be objectively
      and scientifically measured.
                  Behaviorism Assumptions

 Behaviorism is Naturalistic.
   The material world is the ultimate reality, and everything can
    be explained in terms of natural laws.
         Man has no soul and no mind, only a brain that responds
          to external stimuli.


 Our behavior is the product of our
  conditioning.
     thoughts, feelings, intentions, and mental processes do not
      determine what we do.
         We are biological machines and do not consciously act
                  Behaviorism Assumptions

 We are not responsible for our actions
   “If we are mere machines, without minds or souls, reacting to
    stimuli and operating on our environment to attain certain
    ends, then anything we do is the responsibility of those who
    taught us)
         No Free will
 When born our mind is 'tabula rasa' (a blank
  slate).
     ALL behavior must be learned
 Behaviorism is manipulative.
   It seeks not merely to understand human behavior, but to
    predict and control it.
                                Learning

 Relatively permanent change in knowledge or
  behavior resulting from experience


 4 types of learning
   Habituation
   Classical conditioning
   Operant conditioning
   Observational learning (Social Cognitive)
       They all operate under the same principle – learning by association
           Learning’s Effects on Behavior

 In humans, learning has a much larger influence on
 behavior than instincts.

    Learning represents an evolutionary advance over instincts.
 Conditioning - making an association between
two events by repeatedly having them occur close
                together in time.




                    Two
                   Types


 Classical                         Operant
                    The ABCs of Learning
 Understanding learning is like
  understanding the ABC’s
     First, their has to be an Antecedent
         Something to set the behavior off
     Then there is a Behavior (response)
       The response to the antecedent

     Finally the Consequence
       The reinforcement or punishment


 Paying close attention to what happens
  after the consequence is key to
  understanding how we learn
           Psychology Exercise

Emotion
               Associated Thoughts   Why?
   Or
Reaction
           Psychology Exercise

Emotion
               Associated Thoughts   Why?
   Or
Reaction


Anger


Joy

Hate


Desire


Fear
 Types of Learning

SIMPLE AND COMPLEX LEARNING
              Psychology today

 Today
 A  story to remember (high school love??)
  Classical conditioning

   Pavlov’s dogs
     A sweet “A” youtube clip

   The basics
   John Watson
     Little Albert- A sweet “A” youtube clip
                              Learning

 Relatively permanent change in behavior due to
 experience
    4 types of learning
      Habituation
      Classical conditioning
      Operant conditioning
      Observational learning (Social Cognitive)
        They all operate under the same principle – learning by
         association
                      Habituation

 Tendency to become familiar with a stimulus
 merely as a result of repeated exposure
  Orienting   reflex
    Eyes widen, eyebrows rise, muscles tighten, heart beats
     faster, brain-waves indicate heightened physiological
     arousal
    Effect weakens with continued presentation of stimulus –
     we habituate
 Primitive form of learning
  Found    in all organisms
 Decreases the power of reward to motivate
                         Simple Learning

 Habituation: Learning not to respond to the
 repeated presentation of a stimulus.
    Ex-Emergency sirens in the city




        How often do you
        look when a car
        alarm goes off?
                   Complex Learning

 Behavioral Learning: Forms of learning, such
 as classical and operant conditioning which can be
 described in terms of stimuli and responses.

    Classical conditioning is more simple learning, operant
     conditioning is more complex learning.
Classical Conditioning

INNATE REFLEXES USED AGAINST US
 It’s Story time from Mr.
          Reiser!

            “High School Love?”


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CMiVeK5zGz8
   Pavlov’s Experiment

Watch Pavlov’s Experiment Video




          Ivan Pavlov
          Ivan Pavlov and Classical
                Conditioning
 One of most famous people in the study of learning is
  Ivan Pavlov.

 Originally studying salivation and digestion, Pavlov
  stumbled upon classical conditioning while he was
  experimenting on his dog.

     Classical Conditioning: A form of learning in which a
      previously neutral stimulus (stimuli w/o reflex provoking
      power) acquires the power to elicit the same innate reflex
      produced by another stimulus.
         Components of Conditioning

 There are 5 main components of conditioning.
 Classical Conditioning always involves these parts.
 They are:
      Neutral Stimulus
      Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)

      Unconditioned Response (UCR)

      Conditioned Stimulus (CS)

      Conditioned Response (CR)
           Pavlov’s Findings Explained

 Pavlov discovered that a neutral stimulus, when paired with
  a natural reflex-producing stimulus, will begin to produce a
  learned response, even when it is presented by itself.

 Neutral Stimulus: Any stimulus that produces no
  conditioned response prior to learning.
Pavlov’s Experiment
 Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)

 UCS
   A stimulus that automatically-
    without conditioning or learning-
    provokes a reflexive response.

 In Pavlov’s experiment, food was
 used as the UCS because it
 produced a salivation reflex.
    Classical conditioning cannot happen without UCS. The only
     behaviors that can be classically conditioned are those that are
     produced by unconditioned stimulus.
Unconditioned Response (UCR)

          UCR
            A response resulting from an
             unconditioned stimulus without
             prior learning.


          In Pavlov’s experiment, the UCR
          was the dog salivating when its
          tongue touched food.

             Realize that the UCS-UCR connection involves no
              learning or acquisition.
              Some Real World Examples

Unconditioned Stimuli                     Unconditioned Responses
(natural)                                 (natural)

 Loud Noises                              Being startled


 Physical/Emotional Abuse                 Pain (physical/emotional)


 Food                                     Hunger


 Fake a physical attack                   Innate Reflexes
                                            (flinching/jerking/etc…)

In Classical Conditioning, the goal is to get the unnatural to become natural
 From Unconditioned to Conditioned

 During acquisition, a neutral stimulus is paired with the
  unconditioned stimulus.

     After several trials the neutral stimulus will gradually begin to elicit the same
      response as the UCS.


 Acquisition
     The learning stage during which a conditioned response comes to
      be elicited by the conditioned stimulus.




                                      =
            Conditioned Stimulus

 A CS is the originally neutral stimulus that
 gains the power to cause the response.

 In Pavlov’s experiment, the bell/tone began to produce
 the same response that the food once did.
         Conditioned Response

 A CR is a response elicited by a previously neutral
  stimulus that has become associated with the
  unconditioned stimulus.

 Although the response to the CS is essentially the same as
  the response originally produced by the UCS, we now call it
  a conditioned response.
                           Reiser’s Example



                Neutral Stimulus              I’ll Be (Song)


           Unconditioned                         Unconditioned
Step 2.
             Stimulus                           Response (UCR)   Lovey Dovey
              (UCS)
                             Amanda Cain
                                                                 Feelings

Step 3.
                UCS
          “paired with”
                                   +
          Conditioned                             Conditioned
              Stimulus       I’ll Be (Song)        Response      Lovey Dovey
                 (CS)                                (CR)        Feelings
A “Classic” Example
                           Watson’s Example



                Neutral Stimulus             White/Furry Things


           Unconditioned                           Unconditioned
Step 2.
             Stimulus                             Response (UCR)   Startled/Fear
              (UCS)
                             Loud Noises


Step 3.
                UCS
          “paired with”
                                    +
          Conditioned                               Conditioned
              Stimulus       White Furry Things      Response      Startled/Fear
                 (CS)                                  (CR)
                                   Your Turn



                Neutral Stimulus


           Unconditioned                   Unconditioned
Step 2.
             Stimulus                     Response (UCR)
              (UCS)

Step 3.
                UCS
          “paired with”
                                   +
          Conditioned                      Conditioned
              Stimulus                      Response
                 (CS)                         (CR)
                  Psychology Today

 Classical Conditioning Examples
   You try 

   CC refresher

   Your examples?

   Some more key terms
    Extinction
    Spontaneous recovery
    Generalization
    Discrimination
                    Psychology Today

 Little Albert
 Extra Credit Opportunity
 Psychology Game
   1 Person, 1 Place, 1 Thing

 Classical Conditioning Terminology
   Discrimination

   Generalization

   Extinction

   Spontaneous Recovery
Extra Credit Opportunity
A “Classic” Example
   Psychology Game



1 Person
   1 Place
      1 Thing
           Psychology Exercise

Emotion           1 Person
                                 Why?
   Or              1 Place
Reaction           1 Thing
           Psychology Exercise

Emotion
               Associated Thoughts   Why?
   Or
Reaction


Anger


Joy

Hate


Desire


Fear
 Classical Conditioning Question of the Day




 Think about it, should a UCS and a CS be paired at the
 same time for best results? Or should one come before
 the other?
                        Things to keep in mind…

 Classical – associate 2 things, thus anticipate events
   Based on associating a stimuli with an innate reflex

   Lightening . . . . Thunder………. Jump!
           Lightening…………… Jump
       Making the unnatural natural


 Unconditioned means doesn’t have to be learned
   Associations should be natural

 Response can be the same, but isn’t always


 Think about it, should a UCS and a CS be paired at the same time for best
    results? Or should one come before the other?
   Contingency – CS should precede UCS
       Simultaneous pairing takes longer and isn’t as powerful
       Backwards pairing rarely works
             Things to Keep In Mind

 Do we respond similarly to similar stimuli?
   YES!



 Generalization
   The tendency to respond to a stimulus that is
    similar to the CS
                             Stimulus generalization   I don’t care
                                                        if she is a
                                                            tape
                                                        dispenser.
                                                        I love her!
                        Things to Keep in Mind

 What if we could not distinguish between stimuli that were
  similar?
     The bell ending class vs. fire alarm
     The door bell vs. our cell phones



 Discrimination:
     The ability to distinguish between two similar signals
      stimulus.
               Things to keep in mind…

 Most classical conditioning has to occur
  regularly on a consistent basis
 However:
    Single-trial (or minimal-trial) learning
      Phobias
        Little Albert

      Taste aversions
        Cancer patients & chemotherapy
                     Did you Know?

 Higher Order Conditioning
   A stimulus that was previously neutral is paired with
    a conditioned stimulus to produce the same
    conditioned response as the conditioned stimulus.
     Food----- Drool
     Food + Bell-----Drool
     Bell----- Drool
     Bell + Blue Ball---- Drool
     Blue Ball----- Drool
     Etc…….
                                   Extinction

What happens when the CS isn’t followed by the UCS?
 Extinction:
    The diminishing (or lessening) of a learned response, when an
     unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus.
        To acquire a CR, we repeatedly pair a neutral stimulus with the UCS. But, if we
         want to reverse this learning, we must weaken the strength of the connection
         between the two stimuli.
        It is important to realize that extinction does not mean complete
         elimination of a response.
                     Spontaneous Recovery

 Extinction merely suppresses the conditioned response,
 and the CR can reappear during spontaneous recovery.

 Spontaneous Recovery:
    The response after a rest period of an extinguished
     conditioned response.
        Spontaneous recovery is weaker than the original CR.
              Classical Conditioning

           Acquisition
Strength   (CS+UCS)
of CR
                                          Spontaneous
                         Extinction       recovery of
                         (CS alone)       CR




                                              Extinction
                                              (CS alone)




                                      Pause
           Psychology Exercise

Emotion           1 Person
                                 Why?
   Or              1 Place
Reaction           1 Thing

Anger


Joy

Hate


Desire


Fear
              Examples of Classical
                 Conditioning

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eo7jcI8fAuI
                  Psychology Today

 Classical v. Operant Conditioning
 Operant conditioning
   Who

   What

   Types of

   Some Sweet “A” Youtube clips
  Your Preference?




What teaching styles do you prefer
your teachers use to assist you in
            learning?
Operant Conditioning
“If you want your dog to sit on command, you
may give him a treat every time he sits for you.
The dog will eventually come to understand
that sitting when told to will result in a treat.”




              “If you want your dog to drool to the sound of a
              bell, simply pair the sound of a bell to
              something that naturally makes him drool,
              such as food. Eventually the dog will learn to
              associate the bell with food.”
Operant Conditioning

          B.F. Skinner (1904-
          1990)
           elaborated Thorndike’s
            Law of Effect
           developed behavioral
            technology
   The Foundation of Operant Conditioning


         Operant Behavior Is Voluntary &
                    Directed
               by Consequences
 Edward Thorndike ‘s Law of
 Effect:
   The relationship between
     behavior and its consequences                Who- E.L. Thorndike
                                                  What – Educational
       So named because behavior becomes         Psychologist
        more or less likely based on the effect   When- 1912
        it has in producing desirable or          What- What connection
        undesirable consequences.                 can be made between
                                                  education and
                                                  behavior?
    Operant Conditioning Basics
   Operant Behavior Is Voluntary & Directed
              by Consequences
 B. F. Skinner made the law of effect the cornerstone for
 his influential theory of learning, called operant
 conditioning.
  Operant         conditioning
    “Rewarded behavior is likely to reoccur while behavior
      followed by a negative consequence is less likely to
      recur.”
                                   E. L. Thorndike

      According to Skinner, the organism’s behavior is “operating” on the
       environment to achieve some desired goal.
      Operant and Classical Conditioning
   Classical Conditioning                    Operant Conditioning
Behavior is controlled by the stimuli    Behavior is controlled by
that precede the response (by the        consequences (rewards,
CS and the UCS).                         punishments) that follow the
                                         response.
No reward or punishment is involved      Often involves rewards
(although pleasant and averse            (reinforcement) and punishments.
stimuli may be used).

Through conditioning, a new              Through conditioning, a new
stimulus (CS) comes to produce the       stimulus (reinforcer) produces a new
old (reflexive) behavior.                behavior.

Extinction is produced by                Extinction is produced by
withholding the UCS.                     withholding reinforcement.

Learner is passive (acts reflexively):   Learner is active: Responses are
Responses are involuntary. That is       voluntary. That is behavior is
behavior is elicited by stimulation.     emitted by the organism.
                          Classical V. Operant

 Classical                                         Operant
     Involuntary reflexes                               Spontaneous/voluntary
     Reinforcement occurs                               Reinforcement occurs
      before a response                                   after the response
     The role of the learner is                         The role of the learner is
      passive                                             active
     A NS becomes a CS                                  Probability of making a
      through association with                            response is altered by
      US                                                  consequences

 With classical conditioning you can teach a dog to salivate, but you cannot
  teach it to sit up or roll over. Why?
     Salivation is an involuntary reflex, while sitting up and rolling over are far more
      complex responses that we think of as voluntary.
                                           B.F. Skinner

 B.F. Skinner became famous for his ideas in behaviorism and his work
  with rats.
     Law of Effect: The idea that responses that produced desirable results would be learned, or “stamped” into the
      organism.
B.F. Skinner and The Skinner Box
   Key Terms of Operant Conditioning
 Reinforcement
   Any procedure that increases the response

 Punishment
   Any procedure that decreases the response

 Types of reinforcers:
   Primary: e.g. food or water

   Secondary: money or power
                        Reinforcement

 Reinforcer
   a condition in which the presentation or removal of a
    stimulus, that occurs after a response (behavior),
    strengthens that response or makes it more likely to happen
    again in the future.

 Positive Reinforcement:
   A stimulus presented after a response that
    increases the probability of that response
    happening again.
     Ex:   Getting paid for good grades
                     Negative Reinforcement

       Negative Reinforcement:
           The removal of an unpleasant or averse stimulus that
            increases the probability of that response happening
            again.
             Ex: Taking Advil to get rid of a headache.
             Ex: Putting on a seatbelt to make the annoying seatbelt buzzer
              stop.


       The word “positive” means add or apply;
        “negative” is used to mean subtract or remove.
           Some Sweet You Tube Clips

 Positive v Negative Reinforcement
   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B_9ZZaPDtPk&feature=re
    lated


 Positive Reinfocement
   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=euINCrDbbD4&feature=r
    elated
                         Punishment

 Punishment
   an averse/disliked stimulus which occurs after a behavior,
    and decreases the probability it will occur again.


 Positive Punishment:
     An undesirable event that follows a behavior: getting
      spanked after telling a lie.
                           Punishment

 Negative Punishment:
   When a desirable event ends or is taken away after a
    behavior.
       Example: getting grounded from your cell phone after failing your
        progress report.
         Think of a time-out (taking away time from a fun activity with
          the hope that it will stop the unwanted behavior in the future.)
  Punishment vs. Negative Reinforcement

 Punishment and negative reinforcement are
 used to produce opposite effects on behavior.
    Punishment is used to decrease a behavior or reduce its
     probability of reoccurring.

    Negative reinforcement always increases a behavior’s
     probability of happening in the future (by taking away an
     unwanted stimuli).

 Remember, “positive” means adding something and
 “negative means removing something.
            Reinforcement vs. Punishment

 Unlike reinforcement, punishment must be
 administered consistently. Intermittent punishment
 is far less effective than punishment delivered after
 every undesired behavior.

    In fact, not punishing every misbehavior can have the effect of
     rewarding the behavior.


 It is important to remember that the learner, not the
 teacher, decides if something is reinforcing or
 punishing.
          Redi Whip vs. Easy Cheese
Positive and Negative Reinforcement,
 Positive and Negative Punishment
Reinforcement/Punishment
Reinforcement/Punishment Matrix

 The consequence        The consequence
provides something   takes something away
 ($, a spanking…)     (removes headache,
                            timeout)

                                              The consequence
   Positive     Negative                     makes the behavior
Reinforcement Reinforcement                 more likely to happen
                                               in the future.
    (+,+)          (-,+)

 Positive                                      The consequence
                       Negative               makes the behavior
Punishment            Punishment            less likely to happen in
                                                    the future.
   (+,-)                 (-,-)
                        Your Task

 How has:
    Positive reinforcement
    Negative Reinforcement
    Positive Punishment
    Negative Punishment
                              been used on you?

 Provide one example of how each of these processes has been
 used on you by someone or something else.
Punishment
                    Punishment

   Punishment defined
       a procedure where an aversive stimulus is presented to
        a subject contingent upon the subject emitting an
        undesired behavior.
       punishment should be used as a last resort in behavior
        engineering; positive reinforcement should be used
        first
       examples include spanking, verbal abuse, electrical
        shock, etc.
                         Punishment

 Dangers in use of punishment
   punishment is often reinforcing to a punisher (resulting in the
    making of an abuser)
   punishment often has a generalized inhibiting effect on the
    punished individual (they stop doing ANY behavior at all)
   we learn to dislike the punisher (a result of classical
    conditioning)
                     Punishment


   Dangers in use of punishment
       what the punisher thinks is punishment may, in fact, be
        a reinforcer to the “punished” individual
       punishment does not teach more appropriate behavior;
        it merely stops a behavior from occurring
       punishment can cause emotional damage in the
        punished individual (antisocial behavior)
                        Punishment

 Dangers in use of punishment
   punishment only stops the behavior from occurring in the
    presence of the punisher; when the punisher is not present
    then the behavior will often reappear and with a vengeance
   the best tool for engineering behavior is positive reinforcement
                    Punishment

 Guidelines for the effective use of punishment
   use the least painful stimulus possible; if you spank
     your child, do it on the child’s bottom with an open
     hand never more than twice and NEVER so hard as to
     leave any marks on your child. That would be
     classified as child abuse.
   reinforce the appropriate behavior to take the place
     of the inappropriate behavior
                     Punishment

 Guidelines
   make it clear to the individual which behavior you are
     punishing and remove all threat of punishment
     immediately as soon as the undesired behavior stops.
   do not give punishment mixed with rewards for a
     given behavior; be consistent!
   once you have begun to administer punishment do
     not back out but use punishment wisely
         Uses and Abuses of Punishment

 Punishment often produces an immediate change in
  behavior, which ironically reinforces the punisher.

 However, punishment rarely works in the long run for four reasons:


   1.   The power of punishment to suppress behavior usually
        disappears when the threat of punishment is gone.
   2.   Punishment triggers escape or aggression.
   3.   Punishment makes the learner apprehensive: inhibits learning.
   4.   Punishment is often applied unequally.
             Making Punishment Work

 To make punishment work:
   Punishment should be swift.

   Punishment should be certain-every time.

   Punishment should be limited in time and intensity.

   Punishment should clearly target the behavior, not the person.

   Punishment should not give mixed messages.

   The most effective punishment is often omission training-
    negative punishment.
                  Psychology This Week

 Monday
   Schedules of Reinforcement

 Tuesday
   Shaping Behaviors

   You try it

 Wednesday
   Bobo Dolls

   Punishment revisited

 Thursday
   Unit Review

 Friday
   Quiz/Quest/Test
               Questions to Ponder

 What is the difference between……
  ClassicalConditioning and Operant
   Conditioning?
  Unconditioned Stimulus and Conditioned
   Stimulus?
  Reinforcement and Punishment?

  Negative Reinforcement and Positive
   Reinforcement?
  Negative Punishment and Positive Punishment?
                 A Scenario to Remember

 An 8th period class of 30 students who need my class to graduate are
  complete nightmares. They are rude, disrespectful, and behave awfully.
  My goal as the teacher is to shape their behaviors so that they follow the
  rules, are respectful, do the work, and pass the class. Which option do
  you think would work best? Why?

 Option 1                  Option 2                    Option 3
 - 5 Points every day      - 25 Points every           - 500 Points one time
 for coming to class       week for coming to          at the end of the
 on time, doing the        class on time, doing        semester. The points
 work, and being           the work, and being         will be based off one
 respectful                respectful. Each            one “random” day
                           week, a new                 chosen at the end of
                           “random” day will be        the semester
                           selected as the point
                           day
                 Project Fun

 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hISRlatcmX0


 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lqT_dPApj9U


 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cbEKAwCoCKw


 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iynzHWwJXaA
     Chapter 7
Operant Conditioning:

  SCHEDULES AND THEORIES
     OF REINFORCEMENT
               Reinforcement Schedules

 Continuous Reinforcement/Punishment: A
 reinforcement/Punishment schedule under which all
 correct responses are reinforced.

    This is a useful tactic early in the learning process. It also
     helps when “shaping” new behavior.

 Shaping: A technique where new behavior is
 produced by reinforcing responses that are similar to
 the desired response.


                                Dog training requires
                                continuous reinforcement
            Continuous Reinforcement

 Continuous Reinforcement:
 A schedule of reinforcement
 that rewards every correct
 response given.
    Example: A vending machine.


 What are other examples?
               Reinforcement Schedules

 Intermittent Reinforcement: A type of
 reinforcement schedule by which some, but not all,
 correct responses are reinforced.

    Intermittent reinforcement is the most effective way to
     maintain a desired behavior that has already been learned.
         Applying Psychology to Your World

 Intermittent Reinforcement: A type of reinforcement schedule
 by which some, but not all, correct responses are reinforced.


Sometimes we get reinforced or                  Sometimes we get reinforced or
punished after a specific amount               punished after a random amount
     of responses are given                         of responses are given

(ex: You have to attend four classes in         (ex: a golfer has to shoot a varied
 order to play in tonight’s basketball         amount of shots before he finishes a
                game)                                          hole)



   Sometimes, we get reinforced or               Sometimes , we get reinforced or
  punished after a specific amount of           punished after a random amount of
          TIME has passed                               TIME has passed

(ex: after spending 55 minutes in detention,    (ex: a fisherman may wait several hours
      a student is allowed to go home)                 before a fish takes the bait)
             Intermittent Schedules

 When you want to           When you want to
 reinforce based on a        reinforce the first
 certain number of           response after a
 responses occurring         certain amount of
 (for example, doing a       time has passed (for
 certain number of math      example when a teacher
 problems correctly), you    gives a midterm test),
 can use a ratio schedule    you can use an interval
                             schedule
      Four Types of Intermittent Schedules

 Ratio Schedules         Interval Schedules


    Fixed Ratio              Fixed Interval



    Variable Ratio           Variable Interval
                         Fixed Ratio Schedule

 Fixed Ratio Schedule,
   reinforcement is contingent upon a fixed, predictable
    number of responses
        Characteristic pattern:
            High rate of response
            Short pause following each reinforcer

    Reading a chapter then taking a break is an example
        A good strategy for “getting started” is to start with an easy task
                Fixed Ratio, continued

 Higher Ratio requirements result in longer post-
 reinforcement pauses
    Example: The longer the chapter you read, the longer the
     study break!

 Fixed Ratio is abbreviated “FR” and a number
 showing how many responses must be made to get
 the reinforcer is added:
    Ex. FR 5 (5 responses needed to get a reinforcer)
                      Variable Ratio Schedule

 Variable Ratio Schedule
   reinforcement is contingent upon a varying, unpredictable
    number of responses
         Characteristic pattern:
             High and steady rate of response
             Little or no post-reinforcer pausing
     Hunting, fishing, golfing, shooting hoops, and telemarketing
      are examples of behaviors on this type of schedule
                  Other facts about
               Variable Ratio Schedules


   Behaviors on this type of schedule tend to be very persistent
     This includes unwanted behaviors like begging, gambling, and
      being in abusive relationships
     “Stretching the ratio” means starting out with a very dense, rich
      reinforcement schedule and gradually decreasing the amount of
      reinforcement
       The spouse, gambler, or child who is the “victim” must work
         harder and harder to get the reinforcer
                      Variable Ratio: VR

 Variable Ratio: VR
 Variable Ratio is abbreviated “VR” and a number
 showing an average of how many responses
 between 1 and 100 must be made to get the
 reinforcer is added:
    Ex. VR 50 (an average of 50 responses needed to get a
     reinforcer – could the the next try, or it could take 72!
        Gambling is the classic example!
                     Fixed Interval Schedules

 Fixed Interval Schedule
   reinforcement is contingent upon the first response
    after a fixed, predictable period of time
       Characteristic pattern:
           A “scallop” pattern produced by a post-reinforcement pause followed by a
            gradually increasing rate of response as the time interval draws to a close
     Glancing at your watch during class provides an example!
     Student study behavior provides another!
                        Fixed Interval: FI

 Fixed Interval is abbreviated “FI” and a number
 showing how much time must pass before the
 reinforcer is available:
    FI 30-min (reinforcement is available for the first response
     after 30 minutes have passed)
        Ex. Looking down the tracks for the train if it comes every 30
         minutes
                   Variable Interval Schedule

 Variable Interval Schedule
   reinforcement is contingent upon the first response
    after a varying, unpredictable period of time
       Characteristic pattern:
           A moderate, steady rate of response with little or no post-reinforcement pause.
       Looking down the street for the bus if you are waiting and have no
        idea how often it comes provides an example!
                     Variable Interval: VI

 Variable Interval is abbreviated “VI” and a number
 showing the average time interval that must pass
 before the reinforcer is available:
    VI 30-min (reinforcement is available for the first
     response after an average of 30 minutes has passed)
        Ex. Hilary’s boyfriend, Michael, gets out of school and turns on
         his phone some time between 3:00 and 3:30 – the “reward” of his
         answering his phone puts her calling behavior on a VI schedule, so
         she calls every few minutes until he answers
                          Interval Schedules

 Fixed Interval Schedule (FI):
   A schedule that a rewards a learner only for the first correct
    response after some defined period of time.

     Example: B.F. Skinner put rats in a box with a lever connected to a feeder. It
      only provided a reinforcement after 60 seconds. The rats quickly learned that it
      didn’t matter how early or often it pushed the lever, it had to wait a set amount of
      time. As the set amount of time came to an end, the rats became more active in
      hitting the lever.
                   Interval Schedules

 Variable Interval Schedule (VI):
 A reinforcement system that rewards a correct
 response after an unpredictable amount of time.

    Example: A pop-quiz
                      Ratio Schedules

 Fixed Ratio Schedule (FR):
 A reinforcement schedule that rewards a response
 only after a defined number of correct answers.
    Example: At Safeway, if you use your Club Card to buy 7
     Starbucks coffees, you get the 8th one for free.
                      Ratio Schedules

 Variable Ratio Schedule (VR):
 A reinforcement schedule that rewards an
 unpredictable number of correct responses.
    Example: Buying lottery tickets
                      Schedules of Reinforcement

Number of
responses

            Fixed Ratio                                                                   Intermittent Reinforcement
   1000                                                                                   Schedules-

                               Variable Ratio                                             Skinner’s laboratory pigeons
                                                                                          produced these responses
                                                                    Fixed Interval        patterns to each of four
    750                                                                                   reinforcement schedules

                               Rapid responding near                                      For people, as for pigeons,
                               time for reinforcement                                     research linked to number of
                                                                                          responses (ratio) produces a
    500
                                                                                          higher response rate than
                                                              Variable Interval           reinforcement linked to time
                                                                                          elapsed (interval).

    250
                                                           Steady responding


      0
                 10       20      30         40       50       60         70         80
                                       Time (minutes)
         Punishment

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF STOPPING BEHAVIOR
                    Question to Ponder

 What do you think is a more effective use Operant
 Conditioning……..
    Using reinforcement for encourage behavior
        OR
    Using punishment to discourage behaviors




  What psychological side effects might
  one encounter with the use of
  punishment?
                          Punishment

   Punishment Defined
           A procedure where an aversive stimulus is presented to
            a subject contingent upon the subject emitting an
            undesired behavior.
             punishment should be used as a last resort in behavior
              engineering; positive reinforcement should be used first
             examples include spanking, verbal abuse, electrical shock,
              etc.
                   Punishment

 Dangers in use of punishment
   Punishment is often reinforcing to a punisher
    resulting in the making of an abuser
   Punishment often has a generalized inhibiting
    effect on the punished individual
    they stop doing ANY behavior at all
   We learn to dislike the punisher
    a result of classical conditioning
                         Punishment


 Dangers in use of punishment
   What the punisher thinks is punishment may, in
     fact, be a reinforcer to the “punished” individual
   punishment does not teach more appropriate
     behavior
            it merely stops a behavior from occurring
           punishment can cause emotional damage in the
            punished individual
            antisocial behavior
                Punishment

 Dangers in use of punishment
  Punishment  only stops the behavior from
  occurring in the presence of the punisher
   when the punisher is not present then the
   behavior will often reappear and with a
   vengeance
  The best tool for engineering behavior is
  positive reinforcement
                            Punishment

 Guidelines for the effective use of punishment
   Use the least painful stimulus possible;
            if you spank your child, do it on the child’s bottom with an
             open hand never more than twice and NEVER so hard as to
             leave any marks on your child. That would be classified as
             child abuse.
          Reinforce the appropriate behavior to take the place
           of the inappropriate behavior
                     Punishment

 Guidelines
   Make it clear to the individual which behavior you are
     punishing and remove all threat of punishment
     immediately as soon as the undesired behavior stops.
   Do not give punishment mixed with rewards for a
     given behavior; be consistent!
   Once you have begun to administer punishment do
     not back out but use punishment wisely
    Primary and Secondary reinforcement

 Primary reinforcement: something that is naturally
 reinforcing: food, warmth, water…




 Secondary reinforcement: something you have learned is a
 reward because it is paired with a primary reinforcement in the
 long run: good grades.
              Two Important Theories

 Token Economy: A therapeutic method based on operant
  conditioning that where individuals are rewarded with
  tokens, which act as a secondary reinforcer. The tokens can
  be redeemed for a variety of rewards.

 Premack Principle: The idea that a more preferred activity
  can be used to reinforce a less-preferred activity.
                    Psychology Today

 Bobo
   Dolls, kids, guns, and fun



 Review
   CC- Pavlov, Watson

   OC- Skinner

   OL – Bandura



 Notebook check list
Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning   Observational
                                                Learning
      A Third Type of Learning




                                   Modeling Theory


Albert Bandura- 1960


                       Bobo Doll
             Observational Learning

 You can think of observational learning as an
 extension of operant conditioning, in which we
 observe someone else getting rewarded but act as
 thought we had also received the reward.

 Observational learning: Learning in which new
 responses are acquired after other’s behavior and the
 consequences of their behavior are observed.
            Observational Learning

 After observing adults seeming to enjoy punching,
 hitting and kicking an inflated doll called Bobo, the
 children later showed similar aggressive behavior
 toward the doll.

 Significantly, these children were more aggressive
 than those in a control condition who did not
 witness the adult’s violence.
             Media and Violence
 Does violence on tv/movies/video games have an
 impact on the learning of children?

 Correlation evidence from over 50 studies shows that
 observing violence is associated with violent
 behavior.

 In addition, experiment evidence shows that viewers
 of media violence show a reduction in emotional
 arousal and distress when they subsequently observe
 violent acts-a condition known as psychic
 numbing.
 Psychology Review


   THE MOST
MEMORABLE SLIDES
 FROM THIS UNIT
                          Think About it
“The interpretation of dreams is the royal road to a knowledge of the
unconscious activities of the mind while the royal road to
understanding human behavior lies within the unconscious mind
itself.”
                                                      -- Sigmund Freud




 "Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified
  world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random
  and train him to become any type of specialist I might select--doctor,
  lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and, yes, even beggarman and thief,
  regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and
  race of his ancestors.
                                            --John Watson
                  A New Way of Thinking



  "Psychology as the                               Psychology finally
  Behaviorist Views It"                            discovers a way to
                                                   measure behavior
                                                   scientifically




                               John B. Watson
                                    1913

7 main assumptions of Behaviorism that set it apart from other psychologies
           7 assumptions of Behaviorism

 1. Behavior should be studied as a science
 2. Psychology should concern itself with
    understanding only observable actions
   3. external stimuli should be studied in how it
    affects human behavior
   4. All behavior is a product of conditioning and
    training.
   5. We are born as blank slates
   6. We Are not responsible for our actions
   7. The goal of psychology should be to control the
    external world in order to control behavior
Pavlov’s Experiment

 Classical Conditioning




      Ivan Pavlov
Pavlov’s Experiment
                           Reiser’s Example



                Neutral Stimulus              I’ll Be (Song)


           Unconditioned                         Unconditioned
Step 2.
             Stimulus                           Response (UCR)   Lovey Dovey
              (UCS)
                             Amanda Cain
                                                                 Feelings

Step 3.
                UCS
          “paired with”
                                   +
          Conditioned                             Conditioned
              Stimulus       I’ll Be (Song)        Response      Lovey Dovey
                 (CS)                                (CR)        Feelings
A “Classic” Example
             Things to Keep In Mind

 Do we respond similarly to similar stimuli?
   YES!



 Generalization
   The tendency to respond to a stimulus that is
    similar to the CS
                             Stimulus generalization   I don’t care
                                                        if she is a
                                                            tape
                                                        dispenser.
                                                        I love her!
                        Things to Keep in Mind

 What if we could not distinguish between stimuli that were
  similar?
     The bell ending class vs. fire alarm
     The door bell vs. our cell phones



 Discrimination:
     The ability to distinguish between two similar signals
      stimulus.
                     Did you Know?

 Higher Order Conditioning
   A stimulus that was previously neutral is paired with
    a conditioned stimulus to produce the same
    conditioned response as the conditioned stimulus.
     Food----- Drool
     Food + Bell-----Drool
     Bell----- Drool
     Bell + Blue Ball---- Drool
     Blue Ball----- Drool
     Etc…….
                                   Extinction

What happens when the CS isn’t followed by the UCS?
 Extinction:
    The diminishing (or lessening) of a learned response, when an
     unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus.
        To acquire a CR, we repeatedly pair a neutral stimulus with the UCS. But, if we
         want to reverse this learning, we must weaken the strength of the connection
         between the two stimuli.
        It is important to realize that extinction does not mean complete
         elimination of a response.
                     Spontaneous Recovery

 Extinction merely suppresses the conditioned response,
 and the CR can reappear during spontaneous recovery.

 Spontaneous Recovery:
    The response after a rest period of an extinguished
     conditioned response.
        Spontaneous recovery is weaker than the original CR.
Operant Conditioning

          B.F. Skinner (1904-
          1990)
           elaborated Thorndike’s
            Law of Effect
           developed behavioral
            technology
   The Foundation of Operant Conditioning


         Operant Behavior Is Voluntary &
                    Directed
               by Consequences
 Edward Thorndike ‘s Law of
 Effect:
   The relationship between
     behavior and its consequences                Who- E.L. Thorndike
                                                  What – Educational
       So named because behavior becomes         Psychologist
        more or less likely based on the effect   When- 1912
        it has in producing desirable or          What- What connection
        undesirable consequences.                 can be made between
                                                  education and
                                                  behavior?
                          Classical V. Operant

 Classical                                         Operant
     Involuntary reflexes                               Spontaneous/voluntary
     Reinforcement occurs                               Reinforcement occurs
      before a response                                   after the response
     The role of the learner is                         The role of the learner is
      passive                                             active
     A NS becomes a CS                                  Probability of making a
      through association with                            response is altered by
      US                                                  consequences

 With classical conditioning you can teach a dog to salivate, but you cannot
  teach it to sit up or roll over. Why?
     Salivation is an involuntary reflex, while sitting up and rolling over are far more
      complex responses that we think of as voluntary.
                                           B.F. Skinner

 B.F. Skinner became famous for his ideas in behaviorism and his work
  with rats.
     Law of Effect: The idea that responses that produced desirable results would be learned, or “stamped” into the
      organism.
   Key Terms of Operant Conditioning
 Reinforcement
   Any procedure that increases the response

 Punishment
   Any procedure that decreases the response

 Types of reinforcers:
   Primary: e.g. food or water

   Secondary: money or power
Reinforcement/Punishment Matrix

 The consequence        The consequence
provides something   takes something away
 ($, a spanking…)     (removes headache,
                            timeout)

                                              The consequence
   Positive     Negative                     makes the behavior
Reinforcement Reinforcement                 more likely to happen
                                               in the future.
    (+,+)          (-,+)

 Positive                                      The consequence
                       Negative               makes the behavior
Punishment            Punishment            less likely to happen in
                                                    the future.
   (+,-)                 (-,-)
         Applying Psychology to Your World

 Intermittent Reinforcement: A type of reinforcement schedule
 by which some, but not all, correct responses are reinforced.


Sometimes we get reinforced or                  Sometimes we get reinforced or
punished after a specific amount               punished after a random amount
     of responses are given                         of responses are given

(ex: You have to attend four classes in         (ex: a golfer has to shoot a varied
 order to play in tonight’s basketball         amount of shots before he finishes a
                game)                                          hole)



   Sometimes, we get reinforced or               Sometimes , we get reinforced or
  punished after a specific amount of           punished after a random amount of
          TIME has passed                               TIME has passed

(ex: after spending 55 minutes in detention,    (ex: a fisherman may wait several hours
      a student is allowed to go home)                 before a fish takes the bait)
                      Schedules of Reinforcement

Number of
responses

            Fixed Ratio                                                                   Intermittent Reinforcement
   1000                                                                                   Schedules-

                               Variable Ratio                                             Skinner’s laboratory pigeons
                                                                                          produced these responses
                                                                    Fixed Interval        patterns to each of four
    750                                                                                   reinforcement schedules

                               Rapid responding near                                      For people, as for pigeons,
                               time for reinforcement                                     research linked to number of
                                                                                          responses (ratio) produces a
    500
                                                                                          higher response rate than
                                                              Variable Interval           reinforcement linked to time
                                                                                          elapsed (interval).

    250
                                                           Steady responding


      0
                 10       20      30         40       50       60         70         80
                                       Time (minutes)

								
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